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Best Practice

SABP-Q-004 31 August, 2002


Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Vessel Foundation Design
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures

Heat Exchanger and Horizontal


Vessel Foundation Design

37' - 0"
6' - 6"
8' - 0"

4' - 0"

22' - 0"

Developed by: Hisham Abu-Adas


Developed: July, 2002
Civil Engineering Unit/M&CED
Consulting Services Department

Previous Issue: New Next Planned Update: 1 September, 2007


Page 1 of 35
Primary contact: Abu-Adas, Hisham on phone 874-6908
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

HEAT EXCHANGER AND HORIZONTAL VESSEL FOUNDATION DESIGN GUIDE


Table of Contents
Page

1. Introduction .............................................................................................. 2
1.1 Purpose ........................................................................................ 3
1.2 Scope ........................................................................................... 3
1.3 Disclaimer..................................................................................... 3
1.4 Conflicts with Mandatory Standards............................................. 3
2 References .............................................................................................. 4
2.1 Saudi Aramco References ........................................................... 4
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards..................................................... 4
3 General .................................................................................................... 5
4 Design Procedure .................................................................................... 5
4.1 Design Considerations ................................................................. 5
4.2 Vertical Loads............................................................................... 6
4.3 Horizontal Loads .......................................................................... 6
4.4 Load Combinations .................................................................... 11
4.5 Anchor Bolts ............................................................................... 13
4.6 Slide Plates................................................................................. 13
4.7 Pier Design ................................................................................. 14
4.8 Column Design........................................................................... 15
4.9 Footing Design ........................................................................... 16

ATTACHMENTS:
Attachment 1 – Exchanger and Tube Bundle Weights .................................. 21
Attachment 2 – Thermal Expansion Data ...................................................... 23
Attachment 3 – Soil Pressure for Biaxial Loaded Footings............................ 25
Attachment 4 – Sample Design 1: Horizontal Vessel Foundation ................. 26
Attachment 5 – Tables ................................................................................... 34
1 Basic Development Length of Standard 90° Hooks in Tension
2 Reinforcing Bars Class A and B Splice

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose

The purpose of this Practice is to establish guidelines and recommended


procedures for the analysis and design of heat exchanger and horizontal vessel
foundations for use by engineers working on Saudi Aramco projects and Saudi
Aramco engineers. It shall be used where applicable unless otherwise specified.

1.2 Scope

This design guide defines the minimum requirements for the analysis and design
of heat exchanger and horizontal vessel foundations in process industry
facilities at Saudi Aramco sites. In the ensuing sections, pertinent references are
given, and design loadings and general design consideration are presented and
discussed. This Practice addresses isolated foundations supported directly on
soil. Pile supported footings are not included in this practice. Process Industry
Practice STE03360 forms the basis for the development of this design guide.

1.3 Disclaimer

The material in this Best Practices document provides the most correct and
accurate design guidelines available to Saudi Aramco which comply with
international industry practices. This material is being provided for the general
guidance and benefit of the Designer. Use of the Best Practices in designing
projects for Saudi Aramco, however, does not relieve the Designer from his
responsibility to verify the accuracy of any information presented or from his
contractual liability to provide safe and sound designs that conform to
Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirements. Use of the information or
material contained herein is no guarantee that the resulting product will satisfy
the applicable requirements of any project. Saudi Aramco assumes no
responsibility or liability whatsoever for any reliance on the information
presented herein or for designs prepared by Designers in accordance with the
Best Practices. Use of the Best Practices by Designers is intended solely for,
and shall be strictly limited to, Saudi Aramco projects. Saudi Aramco® is a
registered trademark of the Saudi Arabian Oil Company. Copyright, Saudi
Aramco, 2002.

1.4 Conflicts with Mandatory Standards

In the event of a conflict between this Best Practice and other Mandatory Saudi
Aramco Engineering Requirement, the Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
Requirement shall govern.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

2 References

This Best Practice is based on the latest edition of the references below, unless
otherwise noted. Short titles will be used herein when appropriate.

2.1 Saudi Aramco References

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards (SAES)


SAES-A-112 Meteorological and Seismic Design Data
SAES-A-113 Geotechnical Engineering Requirements
SAES-A-114 Excavation and Backfill
SASES-A-204 Preparation of Structural Calculations
SAES-M-001 Structural Design Criteria for Non-Building
Structures
SAES-Q-001 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete
Structures
SAES-Q-005 Concrete Foundations

Saudi Aramco Best Practices


SABP-001 Anchor Bolt Design and Installation
SABP-002 Spread Footings Design
SABP-007 Wind Loads on Piperacks and Open Frame
Structures

2.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Concrete Institute (ACI)


ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced
Concrete

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)


ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other
Structures
Wind Load and Anchor Bolt Design for Buildings and Other Structures

Process Industry Practices (PIP)


PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel
Foundation Design Guide

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

3 General

3.1 The design and specifications for construction of heat exchanger and horizontal
vessel foundation shall be adequate for the structure intended use, in accordance
with commonly accepted engineering practice, Saudi Aramco Standard SAES-
Q-005 and this guideline.

3.2 A geotechnical investigation is required for all new structures and foundations
as described in SAES-A-113. (Ref. SAES-Q-005, Para. 4.1.1)

3.3 The allowable soil bearing pressure shall be based on the results of the
geotechnical investigation, and a consideration of permissible total and
differential settlements. Soil pressures shall be calculated under the action of
vertical and lateral loads using load combinations that result in the maximum
soil pressures. The maximum soil pressure shall not exceed the applicable
allowable value. (Ref. SAES-Q-005, Para. 4.1.2

3.4 Foundations shall be founded on either undisturbed soil or compact fill and at
least 600 mm below the existing or finished grade surface, unless a detailed soils
investigation indicated otherwise. In the case of foundations supported on
compacted fill, the geotechnical investigation and/or SAES-A-114 shall govern
the type of fill material and degree of compaction required. (Ref. SAES-Q-005,
Para. 4.1.3)

3.5 The design and construction of all concrete foundations shall comply with the
requirements of SAES-Q-001, SAES-Q-005 and ACI-318. (Ref. SAES-Q-005,
para. 4.3.1)

3.6 The design concrete compressive strength of concrete shall be 27.6 MPa (4000
psi) at 28 days. (Ref. SAES-Q-005, Para. 4.3.2.b)

3.7 The structural calculations shall be prepared in accordance with the


requirements of SAES-A-204.

4 Design Procedure

4.1 Design Considerations

4.1.1 Heat exchanger and horizontal vessel wind and seismic loads shall be in
accordance with Saudi Aramco Standard SAES-A112.

4.1.2 Heat exchanger and horizontal vessel foundation design shall be based
on approved certified vendor drawing.

4.1.3 For general foundation requirements and guidelines, refer to Saudi


Aramco Best Practice SABP-002 “Spread Footings Design”.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

4.2 Vertical Loads

4.2.1 Erection Weight (Pf ) - Fabricated weight of heat exchanger or horizontal


vessel, generally taken from equipment drawing

4.2.2 Empty Weight (Pe) - Fabricated weight of vessel plus weight of


internals, piping, insulation, fireproofing, and platforms, generally taken
from equipment drawing.

4.2.3 Operating Weight (Po) - Empty weight plus weight of operating liquid;
generally taken from equipment drawing.

4.2.4 Test Weight (Pt) – Empty weight plus weight of water required for
hydrostatic test, generally taken from the equipment drawing.

4.2.5 Eccentric Load (Pc) – Unless more exact information regarding piping
supported on the foundation is available, a load of 10% of the applicable
vessel weight should be applied to each pedestal and footing at a
distance of D/2 plus 18 inches from the longitudinal centerline of the
vessel, where “D” is the basic diameter (basic diameter = exchanger I.D.
+ 2 times the wall thickness + 2 times the insulation thickness).

4.2.6 Dead Load (D) – Vessel’s foundation weight that is defined as the
combined weight of footing, pedestal, and overburden soil.

4.2.7 Load Distribution (Exchangers) – For most common shell and tube heat
exchangers, vertical loads should normally be distributed with 60% to
the channel end (slotted end) support and 40% to the shell end (fixed
end) support. However, the actual exchanger shape and support
configuration should be reviewed when determining weight distribution,
since in many cases load distribution may vary.

4.2.8 The above loads shall be considered as dead loads (e.g., 1.4 load factor)
when applying load factors.

4.3 Horizontal Loads

4.3.1 Wind Loading (W)

4.3.1.1 Wind loads shall be calculated in accordance with the


requirements of SAES-A-112, SAES-M-001 “Structural
Design Criteria for Non-Bulding Structures”, Saudi Aramco
Best Practice SABP-006 “Wind Loads on Piperacks and Open
Frame Structures” and the guidelines of ASCE ‘Wind Load
and Anchor Bolt Design for Buildings and Other Structures”.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

4.3.1.2 Transverse Wind - The wind pressure on the projected area of


the side of the vessel should be applied as a horizontal shear at
the center of the vessel. The saddle-to-pier connection should
be considered fixed for transverse loads. The saddle design is a
function of either the vessel supplier or the Designer’s
Mechanical/Vessel Group.

4.3.1.3 Longitudinal Wind - The wind pressure on the end of the


vessel should be applied as a horizontal shear at the center of
the vessel. Also include the flat surface wind pressure on the
exposed area of both piers or columns, applied as a horizontal
shear at the centroid of the exposed area. The saddle-to-pier
connection will be considered pinned for longitudinal loads
unless there is more than one row of anchor bolts.

4.3.1.4 Shielding - Make no allowance for shielding from wind by


nearby equipment or structures except under unusual
conditions.

4.3.1.5 The following guidelines of ASCE “Wind Load and Anchor


Bolt Design for Buildings and Other Structures” may be used
to calculate wind loads on horizontal vessels:

a) No check for dynamic properties is required.

b) For the projected diameter, add 1.5 ft (0.46 m) to the


insulated diameter to account for ladders, nozzles and
pipe 8 in. (0.2 m) (incluidng insulation) or smaller.

c) For wind perpendicular to the long axis of the vessel


(transverse wind), the force coefficient (Cf) should be
determined from ASCE 7, Table 6-7 shown below.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

Table 6-7 – (Adapted from ASCE 7)

d) For wind in the longitudinal direction, use Cf of 0.5 for a


rounded head and 1.2 for a flat head.

e) For pipe larger than 8 in. (0.2 m), including insulation,


use the projected area of the pipe and use a force
coefficient (Cf) of 0.7.

f) For platforms, use the projected area of the support steel


and a force coefficient (Cf) of 2.0.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

For handrails use the values for area and froce coefficients
from Table 4.1below.

Use the projected area of each railing system.

TABLE 4.1 Force Coefficients for Wind Loads on Components


Item Cf Projected Area
Handrail 2.0 0.80 sq. ft./ft.
Ladder without cage 2.0 0.50 sq. ft./ft.
Ladder with cage 2.0 0.75 sq. ft./ft.
Solid Rectangles & Flat Plates 2.0
Stair w/handrail 2.0 Handrail area plus
Side Elevation 2.0 channel depth
End elevation 50% gross area
Round or Square Shapes See ASCE 7
Table 6-7

(Adapted from ASCE - “Wind Loads and Anchor Bolt Design for
Petrochemical Facilities”)
4.3.2 Seismic (E)

4.3.2.1 Seismic forces shall be calculated in accordance with SAES-A-


112 and the requirements of SAES-M-001 “Structural Design
Criteria for Non-Bulding Structures”.

4.3.2.2 Seismic loads calculated by the Vessel Vendor shall be


independently verified as appropriate by the Engineer prior to
performing foundation design to ensure compliance with the
project specifications and the applicable Saudi Aramco
Standards.

4.3.2.3 For low friction slide plates (µ ≤ 0.2), apply all of the seismic
force at the fixed pier. For higher friction slide plates (µ >
0.2), apply 70% of the seismic force at the fixed pier.
Distribute transverse and vertical seismic loads
proportionaltely to both piers. Seismic pier forces shall be
determined by using half the pier weight and by applying the
resulting force at the top of the pier.

4.3.3 Bundle Pull (Bp) - (Exchangers)

Bundle pull force is an estimated friction force generated from exchanger


tube bundle installation or removal. Unless job specifications specify
otherwise, the bundle pull force should be taken as 1.5 times the tube
bundle weight, but not less than the smaller of 2,000 pounds. The load
is applied longitudinally at the center of the bundle and distributed

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

between the piers. For stacked exchangers, the load should be applied at
the center of the top bundle. The portion of the bundle pull force at the
sliding end support will equal the lesser of the friction force or ½ the
bundle pull force. The remainder of the bundle pull force will be resisted
at the fixed end support.

4.3.4 Thermal Force (TL)

4.3.4.1 Calculate thermal growth using maximum design temperature.


Thermal expansion data can be found in Attachment 2.
Thermal force is defined as the force due growth of the
horizontal vessel or exchanger between supports.

4.3.4.2 The thermal force used for design should be the smaller value
resulting from the following two calculations:

• The force required to overcome static friction between the


vessel support and the slide plate:

Ff = µ (Pop) (Eq. 1)

where,
Ff = static friction force
µ = coefficient of friction, refer to the table under 4.6 -
Slide Plates or values
Pop = operating vertical load on slide plate

• The force required to deflect the pier or column an amount


equal to 1/2 of the thermal growth between supports:
3∆ E I
Fd = (Eq. 2)
2 L3

where,
Fd = pier deflection force
∆ = total deflection between piers
E = modulus of elasticity
I = pier moment of inertia
L = pier height
The thermal force should be applied at the top of the piers.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

4.3.5 Load Distribution

4.3.5.1 Divide the load equally between piers except where otherwise
specified.

4.3.5.2 When the longitudinal loads, such as seismic and bundle pull,
govern the pier/foundation design, a strut between the piers has
been found to be economical. The savings in concrete
commonly exceeds the added cost of a strut. A strut could
consist of two nested pipes field welded to each other and to
embedded plates on the inside of each pier. If the vessel or
exchanger has a central pipe that interferes with at strut on the
centerline, two struts can be used, which straddle the pipe.

4.4 Load Combinations

4.4.1 Piping thermal loads should be included in combinations when deemed


advisable and should be considered as dead loads when applying load
factors.

4.4.2 Wind forces and seismic forces shall not be considered to act
simultaneously.

4.4.3 In combinations involving Test Load (Pt) or Erection Load (Pf), and
Wind Load (W) or Seismic Load (E), only one-third of the load need be
considered. For wind load, this is justified because hydrotests are not
conducted during high winds and, for earthquake load; the probability of
shocks occurring during hydrotest is low.

4.4.4 The loads used for footing design shall be service load reactions obtained
form certified vendor drawings. In computing footing soil pressures the
service load reactions are used. The weight of the footing and soil
overburden shall be combined with the service loads. The effect of
buoyancy shall be considered in footing design when applicable.

4.4.5 Loading Combinations – Service Load Combinations

The following service load combinations are used to check soil bearing
pressures and foundation stability against overturning and sliding. The
load combinations shown below are the most common load
combinations but may not cover all possible conditions. Any credible
load combinations that could produce the maximum soil bearing stress or
govern for stability should be considered in the calculations.

Po + D + TL+ Pc Load Comb. 1


(Operating + Thermal + Eccentric)

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

(Po + D + Pc + W or E) Load Comb. 2


(Operating + Transverse Wind or Seismic + Eccentric)

(Po + D + Pc + W or E) Load Comb. 3


(Operating + Longitudinal Wind or Seismic + Eccentric)

(Pe + D + Pc + W or E) Load Comb. 4


(Empty + Transverse Wind or Seismic + Eccentric)

(Pe + D + Pc + W or E) Load Comb.5


(Empty + Longitudinal Wind or Seismic + Eccentric)

(Pf + D + 1/4 W) Load Comb. 6


(Erection Weight + 1/4 Wind)

(Pt + Pc + D) Load Comb. 7


(Test + Eccentric)
For Horizontal Vessel Only

(Pt + Pc + D + 1/4 W) Load Comb. 8


(Test Weight + Eccentric + (1/4 Wind)
For Horizontal Vessel Only

(Pe + D + Bp + Pc ) Load Comb. 9


(Empty + Bundle Pull + Eccentric)
For Heat Exchangers Only

where:
D = Foundation Weight
Pf = Erection Weight
Po = Operating Weight
Pt = Test Weight
Pc = Vessel Eccentric Load
TL = Vessel and Piping Thermal Load
W = Wind Load
E = Earthquake Load

4.4.6 Loading Combinations and Load Factors – Strength Design

1.4 (Po + D + TL+ Pc) Load Comb. 1


(Operating + Thermal + Eccentric)

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

0.75 (1.4 Po +1.4 D +1.4 Pc +1.7 W or 1.9 E) Load Comb. 2


0.75 (Operating + Transverse Wind or Seismic + Eccentric)

0.75 (1.4 Po +1.4 D +1.4 Pc +1.7 W or 1.9 E) Load Comb. 3


0.75 (Operating + Longitudinal Wind or Seismic + Eccentric)

0.75 (1.4 Pe +1.4 D +1.4 Pc +1.7 W or 1.9 E) Load Comb. 4


0.75 (Empty + Transverse Wind or Seismic + Eccentric)

0.75 (1.4 Pe +1.4 D +1.4 Pc + 1. WL or 1.9 E) Load Comb.5


0.75 (Empty + Longitudinal Wind or Seismic + Eccentric)

0.9Pf + 0.9 D + 1.3 (1/4 W ) Load Comb. 6


(Erection Weight + 1/4 Wind)

0.80 (1.4 Pt + 1.4 Pc + 1.4 D) Load Comb. 7


0.80 (Test + Eccentric)
For Horizontal Vessel Only

0.75 (1.4 Pt + 1.4 Pc + 1.4 D + 0.40 W ) Load Comb. 8


0.75 (Test Weight + Eccentric + (Partial Wind)
For Horizontal Vessel Only

0.75 (1.4 Pe + 1.4 D + 1.7 Bp + 1.4 Pc ) Load Comb. 9


0.75 (Empty + Bundle Pull + Eccentric)
For Heat Exchangers Only

0.9 Pe +0.9 D +0.9 Pc + (1.3 W or 1.4 E) Load Comb.10


(Empty + Eccentric + Wind or Seismic)

4.5 Anchor Bolts

4.5.1 Anchor bolts shall conform to requirements of Para. 4.7 of SAES-Q-005


“Concrete Foundations” and SABP-001.

4.5.2 Friction force at the bottom of the saddle must be overcome before
lateral load is assumed to produce shear in the anchor bolts.

4.5.3 For seismic loads, apply horizontal shear forces to the anchor bolts.

4.6 Slide Plates

4.6.1 As a minimum, provide a steel slide plate at the sliding end of every
vessel regardless of the flexibility inherent in the structural support.

4.6.2 Use low friction slide plates such as Lubrite or Teflon for large
movements or if the operation weight at the sliding end exceeds 25 kips.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

Exceptions to this should be as follows:

• When the deflection force Fd is equal to or less than the sliding force Ff for
low friction bearing.

• When it is more economical to distribute a large load more evenly between


the two piers by increasing the friction force on the sliding end.

Typical coefficients of friction are as follows:


• No slide plate (steel support on concrete) 0.50
• Steel Slide Plate 0.30
• Teflon Slide Plate*
- Bearing Pressure 100 psi and below 0.10
- Bearing Pressure Above 100 psi 0.06
• Lubrite Slide Plate* 0.10

* Values should be verified against Vendor’s data.

4.6.3 Use the following criteria for sizing low temperature (less than 500°F)
slide plate elements. For higher temperatures, refer to manufacturer’s
literature.

Plate width: (∆ = total thermal growth between piers)


• lower element = (saddle width) + 2 (∆) + 1/4 in
• upper element = (lower element) + 1 in

Plate length: (use 18 inch maximum distance between plates)


• lower element = based on allowable contact pressure & width
• upper element = (lower element) + 1 in

Allowable bearing pressure in psi: (T= saddle temperature in degrees F)


• for T ≤ 100°F 2,000
• for 100 < T < 500°F 2,000 - 17 (T - 100) /4

4.7 Pier Design

4.7.1 Minimum pier size shall be equal to the saddle (or bearing plate) size
plus 4 inches, and adequate to provide lateral anchor bolt cover.
Minimum pier thickness shall be 10 inches and should be approximately
10% of pier height. Pier dimensions should be in even 2-inch
increments.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
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4.7.2 Anchorage Considerations – It is normally desirable to make the pedestal


deep enough to contain the anchor bolts and keep them out of the
footing. Consideration must be given to anchor bolt development and
foundation depth requirements.

4.7.3 Reinforcing

4.7.3.1 Piers should be designed as cantilever beams with two layers of


reinforcement. When the required reinforcing approaches ρmax,
investigate the pier as a column. Size and reinforcement for
each pier should normally be the same. Dowel splices are not
required if the vertical pier reinforcing projection is less than 6
feet in height, or the rebar size in feet above the top of the
footing. For cases that exceed this limit, use dowels with
minimum projections required for a class B tension splice in
accordance with ACI 318 (see Table 1).

4.7.3.2 Minimum reinforcing for piers is #5 at 12 inches on each face


with #4 ties at 12 inches. Place double ties at top of piers to
protect anchor bolts. All ties should encircle the vertical
reinforcement. Pier ties are not normally detailed as column
ties. If longitudinal reinforcing is not required to resist vertical
loads, as is normally the case, through ties are not required.

4.8 Column Design

4.8.1 Normally, heat exchangers and horizontal vessels are supported by a


rectangular pier. However, where the vessels are elevated above an
economical height for the construction of piers, columns with “T”
supports could be used. Usually the dividing line is around twelve feet
above the top of the footing or minimum headroom clearance under the
beam.

4.8.2 Sizing – Columns (if needed) should be round or rectangular depending


on the job criteria or field’s preference. Standardize column dimensions
as much as possible in order to simplify forming. Column dimensions
should be in even 2-inch increments.

3.7.2 Reinforcing – Size and reinforcement for both columns should normally
be the same. Use dowels to transfer the column loads to the footings.
Minimum dowel projections should be that required for a Class B
tension splice in accordance with ACI 318.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
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4.9 Footing Design

4.9.1 Sizing: The size of spread footing may be governed by stability


requirements, sliding, soil bearing pressure, or settlement. Plan view
footing dimensions should be in 2-inch increments. The footing
thickness shall be 12 inches minimum and thickened in 2-inch
increments. Size for both footings should normally be the same.

4.9.2 The footing thickness adequate for embedment of pier or column


reinforcement should be checked in accordance with ACI 318, Chapter
12 (see also Table 2 – Attach. 6).

4.9.3 If a footing has uplift, there will be a moment at the heel that will cause
tension in the top of footing. Provide top steel to account for the
moment resulting from the footing weight and soil overburden weight.

4.9.4 Footing shall be designed so that under sustained loads (operating loads)
the total settlement and the differential settlement between footings do
not exceed the established limits. The maximum allowable amount of
total settlement and differential settlement is typically set by the Project
Structural Engineer based on the sensitivity of the equipment or structure
being supported.

4.9.5 For thin footings with a large concentrated pier moment, the possibility
of the moment increasing the punching shear should be considered
similar to the way it would be for slabs.

4.9.6 Foundation Stability

a) All foundations subject to buoyant forces shall be designed to resist


a uniformly distributed uplift equal to the full hydrostatic pressure.
The minimum safety factor against floatation shall be 1.10,
considering the highest anticipated water level.

b) The minimum safety factor (Stability Ratio) against overturning


during construction or erection shall be 1.5; for load combinations
involving wind or seismic shall be 1.5, for normal operating load
condition, it shall be 2.0.

Compute the Stability Ratio (S.R.) using the following formula:


S.R. = L/2e
or S.R. = ΣMR/Σ MO.T

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
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where
L = dimension of footing in the direction of the overturning
moment, ft.
e = eccentricity = overturning moment at the base of the
footing divided by the total vertical load, ft.
Eccentricity e = ΣMO.T./ΣP
MR = Resisting Moment

4.9.7 Foundation Sliding

The minimum safety factor against sliding shall be 1.5. The coefficient
of friction used in computing the safety factor against sliding for cast-in-
place foundations shall be 0.40, unless specified otherwise in a detailed
soil investigation. Passive earth pressure from backfill shall not be
considered in computing these safety factors.

4.9.8 Soil Bearing - Compute soil bearing pressure for footing design and
check against the allowable using the following formulae and Figure 1
below:
Case 1- Total footing area in compression: (e ≤ L/6):
qmax = PT/A + M/S = PT/BL (1 + 6e/L) Eq. 3
qmin = PT/A - M/S = PT/BL (1 - 6e/L) Eq. 4
Eccentricity e = ΣM/ΣPT = (M + H x h) /PT Eq. 5

Case 2- Total footing area not in compression: (e > L/6):


R = (qmax B x) / 2 Eq. 6
and
x/3 = (L/2) - e2
x = 3 (L/2 – e2) Eq. 7
qmax = 2PT/3B (L/2 – e2) Eq. 8
where,
e = Eccentricity of vertical load due to horizontal load
B = Size of footing perpendicular to direction of horizontal load
L = Size of footing parallel to direction of horizontal load
P = Total vertical load (vessel, pier, footing, and soil) = R
A = Area of footing = L*B
x = footing width in compression

Page 17 of 35
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
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If eccentricity exists in both directions, the above equations don't apply.


Numerical solutions can be found in many soil mechanics textbooks.
Commercial software is also available for this situation. Attachment 3 is
a design aid that is based on accurate numerical solutions and graphically
provides the results.

4.9.9 Reinforcing

4.9.9.1 Standard Factored Design - Reinforced concrete design shall be


in accordance with ACI 318 using factored loads. The critical
section for moment shall be taken at the face of the pier. The
moment shall be calculated for a 1 foot-wide strip as a simple
cantilever from the edge of the pier. The resulting reinforcing
steel shall be placed continuously across the entire footing in a
grid pattern with the minimum bottom reinforcing being #5
bars at 12 inches on-center, each way.

Page 18 of 35
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
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4.9.9.2 Top Reinforcing – If a footing has uplift, there will be a


moment at the heel that will cause tension in the top of footing.
Provide top steel to account for the moment resulting from the
footing weight and soil overburden weight. Development
length of top steel shall be checked. The bars may be hooked
90o downward to achieve the required development length if
straight embedment is not adequate. If top reinforcing is
required, minimum reinforcing shall be #4 at 12 inches on
center, each way.

4.9.9.3 Minimum Bottom Reinforcement - To ensure that a footing


failure is ductile, the minimum amount of bottom steel (grade
60 ksi) shall be:

As (min) = (200/fy) b d = 0.0033 b d

The above requirements need not be applied if at every section


the area of tensile reinforcement provided is at least one-third
greater than that required by analysis. However, the minimum
bottom steel shall not be less than minimum shrinkage
reinforcement (As = 0.0018 b h).

where
b = width of footing
d = distance from top of footing to center of bottom bars
h = depth of footing

4.9.10 Shear Consideration

Both wide-beam action and two-way action must be checked to


determine the required footing depth. Beam action (at a distance d from
the face of the equivalent square) assumes that the footing acts as a wide
beam with a critical section across its entire width. Two-way action (at a
distance d/2 from the face of the equivalent square) for the footing
checks “punching” shear strength. The critical section for punching
shear is a perimeter bo around the supported member with the shear
strength computed in accordance with ACI Code Sect. 11.12.2. Shear
shall be calculated for a 1 foot-wide strip as a simple cantilever from the
edge of the equivalent square.

For footing design, the depth must be selected so that shear


reinforcement is not required. If either permissible shear is exceeded,
the thickness of the footing must be increased. The shear strength
equations may be summarized as follows:

Page 19 of 35
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Shear Strength of Concrete in Footings

Revision Summary
31 August, 2002 New Saudi Aramco Best Design Practice.

Page 20 of 35
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
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Attachment 1 – Exchanger and Tube Bundle Weights

20
19

a ss
18

Cl
nd
17

ou
0P
16

45
15

0
30

15
14
13
Approximate Weight (tons)

12
11
10
9
8

7
6
5
4
3 Weight of water to fill
shell and tubes
2
1
0
15 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48
Exchanger Diameter (inches)

These curves give the approximate weight of standard heat exchangers, all in tons. The curves
are for a 192 inch Type ET exchanger with two passes in the tubes. The tubes are 3/4 inch on a
90 degree layout. The tube material is 14 gage steel. For the weights of heat exchangers with
other tube lengths, multiply by the following factors:

Length in Inches 240 192 168 144 120 96

Heat Exchanger Factor1.10 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80

Page 21 of 35
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
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Attachment 1 – Appropriate Exchanger and Tube Bundle Weights (Cont'd)

10

s
las
Approximate Weight (tons)

dC
un
6

Po
0
60

0
15
5

0
15 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48
Exchanger Diameter (inches)

These curves give the approximate weight of standard tube bundles, all in tons. The tubes are
3/4 inch, 14 gage, 192 inches long. Two pass on square pitch. The baffle spacing ranges from
8 inches on the 15 inch exchanger to 16 inches on the 48 inch exchanger. For the weight of
bundle with other lengths, multiply by the following factors:

Length in Inches 240 192 168 144 120

Heat Exchanger Factor 1.20 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70

Page 22 of 35
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
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Attachment 2 – Thermal Expansion Data

Total linear expansion between 70 degrees F and indicated temperature (inches/100 feet)

Temp. Shell Material Temp.


Degree F Degree F
Carbon Steel 5 Cr Mo Austenitic 12 Cr 12 Cr Monel 3-1/2 Ni-Fe-Cr
Carbon - Moly Thru Stainless Steels 17 Cr 20 Ni 67 Ni 30 Nickel
Low-Chrome 9 Cr Mo 18 Cr 8 Ni 27 Cr Cu
(thru 3 Cr Mo)
70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 70
100 0.23 0.22 0.34 0.20 0.32 0.28 0.23 0.28 100
125 0.42 0.40 0.62 0.36 0.58 0.52 0.42 0.52 125
150 0.61 0.58 0.90 0.53 0.84 0.75 0.61 0.76 150
175 0.80 0.76 1.18 0.69 1.10 0.99 0.81 0.99 175
200 0.99 0.94 1.46 0.86 1.37 1.22 1.01 1.23 200
225 1.21 1.13 1.75 1.03 1.64 1.46 1.21 1.49 225
250 1.40 1.33 2.03 1.21 1.91 1.71 1.42 1.76 250
275 1.61 1.52 2.32 1.38 2.18 1.96 1.63 2.03 275
300 1.82 1.71 2.61 1.56 2.45 2.21 1.84 2.30 300
325 2.04 1.90 2.90 1.74 2.72 2.44 2.05 2.59 325
350 2.26 2.10 3.20 1.93 2.99 2.68 2.26 2.88 350
375 2.48 2.30 3.50 2.11 3.26 2.91 2.47 3.18 375
400 2.70 2.50 3.80 2.30 3.53 3.25 2.69 3.48 400
425 2.93 2.72 4.10 2.50 3.80 3.52 2.91 3.76 425
450 3.16 2.93 4.41 2.69 4.07 3.79 3.13 4.04 450
475 3.39 3.14 4.71 2.89 4.34 4.06 3.35 4.31 475
500 3.62 3.35 5.01 3.08 4.61 4.33 3.58 4.59 500
525 3.86 3.58 5.31 3.28 4.88 4.61 3.81 4.87 525
550 4.11 3.80 5.62 3.49 5.15 4.90 4.04 5.16 550
575 4.35 4.02 5.93 3.69 5.42 5.18 4.27 5.44 575
600 4.60 4.24 6.24 3.90 5.69 5.46 4.50 5.72 600
625 4.86 4.47 6.55 4.10 5.96 5.75 4.74 6.01 625
650 5.11 4.69 6.87 4.31 6.23 6.05 4.98 6.30 650
675 5.37 4.92 7.18 4.52 6.50 6.34 5.22 6.58 675
700 5.63 5.14 7.50 4.73 6.77 6.64 5.46 6.88 700
725 5.90 5.38 7.82 4.94 7.04 6.94 5.70 7.17 725
750 6.16 5.62 8.15 5.16 7.31 7.25 5.94 7.47 750
775 6.43 5.86 8.47 5.38 7.58 7.55 6.18 7.76 775
800 6.70 6.10 8.80 5.60 7.85 7.85 6.43 8.06 800
825 6.97 6.34 9.13 5.82 8.15 8.16 6.68 8.35 825
850 7.25 6.59 9.46 6.05 8.45 8.48 6.93 8.66 850
875 7.53 6.83 9.79 6.27 8.75 8.80 7.18 8.95 875
900 7.81 7.07 10.12 6.49 9.05 9.12 7.43 9.26 900
925 8.08 7.31 10.46 6.71 9.35 9.44 7.68 9.56 925
950 8.35 7.56 10.80 6.94 9.65 9.77 7.93 9.87 950
975 8.62 7.81 11.14 7.17 9.95 10.09 8.17 10.18 975

Page 23 of 35
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Attachment 2 – Thermal Expansion Data (Cont'd)

Total linear expansion between 70 degrees F and indicated temperature (inches/100 feet)

Temp. Shell Material Temp.


Degree F Degree F
Carbon Steel 5 Cr Mo Austenitic 12 Cr 12 Cr Monel 3-1/2 Ni-Fe-Cr
Carbon - Moly Thru Stainless Steels 17 Cr 20 Ni 67 Ni 30 Nickel
Low-Chrome 9 Cr Mo 18 Cr 8 Ni 27 Cr Cu
(thru 3 Cr Mo)
1000 8.89 8.06 11.48 7.40 10.25 10.42 8.41 10.49 1000
1025 9.17 8.30 11.82 7.62 10.55 10.75 10.80 1025
1050 9.46 8.55 12.16 7.95 10.85 11.09 11.11 1050
1075 9.75 8.80 12.50 8.18 11.15 11.43 11.42 1075
1100 10.04 9.05 12.84 8.31 11.45 11.77 11.74 1100
1125 10.31 9.28 13.18 8.53 11.78 12.11 12.05 1125
1150 10.57 9.52 13.52 8.76 12.11 12.47 12.38 1150
1175 10.83 9.76 13.86 8.98 12.44 12.81 12.69 1175
1200 11.10 10.00 14.20 9.20 12.77 13.15 13.02 1200
1225 11.38 10.26 14.54 9.42 13.10 13.50 13.36 1225
1250 11.66 10.53 14.88 9.65 13.43 13.86 13.71 1250
1275 11.94 10.79 15.22 9.88 13.76 14.22 14.04 1275
1300 12.22 11.06 15.56 10.11 14.09 14.58 14.39 1300
1325 12.50 11.30 15.90 10.33 14.39 14.94 14.74 1325
1350 12.78 11.55 16.24 10.56 14.69 15.30 15.10 1350
1375 13.06 11.80 16.58 10.78 14.99 15.66 15.44 1375
1400 13.34 12.05 16.92 11.01 15.29 16.02 15.80 1400
1425 17.30 16.16 1425
1450 17.69 16.53 1450
1475 18.08 16.88 1475
1500 18.47 17.25 1500

Page 24 of 35
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Attachment 3 – Soil Pressure for Biaxial Loaded Footings

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0.40 0 .1 0.40
75

e 2/
0.
0.38 0.38

0.

0.
10

b=
15

05

0 .0
0.36 0.36

0.34 0.34

0.2 25 .25
0.2
0
0.32 0.32
0
0.30 0.30
0 .2
75

0.28 0.28

0.26 0.26
0.30

0.24 0.24
RATIO
e1/d 0.22 0.22

0.20 0.20
0.32
5

0.18 0.18
0.35

0.16 0.16
0.37

0.14 0.14
Smax = K (P/bd)
5

0.12 0.12
e 2/b

Location of Smax
=0

0.10 0.10
.40

e2
0.08 0.08
e1 Load P
d
0.06 0.06

0.04 0.04

0.02 0.02
b

0.00 0.00
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
K coefficient

Page 25 of 35
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
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Attachment 4 – Sample Design 1: Horizontal Vessel Foundation

22' - 0"

7' - 0"
1' - 6"

A
5' - 6" 5' - 6"
12' - 6"

11' - 8"

Piers

A
(Sliding end)
(fixed end)

2 - 1 1/4" φ Type "H" Anchor


Pier

Pier
Bolts per pier w/ 2 nuts
P = 2 1/2" (fixed end)
PLAN
P = 2 3/4" (sliding end) dimensions typical both piers
1" Grout

Bearing Plate:
T.O. Grout Elev. 11' - 3" by 13" by 0.25"
104' - 0" (fixed end)
103' - 11 21/32" (sliding end) Slide Plate: "C" (7 elements)
A = 3", B = 17.5", C = 3"
D = 14.75", E = 2.5", F = 12"
2' - 5" dowel proj.

Grade
6' - 9"

#4 ties @ 12"

12 #5 bars each
face w/ matching
dowels
1' - 3"

#5 @ 9" E.W.

ELEVATION "A-A"

Page 26 of 35
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DESIGN DATA 37' - 0"


From vessel drawing:

Empty Weight = 98 kips


Operating Weight = 335 kips
Test Weight = 394 kips

6' - 6"
Basic Diameter = 12 feet
Operating Temperature = 500 degrees F
Vessel Material = carbon steel
Bolts: 2 - 1 1/4 in diameter (galvanized)
8' - 0"
Bolt Spacing: 11 ft - 0 in
Saddle: 11 ft - 8 in by 10 in 4' - 0"

From structural specification criteria: 22' - 0"

Concrete: f'c = 4,000 psi


Reinforcing: fy = 60,000 psi (Epoxy coated rebars)
Unit weight: γ = 100 pcf
Net soil bearing: SBnet = 3.5 ksf (at 4 foot depth)

Wind Load: ASCE 7-95, speed = 120 mph, I = 1.15, Exposure C


Seismic Load: UBC 97, zone 0

Piping load is available and piping eccentric load (as specified in the procedures) is not
required.

Use a 1/5 increase in soil allowable pressure for test load combinations.

Wind Loads:

Note: Wind load calculations are not shown for brevity.

Vessel wind is applied at the center of the vessel.

Transverse Wind: Hw = 13.44 kips


Longitudinal wind: Hw = 2.85 kips

Transverse or Longitudinal wind on pier: Hw = 0.076 ksf

Thermal Force:

1) Compute sliding force: (assume a teflon plate used)

by inspection, bearing pressure is greater than 100 psi

Page 27 of 35
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Thus, coefficient of friction, µ = 0.06

Operating Load, Pop = (335 kips) / (2 piers) = 167.5 kips

Ff = µ (Pop) = (0.06)(167.5 kips) = 10.1 kips (Equation 1)

2) Compute force required to deflect pier:

Assume pier is 11’-8” wide by 18 in thick by 80 in high

Moment of inertia, I = b(h)3 /12 = (140 in)(18 in)3 /12 = 68,040 in4

Modulus of elasticity, E = 57,000 f' c = 57,000 4,000 psi = 3,605 ksi(ACI 318-99, Section 8.5.1)

Thermal expansion coefficient for carbon steel at 500 degrees F: ε = 0.0362 in/ft(Attachment 1)

Thermal growth between piers, ∆ = (ε)(L) = (0.0362 in/ft)(22 feet) = 0.796 inches

Fd = 3 ∆ E I / 2 L3 = 3 (0.796 in)(3,605 ksi)(68,040 in4) / 2 (80 in)3 = 572 kips (Equation 2)

Because Ff < Fd, and because operating weight at sliding end is greater than 25 kips,

USE Teflon slide plates.

Size Teflon Slide Plate

Bottom element width = (saddle width) + 2 (∆) + (1/4 in) = (10 in) + 2 (0.796 in) + (0.25 in) ≈
12 inches

Top element width = (bottom element width) + 2(∆) + (1/2 in) = (12 in) + 2 (0.796 in) + (1 in)
≈ 14.75 in

Determine pad length based on allowable bearing stress:

Note: The temperature at the bottom of the saddle can be determined by assuming a 100
degree F per inch temperature gradient for uninsulated steel. For this vessel, with 6
inches between the bottom of the vessel and the bottom of saddle, the potential drop is
600 degrees F. With an operating temperature of 500 degrees F, the bottom of the saddle
temperature will be ambient (70 degrees F).

Referring to the slide plate criteria,


allowable teflon plate bearing stress = 2.0 ksi

Maximum load on sliding end (from Test)


Pmax = 394 kips / 2 piers = 197 kips

Page 28 of 35
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
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Required length of pad based on allowable teflon plate bearing:


length = Pmax / (allowable) = (197 kips) / (12 in)(2 ksi) = 8.2 inches

Size Steel Bearing Plate

Steel plate dimensions:

width = (bottom teflon element width) + (1 in) = (12 in) + (1 in) = 13 inches
length = (11 ft - 0 in c/c bolts) + (3 in) = 11 ft - 3 in

Check bearing stress: (Test)

Pu = 1.4 D = 1.4 (394 kips / 2 piers) = 275.8 kips

Pn = φ 0.85 f'c A1 = (0.7)(0.85)(4 ksi)(13 in)(135 in) = 4,177 kips, OK (ACI 318-99, Section 10.17)

USE a bearing plate 11 ft 3 in by 13 inches by 0.25 in

Pier Size

Pier length

A) = (c/c bolts) + (2)(4 inch edge distance) = (11 ft - 0 in) + 2 (4 in) = 11 ft - 8 in ←


controls

B) = (saddle or bearing plate length) + (4 in) = (11 ft - 3 in) + (4 in) = 11 ft - 7 in

Pier width

A) = 10 inches

B) = (saddle or bearing plate width) + (4 in) = (13 in) + (4 in) = 17 inches ← controls

USE a pier size of 1 ft - 6 in by 11 ft - 8 in

Anchor Bolt Design

Note: Anchor bolt design is not shown for brevity.

USE 2 - 1 1/4 in, A36, Type 2 anchor bolts per pier

Pier Design

By inspection of loads, maximum moment in pier will be from Operating & Thermal

Determine factored forces:

Page 29 of 35
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at base of pedestal, (assume footing to be 1.25 feet thick)


pedestal height = 8.0 ft - 1.25 ft = 6.75 ft

Vu = 1.4 (10.1 kips) = 14.14 kips (ACI 318-99, Equation 9-1)

Mu = (14.14 kips)(6.75 ft) = 95.45 ft-k

Check diagonal tension shear:

d = (18 in pedestal) - (3 in clear) - (say 0.75 in bar) /2 = 14.625 in

Vn = 2 φ f' c b d (ACI 318-99, Equation 11-3)


= 2 (0.85) 4,000 psi (140 in)(14.625 in) /1,000 = 220 kips > Vu = 14.14 OK

select ties from practice specified minimum

USE #4 ties @ 12 in

Design for moment:

F = b d2 /12,000 = (140 in)(14.625 in)2 /12,000 = 2.50

Mn == Mu /0.9 = 95.45 / 0.9 = 106.06 k-ft

Kn = Mu /F = (106.06 ft-k) / (2.50) = 42.4 → ρ ≈ 0.0010 < 0.0018 N.G.(ACI Handbook, Flexure 2.2)

ρmin (flexure) = 200 /fy = 0.0033 (ACI 318-99, Section 10.5.1)

ρmin = 0.0010 x 1.33 = 0.00133 < 0.0018

Use ρmin = 0.0018

As = ρ bd = (0.00180)(140 in)(15.625 in) = 3.93 in2 ← controls

by inspection, the practice defined minimum of #5 at 12 in will be used.

USE 13- #5 bars each face (As provided = 4.03 in2) > 3.93 O.K.

Determine #5 splice length

f y (α)(β)(λ ) (60,000 psi)(1.0)(1.2)(1.0)


ld / db = = = 45.54 (ACI 318-99, Section 12.2.2)
25 f' c 25 4,000 psi

ld = (45.54) db = (45.54)(0.625 in) = 28.46 in

Page 30 of 35
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Class B splice = 1.3 (ld) = 1.3 (28.46 in) = 28.47 → 37.0 in (ACI 318-99, Section 12.15.1)

Or from TABLE 1 (Attach. 6)

Class B splice for #5 bars = 37 in.

USE 3 ft - 1 in splice length

Footing Size

Determine minimum footing thickness to develop #5 pedestal reinforcing:

lhb = 1200 db / f' c = 1200 (0.625 in) / 4,000 psi = 11.86 in (ACI 318-99, Section 12.5.2)

ldh = (11.86 in)(0.7)(1.2 epoxy coated)(3.93 in2 / 4.03 in2) = 9.72 in(ACI 318-99, Section 12.5.3)

thickness = (9.72 in) + (2 layers)(0.625 in rebar) + (3 in clear) = 13.97 in

or from TABLE 2 (Attach. 6)

ldh = 10.0 in & Tmin = 14.5 in

USE 15 in minimum

qallow = (3.5 ksf net) + (4.0 ft deep)(0.10 kcf soil) = 3.9 ksf gross

try a 12.5 foot by 7 foot footing, 1.25 feet thick

Weights:

pedestal = (0.15 kcf)(11.67 ft)(1.5 ft)(8 ft - 1.25 ft) = 17.72 kips


footing = (0.15 kcf)(12.5 ft)(7.0 ft)(1.25 ft) = 16.41 kips
soil = (0.10 kcf) [(12.5 ft)(7.0 ft) - (11.67 ft)(1.5 ft)] (4 ft - 1.25 ft) = 19.25 kips

total = (17.72 k) + (16.41 k) + (19.25 k) = 53.38 kips

Check Operating & Thermal

P = (335 k / 2 piers) + (53.38 k fdn) = 220.88 kips

ML = (10.1 k)(8.0 ft) = 80.8 ft-kips

e = M / P = (80.8 ft-k) / (220.88 k) = 0.37 < L/6 =7/6 = 1.17

q = P / A [1 + 6e /L] (Equation 3)
= [(220.88 k) / (12.5 ft)(7 ft)] [1 + 6 (0.37) / (7 ft)] = 3.3 ksf < qallow OK

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stability ratio is OK by inspection.

Check Operating & Transverse Wind

P = (335 k / 2 piers) + (53.38 k fdn) = 220.88 kips

MT = (13.44 kips)(8 ft + 6.5 ft) = 194.88 ft-kips

e = M / P = (194.88 ft-k) / (220.88 k) = 0.88 feet < L/6

q = (P / A) [1 + 6e /L] (Equation 3)
= [(220.88 k) / (12.5 ft)(7 ft)] [1 + 6 (0.88) / (12.5 ft)] = 3.6 ksf < qallow OK

Other cases are OK by inspection

Determine minimum footing thickness to avoid need for top steel:

depth to bottom of footing = 4.0 feet

length of cantilever = [(7 ft) - (1.5 ft pier)] / 2 = 2.75 ft

USE 12.5 foot by 7.0 foot by 1.25 foot footing

Footing Design

By inspection of loads, maximum moment in footing will be from Operating and Thermal

Determine factored forces: (ACI 318-99, Equation 9-1)

from pier design at bottom of pier: Vu = 14.14 k, Mu = 95.45 k

Pu = 1.4 [(53.38 k fdn weight) + (335 k eqpt weight) / (2 piers)] = 309.23 kips

Mu = (95.45ft-k) + (14.14 k)(1.25 ft footing) = 113.13 ft-kips

Determine soil resistance:

e = M / P = (113.13 ft-k) / (309.23 k) = 0.37 < L/6 = 7.0/6 = 1.17

using equation 3,
q = (P / A) [1 +/- 6e/L]
2.41 ksf
3.77 ksf

= [(309.23 k) / (12.5 ft)(7 ft] [1 +/- 6(0.37) / (7 ft)]


4.65 ksf

= 4.65 ksf, 2.41 ksf


2.75 ft

7.0 ft

Page 32 of 35
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at face of pedestal,

q = (4.65 ksf) - (2.75 ft)(4.65 ksf - 2.41 ksf) / (7 ft) = 3.77 ksf

Vu = (3.77 ksf)(2.75 ft) + (4.65 ksf - 3.77 ksf)(2.75 ft) /2


= 10.37 k + 1.21 k = 11.58 kips (per foot width)

Mu = (10.37 k)(2.75 ft) /2 + 2 (1.21 k) /3 = 15.07 ft-k (per foot width)

Check diagonal tension shear: (at face of pedestal)

d = (15 in footing) - (3 in clear) - (0.625 in rebar) /2 = 11.69 in

Vn = 2 φ f' c b d (ACI 318-99, Equation 11-3)


= 2 (0.85) 4,000 psi (12 in)(11.69 in) / 1,000 = 15.08 kips > Vu = 11.58 OK

Design for moment:

F = b d2 / 12,000 = (12 in)(11.69 in)2 / 12,000 = 0.137

Mn = Mu /0.9 = 15.07/0.9 = 16.74 k-ft

Kn = Mn / F = (16.74 ft-k) / (0.137) = 122 → ρ = 0.0021 (ACI Handbook, Flexure 2.2)

As = ρ bd = (0.0021)(12 in)(11.69 in) = 0.29 in2 / ft

Note ACI 318-99, Equation 10-3 will not control because f’c < 5,000 psi.

As min = 200 b d / fy = 200 (12 in)(11.69 in) / (60,000 psi) = 0.47 in2 /ft(ACI 318-99, Section 10.5.1)

As min = (4/3)(As) = (4/3)(0.29 in2) = 0.39 in2 / ft ← controls

USE #5 at 9 in each way (As = 0.41 in2) > 0.39 O.K.

Page 33 of 35
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

Attachment 5 – Tables

Page 34 of 35
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-004
Issue Date: 31 August, 2002 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 1 September, 2007 V essel Found ation D esign

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