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and Industrial Aerodynamics

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jweia

Alex Mendonça Bimbato a,n, Luiz Antonio Alcântara Pereira a, Miguel Hiroo Hirata b

a

Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Itajuba, Itajuba, CP 50, Minas Gerais, Brazil

b

State University of Rio de Janeiro, FAT-UERJ, Resende, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Previous experimental observations suggest that a moving ground can be numerically simulated

Received 13 January 2013 avoiding vorticity generation on it. In this research line the current paper presents a two-dimensional

Received in revised form Lagrangian Vortex Method, which is able to analyze the vortex shedding suppression on a circular

27 June 2013

cylinder near a moving ground in a high Reynolds number ﬂow of Re ¼ 1:0 105 . The main purpose is to

Accepted 30 June 2013

utilize numerical results to construct the instantaneous velocity and pressure ﬁelds for this kind of

unsteady viscous ﬂow. The analyses demonstrate that the physical mechanisms involved are associated

Keywords: with an additional circulation caused by the ﬂuid viscosity and with the Venturi effect. Both of these

Vorticity transport effects are responsible for the increase in lift force as well as for the decrease in drag force acting on body

Strouhal number

surface.

Blockage effect

& 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vortex shedding suppression

Lagrangian Vortex Method with LES

modeling

stated that it is the presence of two shear layers, rather than the bluff

Bluff bodies are present in many engineering problems in all body itself, that is primarily responsible for vortex shedding frequency.

range of applications, starting from the smallest to the biggest A particular interesting situation occurs when a circular cylin-

scales. The cooling of electronic components is a good example of der is close to a plane boundary; it can be observed that as the

the small scale application. In the intermediate scales it can be cylinder comes close to the ground for gap ratios (gap, h, between

mentioned that the aerodynamic loads acting on vehicles, cables the bottom of the cylinder and the wall to the diameter, d, of the

and towers of power transmission lines and the ﬂow over heat cylinder) around h=d ≤0:2 the vortex shedding frequency

exchanger tubes. And, as examples of large scale applications, there decreases until its suppression. According to Zdravkovich (1981)

are a lot of ﬂows around offshore structures and large buildings. “the complexity of the phenomena involved is reﬂected in a

The ﬂow around bluff bodies is associated to interesting ﬂuid distinct variation and almost limitless modiﬁcation of the ﬂow

dynamics phenomena such as separation, vortex shedding and pattern is affected by the Reynolds number, turbulence level,

turbulence transition; these phenomena arouse many questions of surface roughness, three-dimensionality, and elastic response”.

scientiﬁc interest, have great impact on engineering applications and The present study is motivated not only by academic purpose

are the starting point for the development of instabilities, which arise but because this phenomenon is desired in many practical situa-

due to the interaction among three regions of the ﬂow: the boundary tions. Some particular motivating applications, where are identi-

layer, the two shear layers created at the separation points and the ﬁed the ground effect mechanisms, are aerodynamic designs of

wake that develops downstream of the body. The rate at which Wing-In-Ground effect Vehicles (WIGV), bluff bodies in close

vortices are cyclically shed from the body depends essentially on the proximity to the ground and submarine cables of offshore industry

interaction between the two shear layers, before mentioned, as subject to Vortex Induced Vibrations (Wooton et al., 1972).

function of the oncoming velocity, U, and the body diameter, d. Taneda (1965) studied the inﬂuence of the distance between

The non-dimensional Strouhal number is the parameter used to the cylinder and the moving ground at Re ¼ 170 using a water

measure the vortex shedding frequency and it is deﬁned as tunnel. In these tests the ground had the same speed as the water

ﬂow; a decrease in the vortex shedding frequency was observed

fd when the gap ratio was less than 0.1.

St ¼ ; ð1Þ

U Bearman and Zdravkovich (1978) performed velocity measure-

ments to study the vortex shedding frequency in a high Reynolds

n number ﬂow of Re ¼ 4:8 104 when the cylinder is close to a ﬁxed

Corresponding author. Tel.: +5535 3629 1299; fax: +5535 3629 1148.

E-mail address: ground. The authors veriﬁed a constant value for the Strouhal

alexbimbato@yahoo.com.br (A. Mendonça Bimbato). number (St≅0:2) for any value of the gap ratio h=d o0:3.

0167-6105/$ - see front matter & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2013.06.013

A. Mendonça Bimbato et al. / J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 121 (2013) 16–28 17

Unlike the results of Bearman and Zdravkovich (1978), Buresti Discrete Vortex Method is one of the numerical methods used for

and Lanciotti (1979) measured the Strouhal number when the computer simulation of turbulent ﬂuid ﬂows. For 25 years Discrete

cylinder is near to a ﬁxed ground at Re ¼ 1:9 105 and found a Vortex Method has been successfully used on wind engineering and

critical gap ratio of h=dc ¼ 0:4 and a Strouhal number about industrial aerodynamic problems (e.g., Bienkiewicz and Kutz (1990);

0.2 when h=d 4 0:4. It was concluded that the critical gap ratio Turkiyyah et al. (1995); Alcântara Pereira et al. (2004); Rasmussen

and the Strouhal number depend on the ﬂow regime and it seems et al. (2010)).

to be impossible to deﬁne exact values for these variables. In unsteady ﬂows, the vorticity-containing regions move

However, it can be stated that for high Reynolds number ﬂows around and deform with time, and it is much more difﬁcult to

the Strouhal number decreases as the gap ratio decreases. resolve numerically the ever-changing vorticity ﬁeld using a ﬁxed

As shown by Lei et al. (1999), it is difﬁcult to accurately grid. On the other hand, this work discretizes the vorticity ﬁeld

determine the critical gap ratio, because experiments and numer- present in the ﬂuid domain using discrete vortices, which are

ical simulations are carried out using discrete gap ratios and the followed individually throughout the numerical simulation. Failure

vortex shedding suppression occurs as the gap ratio is gradually to resolve vorticity with Eulerian methods gives rise to signiﬁcant

reduced. numerical dissipation, which results primarily from truncation

Zdravkovich (2003) reported the drag behavior for a cylinder errors associated with discretization of the nonlinear convective

placed near a moving ground running at the same speed as the term. Lagrangian Vortex Method is efﬁcient and highly self-

freestream for higher Reynolds number of 2:5 105 . The experi- adaptive, since discrete vortices are convected with the same

ments showed some differences to all the previous studies. First, speed induced on ﬂuid. As consequence, the governing equations

practically no boundary layer was developed on the ground. are solved only where vorticity is present; thus the far away

Second, the decrease in drag due to the decrease in h=d did not boundary condition is automatically satisﬁed. These facts make the

occur in the measurements. The differences encountered were Lagrangian Vortex Method well suited for the analysis of complex,

attributed to the non-existence of the wall boundary layer or the unsteady and vortical ﬂows; some of the works using Discrete

ﬂow regime at higher Reynolds number. Vortex Method are Chorin (1973), Leonard (1980), Sarpkaya (1989),

Experiments from Nishino (2007) showed drag and lift coefﬁ- Lewis (1991), Kamemoto (2004) and Kathir and Lucey (2012).

cients behavior acting on a cylinder surface placed near a moving

ground at high Reynolds number ﬂows of Re ¼ 4:0 104 and

Re ¼ 1:0 105 , respectively. The ground moved at the same speed

2. Problem statement

as the air ﬂow and it was observed that practically no boundary

layer was developed on the ground surface; besides, three distinct

Consider the two-dimensional, incompressible and unsteady

ranges were found for the gap ratio: (a) if h=d 4 0:50, larger vortex

viscous ﬂow around a circular cylinder placed near a ground plane

structures are generated at the rear part of the cylinder; (b) if

whose movement is represented by the absence of vorticity

0:35 o h=d o 0:50 the vortex shedding is intermittent; (c) if

generation (Bimbato et al., 2011). Fig. 1 schematically represents

h=d o0:35 the vortex shedding is suppressed. Nishino (2007) also

this situation, U being the incident ﬂow velocity, d the cylinder

studied the end effects on the aerodynamic loads behavior using

diameter, h the distance between the bottom of the cylinder and

end plates which is very important to compare two-dimensional

the ground plane and Ω represents the ﬂuid domain deﬁned by

and three-dimensional ﬂow regimes.

the surface S ¼ S1 ∪S2 ∪S3 such that S1 is the body surface, S2 is the

It can be observed in the literature a lack of numerical works

ground surface and S3 is the far away boundary.

that deals with vortex shedding suppression. A few studies can be

This ﬂow, depicted in Fig. 1, is governed by the continuity and

found and they practically are restricted to low Reynolds number

Navier-Stokes equations, which can be written in the form

ﬂows using Eulerian methods in ranges of 80 ≤Re ≤1000 and

200 ≤Re ≤600 (e.g., Lei et al. (2000) and Huang and Sung (2007)). ∂ui

¼ 0; ð2Þ

Recently, Bimbato et al. (2011) presented numerical evaluations ∂xi

of the complex effects of the two-dimensional viscous ﬂow around

a cylinder in the vicinity of a moving ground. The numerical ∂ui ∂ 1 ∂p ∂ ∂ui ∂uj

þ ðui uj Þ ¼ þ ν þ ; ð3Þ

strategy involved the combination of Lagrangian Vortex Method ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj ∂xi

with source Panels Method to calculate global as well as local

where ui is the ith velocity component, ρ is the density, p is the

quantities in a high Reynolds number ﬂow of Re ¼ 1:0 105 . The

pressure ﬁeld and ν is the ﬂuid kinematic viscosity.

main contribution of authors was to use a moving ground to

A LES modeling is used to separate the large eddies (to be

present physical issues related to the ﬂow. The purpose of using a

numerically solved) from the small eddies (which require a

moving ground is to eliminate the inﬂuence of the boundary layer

turbulence model to be analyzed) by ﬁltering the governing Eqs.

developed on the ground, which is a crucial factor in the analysis.

(2) and (3). Consequently, these equations become

The numerical results were in reasonable agreement with limited

amount of experimental data. However, physical explanations ∂ui

¼ 0; ð4Þ

concerning the destruction of the vortex street and drag force ∂xi

reduction, especially for small gap ratios were not present. These

phenomena are very difﬁcult to capture using experimental

measurements.

The present paper, therefore, contributes by using a Lagrangian

Vortex Method in order to produce physical explanations concerning

to the suppression of vortex shedding in moving ground effect for

very small gap ratios. The numerical simulations consider two-

dimensional high Reynolds number ﬂows and include turbulence

modeling. With the present methodology it is still possible to identify

important aspects of ground effect and the results are useful for the

accumulation of knowledge about moving ground mechanisms and

vortex shedding control. Fig. 1. Deﬁnition of ﬂuid domain.

18 A. Mendonça Bimbato et al. / J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 121 (2013) 16–28

∂ui ∂ 1 ∂p ∂ h i

The essence of the Lagrangian Vortex Method is to discretize the vorti-

þ ðui uj Þ ¼ þ2 ðν þ νt ÞSij : ð5Þ

∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj city ﬁeld using Lamb discrete vortices in a manner that (Kundu, 1990)

!

NV Γ jxj2

Here ui is the velocity ﬁltered ﬁeld (ui ¼ ui þu′i ; u′i is the velocity ωðx; t Þ ¼ ∑ k

exp 2 ; ð12Þ

k ¼ 1 πs0k s0k

2

ﬂuctuation), p is the pressure ﬁltered ﬁeld, νt is the eddy viscosity

and Sij is the deformation tensor of the ﬁltered ﬁeld (Smagorinsky,

where ω (ω ¼ ∇ u) is the vorticity ﬁltered ﬁeld, NV is the total

1963).

number of discrete vortices in the ﬂuid domain, Γ k is the strength of

Considering that the small scales are homogeneous and iso-

the discrete vortex k necessary to satisfy Eq. (9) and s0 is the nominal

tropic and using a relation proposed by Batchelor (1953), Lesieur

Lamb vortex core given by (Alcântara Pereira et al., 2004):

and Métais (1996) proposed to use the local kinetic energy rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

spectrum in order to calculate the eddy viscosity Δt

s0 ¼ 4:48364 ; ð13Þ

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Rec

3=2

νt ðx; Δþ ; tÞ ¼ 0:105C K Δþ F 2 ðx; Δþ ; tÞ; ð6Þ where Rec ¼ Ud=ðν þ νt Þ is the Reynolds number modiﬁed by the

turbulence modeling. The time step Δt is calculated from an estimate

where C K ¼ 1:4 is the kolmogorov constant and F 2 x; Δþ ; t the of the convective length and velocity scales of the ﬂow.

local second-order velocity structure function of the ﬁltered ﬁeld, The solution of Eq. (11) is obtained using the Lagrangian

deﬁned as Discrete Vortex Method. This method uses an algorithm that splits

the convective-diffusive operator (Chorin, 1973) in the form

F 2 ðx; Δþ ; tÞ ¼ ‖uðx; tÞuðx þ r; tÞ‖2jrj ¼ Δþ : ð7Þ

∂ω Dω

þ ðu⋅∇Þω ¼ ¼ 0; ð14Þ

Here uðx; tÞuðxþr; tÞ is the average speed differences between ∂t Dt

the center of a sphere located at x with radius jrj ¼ Δþ and points

∂ω 1 2

located on the sphere surface. In this formulation the center of the ¼ ∇ ω: ð15Þ

∂t Rec

sphere is deﬁned as a point of the ﬂow ﬁeld where one wants to

calculate the turbulent activity. The above equation is used in where Dω=Dt indicates the Lagrangian description.

three-dimensional ﬂows; since the present work deals with a two- The vorticity generated on the body surface and represented by

dimensional ﬂow the second-order velocity structure function discrete vortices is transported by convection and diffusion into

model needs to be adapted to two-dimensional problems (see the ﬂow and agrees with Eq. (11). The transport of discrete vortices

Section 3). at each time step is carried out in a sequence.

Therefore, Eqs. (4) and (5) are used to simulate the large eddy A feature of the vorticity ﬁeld is that, in the absence of viscosity

phenomena with the Lagrangian Vortex Method and the small (see Eq. (14)), the vortex cloud moves as a material region of the

eddy ones are taken into account by the eddy viscosity (Eq. 6), ﬂow. Therefore, the solution of the vorticity convection equation,

which is modeled by the local second-order velocity structure Eq. (14), is determined by integration of each vortex path equation

function of the ﬁltered ﬁeld (Eq. 7). In order to non-dimensionalize using a ﬁrst order euler scheme:

all the quantities in Eqs. (4) and (5) and the equations below, U dxk

and d are used. The non-dimensional time is given by tU=d. ¼ uk ðxk ; t Þ; k ¼ 1; NV ; ð16Þ

dt

The impenetrability condition demands that the normal velo-

where uk ðxk ; tÞ is the velocity ﬁltered ﬁeld calculated in the

city component of the ﬂuid particle, un , should be equal to the

position of kthdiscrete vortex and NV is the total number of

normal velocities components of the surfaces S1 and S2 , vn :

discrete vortices in each step of the numerical simulation.

un vn ¼ 0; on S1 and S2 : ð8Þ Before solving Eq. (16), the velocity ﬁeld must be calculated in

the position of each discrete vortex present in the ﬂuid domain,

The no-slip condition demands that the tangential velocity com- which is composed by three contributions: (i) the incident ﬂow,

ponent of the ﬂuid particle, uτ , should be equal to the tangential ui ðx; t Þ; (ii) the solid boundaries, ubðx; tÞ; (iii) the vortex–vortex

velocity component of the surface S1 , vτ , since there is no discrete interaction, uv ðx; t Þ. Thus, the velocity ﬁeld in the position occu-

vortex generated on S2 ; thus pied by any kth discrete vortex is

uτ vτ ¼ 0; only on S1 ; ð9Þ uk ðxk ; t Þ ¼ uik ðxk ; t Þ þ ubk ðxk ; t Þ þ uvk ðxk ; t Þ; k ¼ 1; NV: ð17Þ

One assumes that, far away, the perturbation caused by the body The velocity induced by the incident ﬂow is given by

and the ground plane fades as ui1 ¼ 1; and ui2 ¼ 0: ð18Þ

The present work deals with the Panels Method (Katz and Plotkin,

u -U; on S3 ; ð10Þ

1991) to represent the solid boundaries. For this purpose, the

cylinder and ground plane surfaces are discretized by source ﬂat

panels with constant density. Thus, the velocity induced by the

solid boundaries in the position of kthdiscrete vortex is given by

3. Numerical solution: non-dimensional problem i

NP

ubk ðxk ; t Þ ¼ ∑ sp cikp ½xk ðt Þxp ; i ¼ 1; 2 and k ¼ 1; NV; ð19Þ

p¼1

The dynamics of the ﬂuid ﬂow, governed by the boundary-value

problem – Eqs. (4), (5), (8)–(10) – can be studied in a more convenient where, NP is the total number of source ﬂat panels, sp ¼ constant is

way when the curl of the Navier–Stokes equations is taken to the source density per unit length and cikp ½xk ðt Þxp is the ith

obtain the vorticity equation. For a two-dimensional (Cottet and component of the velocity induced at kth discrete vortex by

Koumoutsakos, 2000) ﬂow this equation is scalar (the rate of pth panel.

deforming vortex tubes is zero), and it can be written as The vortex cloud contribution is given by

∂ω 1 2

NV

þ ðu⋅∇Þω ¼ ∇ ω: ð11Þ uvik ðxk ; t Þ ¼ ∑ Γ j cikj xk ðt Þxj ðt Þ ; i ¼ 1; 2 and k ¼ 1; NV ; ð20Þ

∂t Rec j¼1

A. Mendonça Bimbato et al. / J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 121 (2013) 16–28 19

where Γ j is the intensity of the jth vortex and cikj ½xk ðt Þxj ðt Þ is (Shintani and Akamatsu, 1994):

Z Z

the ith component of the induced velocity in a kth discrete 1

HY p Y∇Ξ p ⋅en dS ¼ ∬Ω ∇Ξ p ⋅ðu ωÞdΩ ð∇Ξ p ωÞ⋅en dS

vortex by jth discrete vortex. S1 þS2 Re S1

Viscosity causes only a gradual spreading of the vortex cloud to

neighboring regions of the ﬂow ﬁeld. A variety of approaches have ð26Þ

been introduced either convection of the discrete vortices by an where the pressure is computed at pth point, H ¼ 1:0 in the ﬂuid

additional velocity-like quantity related to diffusion or adaptative domain, H ¼ 0:5 on the boundaries, Ξ is a fundamental solution of

methods for generation of new discrete vortices. In this work, the Laplace equation and en is the unit vector normal to the solid

viscous diffusion, Eq. (15), is simulated using a stochastic “random surfaces.

walk” introduced by Chorin (1973). An integral form solution to The drag and lift coefﬁcients are expressed by

the random walk problem is given by

NP NP

Z 1 C D ¼ ∑ 2ðpp p1 ÞΔSp sin βp ¼ ∑ C Pp ΔSp sin βp ð27Þ

ωðx;t Þ ¼ ðGðx;y;t ÞGðxy;t ÞÞf ðyÞdy; ð21Þ p¼1 p¼1

1

NP NP

where C L ¼ ∑ 2ðpp p1 ÞΔSp cos βp ¼ ∑ C Pp ΔSp cos βp ð28Þ

p¼1 p¼1

1 2 4 t

Gðx;y;tÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ exp ðxyÞ =Rec ð22Þ where p1 is the reference pressure (at boundary deﬁned as S3 ),

4 π t=Rec

ΔSp is the length and βp is the angle and both on pth panel.

This simplest method requires simultaneous radial and circum-

ferential displacements for any kth discrete vortex at each time

step Δt as 4. Results and discussions

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

4 Δt 1 4.1. Isolated circular cylinder

ς k ðt Þ ¼ ln ½ cos ð2 π Q Þ þ sin ð2 π Q Þ; ð23Þ

Rec P

The vortex code was validated simulating the ﬂow around an

where P and Q are random numbers, with 0 oP o 1 and 0 oQ o 1. isolated circular cylinder. This was done in order to determine the

It is clear from Eq. (23) that turbulence effects are considered in parameters associated with the numerical method, like the num-

the diffusion process, what means that in this stage there is a ber of ﬂat panels used to represent the cylinder (NP ¼ 300), the

connection between the large scales and the smallest ones, which time increment (Δt ¼ 0:05), according to Mustto et al. (1998) and

is made by the eddy viscosity. As described in Section 2 the local the Lamb vortex core (s0 ¼ 0:001). The Reynolds number chosen

turbulent activity is determined by the second-order velocity was Re ¼ 1:0 105 in order to compare the numerical results with

structure function (Eq. 7), which must be adapted to the two- the experimental data available in the literature.

dimensional problem. Table 1 shows experimental results from Blevins (1984) and the

Alcântara Pereira et al. (2004) make two adaptations necessary results obtained using the present algorithm. In order to be free

to implement the second-order velocity structure function to the from the numerical transient the mean values are calculated as

two-dimensional Lagrangian Vortex Method, see Eq. (7): (i) the 50:00 ≤t ≤100:00 and as can be seen agree quite well with the

points where velocities must be calculated are placed inside a experimental results by Blevins (1984), since, as observed by the

circular crown centered at a kth reference vortex, deﬁned by author, they present a 10% of uncertainty.

r i ¼ 0:1s0k and r e ¼ 2:0s0k where r i and r e are the internal and Fig. 2 presents the time evolution of the aerodynamic forces; as

external radius of the circular crown, respectively, and s0k is the expected the lift force oscillates around zero. The Strouhal number

Lamb vortex core of the vortex under analysis (kth vortex, for is about 0.21. The drag force oscillates at a frequency that is

instance); (ii) to compute the second-order velocity structure approximately twice the lift force frequency, which is a typical

function, the points where velocities are calculated are the same behavior of an isolated cylinder; thus the drag force oscillates

as the positions of the vortices which are near the vortex under every time that a vortex structure is shed from the upper or lower

analysis (inside the circular crown). Thus side of the cylinder while the lift force oscillates once for each pair

2=3 of vortex structure shed. Since the three-dimensional effects

1 N s0k present in the experiments are very important for the Reynolds

F 2k ¼ ∑ ‖ut k ðxk Þut j ðxk þ r j Þ‖2j ð24Þ

Nj¼1 rj number used in the simulation, a purely two-dimensional com-

putation must produce values for the drag coefﬁcient and the

where ut is the total velocity in the point (see Eq. 17), N indicates Strouhal number only in a physical sense with experiments, as has

the number of discrete vortices inside the circular crown and r j is been identiﬁed in this work. In this way, the present simulation

the distance between the discrete vortex under analysis (kth provided a very good estimate of the aerodynamic loads and wake

discrete vortex) and the discrete vortices inside the circular crown pattern.

(each jth discrete vortex). Fig. 2 shows ﬁve important instants (points A, B, C, D and E) to

Finally, with the vorticity and velocity ﬁelds it is possible to explain the physics involved in this kind of ﬂow. At the instant

compute the pressure ﬁeld. The procedure starts with Bernoulli represented by point A, there is a low pressure distribution at the

function, deﬁned by Uhlman (1992) as

p u2

Y¼ þ ; u ¼ u ð25Þ

ρ 2 Table 1

Mean values of drag and lift coefﬁcients and Strouhal number for isolated cylinder.

Kamemoto (1993) used the same function and starting from

Navier–Stokes equations was able to write a Poisson equation for Re ¼ 1:0 105 CD CL St

Blevins (1984) 710% 1.200 – 0.190

scheme. Here the same Poisson equation was derived and its Present simulation 1.182 0.036 0.214

solution was obtained through the following integral formulation

20 A. Mendonça Bimbato et al. / J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 121 (2013) 16–28

upper cylinder surface, which explains the maximum lift force. vortex structure starts to grow attracting the opposite shear layer

This instant corresponds to a clockwise vortex structure shed on which is feeding the clockwise vortex structure causing its

the upper side of the cylinder (see Fig. 3 (point A) and Fig. 4(a)); detachment (Fig. 6(a)). Likewise, a new clockwise vortex structure

this clockwise vortex structure begins to grow attracting the is born in the upper cylinder surface and begins to grow attracting

opposite shear layer. the lower shear layer which is feeding the counter-clockwise

At the instant represented by point C, there is a low pressure vortex structure causing its detachment (Fig. 8(a)).

distribution at the lower cylinder surface, which explains the Points B and D highlighted in Fig. 2 correspond to the complete

minimum lift force (Fig. 2). This instant corresponds to a incorporation of the counter-clockwise and clockwise vortex

counter-clockwise vortex structure shed on the lower side of the structures to the wake respectively (see Figs. 5(a) and 7(a)).

cylinder (see Fig. 3 (point C) and Fig. 6(a)). This counter-clockwise It can be seen that the mechanism of vortex shedding described

above is in agreement to the one proposed by Gerrard (1966); it is

repeated periodically causing the oscillating von Kármán street as

shown in Fig. 9. Since the ﬂow around an isolated cylinder is well

predicted, the computational code is considered able to simulate

the situation where the cylinder suffers the inﬂuence of a moving

ground plane.

plane boundary are governed mainly by the Reynolds number and

the gap ratio, i.e., the ratio between the distance from the body to

the plane boundary, h, and the body characteristic length, the

cylinder diameter d. The details of the ground effect on the ﬂow

are still far from being fully understood.

One of the mechanisms that govern the ground effect is the

wake interference due to the interaction between the body wake

and ground surface boundary layer; one can say that this is an

important manifestation of the viscous effects. Experimentally,

one way to suppress or at least to minimize this mechanism

consists in using a moving ground.

In this section, the attention is focused on the analysis of the

vortex shedding suppression due to the presence of a ﬂat ground

nearby; again one can say that this is an important manifestation

Fig. 2. Temporal series for the aerodynamic forces acting on isolated cylinder. of the inertial effects.

A. Mendonça Bimbato et al. / J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 121 (2013) 16–28 21

Fig. 5. Near ﬁeld velocity distribution for the cylinder at an instant represented by

point B. (a) Isolated, (b) h/d¼ 0.35, (c) h/d ¼ 0.15 and (d) h/d ¼0.05.

Fig. 4. Near ﬁeld velocity distribution for the cylinder at an instant represented by

point A. (a) Isolated, (b) h/d¼ 0.35, (c) h/d ¼0.15 and (d) h/d ¼0.05.

Some preliminary results are done, before starting with the If h=d 4 0:40, these results show that the drag coefﬁcient

main analysis. For the numerical simulations it was used 300 increases as the ﬂow becomes more and more two-dimensional.

panels for the cylinder surface (as presented in Section 4.1) and In fact, let us deﬁne ye as the distance from the border of the end

950 panels to represent the moving ground. The drag and lift plate to the cylinder and the ratio ye =d. The experimental results

coefﬁcients discussed in this section represent the mean value of show that, for a given value of h=d, the higher the value of the ratio

temporal series of drag and lift forces. As already mentioned, no ye =d the higher are the values of the drag coefﬁcient (compare the

vorticity was generated on the ground surface. values of the drag force for ye =d ¼ 0:0, ye =d ¼ 0:2 and ye =d ¼ 0:4).

Table 2 and Fig. 10 show some results obtained by Nishino This behavior is due to the fact that three-dimensional ﬂows

(2007) and are used for the analysis of the drag force, especially present a momentum transfer in the cylinder axial direction

when end plates were used in experimental investigations. leading to a lower value of the drag. Differences of about 45% in

22 A. Mendonça Bimbato et al. / J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 121 (2013) 16–28

Fig. 7. Near ﬁeld velocity distribution for the cylinder at an instant represented by

Fig. 6. Near ﬁeld velocity distribution for the cylinder at an instant represented by point D. (a) Isolated, (b) h/d ¼0.35, (c) h/d¼ 0.15 and (d) h/d ¼ 0.05.

point C. (a) Isolated, (b) h/d ¼0.35, (c) h/d¼ 0.15 and (d) h/d ¼ 0.05.

the drag forces of a two-dimensional (with end plates) and three- The results of Fig. 11 are used for the analysis of the lift force.

dimensional (without end plates) conﬁgurations can be observed. One observes that the numerical obtained results follow the

The importance of the three-dimensional effects can be inferred so experimental ones, although with a small delay; the trend

it can be classiﬁed as the second mechanism that governs the observed is an increasing lift force as the ratio h=d decreases.

ground effect phenomenon. According to the potential ﬂow solution one should expect a

As the cylinder comes closer to the ground the end plates lose negative lift due to the Venturi effect (an inertial effect). Here,

their ability to suppress the axial component of the ﬂow velocity; however, the viscous effect dominates moving the stagnation

as a consequence, the ﬂow is basically three-dimensional and the point downstream thus creating an additional positive circulation

computed drag force (even with the end plates) tends to the value which leads to the above mentioned results.

of the three-dimensional conﬁguration. The last column of Table 2 shows the behavior of the Strouhal

The present numerical results agree with the ﬁndings of Nishino number as the cylinder comes close to the ground; it can be

(for the approximately two-dimensional ﬂow) and are higher than observed that the Strouhal number decreases (a consequence

the ones obtained in the three-dimensional experiments. of the decreasing vortex shedding) as the h=d ratio decreases

A. Mendonça Bimbato et al. / J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 121 (2013) 16–28 23

(the cylinder approaches the ground). Three values of the gap Fig. 12 is used to show the time evolution of the aerodynamic

ratio: h=d ¼ 0:35 (St ¼ 0:199), h=d ¼ 0:15 (St ¼ 0:143) and h=d ¼ 0:05 forces for these three values of the gap ratio and, as before, ﬁve

(St ¼ 0:080) are used here. important points (time instant) are highlighted.

For h=d ¼ 0:35 the same sequence of events described for the

isolated cylinder occurs (see the description done in Section 4.1

and follow Fig. 13 and Figs. 4(b)–8(b)). However, now, one can

observe a peculiar behavior in the drag curve (Fig. 12(a)): the

highest values are not constant, which is due to the blockage effect

imposed by the ground surface. In fact, while the upper vortex

structures have total freedom to develop in the near ﬁeld until

being incorporated by the far ﬁeld wake (sequence of Figs. 4(b)–7

(b)), leading to a bigger peaks in the drag force, the growth of the

lower vortex structures are limited by the ground surface

(sequence of Figs. 6(b), 7(b), 8(b) and 5(b)), which reﬂects in

smaller peaks in the drag force. It is worth observing that a lower

rear pressure observed when the cylinder is close to the ground

surface, leads to a higher value of the mean drag as compared to

the isolated cylinder (compare Fig. 3 with Fig. 13).

The sequence presented in Fig. 12 shows a gradual disappear-

ance of bigger and smaller peaks of the drag curve followed by a

decrease of the drag force (see again Table 2). In Fig. 12(b),

h=d ¼ 0:15, ﬁve points are highlighted to explain the causes of

the disappearance of the interspersed peaks (sometimes bigger,

sometimes smaller).

At point A (instant A) the low pressure distribution at the upper

cylinder surface leads to the maximum value of the lift force. This

instant corresponds to the birth of the clockwise vortex structure,

instant A in Fig. 14 (see also Fig. 4(c)), which start attracting the

opposite shear layer.

At point C (instant C) the low pressure distribution, now, at

the lower cylinder surface is responsible for the minimum value of

the lift force. At this instant one can observe the starting of the

counter-clockwise vortex structure, instant C in Fig. 14 (see also

Fig. 6(c)). The growing counter-clockwise vortex structure now

attracts the opposite shear layer which feeds the clockwise vortex

structure promoting the ﬂow detachment (Fig. 6(c)).

Observe, however, that the enhancement of the Venturi effect,

due to the closer presence of the ground, draws downstream the

counter-clockwise structure (compare Fig. 6(b) and (c)). As a

consequence, the detachment and the embedding of the clockwise

vortex structure by the viscous wake is delayed (compare

Figs. 6 and 7(b) with Figs. 6 and 7(c)) allowing the development

of a larger counter-clockwise vortex structure which, by its turn,

deforms the next clockwise vortex structure that starts to develop

at instant E (compare Fig. 8(b) with Fig. 8(c)).

The energy content of this newly deformed clockwise vortex

structure is not enough to attract the opposite shear layer; in fact

one can observe that the upper vortex structure is being fed by the

larger counter-clockwise one to the point that this lower counter-

clockwise detaches and is embedded by the viscous wake, Fig. 5(c).

The above described events explain the decreasing value of the

Strouhal number as well as the reduction of about 7% in the drag

force, Table 2.

Fig. 8. Near ﬁeld velocity distribution for the cylinder at an instant represented by The time evolution of the aerodynamic forces, when h=d ¼ 0:05,

point E. (a) Isolated, (b) h/d ¼ 0.35, (c) h/d¼ 0.15 and (d) h/d¼ 0.05. are presented in Fig. 12(c); now, the periodic vortex shedding

24 A. Mendonça Bimbato et al. / J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 121 (2013) 16–28

Table 2

Comparison between experimental and numerical data for cylinder near a moving ground.

h=d Nishino (2007) – three-dimensional Nishino (2007) (ye =d ¼ 0:0) Nishino (2007) (ye =d ¼ 0:2) Nishino (2007) (ye =d ¼ 0:4) Present simulation

CD CL CD CL CD CL CD CL CD CL St

1.50 0.854 0.020 1.152 0.040 – – 1.337 0.013 – – –

1.00 0.881 0.008 1.260 0.025 1.363 0.013 1.375 0.011 – – –

0.80 0.899 0.014 1.293 0.020 1.386 0.015 1.385 0.024 – – –

0.60 0.920 0.039 1.302 0.001 1.372 0.028 1.373 0.038 – – –

0.50 0.924 0.045 1.282 0.034 1.298 0.064 1.323 0.090 – – –

0.45 0.926 0.060 1.242 0.054 1.245 0.090 1.311 0.102 – – –

0.40 0.922 0.074 1.145 0.084 1.187 0.116 – – 1.449 0.133 0.200

0.35 0.931 0.092 0.929 0.078 1.031 0.132 – – 1.427 0.063 0.199

0.30 0.930 0.117 0.941 0.111 0.954 0.164 – – 1.470 0.005 0.199

0.25 0.933 0.144 0.951 0.154 0.956 0.198 – – 1.466 0.002 0.197

0.20 0.939 0.177 0.954 0.188 – – – – 1.391 0.010 0.169

0.15 0.952 0.231 0.957 0.247 – – – – 1.326 0.035 0.143

0.10 0.958 0.308 0.953 0.306 – – – – 1.108 0.250 0.119

0.05 0.965 0.429 0.941 0.477 – – – – 0.846 0.419 0.080

Fig. 11. Comparison between numerical and experimental results for lift force

Fig. 10. Comparison between numerical and experimental results for drag force

considering the span of the cylinder.

considering the span of the cylinder.

clockwise structure and the ground, Fig. 6(d), until its detachment,

almost disappears, Table 2. The cylinder is too close to the ground Fig. 7(d).

and introduces radical changes in the ﬂow ﬁeld. Fig. 15 shows the As soon as the clockwise vortex structure detachment starts the

new stagnation point which moves downstream due to an addi- counter-clockwise structure begins to go through the space

tional circulation (compare Fig. 3, Fig. 13, Figs. 14 and 15); as a formed between the ground and the upper vortex structure (see

consequence the lift force takes a higher value, C L ¼ 0:419. Figs. 7 and 8(d)).

As described before, for h=d ¼ 0:05, the enhanced Venturi effect As it can be seen, the vortex shedding still exists but it is

draws downstream the counter-clockwise vortex structure, delay- weaker and delayed. In fact due to Venturi effect the interaction

ing the vortex shedding now even more. With a stronger Venturi between the upper and lower structures which is a necessary

effect the delay is bigger as can be observed by comparing the condition for the vortex structures detachment is weakened

Strouhal number, Table 2. causing a decrease in drag force as h=d decreases (Table 2).

For the gap ratio h=d ¼ 0:05 it is difﬁcult to identify the exact Fig. 16 shows the vortex shedding suppression effect development

moment when the vortex structures begin; compare Fig. 4(d) with as the gap ratio decreases.

Fig. 4(b) and Fig. 4(c). The above described mechanisms are

present but enhanced by a closer presence of the ground. The

counter-clockwise vortex structure takes a longer time to start 5. Conclusions

(compare the time it takes from instant A to instant C in Fig. 12(a),

(b) and (c)); the clockwise vortex structure grows bigger, Fig. 5(d), A two-dimensional Lagrangian Vortex Method with LES mod-

and the counter-clockwise structure is conﬁned between the eling was used successfully to predict the vortex shedding

A. Mendonça Bimbato et al. / J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 121 (2013) 16–28 25

Fig. 12. Temporal series for the aerodynamic forces acting on cylinder in moving ground effect. (a) h/d¼ 0.35, (b) h/d¼ 0.15 and (c) h/d¼ 0.05.

suppression effect which happens, among other situations, when a There were very few experimental studies concerning to vortex

cylinder is placed near a moving ground. shedding suppression due to ground effect mechanisms; therefore,

The ground effect phenomenon is inﬂuenced by three the present paper contributes using a two-dimensional purely

mechanisms: Lagrangian approach with a moving ground conﬁguration, where

three effects can be noted caused when a circular cylinder is

(i) the wake interference effect, i.e., the interaction between the getting closer to the ground:

wake formed behind the body and the boundary layer devel-

oped on the ground. The analysis of this mechanism is (i) the increase in lift force due to the viscosity effects which

avoided by the use of a moving ground, which is more causes an additional circulation around the body and a change

relevant to practical engineering problems; in the stagnation point;

(ii) the three-dimensional effects, which is avoided, since it is (ii) the vortex shedding suppression caused by Venturi effect;

used a two-dimensional Lagrangian Vortex Method formula- (iii) the decrease in the drag force due to the vortex shedding

tion. However, the experimental tests performed in a wind suppression.

tunnel by Nishino (2007) show the importance of a two-

dimensional analysis;

(iii) the blockage effect due to the ground surface, which was The Venturi effect is a key factor to no vorticity generation from

successfully studied. the ground plane region below the bottom of the cylinder, even for

26 A. Mendonça Bimbato et al. / J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 121 (2013) 16–28

Fig. 13. Instantaneous pressure distribution of the cylinder in moving ground effect (h=d ¼ 0:35).

Fig. 14. Instantaneous pressure distribution of the cylinder in moving ground effect (h=d ¼ 0:15).

the smallest gap ratios. This ground plane region is the most Nishino (2007) identiﬁed the vortex shedding suppression when

important to understand all aerodynamic loads effects acting on h=d o 0:35 while in the present work it occurs when h=d o 0:15.

the body surface. However, there is vorticity generation from the However this feature can be assigned to the end plates which lose

others ground plane regions. The mechanism of wake interference their ability to make the ﬂow two-dimensional as the body comes

effect will be included in future analysis for this purpose. close to the ground.

It can be seen that the numerical code results agree well Finally in the near future a roughness modeling will be

with the approximately two-dimensional results obtained in a incorporated to the Vortex Method to predict the vortex shedding

wind tunnel by Nishino (2007). In fact there is a little delay suppression when a rough cylinder is placed near a moving

between the numerical and the experimental ﬂow behavior, since ground.

A. Mendonça Bimbato et al. / J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 121 (2013) 16–28 27

Fig. 15. Instantaneous pressure distribution of the cylinder in moving ground effect (h=d ¼ 0:05).

Fig. 16. Moving ground effect: position of discrete vortices at dimensionless position of x ¼ 25. (a) h/d¼ 0.35, (b) h/d¼ 0.15 and (c) h/d¼ 0.05.

Acknowledgments Batchelor, G.K., 1953. The Theory of Homogeneous Turbulence. Cambridge Univ.

Press, Cambridge, England, UK.

This research was supported by the CNPq (Brazilian Research Bearman, P.W., Zdravkovich, M.M., 1978. Flow around a circular cylinder near a

Agency) Proc. 142804/2008-8 and FAPEMIG (Research Foundation plane boundary. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 89, 33–47.

Bearman, P.W., 1984. Vortex shedding from oscillating bluff bodies. Annual Review

of the State of Minas Gerais) Proc. TEC APQ-01070-10. of Fluid Mechanics 16, 195–222.

Bienkiewicz, B., Kutz, R.F., 1990. Applying the discrete vortex method to ﬂow about

bluff bodies. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 36,

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