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CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES

The waveguides of circular cross-section (Fig. 6.14) are used to transmit EM waves from one
point to another. Unlike rectangular waveguides, the circular waveguides do not have unique
orientation as it is perfectly symmetrical around the axis.

Fig. 6.14 Circular waveguide

6.23 SALIENT FEATURES OF CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES

1. It is easy to manufacture.
2. They are used in rotational coupling.
3. Rotation of polarisation exists and this can be overcome by rotating modes
symmetrically.
4. TM01 mode is preferred to TE01 as it requires a smaller diameter for the same cut-off
wavelength.
5. TE01 does not have practical application.
6. For f > 10 GHz, TE01 has the lowest attenuation per unit length of the waveguide.
7. The main disadvantage is that its cross-section is larger than that of a rectangular
waveguide for carrying the same signal.
8. The space occupied by circular waveguides is more than that of a rectangular waveguide.
9. The determination of fields here consists of differential equations of certain type. Their
solutions involve Bessel functions.
10. Here also TE and TM modes exist.

For TM wave, the solution of axial component

Ez,nm = Jn (Kc r) (A cos nϕ + B sin ϕ)

and for TE wave, it is


Hz,nm = Jn (Kc r) (A′ cos nϕ + B′ sin nϕ)

where Jn(Kc r) = Bessel function of the first kind


r = the radius of the guide
Kc = the cut-off wave number
A, B, A′, B′ = constants

The solutions for the Bessel function are obtained for certain values of Kc where these values of
Kc are known as eigen values. If Kc is to produce solution of the Bessel function, (Kcr) must be
the roots of the Bessel function. Then

Jn (Kcr) = 0

The propagation parameters for nmth mode TM waves are:

Phase constant,

where

and

where pnm = the roots of the Bessel function

K = free space wave number =

The cut-off wavelength for TM wave,

The roots of the Bessel function for TM mode are shown in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1 Roots of Bessel Function (TM Mode)


The roots of the Bessel function for TE mode are shown in Table 6.2.

Table 6.2 Roots of Bessel Function (TE Mode)

For circular waveguides, TE11 is the dominant mode. The propagation parameters for TEnm mode
are:

where

Guide wavelength,
Problem 6.11 If the radius of a circular waveguide r = 1.27 cm, f = 10 GHz, find the cut-off
wavelength for the dominant mode and phase constant. Assume that the waveguide is air-filled.
Take p′11 = 1.841.

Solution For the dominant mode,

m = 1, n = 1

For TE11, we have

The phase constant,

Here
Problem 6.12 Determine the size of the circular waveguide required to propagate TE11 mode
if λc = 8 cm (ρ′11 = 1.841).

Solution We have

or,

Radius of the guide

POINTS/FORMULAE TO REMEMBER

 EM wave propagates in a waveguide with multiple reflections.


 TE and TM waves exist in a waveguide.
 TEM wave does not exist in a hollow waveguide.
 TEM wave exists between parallel plates.
 The dominant mode has the lowest cut-off frequency.
 The propagation constant between parallel plates is
 The cut-off frequency is a frequency below which the wave is attenuated completely.

 Between the parallel plates,


 λc for TE1 = 2a
 Group velocity, phase velocity and free space velocity are related by v20 =vp vg
 Attenuation of TE waves between parallel plates is

 Attenuation of TE waves between parallel plates is

 A rectangular waveguide is used as a radiator, a high pass filter, a transmission line and
feed element to an antenna.


 TEM = TM00
 For TEM, Ez = 0, Hz = 0
 λg =λ, βg =β, η = η0, α = 0 for TEM

 Typically, wave impedance for TEmn wave


 Circular waveguides can be used to produce circular polarisation. c TEM wave has zero
cut-off frequency.
 The field components of TE wave between parallel plates are Ey, Hx, Hz.
 The field components of TM wave between parallel plates are Ex, Ez, Hy.
 TEM wave between parallel plates has only Ex and Hy components.
 The field components of TE in a hollow rectangular waveguide are Ex, Ey, Hx, Hy and Hz.
 The field components of TM in a hollow rectangular waveguide are Ex, Ey, Ez, Hx and Hy.

 The resonant frequency TE101 in a cavity resonator is

 The resonant frequency of TM110 in a cavity resonator is

6.20 WAVEGUIDE RESONATORS

A waveguide resonator is a resonator at high frequencies. It is made up of a rectangular


waveguide with its open ends closed by shorts (Fig. 6.13).

Fig. 6.13 Rectangular cavity

It is used for energy storage. As there is no propagation through the shorted ports, standing
waves exist inside the cavity. These resonators are used for various applications, particularly in
klystrons and wave metres.

Features of Resonators

1. A rectangular cavity (Fig. 6.13) is a rectangular waveguide whose open ends are shorted.
In this type of structure, standing waves, TE and TM waves exist.
2. Resonators are mainly used for energy storage. At high frequencies RLC circuit elements
are inefficient when used as resonators. This is because the dimensions of the circuits are
of the order of operating wavelength. Because of this, radiation takes place which is
undesirable.
3. The EM resonator cavities find extensive applications in klystron tubes, band pass filters,
wave metres and microwave ovens.
TM Mode (Hz = 0)

If Ez = (x, y, z) = X(x) Y(y) Z(z),


We can write, X(x) = C1 cos Ax + C2 sin Ax
Y(y) = C3 cos By + C4 sin By
Z(z) = C5 cos Cz + C6 sin Cz

where

and

Here, we have three boundary conditions to solve the constants, C1, C2,…etc.

Ez = 0 at x = 0 and at x = a

Ez = 0 at y = 0 and at y = b

Ex = 0, Ey = 0 at z = 0 and at z = c

After simplification, Ezr becomes

where Em = C2 C4 C5

The resonant frequency is given by

or,
and

TE Mode (Ez = 0)

As in the case of TM mode, Hz is expressed

Hz (x, y, z) = X(x) Y(y) Z(z)


where X(x) = p1 cos Bx + p2 sin Bx
Y(y) = p3 cos Ay + p4 sin Ay
Z(z) = p5 cos Cz + p6 sin Cz

The set of boundary conditions are

Using the boundary conditions, and simplifying, we get

Where m = 0,1,2,3,…
n = 0,1,2,3,…
l = 0,1,2,3,…

Dominant Mode
Dominant mode is defined as the mode which has the lowest resonant frequency for a given
cavity size (a, b, c).

The waves are represented by TEmnl, TMmnl.

Degenerate Mode

Modes having the same resonant frequency are called degenerate modes. Ideally, the walls of the
resonant cavity have infinite conductivity. But practically, cavity walls have finite conductivity.
As a result, some stored energy is lost.

Quality Factor, Q

Quality factor is defined as

where ω = 2πf
WL = average power loss in a cycle
Wav = average stored energy

Quality factor, for dominant mode, TE101 is

where δ = depth of penetration in cavity walls

6.21 SALIENT FEATURES OF CAVITY RESONATORS

1. A completely closed metallic structure forms a cavity and it is called cavity resonator.
2. It stores energy.
3. TE and TM modes exist in the cavity.
4. In TE mode, Ez = 0 (z is propagation direction) and Ex, Ey, Hx, Hy and Hz are present.
5. In TM mode, Hz = 0 and Hx, Hy, Ex, Ey and Ez are present.
6. In cavities, the electric and magnetic fields do not propagate along z-axis but they
oscillate with time at a specified location.
7. The lowest order of TMmnl mode is TM110.
8. The resonant frequency of the lowest order TM mode is

9. The lowest order for TEmnl is TE101.


10. The resonant frequency of the lowest order TE mode is

Problem 6.8 A copper rectangular cavity resonator is structured by 3 × 1 × 4 cm. Find its
resonant frequency for TM110 mode.

Solution The dimensions of resonator are:

a = 3 cm = 0.03 m
b = 1 cm = 0.01 m
c = 4 cm = 0.04 m

For TM110, the resonant frequency is


Problem 6.9 A copper walled rectangular cavity resonator is structured by 3 × 1 × 4 cm and
operates at the dominant modes of TE and TM. Find its resonant frequency and quality factor.
The conductivity of copper is 5.8 × 107 mho/m. There is air inside the cavity.

Solution For TM mode, the dominant mode is TM100. Its resonant frequency is

Here
For TE mode, the resonant frequency of the dominant, TE101 is

The quality factor, Q for TE101

where
Problem 6.10 A copper walled resonant cavity is dielectric (∈r = 4) filled and its dimensions
are 5 × 4 × 10 cm. Determine the resonant frequency of TE101 and its quality factor.

Solution The conductivity of copper,

σc = 5.8 × 107 mho/m

a = 5 cm

b = 4 cm

c = 10 cm

The resonant frequency of TE101 is


The quality factor, Q for this mode is

and