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Introduction:

Overview of the tests methods used for water determination in and


factors affecting their precision and accuracy. Crude is mixed with
water immiscible solvent (xylene).The mixture is boiled (refluxed)
forcing water and solvent overhead Condenser condenses solvent and
water into trap .Trap returns solvent to crude while retaining water.
This test method covers the determination of water in volume in
and other bituminous materials by the ,petroleum products, tars.
distillation method.
NOTE 1—Volatile water-soluble material, if present, may be measured
as water. The specific products considered during the develop
NOTE —With some types of oil, satisfactory results may be obtained.
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The
values in parentheses are for information only.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if
any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this
standard to establish appropriate.
safety and health practices and determine the application- ability of
regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see
Section . The material to be tested is heated under reflux with a
water-immiscible solvent, which co-distills with the water in the
sample.
Condensed solvent and water are continuously separated in a
trap, the water settling in the graduated section of the trap and
the solvent returning to the still.
Objective:

1-To separate water from crude oil .


2- To know how to use distillation to separate water in crude oil.
3- to find the percentage of water in sample of crude oil .

Apparatus & Materials:


The apparatus, shown in Fig. 1, consists of
1-A glass distillation flask —a 1000-mL (or
500ml) round-bottom, glass, distillation
flask
2-A 5-mL calibrated, graduated water trap
with 0.05-mL graduations connected to
the distillation flask.
3-A 400-mm condenser fitted with the
Trap.
4-A drying tube filled with desiccant (to
prevent entrance of atmospheric
moisture) is placed on top of the
condenser.
5-An electric heating mantle that can
uniformly distribute heat to the entire
lower half of the flask.
6-Solvent: different solvents can be used
Toluene, xylene or a mixture of both or
naphtha. The solvent is miscible with oil
but immiscible with water.
7- A sample of crude oil.
Procedure:
1-Measure (100 ml) of the crude oil sample in a graduated cylinder
and transfer it to the distillation flask .
2-Add 100 ml solvent to the flask in three stages 50 ml, 25ml and 25ml
using the graduated cylinder of step one (total solvent volume 100
)ml).
3-Use glass beads or other boiling aids to reduce bumping distillation
Flask.
4-Assemble the apparatus making sure all connections are vapor and
liquid-tight
5-Insert a drying tube containing an indicating desiccant into the end
the condenser to prevent condensation of atmospheric moisture of
inside.