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Mathematical Problems in Engineering


Volume 2018, Article ID 3626543, 18 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3626543

Research Article
On a Nonlinear Wave Equation of Kirchhoff-Carrier
Type: Linear Approximation and Asymptotic Expansion
of Solution in a Small Parameter

Nguyen Huu Nhan,1,2 Le Thi Phuong Ngoc,3 and Nguyen Thanh Long 2

1
Dong Nai University, 4 Le Quy Don Str., Tan Hiep District, Bien Hoa City, Vietnam
2
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, VNUHCM-University of Science, 227 Nguyen Van Cu Str.,
Dist. 5, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
3
University of Khanh Hoa, 01 Nguyen Chanh Str., Nha Trang City, Vietnam

Correspondence should be addressed to Nguyen Thanh Long; longnt2@gmail.com

Received 25 June 2017; Accepted 10 December 2017; Published 22 January 2018

Academic Editor: Filippo Cacace

Copyright © 2018 Nguyen Huu Nhan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
cited.

We consider the Robin-Dirichlet problem for a nonlinear wave equation of Kirchhoff-Carrier type. Using the Faedo-Galerkin
method and the linearization method for nonlinear terms, the existence and uniqueness of a weak solution are proved. An
asymptotic expansion of high order in a small parameter of a weak solution is also discussed.

1. Introduction when 𝑔(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢, 𝑢𝑥 ) = 𝑢𝑥2 , 𝑓 = 0, (1) has a relation to the


Kirchhoff wave equation:
In this paper, we consider the following Robin-Dirichlet
problem for a nonlinear wave equation of Kirchhoff-Carrier 𝐸ℎ 𝐿 󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 𝜕𝑢 󵄨󵄨2
󵄨
type: 𝜌ℎ𝑢𝑡𝑡 = (𝑃0 + ∫ 󵄨󵄨 (𝑦, 𝑡)󵄨󵄨󵄨 𝑑𝑦) 𝑢𝑥𝑥 (4)
2𝐿 0 󵄨󵄨 𝜕𝑦 󵄨󵄨
1
𝜕 (see [1]). This equation is a generalization of the well-known
𝑢𝑡𝑡 − [𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢 (𝑦, 𝑡) , 𝑢𝑥 (𝑦, 𝑡)) 𝑑𝑦)
𝜕𝑥 0 D’Alembert’s wave equation for free vibrations of elastic
(1) strings. Kirchhoff ’s model takes into account the changes in
⋅ 𝑢𝑥 ] = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) , 0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑡 < 𝑇, length of the string produced by transverse vibrations. The
parameters in (4) have the following meanings: 𝑢 is the lateral
deflection, 𝐿 is the length of the string, ℎ is the area of the cross
𝑢𝑥 (0, 𝑡) − ℎ0 𝑢 (0, 𝑡) = 𝑢 (1, 𝑡) = 0, (2) section, 𝐸 is the Young modulus of the material, 𝜌 is the mass
𝑢 (𝑥, 0) = 𝑢̃0 (𝑥) , density, and 𝑃0 is the initial tension.
(3) In another case, with 𝑔(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢, 𝑢𝑥 ) = 𝑢2 , 𝑓 = 0,
𝑢𝑡 (𝑥, 0) = 𝑢̃1 (𝑥) , (1) contains the form of Carrier equation. In [2], Carrier
established the equation modeling the vibration of an elastic
string when the changes in tension are not small:
where 𝜇, 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝑢̃0 , 𝑢̃1 are given functions and ℎ0 ≥ 0 is a given
constant.
𝐸𝐴 𝐿 2
Equation (1) can be considered as a general equation 𝜌ℎ𝑢𝑡𝑡 − (1 + ∫ 𝑢 𝑑𝑥) 𝑢𝑥𝑥 = 0, (5)
containing relatively some classical equations; for example, 𝐿𝑇0 0
2 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

𝑡
where 𝑢(𝑥, 𝑡) is the 𝑥-derivative of the deformation, 𝑇0 is the 𝑢󸀠󸀠 − 𝑀 (‖∇𝑢 (𝑡)‖22 ) Δ𝑢 + ∫ 𝑔 (𝑡 − 𝑠) Δ𝑢 (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠 = 0,
tension in the rest position, 𝐸 is the Young modulus, 𝐴 is the 0
cross section of a string, 𝐿 is the length of a string, 𝜌 is the
density of a material. Therefore, it is clear that (1) considered in Ω × R+ ,
here contains (4) and (5) as special cases.
Moreover, with various boundary conditions, the par- 𝑢 = 0, on Γ × R+ , (8)
ticular forms of (1) have been extensively studied by many
authors; for example, we refer to [3–15] and the references 𝑢 (𝑥, 0) = 𝑢0 (𝑥) ,
given therein. In these works, many interesting results about
existence, regularity, asymptotic behavior, asymptotic expan- 𝑢𝑡 (𝑥, 0) = 𝑢1 (𝑥) ,
sion, and decay of solutions were obtained.
in Ω,
Cavalcanti et al., in [4–7], investigated a series of four
papers in which the results of existence, global existence, where Ω is a bounded domain in R𝑁, with a smooth
exponential or uniform decay rates, and asymptotic behavior boundary 𝜕Ω fl Γ, are proved in [8].
for Kirchhoff-Carrier models are considered. In [11], the following nonlinear wave equation with initial
In [10], the unique existence and asymptotic expansion conditions and boundary conditions of two-point type has
of solutions of (1) with 𝜇 = 1 associated with the boundary been investigated:
conditions
𝜕
𝑢𝑡𝑡 − (𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡) 𝑢𝑥 ) + 𝑓 (𝑢, 𝑢𝑡 ) = 𝐹 (𝑥, 𝑡) ,
𝜕𝑥
𝑢𝑥 (0, 𝑡) − ℎ0 𝑢 (0, 𝑡) = 𝑢𝑥 (1, 𝑡) + ℎ1 𝑢 (1, 𝑡) = 0 (6) (9)
0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑡 < 𝑇.
and the initial conditions are also studied. In [12], by combining the linearization method for the
In [15], de Lima Santos studied the asymptotic behavior nonlinear term, the Faedo-Galerkin method, and the weak
of solutions of (1) with 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑡) ≡ 0, 𝜇 = 𝜇(𝑡), associated with compact method, the existence of a unique weak solution of
the Dirichlet boundary condition at 𝑥 = 0 and a boundary an initial and boundary value problem for nonlinear wave
𝑡
condition of memory type at 𝑥 = 1; that is, 𝑢(1, 𝑡) + ∫0 𝑔(𝑡 − equation 𝑢𝑡𝑡 − (𝜕/𝜕𝑥)(𝜇(𝑥, 𝑡, 𝑢, ‖𝑢𝑥 ‖2 )𝑢𝑥 ) = 𝐹(𝑥, 𝑡, 𝑢, 𝑢𝑥 , 𝑢𝑡 )
𝑠)𝜇(𝑠)𝑢𝑥 (1, 𝑠)𝑑𝑠 = 0, 𝑡 > 0. with the nonhomogeneous boundary conditions is proved.
In [3], Beilin investigated the existence and uniqueness of Very recently, in [13, 14], with the same method used in
a generalized solution for the following wave equation with an [12], the authors proved the results of existence and unique-
integral nonlocal condition ness for the wave equations with nonlinear sources contain-
ing the nonlocal terms. In [13], the linearization method
together with Taylor’s expansion is used for both of the source
𝑢𝑡𝑡 − Δ𝑢 + 𝑐 (𝑥, 𝑡) 𝑢 = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) , term and the nonlinear integral in it. These techniques have
not been used before.
(𝑥, 𝑡) ∈ Ω × (0, 𝑇) ,
In the same spirit of [10–14], we establish the local
𝑡 existence and uniqueness for prob. (1)–(3) by using the Faedo-
𝜕𝑢
+ ∫ ∫ 𝑘 (𝑥, 𝜉, 𝜏) 𝑢 (𝜉, 𝜏) 𝑑𝜉 𝑑𝜏 = 0, Galerkin method and the weak compact method. These
𝜕𝜂 0 Ω
results are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, the perturbed
(7)
(𝑥, 𝑡) ∈ 𝜕Ω × [0, 𝑇) , solution 𝑢𝜀 (𝑥, 𝑡) is approximated by the polynomial of 𝑁 + 1
degree in a small parameter 𝜀 for the following perturbed
𝑢 (𝑥, 0) = 𝑢̃0 (𝑥) , equation:
𝑢𝑡 (𝑥, 0) = 𝑢̃1 (𝑥) , 𝜕
𝑢𝑡𝑡 − (𝜇 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑡) 𝑢𝑥 ) = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) ,
𝑥 ∈ Ω, 𝜕𝑥 𝜀 (10)
0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑡 < 𝑇,
where Ω is a bounded domain in R𝑁 with a smooth associated with (2), (3), where
boundary, 𝜂 is the unit outward normal on 𝜕Ω, and 𝑓, 𝑢̃0 , 𝑢̃1 , 1
𝑘(𝑥, 𝜉, 𝜏) are given functions. Nonlocal conditions come up 𝜇𝜀 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦)
when values of the function on the boundary are connected 0
to values inside the domain. There are various types of non-
1
local boundary conditions of integral form for hyperbolic,
+ 𝜀𝜇1 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔1 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦) ,
parabolic, or elliptic equations; the ones were introduced in 0 (11)
[3].
The well-posedness and optimal decay rate estimates of 𝑔 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢 (𝑦, 𝑡) , 𝑢𝑥 (𝑦, 𝑡)) ,
the energy associated with the Kirchhoff-Carrier problem
with memory 𝑔1 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑔1 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢 (𝑦, 𝑡) , 𝑢𝑥 (𝑦, 𝑡)) .
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 3

2. Preliminaries Lemma 3. Let ℎ0 ≥ 0. Then the symmetric bilinear form 𝑎(⋅, ⋅)


defined by (15) is continuous on 𝑉 × 𝑉 and coercive on 𝑉.
Put Ω = (0, 1) and denote the usual function spaces used in
this paper by the notations 𝐿𝑝 = 𝐿𝑝 (Ω), 𝐻𝑚 = 𝐻𝑚 (Ω). Let Lemma 4. Let ℎ0 ≥ 0. Then there exists the Hilbert
⟨⋅, ⋅⟩ be either the scalar product in 𝐿2 or the dual pairing of a orthonormal base {̃𝑤𝑗 } of 𝐿2 consisting of the eigenfunctions
continuous linear functional and an element of a function ̃𝑗 corresponding to the eigenvalues 𝜆 𝑗 such that
𝑤
space. The notation ‖ ⋅ ‖ stands for the norm in 𝐿2 , ‖ ⋅ ‖𝑋 is
the norm in the Banach space 𝑋, and 𝑋󸀠 is the dual space of lim 𝜆 𝑗 = +∞, 0 < 𝜆 1 ≤ 𝜆 2 ≤ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ≤ 𝜆 𝑗 ≤ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ,
𝑗→+∞
𝑋. (18)
We denote 𝐿𝑝 (0, 𝑇; 𝑋), 1 ≤ 𝑝 ≤ ∞ for the Banach space
𝑎 (̃
𝑤𝑗 , V) = 𝜆 𝑗 ⟨̃
𝑤𝑗 , V⟩ ∀V ∈ 𝑉, 𝑗 = 1, 2, . . . .
of real functions 𝑢 : (0, 𝑇) → 𝑋 measurable, such that
𝑇 1/𝑝
𝑝 Furthermore, the sequence {̃ 𝑤𝑗 /√𝜆 𝑗 } is also a Hilbert
‖𝑢‖𝐿𝑝 (0,𝑇;𝑋) = (∫ ‖𝑢 (𝑡)‖𝑋 𝑑𝑡) < ∞,
0 orthonormal base of 𝑉 with respect to the scalar product 𝑎(⋅, ⋅).
̃𝑗 satisfying the following
On the other hand, we also have 𝑤
for 1 ≤ 𝑝 < ∞, (12) boundary value problem:
‖𝑢‖𝐿∞ (0,𝑇;𝑋) = ess sup ‖𝑢 (𝑡)‖𝑋 for 𝑝 = ∞.
0<𝑡<𝑇 𝑤𝑗 = 𝜆 𝑗 𝑤
−Δ̃ ̃𝑗 , in (0, 1) ,
(19)
Let 𝑢(𝑡), 𝑢󸀠 (𝑡) = 𝑢𝑡 (𝑡) = 𝑢(𝑡), ̇ 𝑢󸀠󸀠 (𝑡) = 𝑢𝑡𝑡 (𝑡) = 𝑢(𝑡),
̈ 𝑤 ̃𝑗 (1) = 0,
̃𝑗 (0) = 𝑤
̃𝑗𝑥 (0) − ℎ0 𝑤 ̃𝑗 ∈ 𝑉 ∩ 𝐶∞ (Ω) .
𝑤
𝑢𝑥 (𝑡) = ∇𝑢(𝑡), 𝑢𝑥𝑥 (𝑡) = Δ𝑢(𝑡), denote 𝑢(𝑥, 𝑡), (𝜕𝑢/𝜕𝑡)(𝑥, 𝑡),
(𝜕2 𝑢/𝜕𝑡2 )(𝑥, 𝑡), (𝜕𝑢/𝜕𝑥)(𝑥, 𝑡), (𝜕2 𝑢/𝜕𝑥2 )(𝑥, 𝑡), respectively. The proof of Lemma 4 can be found in ([17], p.87,
With ∈ 𝐶𝑘 ([0, 1]2 × R+ × R2 ), 𝑔 = 𝑔(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑧1 , 𝑧2 ), we put Theorem (7.7)), with 𝐻 = 𝐿2 and 𝑉, 𝑎(⋅, ⋅) as defined by (14),
𝐷1 𝑔 = 𝜕𝑔/𝜕𝑥, 𝐷2 𝑔 = 𝜕𝑔/𝜕𝑦, 𝐷3 𝑔 = 𝜕𝑔/𝜕𝑡, 𝐷𝑖+3 𝑔 = 𝜕𝑔/𝜕𝑧𝑖 , (15).
𝛽 𝛽
with 𝑖 = 1, 2 and 𝐷𝛽 𝑔 = 𝐷1 1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 𝐷5 5 𝑔; 𝛽 = (𝛽1 , . . . , 𝛽5 ) ∈
5 (0,...,0) Remark 5. The weak formulation of the initial-boundary
Z+ , |𝛽| = 𝛽1 + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + 𝛽5 = 𝑘, 𝐷 𝑔 = 𝑔.
value problem (1)–(3) can be given in the following manner:
Similarly, with 𝜇 = 𝜇(𝑥, 𝑡, 𝑧), we also put 𝐷1 𝜇 =
Find 𝑢 ∈ 𝑊̃ = {𝑢 ∈ 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝑉∩𝐻2 ) : 𝑢𝑡 ∈ 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝑉), 𝑢𝑡𝑡 ∈
𝜕𝜇/𝜕𝑥, 𝐷2 𝜇 = 𝜕𝜇/𝜕𝑡, 𝐷3 𝜇 = 𝜕𝜇/𝜕𝑧.
𝐿 (0, 𝑇; 𝐿2 )}, such that 𝑢 satisfies the following variational

We shall use the following norm on 𝐻1 :
equation:
󵄩 󵄩2 1/2
‖V‖𝐻1 = (‖V‖2 + 󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑥 󵄩󵄩󵄩 ) . (13)
⟨𝑢𝑡𝑡 (𝑡) , 𝑤⟩ + 𝐴 [𝑢] (𝑡; 𝑢 (𝑡) , 𝑤) = ⟨𝑓 (𝑡) , 𝑤⟩ , (20)
We put
for all 𝑤 ∈ 𝑉, a.e., 𝑡 ∈ (0, 𝑇), together with the initial
1 conditions
𝑉 = {V ∈ 𝐻 : V (1) = 0} , (14)
1 𝑢 (0) = 𝑢̃0 ,
𝑎 (𝑢, V) = ∫ 𝑢𝑥 (𝑥) V𝑥 (𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 + ℎ0 𝑢 (0) V (0) , (21)
0 (15) 𝑢𝑡 (0) = 𝑢̃1 ,
∀𝑢, V ∈ 𝑉. ̃ {𝐴[𝑤](𝑡; ⋅, ⋅)}0≤𝑡≤𝑇 is the family of
where, for each 𝑤 ∈ 𝑊,
1
𝑉 is a closed subspace of 𝐻 and on 𝑉 three norms ‖V‖𝐻1 , symmetric bilinear forms on 𝑉 × 𝑉 defined by
‖V𝑥 ‖, and ‖V‖𝑎 = √𝑎(V, V) are equivalent norms.
𝐴 [𝑤] (𝑡; 𝑢, V) = ⟨𝜇 [𝑤] (𝑡) 𝑢𝑥 , V𝑥 ⟩
We have the following lemmas, the proofs of which are (22)
straightforward and hence we omit the details. + ℎ0 𝜇 [𝑤] (0, 𝑡) 𝑢 (0) V (0) ,

Lemma 1. The imbedding 𝐻1 󳨅→ 𝐶0 (Ω) is compact and for all 𝑢, V ∈ 𝑉, 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇, with ℎ0 ≥ 0 being given constant,
and
‖V‖𝐶0 (Ω) ≤ √2 ‖V‖𝐻1 ∀V ∈ 𝐻1 , (16)
1
where ‖V‖𝐶0 (Ω) = sup𝑥∈[0,1] |V(𝑥)| (see [16]). 𝜇 [𝑤] (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔 [𝑤] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦) ,
0 (23)
0
Lemma 2. Let ℎ0 ≥ 0. The imbedding 𝑉 󳨅→ 𝐶 (Ω) is compact 𝑔 [𝑤] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑤 (𝑦, 𝑡) , 𝑤𝑥 (𝑦, 𝑡)) .
and
󵄩 󵄩
‖V‖𝐶0 (Ω) ≤ 󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑥 󵄩󵄩󵄩 ≤ ‖V‖𝑎 , 3. The Existence and Uniqueness
1 󵄩 󵄩 (17) Let 𝑇∗ > 0. We make the following assumptions:
‖V‖𝐻1 ≤ 󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑥 󵄩󵄩󵄩 ≤ ‖V‖𝑎 ≤ √1 + ℎ0 ‖V‖𝐻1 ,
√2
(𝐻1 ) (̃𝑢0 , 𝑢̃1 ) ∈ (𝑉 ∩ 𝐻2 ) × 𝑉 satisfying the condition
for all V ∈ 𝑉. 𝑢̃0𝑥 (0) − ℎ0 𝑢̃0 (0) = 0.
4 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

(𝐻2 ) 𝑔 ∈ 𝐶2 ([0, 1]2 × [0, 𝑇∗ ] × R2 ). Find 𝑢𝑚 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇) (𝑚 ≥ 1) satisfying the linear


2 ∗ variational problem
(𝐻3 ) 𝜇 ∈ 𝐶 ([0, 1] × [0, 𝑇 ] × R) and there exists a constant
𝜇0 > 0 such that 𝜇(𝑥, 𝑡, 𝑧) ≥ 𝜇0 , for all (𝑥, 𝑡, 𝑧) ∈ 󸀠󸀠
[0, 1] × [0, 𝑇∗ ] × R. ⟨𝑢𝑚 (𝑡) , V⟩ + 𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡) , V) = ⟨𝑓 (𝑡) , V⟩ ,

(𝐻4 ) 𝑓, 𝑓󸀠 ∈ 𝐿2 (𝑄𝑇∗ ). ∀V ∈ 𝑉,
(30)
For each 𝑀 > 0 given, we set the constants 𝐾𝑀(𝑔), 𝑢𝑚 (0) = 𝑢̃0 ,
̃𝑀(𝜇), 𝐾
𝐾0 (𝑀, 𝑔), 𝐾 ̃0 (𝑀, 𝜇, 𝑔), as follows: 󸀠
𝑢𝑚 (0) = 𝑢̃1 ,

𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) = ∑ 𝐾0 (𝑀, 𝐷𝛼 𝑔) , where


|𝛼|≤2
(24) 𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; 𝑢, V) = 𝐴 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑡; 𝑢, V)
̃𝑀 (𝜇) = ∑ 𝐾
𝐾 ̃0 (𝑀, 𝐷𝛽 𝜇, 𝑔) ,
|𝛽|≤2 = ⟨𝜇𝑚 (𝑡) 𝑢𝑥 , V𝑥 ⟩ + ℎ0 𝜇𝑚 (0, 𝑡) 𝑢 (0) V (0) ,
where ∀𝑢, V ∈ 𝑉,
󵄨󵄨 󵄨 1 (31)
𝐾0 (𝑀, 𝑔) = sup 󵄨󵄨𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑧1 , 𝑧2 )󵄨󵄨󵄨 , 𝜇𝑚 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦) ,
(𝑥,𝑦,𝑡,𝑧1 ,𝑧2 )∈𝐴 1 (𝑀)
0
󵄨󵄨 󵄨
̃0 (𝑀, 𝜇, 𝑔) =
𝐾 sup 󵄨󵄨𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, 𝑧)󵄨󵄨󵄨 , 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡)
(𝑥,𝑡,𝑧)∈𝐴 2 (𝑔,𝑀)
= 𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡) , ∇𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡)) .
𝐴 1 (𝑀) = {(𝑥, 𝑡, 𝑦, 𝑧1 , 𝑧2 ) : 0 ≤ 𝑥, 𝑦 ≤ 1, 0 ≤ 𝑡
(25) Theorem 6. Suppose that (𝐻1 )–(𝐻4 ) hold. Then, there exist
󵄨 󵄨 positive constants 𝑀, 𝑇 > 0 such that the recurrent sequence
≤ 𝑇 , max 󵄨󵄨󵄨𝑧𝑖 󵄨󵄨󵄨 ≤ 𝑀} ,

{𝑢𝑚 } is defined by (29)–(31).
1≤𝑖≤2

𝐴 2 (𝑔, 𝑀) = {(𝑥, 𝑡, V) : 0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 1, 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇∗ , |V| Proof. The proof consists of several steps.

≤ 𝐾0 (𝑀, 𝑔)} . Step 1 (the Faedo-Galerkin approximation (introduced by


Lions [18])). Consider the basis {𝑤𝑗 } for 𝑉 as in Lemma 4.
For every 𝑇 ∈ (0, 𝑇∗ ] and 𝑀 > 0, we put Approximate solution of (29)–(31) problem which will be
found in form
𝑉𝑇 = {V ∈ 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝑉 ∩ 𝐻2 ) : V𝑡 ∈ 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝑉) , V𝑡𝑡 𝑘
(𝑘) (𝑘)
(26) 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡) = ∑ 𝑐𝑚𝑗 (𝑡) 𝑤𝑗 , (32)
∈ 𝐿2 (𝑄𝑇 )} , 𝑗=1

in which 𝑄𝑇 = Ω × (0, 𝑇). (𝑘)


where the coefficients 𝑐𝑚𝑗 (𝑡) satisfy the system of linear
Then 𝑉𝑇 is a Banach space with respect to the norm differential equations

‖V‖𝑉𝑇 (𝑘)
⟨𝑢̈𝑚 (𝑘)
(𝑡) , 𝑤𝑗 ⟩ + 𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤𝑗 ) = ⟨𝑓 (𝑡) , 𝑤𝑗 ⟩ ,
(27)
󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩
= max {‖V‖𝐿∞ (0,𝑇;𝑉∩𝐻2 ) , 󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑡 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿∞ (0,𝑇;𝑉) , 󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑡𝑡 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿2 (𝑄𝑇 ) } . 1 ≤ 𝑗 ≤ 𝑘,
(33)
(𝑘)
(See Lions [18]) We also put 𝑢𝑚 (0) = 𝑢̃0𝑘 ,
(𝑘)
𝑊 (𝑀, 𝑇) = {V ∈ 𝑉𝑇 : ‖V‖𝑉𝑇 ≤ 𝑀} , 𝑢̇𝑚 (0) = 𝑢̃1𝑘 ,
(28)
𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇) = {V ∈ 𝑊 (𝑀, 𝑇) : V𝑡𝑡 ∈ 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝐿2 )} . where
𝑘
Now, we establish the recurrent sequence {𝑢𝑚 }. The first
𝑢̃0𝑘 = ∑ 𝛼𝑗(𝑘) 𝑤𝑗 󳨀→ 𝑢̃0 strongly in 𝑉 ∩ 𝐻2 ,
term is chosen as 𝑢0 ≡ 𝑢̃0 , and supposing that 𝑗=1
(34)
𝑢𝑚−1 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇) , (29) 𝑘
𝑢̃1𝑘 = ∑ 𝛽𝑗(𝑘) 𝑤𝑗 󳨀→ 𝑢̃1 strongly in 𝑉.
we associate problem (1) with the following problem. 𝑗=1
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 5

The system of (33) can be rewritten in form Then, it follows from (33), (37)(iii),(v) , (38), (39) that
𝑘
(𝑘)
(𝑘)
̈ (𝑡) + ∑𝐴(𝑚)
𝑐𝑚𝑗 (𝑘) 𝑆𝑚 (𝑡)
𝑖𝑗 (𝑡) 𝑐𝑚𝑖 (𝑡) = 𝑓𝑗 (𝑡) ,
𝑖=1
(𝑘)
= 𝑆𝑚 (0) + 2 ⟨𝜇𝑚𝑥 (0) 𝑢̃0𝑘𝑥 , Δ̃
𝑢0𝑘 ⟩
(𝑘)
𝑐𝑚𝑗 (0) = 𝛼𝑗(𝑘) , (35)
𝑢0𝑘 ⟩
+ 2 ⟨𝑓 (0) , Δ̃
(𝑘)
̇ (0) = 𝛽𝑗(𝑘) ,
𝑐𝑚𝑗 𝑡 1
󵄨 (𝑘) 󵄨2
󸀠
+ ∫ 𝑑𝑠 ∫ 𝜇𝑚 (𝑥, 𝑠) 󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑥, 𝑠)󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 𝑑𝑥
1 ≤ 𝑗 ≤ 𝑘, 0 0
𝑡
where 𝜕𝐴 𝑚 (𝑘) (𝑘)
+∫ (𝑠; 𝑢𝑚 (𝑠) , 𝑢𝑚 (𝑠)) 𝑑𝑠
𝐴(𝑚) 0 𝜕𝑡
𝑖𝑗 (𝑡) = 𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; 𝑤𝑖 , 𝑤𝑗 ) ,
𝑡
𝜕 (𝑘) (𝑘)
𝑓𝑗 (𝑡) = ⟨𝑓 (𝑡) , 𝑤𝑗 ⟩ , (36) + 2∫ ⟨ [𝜇 (𝑠) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)] , Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑠)⟩ 𝑑𝑠
0 𝜕𝑠 𝑚𝑥
1 ≤ 𝑖, 𝑗 ≤ 𝑘. (𝑘)
− 2 ⟨𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑡) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑘)
(𝑡) , Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑡)⟩ (40)
By (29), it is not difficult to prove that system (35), (36) 𝑡
(𝑘) (𝑘)
has a unique solution 𝑐𝑚𝑗 (𝑡), 1 ≤ 𝑗 ≤ 𝑘 on interval [0, 𝑇], so + 2 ∫ ⟨𝑓 (𝑠) , 𝑢̇𝑚 (𝑠)⟩ 𝑑𝑠
0
let us omit the details (see [19]).
𝑡

Step 2 (a priori estimates). First, we need the following + 2 ∫ ⟨𝑓󸀠 (𝑠) , Δ𝑢𝑚
(𝑘)
(𝑠)⟩ 𝑑𝑠
0
lemma.
𝑡
󵄩 (𝑘) 󵄩󵄩2
Lemma 7. Putting 𝜇 = 𝐾 ∗ ̃𝑀(𝜇)[1 + (1 + 2𝑀)𝐾𝑀(𝑔)], one has
(𝑘)
− 2 ⟨𝑓 (𝑡) , Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑡)⟩ + ∫ 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢̈𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝑑𝑠
0
󵄨 󵄨 ̃
(i) 󵄨󵄨󵄨𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; 𝑢, V)󵄨󵄨󵄨 ≤ 𝐾 (𝜇) ‖𝑢‖𝑎 ‖V‖𝑎 (𝑘)
≡ 𝑆𝑚 (0) + 2 ⟨𝜇𝑚𝑥 (0) 𝑢̃0𝑘𝑥 , Δ̃
𝑢0𝑘 ⟩
∀𝑢, V ∈ 𝑉, 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇∗ , 8
𝑢0𝑘 ⟩ + ∑ 𝐼𝑗 .
+ 2 ⟨𝑓 (0) , Δ̃
(ii) 𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; V, V) ≥ 𝜇0 ‖V‖2𝑎 ∀V ∈ 𝑉, 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇∗ , 𝑗=1

𝜕𝐴 𝑚 We shall estimate the terms 𝐼𝑗 on the right-hand side of


(iii) (𝑡; 𝑢, V)
𝜕𝑡 (40) as follows.
󸀠 󸀠
= ⟨𝜇𝑚 (𝑡) 𝑢𝑥 , V𝑥 ⟩ + ℎ0 𝜇𝑚 (0, 𝑡) 𝑢 (0) V (0) ,
First Term 𝐼1 . We note that
∀𝑢, V ∈ 𝑉, (37) 󸀠
𝜇𝑚 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝐷2 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
󵄨󵄨 𝜕𝐴 󵄨󵄨
󵄨 󵄨
(iv) 󵄨󵄨󵄨 𝑚 (𝑡; V, V)󵄨󵄨󵄨 ≤ 𝜇∗ ‖V‖2𝑎 ∀V ∈ 𝑉, 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇∗ , 1 𝜕𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (41)
󵄨󵄨 𝜕𝑡 󵄨󵄨 + 𝐷3 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] ∫ (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦,
0 𝜕𝑡
𝑑 (𝑘) (𝑘)
(v) 𝐴 (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡))
𝑑𝑡 𝑚 where we use the notations
(𝑘) (𝑘)
= 2𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑢̇𝑚 (𝑡))
𝐷𝑖 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] = 𝐷𝑖 𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡,
𝜕𝐴 𝑚 (𝑘) (𝑘)
+ (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡)) . 1
𝜕𝑡
∫ 𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡) , ∇𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡)) 𝑑𝑦) ,
The proof of Lemma 7 is easy; hence we omit the details. 0
Next, we put 𝑖 = 1, 2, 3,
𝑡
󵄩 (𝑘) 󵄩󵄩2
(𝑡) + 𝑌𝑚(𝑘) (𝑡) + ∫ 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢̈𝑚
(𝑘) (𝑘) (42)
𝑆𝑚 (𝑡) = 𝑋𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝑑𝑠, (38) 𝜕𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
0 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝐷3 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] + 𝐷4 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
𝜕𝑡
where
󸀠 󸀠
󵄩 (𝑘) 󵄩󵄩2 ⋅ 𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡) + 𝐷5 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] ∇𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡) ,
(𝑘)
𝑋𝑚 (𝑡) = 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢̇𝑚 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚(𝑘) (𝑘)
(𝑡) , 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡)) ,
(39) 𝐷𝑖 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝐷𝑖 𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡) ,
󵄩 (𝑘) 󵄩󵄩2 󵄩󵄩󵄩 󵄩󵄩2
𝑌𝑚(𝑘) (𝑡) = 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢̇𝑚 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑎 + 󵄩󵄩󵄩√𝜇𝑚 (𝑡)Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑘)
(𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 . ∇𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡)) , 𝑖 = 1, . . . , 5.
󵄩 󵄩
6 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

So, by (24), (25), and (41), we obtain Similarly, from the following equality

󸀠 𝜕 𝜕𝜇𝑚
󵄨󵄨 󸀠 󵄨 𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑥, 𝑡) = [ (𝑥, 𝑡)] = 𝐷2 𝐷1 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
󵄨󵄨𝜇𝑚 (𝑥, 𝑡)󵄨󵄨󵄨 ≤ 𝜇∗ . (43) 𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑥
󵄨 󵄨
1 𝜕𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
+ 𝐷3 𝐷1 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] ∫ (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦
Hence, 0 𝜕𝑡

+ (𝐷2 𝐷3 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
𝑡 1
󵄨 (𝑘) 󵄨2
𝐼1 = ∫ 𝑑𝑠 ∫ 󸀠
𝜇𝑚 (𝑥, 𝑠) 󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑥, 𝑠)󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 𝑑𝑥
0 0 1 𝜕𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
∗ 𝑡
(44) + 𝐷32 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] ∫ (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦)
𝜇 0 𝜕𝑡
≤ ∫ 𝑆(𝑘) (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠.
𝜇0 0 𝑚 1
⋅ ∫ 𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦 + 𝐷3 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
0
Second Term 𝐼2 . By Lemma 7 (ii) and (iv), we have 1 𝜕𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (49)
⋅∫ (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦;
0 𝜕𝑡
󵄨 𝑡 󵄨󵄨
󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨󵄨 𝜕𝐴 𝑚 󵄨 𝜕𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
󵄨󵄨𝐼2 󵄨󵄨 = 󵄨󵄨∫
(𝑘)
(𝑠; 𝑢𝑚 (𝑘)
(𝑠) , 𝑢𝑚 (𝑠)) 𝑑𝑠󵄨󵄨󵄨 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝐷3 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡)
󵄨󵄨 0 𝜕𝑡 󵄨󵄨
(45) 𝜕𝑡
𝑡
󵄩 (𝑘) 󵄩󵄩2 𝜇∗ 𝑡 (𝑘) 󸀠
≤ 𝜇 ∫ 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚

(𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑎 𝑑𝑠 ≤ ∫ 𝑆 (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠. + 𝐷4 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡) + 𝐷5 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
0 𝜇0 0 𝑚
󸀠
⋅ (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) ∇𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡) ;

Third Term 𝐼3 . The Cauchy-Schwartz inequality leads to 𝜕𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]


(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝐷3 𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡)
𝜕𝑡
󵄨󵄨 𝑡 𝜕 󵄨󵄨 󸀠
󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨 󵄨 󵄨 + 𝐷4 𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡)
󵄨󵄨𝐼3 󵄨󵄨 = 2 󵄨󵄨󵄨∫ ⟨ [𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑠) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)] , Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑠)⟩ 𝑑𝑠󵄨󵄨󵄨
(𝑘) (𝑘)
󵄨󵄨 0 𝜕𝑠 󵄨󵄨 󸀠
(46) + 𝐷5 𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) ∇𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑦, 𝑡) ,
𝑡
2
≤ ∫ 𝐽𝑚(𝑘) (𝑠) √𝑆𝑚
(𝑘)
(𝑠)𝑑𝑠, we obtain that
√𝜇0 0
󵄩󵄩 󸀠 󵄩 ̃
󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩 ≤ 𝐾𝑀 (𝜇) [1
󵄩 󵄩
where 𝐽𝑚(𝑘) (𝑠) = ‖(𝜕/𝜕𝑠)[𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑘)
(𝑠)]‖.
1
We shall estimate the term 𝐽𝑚(𝑘) (𝑠) as follows. 󵄩 󸀠 󵄩 󵄩 󸀠 󵄩
(𝑘) (𝑘) + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) ∫ (1 + 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩∇𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩) 𝑑𝑦]
By 𝑆𝑚 (𝑡) ≥ ‖𝑢̇𝑚𝑥 (𝑡)‖2 + ‖𝑢𝑚𝑥
(𝑘)
(𝑡)‖2 , we have 0

̃𝑀 (𝜇) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) [1
+𝐾
󵄩󵄩 𝜕 󵄩󵄩
󵄩 󵄩
(𝑠) = 󵄩󵄩󵄩 [𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑠) 𝑢𝑚𝑥
𝐽𝑚(𝑘) (𝑘)
(𝑠)]󵄩󵄩󵄩
󵄩󵄩 𝜕𝑠 󵄩󵄩 1
󵄩 󸀠 󵄩 󵄩 󸀠 󵄩
󵄩 󵄩 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) ∫ (1 + 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩∇𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩) 𝑑𝑦]
󵄩 󵄩 (50)
≤ 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω) 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢̇𝑚𝑥 (𝑘)
(𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 0

󵄩 󸀠 󵄩 󵄩 (𝑘) 󵄩󵄩 (47) ̃𝑀 (𝜇) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔)


+𝐾
+ 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω)
1
󵄩 󸀠 󵄩 󵄩 󸀠 󵄩
⋅ ∫ (1 + 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩∇𝑢𝑚−1 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩) 𝑑𝑦
󵄩 󵄩 1 󵄩 󸀠 󵄩
≤ (󵄩󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω) + √ 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩) √𝑆𝑚
(𝑘)
(𝑠). 0
𝜇0
̃𝑀 (𝜇) [1 + 2 (1 + 𝑀) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔)
≤𝐾
2
On the other hand, by 𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝐷1 𝜇[𝑢𝑚−1 ] + + 2 (1 + 2𝑀) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔)] .
1
𝐷3 𝜇[𝑢𝑚−1 ] ∫0 𝐷1 𝑔[𝑢𝑚−1 ](𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡)𝑑𝑦, it implies that
By (48) and (50), it follows from (47) that

󵄩󵄩 󵄩
󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω) ≤ 𝐾
̃𝑀 (𝜇) (1 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔)) . (48) 𝐽𝑚(𝑘) (𝑠) ≤ 𝜁1 (𝑀) √𝑆𝑚
(𝑘)
(𝑠), (51)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 7

where Seventh Term 𝐼7 . We have


󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨󵄨 󵄨
󵄨󵄨𝐼7 󵄨󵄨 = 󵄨󵄨−2 ⟨𝑓 (𝑡) , Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑡)⟩󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨
(𝑘)
̃𝑀 (𝜇) (1 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) + √ 1 [1
𝜁1 (𝑀) = 𝐾
𝜇0 1 󵄩󵄩 󵄩 (𝑘) 󵄩2
󵄩2
(52) ≤ 󵄩𝑓 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 𝛽 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩
𝛽󵄩
2
+ 2 (1 + 𝑀) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) + 2 (1 + 2𝑀) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔)]) . 𝑡
2 󵄩󵄩 󵄩2 󵄩 󵄩2 𝛽 (𝑘)
≤ (󵄩󵄩𝑓 (0)󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 𝑇 ∫ 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󸀠 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝑑𝑠) + 𝑆𝑚 (𝑡) (59)
𝛽 0 𝜇0
Therefore, from (46) and (51), we obtain
2 󵄩󵄩 󵄩2 󵄩 󵄩2 𝛽 (𝑘)
= (󵄩𝑓 (0)󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 𝑇 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󸀠 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿2 (𝑄 ∗ ) ) + 𝑆𝑚 (𝑡) ,
2 𝑡
(𝑘) 𝛽 󵄩 𝑇 𝜇0
𝐼3 ≤ √ 𝜁 (𝑀) ∫ 𝑆𝑚 (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠. (53)
𝜇0 1 0
∀𝛽 > 0.
Fourth Term 𝐼4 . Applying the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality Eighth Term 𝐼8 . We note that (33)1 can be rewritten as follows:
again, we have
(𝑘) 𝜕 (𝑘)
󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨󵄨 󵄨 ⟨𝑢̈𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤𝑗 ⟩ − ⟨ (𝜇 (𝑡) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑡)) , 𝑤𝑗 ⟩
󵄨󵄨𝐼4 󵄨󵄨 = 󵄨󵄨−2 ⟨𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑡) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑡) , Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑡)⟩󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 𝜕𝑥 𝑚
(𝑘) (𝑘)
(60)
1 󵄩󵄩 󵄩2 𝛽 (𝑘) (54) = ⟨𝑓 (𝑡) , 𝑤𝑗 ⟩ , 1 ≤ 𝑗 ≤ 𝑘.
≤ 󵄩
(𝑘)
󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑡) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 𝑆𝑚 (𝑡) ,
𝛽 𝜇0 (𝑘)
Hence, it follows after replacing 𝑤𝑗 with 𝑢̈𝑚 (𝑡) and
for all 𝛽 > 0. On the other hand, it follows from (51) that integrating that
𝑡
󵄩󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 (𝑘) 󵄩󵄩2
(𝑘)
󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑡) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝐼8 = ∫ 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢̈𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝑑𝑠
󵄩 0
󵄩󵄩 𝑡
𝜕 󵄩󵄩 𝑡󵄩 󵄩󵄩2
󵄩 󵄩 󵄩󵄩 𝜕 𝑡
= 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (0) ∇̃ 𝑢0𝑘 + ∫ (𝑘)
[𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑠) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)] 𝑑𝑠󵄩󵄩󵄩 ≤ 2 ∫ 󵄩󵄩󵄩 (𝜇𝑚 (𝑠) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑘) 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩2
(𝑠))󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝑑𝑠 + 2 ∫ 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝑑𝑠
󵄩󵄩 𝜕𝑠 󵄩󵄩
0 0 󵄩 󵄩 𝜕𝑥 󵄩
󵄩 0 (61)
𝑡 (55)
󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 𝑡󵄩 󵄩 2
≤ 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (0)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω) 󵄩󵄩󵄩∇̃
𝑢0𝑘 󵄩󵄩󵄩 + ∫ 𝐽𝑚(𝑘) (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠 󵄩󵄩 𝜕 󵄩󵄩
≤ 2 ∫ 󵄩󵄩󵄩 (𝜇𝑚 (𝑠) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑘)
(𝑠))󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝑑𝑠
0
0 󵄩 󵄩 𝜕𝑥 󵄩󵄩
𝑡
󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩2
𝑢0𝑘 󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 𝜁1 (𝑀) ∫ √𝑆𝑚
≤ 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (0)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω) 󵄩󵄩󵄩∇̃ (𝑘)
(𝑠)𝑑𝑠. + 2𝑇 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿∞ (0,𝑇∗ ;𝐿2 ) .
0
(𝑘)
Hence, we obtain from (54) and (55) that We estimate the term ‖(𝜕/𝜕𝑥)(𝜇𝑚 (𝑠)𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠))‖2 .
By (48), we obtain
󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨 𝛽 (𝑘) 2󵄩 󵄩2 󵄩 󵄩2 󵄩󵄩 𝜕 󵄩󵄩2
󵄨󵄨𝐼4 󵄨󵄨 ≤ 𝑆𝑚 (𝑡) + 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (0)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω) 󵄩󵄩󵄩∇̃
𝑢0𝑘 󵄩󵄩󵄩 󵄩󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩
󵄩󵄩 (𝜇𝑚 (𝑠) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠))󵄩󵄩󵄩 ≤ (󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (𝑠) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩
(𝑘) (𝑘)
𝜇0 𝛽
(56) 󵄩󵄩 𝜕𝑥 󵄩󵄩
𝑡
2 󵄩 󵄩 2
+ 𝑇𝜁12 (𝑀) ∫ 𝑆𝑚(𝑘)
(𝑠) 𝑑𝑠. + 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚 (𝑠) Δ𝑢𝑚(𝑘)
(𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩) ≤ 2𝐾̃𝑀 (𝜇)
𝛽 0

̃𝑀 (𝜇) (1 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔))2 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢(𝑘) (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩


2
Fifth Term 𝐼5 ⋅ (𝐾 󵄩 𝑚𝑥 󵄩
󵄨󵄨 𝑡 󵄨󵄨
󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨 󵄨 󵄨 󵄩󵄩 󵄩󵄩2
󵄨󵄨𝐼5 󵄨󵄨 = 2 󵄨󵄨󵄨∫ ⟨𝑓 (𝑠) , 𝑢̇𝑚 (𝑠)⟩ 𝑑𝑠󵄨󵄨󵄨
(𝑘)
󵄨󵄨 0 󵄨󵄨 + 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩√𝜇𝑚 (𝑠)Δ𝑢𝑚
(𝑘)
(𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 ) ≤ 2𝐾
̃𝑀 (𝜇) (1
(62)
󵄩 󵄩
𝑡
󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 (𝑘) 󵄩󵄩󵄩
≤ 2 ∫ 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢̇𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩 𝑑𝑠 (57) ̃𝑀 (𝜇) (1 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔))2 ) (󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢(𝑘) (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩
2
0 +𝐾 󵄩 𝑚𝑥 󵄩
𝑡
󵄩 󵄩2 󵄩󵄩 󵄩󵄩2
≤ 𝑇 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿∞ (0,𝑇;𝐿2 ) + ∫ 𝑆𝑚
(𝑘)
(𝑠) 𝑑𝑠.
0 + 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩√𝜇𝑚 (𝑠)Δ𝑢𝑚
(𝑘)
(𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 ) ≤ 2𝐾
̃𝑀 (𝜇) (1
󵄩 󵄩
Sixth Term 𝐼6 . Similarly, we obtain 2 1 + 𝜇0 (𝑘)
̃𝑀 (𝜇) (1 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔)) ) (
+𝐾 ) 𝑆𝑚 (𝑠) .
󵄨 𝑡 󵄨󵄨 𝜇0
󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨󵄨 󵄨
󵄨󵄨𝐼6 󵄨󵄨 = 󵄨󵄨2 ∫ ⟨𝑓 (𝑠) , Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑠)⟩ 𝑑𝑠󵄨󵄨󵄨
󸀠 (𝑘)
󵄨󵄨 0 󵄨󵄨 Therefore, by Lemma 7 (ii), (61) and (62), we obtain
(58)
󵄩 󵄩2 1 𝑡 (𝑘) 𝑡
≤ 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󸀠 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿2 (𝑄 ∗ ) + ∫ 𝑆 (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠. 󵄩 󵄩2
𝐼8 ≤ 2𝑇 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿∞ (0,𝑇∗ ;𝐿2 ) + 𝜁2 (𝑀) ∫ 𝑆𝑚
(𝑘)
(𝑠) 𝑑𝑠, (63)
𝑇 𝜇0 0 𝑚 0
8 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

where for all 𝑡 ∈ [0, 𝑇], for all 𝑚 and 𝑘. Therefore, we have
𝜁2 (𝑀) (𝑘)
𝑢𝑚 ∈ 𝑊 (𝑀, 𝑇) , ∀𝑚, 𝑘. (72)
(64)
̃𝑀 (𝜇) ( 1 + 𝜇0 ) [1 + 𝐾
= 4𝐾 ̃𝑀 (𝜇) (1 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔)) ] . 2

𝜇0 Step 3 (limiting process). From (72), we deduce the existence


(𝑘)
of a subsequence of {𝑢𝑚 } still so denoted, such that
Choosing 𝛽 > 0, with 2𝛽/𝜇0 ≤ 1/2, it follows from (40),
(44), (45), (53), (56)–(59), and (63) that (𝑘)
𝑢𝑚 󳨀→ 𝑢𝑚 in 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝑉 ∩ 𝐻2 ) weak∗ ,
(𝑘)
𝑆𝑚 ̃(𝑘) + 2𝑇 ( 2 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󸀠 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩2 2
(𝑡) ≤ 𝐶
󵄩 󵄩2
+ 3 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿∞ (0,𝑇∗ ;𝐿2 ) )
0
𝛽 󵄩 󵄩𝐿 (𝑄𝑇∗ ) (𝑘)
𝑢̇𝑚 󸀠
󳨀→ 𝑢𝑚 in 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝑉) weak∗ ,
(65) (73)
𝑡 (𝑘) 󸀠󸀠 2
̃1 (𝑀, 𝑇) ∫
+𝐶 (𝑘)
𝑆𝑚 (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠, 𝑢̈𝑚 󳨀→ 𝑢𝑚 in 𝐿 (𝑄𝑇 ) weak,
0
𝑢𝑚 ∈ 𝑊 (𝑀, 𝑇) .
where
̃(𝑘) = 𝐶
𝐶 ̃(𝑘) (𝜇, 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝑢̃0𝑘 , 𝑢̃1𝑘 ) = 2𝑆(𝑘) (0) Passing to limit in (33), we have 𝑢𝑚 satisfying (30), (31) in
0 0 𝑚
𝐿2 (0, 𝑇). On the other hand, it follows from (30)1 and (73)4
+ 4 ⟨𝜇𝑚𝑥 (0) 𝑢̃0𝑘𝑥 , Δ̃
𝑢0𝑘 ⟩ + 4 ⟨𝑓 (0) , Δ̃
𝑢0𝑘 ⟩ that 𝑢𝑚󸀠󸀠
= (𝜕/𝜕𝑥)(𝜇𝑚 (𝑡)𝑢𝑚𝑥 ) + 𝑓 ∈ 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝐿2 ); hence 𝑢𝑚 ∈
4 󵄩󵄩 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇) and the proof of Theorem 6 is complete.
󵄩2 󵄩 󵄩2 4 󵄩 󵄩2
+ 𝑢0𝑘 󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓 (0)󵄩󵄩󵄩
󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚𝑥 (0)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω) 󵄩󵄩󵄩∇̃
𝛽 𝛽
We note that 𝑊1 (𝑇) = {V ∈ 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝑉) : V󸀠 ∈
󵄩 󵄩2 𝐿 (0, 𝑇; 𝐿2 )} is a Banach space with respect to the norm (see

+ 2 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󸀠 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿2 (𝑄 ∗ ) , (66)
𝑇 Lions [18]).

̃1 (𝑀, 𝑇) = 2 [1 + 1 + 2𝜇 + 2 𝑇𝜁2 (𝑀)
𝐶
󵄩 󵄩
‖V‖𝑊1 (𝑇) = ‖V‖𝐿∞ (0,𝑇;𝑉) + 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩V󸀠 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿∞ (0,𝑇;𝐿2 ) . (74)
𝜇0 𝛽 1

2 We use the result given in Theorem 6 and the compact


+√ 𝜁 (𝑀) + 𝜁2 (𝑀)] . imbedding theorems to prove the existence and uniqueness
𝜇0 1 of a weak solution of prob. (1)–(3). Hence, we get the main
By means of the convergences in (34), we can deduce the result in this section as follows.
existence of a constant 𝑀 > 0 independent of 𝑘 and 𝑚 such
Theorem 8. Let (𝐻1 )–(𝐻4 ) hold. Then one has the following.
that
(i) Prob. (1)–(3) has a unique weak solution 𝑢 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇),
𝐶̃(𝑘) (𝜇, 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝑢̃0𝑘 , 𝑢̃1𝑘 ) ≤ 1 𝑀2 . (67) where the constants 𝑀 > 0 and 𝑇 > 0 are chosen as in
0
2 Theorem 6.
So, from (66)2 , we can choose 𝑇 ∈ (0, 𝑇∗ ], such that (ii) Furthermore, the recurrent sequence {𝑢𝑚 } defined by
(29)-(30) converges to the solution 𝑢 of prob. (1)–(3) strongly in
1 2 󵄩 󵄩2 󵄩 󵄩2 𝑊1 (𝑇).
[ 𝑀2 + 2𝑇 ( 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󸀠 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿2 (𝑄 ∗ ) + 3 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐿∞ (0,𝑇∗ ;𝐿2 ) )]
2 𝛽 𝑇
(68) And one has the estimate
̃1 (𝑀, 𝑇)) ≤ 𝑀 , 2 󵄩󵄩 󵄩
󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚 − 𝑢󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) ≤ 𝐶𝑇 𝑘𝑇 ,
⋅ exp (𝑇𝐶 𝑚
∀𝑚 ∈ N, (75)
̃𝑀 (𝜇) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) [1 + √2 (2 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔))]
𝑘𝑇 = 2√𝑇𝑀𝐾 where the constant 𝑘𝑇 ∈ [0, 1) is defined as in (69) and 𝐶𝑇 is a
∗ (69) constant depending only on 𝑇, ℎ0 , 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝜇, 𝑢̃0 , 𝑢̃1 , and 𝑘𝑇 .
1 𝑇 (𝜇0 + 𝜇 )
⋅ (1 + ) exp ( ) < 1.
√𝜇0 2𝜇0 Proof.
Finally, it follows from (65), (67), and (68) that (a) Existence of the Solution. We shall prove that {𝑢𝑚 } is a
(𝑘) ̃1 (𝑀, 𝑇))
2 Cauchy sequence in 𝑊1 (𝑇). Let 𝑤𝑚 = 𝑢𝑚+1 − 𝑢𝑚 . Then 𝑤𝑚
𝑆𝑚 (𝑡) ≤ 𝑀 exp (−𝑇𝐶
satisfies the variational problem
𝑡 (70)
̃1 (𝑀, 𝑇) ∫ 𝑆(𝑘) (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠.
+𝐶 󸀠󸀠
𝑚
0
⟨𝑤𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤⟩ + 𝐴 𝑚+1 (𝑡; 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤)
By using Gronwall’s Lemma, we deduce from (70) that = −𝐴 𝑚+1 (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤) + 𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤) ,
(76)
(𝑘)
𝑆𝑚 2
(𝑡) ≤ 𝑀 exp (−𝑇𝐶 ̃1 (𝑀, 𝑇))
̃1 (𝑀, 𝑇)) exp (𝑡𝐶 ∀𝑤 ∈ 𝑉,
(71)
≤ 𝑀2 , 󸀠
𝑤𝑚 (0) = 𝑤𝑚 (0) = 0.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 9

󵄩󵄩 󵄩
Note that 󵄩󵄩𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚 ] (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω) ≤ 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) ,
󵄩󵄩 󵄩
󵄩󵄩𝜇𝑚+1 (𝑠) − 𝜇𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω)
𝑑
𝐴 (𝑡; 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡)) ̃𝑀 (𝜇) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) 󵄩󵄩󵄩∇𝑤𝑚−1 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩
𝑑𝑡 𝑚+1 ≤ 2𝐾 󵄩 󵄩
̃𝑀 (𝜇) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑤𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩
󸀠
= 2𝐴 𝑚+1 (𝑡; 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡)) ≤ 2𝐾 󵄩 󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) ,
𝜕𝐴 𝑚+1 󵄩󵄩 󵄩
+ (𝑡; 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡)) , (77) 󵄩󵄩𝐷𝑖 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚 ] (𝑠) − 𝐷𝑖 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω)
𝜕𝑡
≤ 2𝐾 ̃𝑀 (𝜇) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑤𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩
󸀠
𝐴 𝑚+1 (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤𝑚 󸀠
(𝑡)) − 𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡)) 󵄩 󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) , 𝑖 = 1, 3,
󵄩󵄩 󵄩
𝜕 󵄩󵄩𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚 ] (𝑠) − 𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω)
󸀠
= −⟨ [(𝜇𝑚+1 (𝑡) − 𝜇𝑚 (𝑡)) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑡)] , 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡)⟩ .
𝜕𝑥 󵄩 󵄩
≤ 2𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑤𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇)
(81)
󸀠
Taking 𝑤 = 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡) in (76)1 , after integrating in 𝑡, we get
and from the equation
𝜕
𝜕𝐴 𝑚+1𝑡 [(𝜇𝑚+1 (𝑠) − 𝜇𝑚 (𝑠)) ∇𝑢𝑚 (𝑠)] = (𝜇𝑚+1 (𝑠)
𝑍𝑚 (𝑡) = ∫ (𝑠; 𝑤𝑚 (𝑠) , 𝑤𝑚 (𝑠)) 𝑑𝑠 𝜕𝑥
0 𝜕𝑡
− 𝜇𝑚 (𝑠)) Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑠) + (𝐷1 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚 ] (𝑠) − 𝐷1 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
𝑡
𝜕
+ 2 ∫ ⟨ [(𝜇𝑚+1 (𝑠) − 𝜇𝑚 (𝑠)) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)] , (78)
0 𝜕𝑥 ⋅ (𝑠)) 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠) + [(𝐷3 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚 ] (𝑠) − 𝐷3 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ] (𝑠))
(82)
󸀠
𝑤𝑚 (𝑠)⟩ 𝑑𝑠 ≡ 𝐽1 + 𝐽2 , 1
⋅ ∫ 𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑠) 𝑑𝑦] 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠) + [𝐷3 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]
0

1
where
⋅ (𝑠) ∫ (𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚 ] − 𝐷1 𝑔 [𝑢𝑚−1 ]) 𝑑𝑦] 𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠) ,
0
󵄩 󸀠 󵄩2
𝑍𝑚 (𝑡) = 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑤𝑚 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 𝐴 𝑚+1 (𝑡; 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡) , 𝑤𝑚 (𝑡)) we obtain that
(79) 󵄩󵄩 𝜕 󵄩󵄩
󵄩󵄩 󵄩
󵄩 󸀠 󵄩2 󵄩 󵄩2 󵄩󵄩 [(𝜇𝑚+1 (𝑠) − 𝜇𝑚 (𝑠)) ∇𝑢𝑚 (𝑠)]󵄩󵄩󵄩 ≤ 2𝑀𝐾 ̃𝑀 (𝜇)
≥ 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑤𝑚 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 𝜇0 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑤𝑚 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑎 , 󵄩󵄩 𝜕𝑥 󵄩󵄩
(83)
󵄩 󵄩
⋅ 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) [1 + √2 (2 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔))] 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑤𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) .
and the integrals on the right-hand side of (78) are estimated
as follows. This implies that
󵄨󵄨 𝑡 𝜕
󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨 󵄨
First Integral 𝐽1 . By (37)(iv) and (79), we have 󵄨󵄨𝐽2 󵄨󵄨 ≤ 2 󵄨󵄨󵄨∫ ⟨ [(𝜇𝑚+1 (𝑠) − 𝜇𝑚 (𝑠)) ∇𝑢𝑚 (𝑠)] ,
󵄨󵄨 0 𝜕𝑥
󵄨󵄨
󵄨󵄨 𝜕𝐴 󵄨󵄨 󵄨 ̃2 (𝜇) 𝐾2 (𝑔) [1
󵄨󵄨 󵄨󵄨
𝑡
󵄨󵄨 𝑚+1 󵄨 𝑤𝑚 󸀠
(𝑠)⟩ 𝑑𝑠󵄨󵄨󵄨 ≤ 4𝑇𝑀2 𝐾𝑀 𝑀 (84)
󵄨󵄨𝐽1 󵄨󵄨 ≤ ∫ 󵄨󵄨 (𝑠; 𝑤𝑚 (𝑠) , 𝑤𝑚 (𝑠))󵄨󵄨󵄨 𝑑𝑠 󵄨󵄨
0 󵄨󵄨 𝜕𝑡 󵄨󵄨
(80) 2󵄩 𝑡
󵄩2
𝜇∗ 𝑡 + √2 (2 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔))] 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑤𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) + ∫ 𝑍𝑚 (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠.
≤ ∫ 𝑍 (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠. 0
𝜇0 0 𝑚
Combining (78), (80), and (84), we obtain
2
Second Integral 𝐽2 . By the inequalities ̃2 (𝜇) 𝐾 (𝑔)
𝑍𝑚 (𝑡) ≤ 4𝑇𝑀2 𝐾𝑀 𝑀
2󵄩 󵄩2
⋅ [1 + √2 (2 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔))] 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑤𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇)
󵄩󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 (85)
󵄩󵄩Δ𝑢𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐻2 ≤ 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐻2 ≤ 𝑀,
𝜇0 + 𝜇∗ 𝑡
󵄩󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 + ∫ 𝑍𝑚 (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠.
󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω) ≤ √2 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚𝑥 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐻1 ≤ √2 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐻2 𝜇0 0

≤ √2𝑀, Using Gronwall’s Lemma, we deduce from (85) that


󵄩󵄩 󵄩󵄩 󵄩 󵄩
󵄩󵄩 󵄩
󵄩󵄩𝐷𝑖 𝜇 [𝑢𝑚 ] (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω) ≤ 𝐾
̃𝑀 (𝜇) , 𝑖 = 1, 3, 󵄩󵄩𝑤𝑚 󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) ≤ 𝑘𝑇 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑤𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) , ∀𝑚 ∈ N, (86)
10 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

where 𝑘𝑇 ∈ (0, 1) is defined as in (69), which implies that On the other hand, from the assumptions (𝐻2 )–(𝐻4 ) we
obtain from (89)4 , (93), and (94) that
󵄩󵄩 󵄩 󵄩󵄩 󵄩󵄩
󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚 − 𝑢𝑚+𝑝 󵄩󵄩󵄩 −1 𝑚
󵄩 󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) ≤ 󵄩󵄩𝑢0 − 𝑢1 󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) (1 − 𝑘𝑇 ) 𝑘𝑇 , 𝜕
(87) 𝑢󸀠󸀠 = (𝜇 [𝑢] (𝑡) 𝑢𝑥 ) + 𝑓 ∈ 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝐿2 ) , (96)
∀𝑚, 𝑝 ∈ N. 𝜕𝑥
and thus we have 𝑢 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇). The existence result follows.
It follows that {𝑢𝑚 } is a Cauchy sequence in 𝑊1 (𝑇). Then
there exists 𝑢 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑇) such that (b) Uniqueness of the Solution. Let 𝑢1 , 𝑢2 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇) be two
weak solutions of prob. (1)–(3). Then 𝑢 = 𝑢1 − 𝑢2 satisfies the
𝑢𝑚 󳨀→ 𝑢 strongly in 𝑊1 (𝑇) . (88) variational problem
Note that 𝑢𝑚 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇); then there exists a subsequence ⟨𝑢󸀠󸀠 (𝑡) , 𝑤⟩ + 𝐴 [𝑢1 ] (𝑡; 𝑢 (𝑡) , 𝑤)
{𝑢𝑚𝑗 } of {𝑢𝑚 } such that
= −𝐴 [𝑢1 ] (𝑡; 𝑢2 (𝑡) , 𝑤) + 𝐴 [𝑢2 ] (𝑡; 𝑢2 (𝑡) , 𝑤) ,
(97)
𝑢𝑚𝑗 󳨀→ 𝑢 in 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝑉 ∩ 𝐻2 ) weak∗ , ∀𝑤 ∈ 𝑉,
󸀠
𝑢𝑚 𝑗
󳨀→ 𝑢󸀠 in 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝑉) weak∗ , 𝑢 (0) = 𝑢󸀠 (0) = 0,
(89)
󸀠󸀠
𝑢𝑚 𝑗
󳨀→ 𝑢󸀠󸀠 in 𝐿2 (𝑄𝑇 ) weak, where
𝐴 [𝑢𝑖 ] (𝑡; 𝑢, 𝑤)
𝑢 ∈ 𝑊 (𝑀, 𝑇) .
= ⟨𝜇 [𝑢𝑖 ] (𝑡) 𝑢𝑥 , 𝑤𝑥 ⟩ + ℎ0 𝜇 [𝑢𝑖 ] (0, 𝑡) 𝑢 (0) 𝑤 (0) ,
We also note that
󵄨󵄨 󵄨 𝑢, 𝑤 ∈ 𝑉,
󵄨󵄨𝜇𝑚 (𝑥, 𝑡) − 𝜇 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑡)󵄨󵄨󵄨
𝜇 [𝑢𝑖 ] (𝑥, 𝑡) (98)
̃𝑀 (𝜇) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚−1 − 𝑢󵄩󵄩󵄩
≤ 2𝐾 󵄩 󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) , (90)
1
a.e. (𝑥, 𝑡) ∈ 𝑄𝑇 . = 𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢𝑖 (𝑦, 𝑡) , ∇𝑢𝑖 (𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦)) ,
0

Hence, from (88) and (90), we obtain 𝑖 = 1, 2.

𝜇𝑚 󳨀→ 𝜇 [𝑢] strongly in 𝐿∞ (𝑄𝑇 ) . (91) We take 𝑤 = 𝑢󸀠 in (97)1 and integrate in 𝑡 to get


𝑡 𝜕𝐴 [𝑢1 ]
On the other hand, for all V ∈ 𝑉, we have
𝑍 (𝑡) = ∫ (𝑠; 𝑢 (𝑠) , 𝑢 (𝑠)) 𝑑𝑠
󵄨󵄨 󵄨 0 𝜕𝑡
󵄨󵄨𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚 , V) − 𝐴 [𝑢] (𝑡; 𝑢, V)󵄨󵄨󵄨 ≤ (1 + ℎ0 ) 𝐾
̃𝑀 (𝜇)
𝑡
𝜕
󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 + 2∫ ⟨ [(𝜇 [𝑢1 ] (𝑠) − 𝜇 [𝑢2 ] (𝑠)) ∇𝑢2 (𝑠)] , (99)
⋅ [2𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) 𝑀 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚−1 − 𝑢󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) + 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑢𝑚 − 𝑢󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) ] (92) 0 𝜕𝑥
󵄩 󵄩
⋅ 󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑥 󵄩󵄩󵄩 . 𝑢󸀠 (𝑠)⟩ 𝑑𝑠,
Hence
where 𝑍(𝑡) = ‖𝑢󸀠 (𝑡)‖2 + 𝐴[𝑢1 ](𝑡; 𝑢(𝑡), 𝑢(𝑡)).
𝑇 ̃𝑀 = 𝜇∗ /𝜇0 + (2/√𝜇0 )𝑀𝐾 ̃𝑀(𝜇)𝐾𝑀(𝑔)[1 + √2(2 +
Put 𝑍
∫ (𝐴 𝑚 (𝑡; 𝑢𝑚 , V) − 𝐴 [𝑢] (𝑡; 𝑢, V)) 𝜙 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 󳨀→ 0
0 (93) 𝐾𝑀(𝑔))], and then it follows from (99) that
1
∀V ∈ 𝑉, ∀𝜙 ∈ 𝐿 (0, 𝑇) . 𝑡
̃𝑀 ∫ 𝑍 (𝑠) 𝑑𝑠.
𝑍 (𝑡) ≤ 𝑍 (100)
0
Finally, passing to limit in (30)-(31) as 𝑚 = 𝑚𝑗 → ∞,
it is implied from (88), (89)1,3 , and (93) that there exists 𝑢 ∈ By Gronwall’s Lemma, we deduce 𝑍(𝑡) = 0; that is, 𝑢1 ≡
𝑊(𝑀, 𝑇) satisfying the equation 𝑢2 . Theorem 8 is proved completely.

⟨𝑢󸀠󸀠 (𝑡) , 𝑤⟩ + 𝐴 [𝑢] (𝑡; 𝑢 (𝑡) , 𝑤) = ⟨𝑓 (𝑡) , 𝑤⟩ (94) 4. Asymptotic Expansion of the Solution
for all 𝑤 ∈ 𝑉 and the initial conditions
with respect to a Small Parameter
In this section, let (𝐻1 )–(𝐻4 ) hold. We make more the
𝑢 (0) = 𝑢̃0 ,
following assumptions:
(95)
𝑢󸀠 (0) = 𝑢̃1 . (𝐻2󸀠 ) 𝑔1 ∈ 𝐶2 ([0, 1]2 × R+ × R2 ).
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 11

(𝐻3󸀠 ) 𝜇1 ∈ 𝐶2 ([0, 1]×R+ ×R) and 𝜇1 (𝑥, 𝑡, 𝑧) ≥ 0, for all (𝑥, where the coefficients 𝑃𝑘(𝑚) [𝑁, 𝑥], 𝑚 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑚𝑁, depend on
𝑡, 𝑧) ∈ [0, 1] × R+ × R. 𝑥 = (𝑥1 , . . . , 𝑥𝑁) defined by the formulas

We consider the following perturbed problem, where 𝜀 is 𝑃𝑘(𝑚) [𝑁, 𝑥]


a small parameter such that |𝜀| ≤ 1:
{ 𝑥𝑘 , 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁, 𝑚 = 1,
{
{
𝜕 ={ 𝑚! 𝛼
𝑢𝑡𝑡 − [𝜇 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑡) 𝑢𝑥 ] = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) ,
𝜕𝑥 𝜀 { ∑ 𝛼! 𝑥 , 𝑚 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑚𝑁, 𝑚 ≥ 2,
{ (104)
(𝑚)
{𝛼∈𝐴 𝑘 (𝑁)
0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑡 < 𝑇,
𝑁
(𝑃𝜀 )
𝑢𝑥 (0, 𝑡) − ℎ0 𝑢 (0, 𝑡) = 𝑢 (1, 𝑡) = 0, 𝐴(𝑚) 𝑁
𝑘 (𝑁) = {𝛼 ∈ Z+ : |𝛼| = 𝑚, ∑𝑖𝛼𝑖 = 𝑘} .
𝑖=1
𝑢 (𝑥, 0) = 𝑢̃0 (𝑥) ,
𝑢𝑡 (𝑥, 0) = 𝑢̃1 (𝑥) , Proof of Lemma 9. The proof of Lemma 9 is easy; hence we
omit the details.
where
Now, we assume that
1
𝜇𝜀 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦) (𝐻2𝑁) 𝑔 ∈ 𝐶𝑁+2 ([0, 1]2 × R+ × R2 ), 𝑔1 ∈ 𝐶𝑁+1 ([0, 1]2 × R+ ×
0 R2 );
1 (𝐻3𝑁) 𝜇 ∈ 𝐶𝑁+2 ([0, 1] × R+ × R), 𝜇1 ∈ 𝐶𝑁+1 ([0, 1] × R+ × R),
+ 𝜀𝜇1 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔1 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦) , (101)
0 𝜇 ≥ 𝜇0 > 0 and 𝜇1 ≥ 0, for all (𝑥, 𝑡, 𝑧) ∈ [0, 1] × R+ ×
R.
𝑔 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢 (𝑦, 𝑡) , 𝑢𝑥 (𝑦, 𝑡)) , 1
We use notations 𝜇[𝑢](𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫0 𝑔[𝑢](𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡)𝑑𝑦),
𝑔1 [𝑢] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑔1 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢 (𝑦, 𝑡) , 𝑢𝑥 (𝑦, 𝑡)) . 𝑔[𝑢](𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑔(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢(𝑦, 𝑡), 𝑢𝑥 (𝑦, 𝑡)).
Let 𝑢0 be a unique weak solution of the problem (𝑃0 )
By Theorem 8, problem (𝑃𝜀 ) has a unique weak solution corresponding to 𝜀 = 0; that is,
𝑢𝜀 depending on 𝜀, satisfying 𝑢𝜀 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇), in which 𝑀, 𝑇
𝜕
are independent of 𝜀; these constants are chosen as in (67), 𝑢0󸀠󸀠 − (𝜇 [𝑢0 ] 𝑢0𝑥 ) = 𝑓, 0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑡 < 𝑇,
(68), and (69), with 𝐾𝑀(𝑔) + 𝐾𝑀(𝑔1 ), 𝐾 ̃𝑀(𝜇) + 𝐾̃𝑀(𝜇1 ) stand 𝜕𝑥
̃
for 𝐾𝑀(𝑔), 𝐾𝑀(𝜇), respectively. 𝑢0𝑥 (0, 𝑡) − ℎ0 𝑢0 (0, 𝑡) = 𝑢0 (1, 𝑡) = 0,
Moreover, we can prove that the limit 𝑢0 in suitable (𝑃0 )
function spaces of the family {𝑢𝜀 } as 𝜀 → 0 is a unique weak 𝑢0 (𝑥, 0) = 𝑢̃0 (𝑥) ,
solution of the problem (𝑃0 ) (corresponding to 𝜀 = 0) also
satisfying 𝑢0 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇). 𝑢0󸀠 (𝑥, 0) = 𝑢̃1 (𝑥) ,
We shall study the asymptotic expansion of the solution 𝑢0 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇) .
of the problem (𝑃𝜀 ) with respect to a small parameter 𝜀.
We use the following notations. For a multi-index 𝛼 = Let us consider the sequence of the weak solutions
(𝛼1 , . . . , 𝛼𝑝 ) ∈ Z𝑁 𝑁
+ and 𝑥 = (𝑥1 , . . . , 𝑥𝑁 ) ∈ R , we put
𝑢𝑘 , 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁, defined by the following problems:
𝜕
|𝛼| = 𝛼1 + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + 𝛼𝑁, 𝑢𝑘󸀠󸀠 − (𝜇 [𝑢0 ] 𝑢𝑘𝑥 ) = 𝐹̃𝑘 [𝑢𝑘 ] ,
𝜕𝑥
𝛼! = 𝛼1 ! ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 𝛼𝑁!, 0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑡 < 𝑇,
(𝑃̃𝑘 )
𝛼, 𝛽 ∈ Z𝑁
+, (102) 𝑢𝑘𝑥 (0, 𝑡) − ℎ0 𝑢𝑘 (0, 𝑡) = 𝑢𝑘 (1, 𝑡) = 0,

𝛼 ≤ 𝛽 ⇐⇒ 𝛼𝑖 ≤ 𝛽𝑖 , ∀𝑖 = 1, . . . , 𝑁, 𝑢𝑘 (𝑥, 0) = 𝑢𝑘󸀠 (𝑥, 0) = 0,


𝛼 𝛼
𝑥𝛼 = 𝑥1 1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 𝑥𝑁𝑁 . 𝑢𝑘 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇) ,

First, we need the following lemma. where 𝐹̃𝑘 [𝑢𝑘 ], 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁, are defined by the formulas
𝐹̃𝑘 = 𝐹̃𝑘 [𝑢𝑘 ]
Lemma 9. Let 𝑚, 𝑁 ∈ N and 𝑥 = (𝑥1 , . . . , 𝑥𝑁) ∈ R𝑁, 𝜀 ∈ R.
Then 𝑘
𝜕
=∑ [(𝜌𝑖 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔] + 𝜌𝑖−1 [𝑁 − 1, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 ]) (105)
𝑁 𝑚 𝑚𝑁 𝑖=1 𝜕𝑥
(∑𝑥𝑖 𝜀𝑖 ) = ∑ 𝑃𝑘(𝑚) [𝑁, 𝑥] 𝜀𝑘 , (103)
𝑖=1 𝑘=𝑚 ∇𝑢𝑘−𝑖 ] , 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁,
12 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

with 𝜌𝑘 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔], which are defined by the formulas ̂ 𝑁[𝜇, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→


with ‖𝑅 󳨀𝑢 , 𝜀]‖ ∞
𝐿 (0,𝑇;𝐿2 ) ≤ 𝐶, where 𝐶 is a constant
depending only on 𝑁, 𝑇, 𝜇, 𝑔, 𝑢𝑘 , 0 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁.
𝜌𝑘 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔]
Proof of Lemma 11. In the case of 𝑁 = 1, the proof of (110)
{ 𝜇 [𝑢0 ] , 𝑘 = 0,
{
{ (106) is easy; hence we omit the details, which we only prove with
={ 1 𝑗𝑘 𝑁 ≥ 2. Putting ℎ = 𝑢0 + ∑𝑁 𝑘
𝑘=1 𝑢𝑘 𝜀 ≡ 𝑢0 + ℎ1 , we rewrite as
{ ∑ 𝐷 𝜇 [𝑢0 ] Φ𝑘 [𝑗, 𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
{ 󳨀𝑢 ] , 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁,
follows:
{𝑗=1 𝑗!
𝜇 [ℎ] (𝑥, 𝑡)
where →
󳨀
𝑢 = (𝑢 , . . . , 𝑢 ) and
1 𝑁
1
→󳨀
Φ𝑘 [𝑗, 𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀
𝑢 ] = 𝑃𝑘 [𝑁, Ψ [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
(𝑗)
𝑢 ]] = 𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢0 + ℎ1 , ∇𝑢0 + ∇ℎ) 𝑑𝑦)
0 (111)
{ Ψ𝑘 [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀𝑢 ] , 𝑗 = 1, (107) 1
{
{
𝑗! →
󳨀𝛼 = 𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦 + 𝜉) ,
={ →
󳨀 →
󳨀
{ ∑ 𝛼! Ψ [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , 𝑢 , ∇ 𝑢 ] , 𝑗 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑗𝑁, 𝑗 ≥ 2,
{ 0
(𝑗)
{𝛼∈𝐴 𝑘 (𝑁) 1
where 𝜉 = ∫0 (𝑔[𝑢0 + ℎ1 ](𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) − 𝑔[𝑢0 ](𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡))𝑑𝑦 and

󳨀
with Ψ[𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→ 󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢] = 1
𝑔[𝑢0 ](𝑥, 𝑡) = ∫0 𝑔(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢0 (𝑦, 𝑡), ∇𝑢0 (𝑦, 𝑡))𝑑𝑦.
(Ψ1 [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , 𝑢 , ∇ 𝑢 ], . . . , Ψ𝑁[𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
→󳨀 →󳨀 󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ]), are defined By using Taylor’s expansion of the function 𝜇(𝑥, 𝑡,
by 1
∫0 𝑔[𝑢0 ](𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡)𝑑𝑦 + 𝜉) around the point [𝑢0 ] ≡ (𝑥, 𝑡,
Ψ [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢 ,→
𝑘
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
0
󳨀
𝑢] 1
∫0 𝑔[𝑢0 ](𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡)𝑑𝑦) up to order 𝑁 + 1, we obtain
1 1 𝛽
∫ 𝐷 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] Ψ𝑘 [𝛽, 𝑁,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀 1
= ∑ 𝑢 ] 𝑑𝑦, 𝜇 [ℎ] (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦 + 𝜉)
1≤|𝛽|≤𝑘
𝛽! 0
0

1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁, 𝑁
1 𝑗 (112)
= 𝜇 [𝑢0 ] + ∑ 𝐷3 𝜇 [𝑢0 ] 𝜉𝑗
𝑗!
Ψ𝑘 [𝛽, 𝑁,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢] (108) 𝑗=1

+ 𝑅𝑁 [𝜇, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 , 𝜉] ,
[𝑁,→
󳨀 [𝑁, ∇→
󳨀
(𝛽1 ) (𝛽2 )
= ∑ 𝑃𝑖 𝑢 ] 𝑃𝑗 𝑢],
̃
(𝑖,𝑗)∈𝐴(𝛽,𝑁),𝑖+𝑗=𝑘 where
̃ (𝛽, 𝑁)
𝐴 1 𝑁+1 1
𝑅𝑁 [𝜇, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 , 𝜉] = 𝜉 ∫ (1 − 𝜃)𝑁 𝐷3𝑁+1 𝜇
𝑁! 0
= {(𝑖, 𝑗) ∈ Z2+ : 𝛽1 ≤ 𝑖 ≤ 𝑁𝛽1 , 𝛽2 ≤ 𝑗 ≤ 𝑁𝛽2 } .
1
(113)
Then, we have the following theorem. ⋅ (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦 + 𝜃𝜉) 𝑑𝜃
0

Theorem 10. Let (𝐻1 ), (𝐻4 ), (𝐻2𝑁), and (𝐻3𝑁) hold. Then there = ̂ (1)
𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅 [𝜇, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 , 𝜉, 𝜀] .
𝑁
exist constants 𝑀 > 0 and 𝑇 > 0 such that, for every 0 ≤ 𝜀 ≤ 1,
the problem (𝑃𝜀 ) has a unique weak solution 𝑢𝜀 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇) Similarly, with 𝑔[ℎ], by using Taylor’s expansion of the
satisfying the asymptotic estimation up to order 𝑁+1 as follows: function 𝑔[ℎ](𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑔(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢0 + ℎ1 , ∇𝑢0 + ∇ℎ1 ) around
󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝑁 󵄩󵄩 the point [𝑢0 ] ≡ (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢0 , ∇𝑢0 ) up to order 𝑁 + 1, we obtain
󵄩󵄩 𝑘󵄩 󵄩
󵄩󵄩𝑢𝜀 − ∑ 𝑢𝑘 𝜀 󵄩󵄩󵄩 ≤ 𝐶𝑇 𝜀𝑁+1 , (109)
󵄩󵄩 󵄩
󵄩 𝑔 [ℎ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑔 [𝑢0 ]
󵄩 𝑘=0 󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇)
where the functions 𝑢𝑘 , 0 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁, are the weak solutions of 1 𝛽 𝛽 𝛽
+ ∑ 𝐷 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] ℎ1 1 (∇ℎ1 ) 2 (114)
the problems (𝑃0 ), (𝑃̃𝑘 ), 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁, respectively, and 𝐶𝑇 is a 1≤|𝛽|≤𝑁
𝛽!
constant depending only on 𝑁, 𝑇, 𝜇, 𝜇1 , 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝑔1 , 𝑢𝑘 , 0 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁.
+ 𝑅𝑁 [𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 , 𝜀] ,
In order to prove Theorem 10, we need the following
lemmas. where
𝑁+1 1
Lemma 11. Let 𝜌𝑘 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔], 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁, be the functions 𝑅𝑁 [𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 , 𝜀] = ∑ ∫ (1 − 𝜃)𝑁
defined by the formulas (106)–(108). Putting ℎ = ∑𝑁 𝑘 𝛽! 0
𝑘=0 𝑢𝑘 𝜀 , |𝛽|=𝑁+1
then one has (115)
𝑁 ⋅ 𝐷𝛽 𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢0 + 𝜃ℎ1 , ∇𝑢0 + 𝜃∇ℎ1 )
̂ 𝑁 [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
𝜇 [ℎ] = ∑ 𝜌𝑘 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔] 𝜀𝑘 + 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅 󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀] , (110) 𝛽 𝛽
𝑘=0 ⋅ ℎ1 1 (∇ℎ1 ) 2 𝑑𝜃 = 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(1)
[𝜀, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ] ,
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 13

𝛽 𝛽
𝛽 = (𝛽1 , 𝛽2 ) ∈ Z2+ , |𝛽| = 𝛽1 +𝛽2 , 𝛽! = 𝛽1 !𝛽2 !, 𝐷𝛽 𝑔 = 𝐷4 1 𝐷5 2 𝑔, where
𝐷𝛽 𝑔[𝑢0 ] = 𝐷𝛽 𝑔(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, 𝑢0 , ∇𝑢0 ). 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(2)
[𝜀, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀𝑢 ]
Note, by formula (103), we get
𝑁|𝛽|
1 𝛽
𝑁 𝛽1 𝑁𝛽1 = ∑ 𝐷 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] ∑ Ψ𝑘 [𝛽, 𝑁,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘 (121)
𝛽!
[𝑁,→
󳨀
𝛽 (𝛽1 )
ℎ1 1 = ( ∑ 𝑢𝑘 𝜀𝑘 ) = ∑ 𝑃𝑖 𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑖 , (116) 1≤|𝛽|≤𝑁 𝑘=𝑁+1
𝑘=1 𝑖=𝛽1
+ 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(1)
[𝜀, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ] .
where →
󳨀
𝑢 = (𝑢1 , . . . , 𝑢𝑁). Therefore
Similarly, with (∇ℎ1 )𝛾2 , we also have 1
𝜉 = ∫ (𝑔 [ℎ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) − 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡)) 𝑑𝑦
0
𝑁 𝛽2 𝑁𝛽2
[𝑁, ∇→
󳨀
𝛽2 (𝛽2 )
(∇ℎ1 ) = ( ∑ ∇𝑢𝑘 𝜀𝑘 ) = ∑ 𝑃𝑗 𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑗 , (117) 𝑁
1 1 𝛽
𝑘=1 𝑗=𝛽2 = ∑( ∑ ∫ 𝐷 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] Ψ𝑘 [𝛽, 𝑁,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝑑𝑦)
𝑘=1 1≤|𝛽|≤𝑘
𝛽! 0

where ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 = (∇𝑢1 , . . . , ∇𝑢𝑁). 1
(122)
Hence, we deduce from (116), (117) that ⋅ 𝜀𝑘 + 𝜀𝑁+1 ∫ 𝑅𝑁
(2)
[𝜀, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝑑𝑦
0

𝑁
= ∑ Ψ𝑘 [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑁
𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘
= ∑ Ψ𝑘 [𝛽, 𝑁,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝛽 𝛽2
ℎ1 1 (∇ℎ1 ) 𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘
𝑘=1
𝑘=|𝛽|

𝑁|𝛽|
(118) + 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(3)
[𝜀, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀
𝑢],
+ ∑ Ψ𝑘 [𝛽, 𝑁,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘 , with
𝑘=𝑁+1
Ψ𝑘 [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢]
where
1 1 𝛽
= ∑ ∫ 𝐷 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] Ψ𝑘 [𝛽, 𝑁,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝑑𝑦,
Ψ𝑘 [𝛽, 𝑁,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢] 1≤|𝛽|≤𝑘
𝛽! 0
(123)
[𝑁,→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝑃𝑗 2 [𝑁, ∇→
󳨀 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁,
(𝛽 ) (𝛽 )
= ∑ 𝑃𝑖 1 𝑢],
̃
(𝑖,𝑗)∈𝐴(𝛽,𝑁),𝑖+𝑗=𝑘 1
(119) (3)
𝑅𝑁 [𝜀, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀𝑢 ] = ∫ 𝑅(2) [𝜀, 𝑔, 𝑢 , ℎ ,→
𝑁
󳨀
0 1 𝑢 ] 𝑑𝑦.
̃ (𝛽, 𝑁)
𝐴 0

On the other hand, we also have


= {(𝑖, 𝑗) ∈ Z2+ : 𝛽1 ≤ 𝑖 ≤ 𝑁𝛽1 , 𝛽2 ≤ 𝑗 ≤ 𝑁𝛽2 } . 𝑁
𝜉𝑗 = ( ∑ Ψ𝑘 [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘
Hence, it follows from (114), (118) that 𝑘=1

𝑗
𝑔 [ℎ]
+ 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(3)
[𝜀, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀𝑢 ])
= 𝑔 [𝑢0 ]
𝑁 𝑗
𝑁
+ ∑
1 𝛽
𝐷 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] ∑ Ψ𝑘 [𝛽, 𝑁,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘 = ( ∑ Ψ𝑘 [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘 )
1≤|𝛽|≤𝑁
𝛽! 𝑘=|𝛽| 𝑘=1

𝑁|𝛽| + 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(4)
[𝜀, 𝑗, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢]
1 𝛽 (124)
+ ∑ 𝐷 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] ∑ Ψ𝑘 [𝛽, 𝑁,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘
1≤|𝛽|≤𝑁
𝛽! 𝑘=𝑁+1
𝑗𝑁
→󳨀
= ∑ 𝑃𝑘 [𝑁, Ψ [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
(120) (𝑗)
𝑢 ]] 𝜀𝑘
+ 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(1)
[𝜀, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ] 𝑘=𝑗

= 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] + 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(4)
[𝜀, 𝑗, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢]

𝑁 𝑗𝑁
1 𝛽
+∑ ∑ 𝐷 𝑔 [𝑢0 ] Ψ𝑘 [𝛽, 𝑁,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘 ≡ ∑ Φ𝑘 [𝑗, 𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘
𝑘=1 1≤|𝛽|≤𝑘
𝛽! 𝑘=𝑗

+ 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(2)
[𝜀, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀
𝑢], + 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(4)
[𝜀, 𝑗, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢],
14 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

where where 𝜌𝑘 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔], 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁, are defined by (106)–(108) and

Φ𝑘 [𝑗, 𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀 →󳨀
𝑢 ] = 𝑃𝑘 [𝑁, Ψ [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
(𝑗) 󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ]] ̂ 𝑁 [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
𝑅 󳨀𝑢 , 𝜀]

Ψ𝑘 [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀𝑢 ] , 1 𝑗
{
{
{
𝑗 = 1, = ∑ (5)
𝐷 𝜇 [𝑢0 ] 𝑅𝑁 [𝜀, 𝑗, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀𝑢 ]
(129)
={ 𝑗! →
󳨀𝛼 1≤𝑗≤𝑁 𝑗!

󳨀 →
󳨀
{ ∑ 𝛼! Ψ [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , 𝑢 , ∇ 𝑢 ] ,
{ 𝑗 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑗𝑁, 𝑗 ≥ 2, (125)
(𝑗)
{𝛼∈𝐴 𝑘 (𝑁) ̂ (1) [𝜇, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 , 𝜉] .
+𝑅 𝑁
𝑁
(𝑗)
𝐴 𝑘 (𝑁) = {𝛼 ∈ Z𝑁
+ : |𝛼| = 𝑗, ∑𝑖𝛼𝑖 = 𝑘} , By the boundedness of the functions 𝑢𝑘 , ∇𝑢𝑘 , 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤
𝑖=1
𝑁, in the function space 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝐿2 ), we obtain from
(113), (115), (121), (123)2 , (124), and (127) that ‖𝑅 ̂ 𝑁[𝜇,
→󳨀
with Ψ[𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→ 󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ] = (Ψ1 [𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢 ], . . . , Ψ𝑁[𝑁, →󳨀
𝑔, 𝑢0 , 𝑢 , 𝜀]‖𝐿∞ (0,𝑇;𝐿2 ) ≤ 𝐶, where 𝐶 is a constant depending
→󳨀 →
󳨀
𝑔, 𝑢0 , 𝑢 , ∇ 𝑢 ]), which are defined by (108). only on 𝑁, 𝑇, 𝜇, 𝑔, 𝑢𝑘 , 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁. Thus, Lemma 11 is
𝑗𝑁
Decompose the sum ∑𝑘=𝑗 into the sum of two sums ∑𝑁 𝑘=𝑗
proved.
𝑗𝑁
and ∑𝑘=𝑁+1 ; therefore, we deduce from (124) that Remark 12. Lemma 11 is a generalization of the formula
contained in ([9], p.262, formula (4.38)) and it is useful to
𝑁 obtain the following Lemma 13. These lemmas are the key to
𝜉𝑗 = ∑ Φ𝑘 [𝑗, 𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘 establish the asymptotic expansion of the weak solution 𝑢𝜀 of
𝑘=𝑗 (126) order 𝑁 + 1 in a small parameter 𝜀 as follows.
Let 𝑢 = 𝑢𝜀 ∈ 𝑊1 (𝑀, 𝑇) be the unique weak solution of
+ 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(5)
[𝜀, 𝑗, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀
𝑢], problem (𝑃𝜀 ). Then V = 𝑢𝜀 − ∑𝑁 𝑘
𝑘=0 𝑢𝑘 𝜀 ≡ 𝑢𝜀 − ℎ satisfies the
problem
where
𝜕
V󸀠󸀠 − (𝜇 [V + ℎ] V𝑥 )
𝜕𝑥 𝜀
𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(5)
[𝜀, 𝑗, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀
𝑢]
𝜕
𝑗𝑁 = [(𝜇𝜀 [V + ℎ] − 𝜇𝜀 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥 ] + 𝐸𝜀 (𝑥, 𝑡) ,
𝜕𝑥
= ∑ Φ𝑘 [𝑗, 𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘 (127) (130)
𝑘=𝑁+1 0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑡 < 𝑇,

+ 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅𝑁
(4)
[𝜀, 𝑗, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀
𝑢 , ∇→
󳨀
𝑢]. V𝑥 (0, 𝑡) − ℎ0 V (0, 𝑡) = V (1, 𝑡) = 0,

V (𝑥, 0) = V󸀠 (𝑥, 0) = 0,
Hence, it follows from (112) and (124) that
where
𝜇 [ℎ] = 𝜇 [𝑢0 ]
𝜕
𝑁 𝐸𝜀 (𝑥, 𝑡) = [(𝜇 [ℎ] − 𝜇 [𝑢0 ] + 𝜀𝜇1 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥 ]
1 𝜕𝑥
+ ∑ 𝐷𝑗 𝜇 [𝑢0 ] ∑ Φ𝑘 [𝑗, 𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀
𝑢 ] 𝜀𝑘
1≤𝑗≤𝑁 𝑗! 𝑘=𝑗 𝑁
(131)
− ∑ 𝐹̃𝑘 𝜀𝑘 .
1 𝑗 𝑘=1
+ 𝜀𝑁+1 ( ∑ (5)
𝐷 𝜇 [𝑢0 ] 𝑅𝑁 [𝜀, 𝑗, 𝑔, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 ,→
󳨀
𝑢]
1≤𝑗≤𝑁 𝑗! Then, we have the following lemma.

̂ (1) [𝜇, 𝑢0 , ℎ1 , 𝜉, 𝜀]) = 𝜇 [𝑢0 ]


+𝑅 Lemma 13. Let (𝐻1 ), (𝐻4 ), (𝐻2𝑁), and (𝐻3𝑁) hold. Then there
𝑁 (128)
exists a constant 𝐶∗ such that

𝑁 󵄩󵄩 󵄩󵄩 𝑁+1
1 𝑗 󵄩󵄩𝐸𝜀 󵄩󵄩𝐿∞ (0,𝑇;𝐿2 ) ≤ 𝐶∗ 𝜀 , (132)
+∑( ∑ 𝐷 𝜇 [𝑢0 ] Φ𝑘 [𝑗, 𝑁, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀
𝑢 ]) 𝜀𝑘
𝑘=1 1≤𝑗≤𝑘
𝑗!
where 𝐶∗ is a constant depending only on 𝑁, 𝑇, 𝜇, 𝜇1 , 𝑔, 𝑔1 ,
𝑁 𝑢𝑘 , 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁.
̂ 𝑁 [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
+ 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅 󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀] = ∑ 𝜌𝑘 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔] 𝜀𝑘
𝑘=0 Proof of Lemma 13. In the case of 𝑁 = 1, the proof of
Lemma 13 is easy; hence we omit the details, which we only
+𝜀 𝑅𝑁 [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
𝑁+1 ̂ 󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀] , prove with 𝑁 ≥ 2.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 15

By using formula (110) for the function 𝜇1 [ℎ] we obtain where


𝑁−1
𝜇1 [ℎ] = ∑ 𝜌𝑘 [𝑁 − 1, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 ] 𝜀𝑘 ̃ (2) [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢0 ,→
𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅 󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀]
𝑁
𝑘=0 (133)
2𝑁 𝑁
̂ 𝑁−1 [𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢0 ,→
+ 𝜀𝑁 𝑅 󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀] , = ∑ ( ∑ (𝜌𝑖 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔] + 𝜌𝑖−1 [𝑁 − 1, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 ])
𝑘=𝑁+1 𝑖,𝑗=1,𝑖+𝑗=𝑘 (138)
where ‖𝑅̂ 𝑁−1 [𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀]‖𝐿∞ (0,𝑇;𝐿2 ) ≤ 𝐶, with 𝐶 being a
constant depending only on 𝑁, 𝑇, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢𝑘 , 0 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁. ̃ (1) [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢0 ,→
∇𝑢𝑗 ) 𝜀𝑘 + 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅 󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀] .
𝑁
By (133), we rewrite 𝜀𝜇1 [ℎ] as follows:
𝑁
𝜀𝜇1 [ℎ] = ∑ 𝜌𝑘−1 [𝑁 − 1, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 ] 𝜀𝑘 Combining (105), (131), and (137) leads to
𝑘=1 (134)
̂ 𝑁−1 [𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢0 ,→
+ 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅 󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀] . 𝜕 ̃ (2)
𝐸𝜀 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅 [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , 𝜀] . (139)
Hence, we deduce from (110) and (134) that 𝜕𝑥 𝑁
𝑁
(𝜇 [ℎ] − 𝜇 [𝑢0 ] + 𝜀𝜇1 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥 = ∑ ∇𝑢0 (𝜌𝑘 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔] By the boundedness of the functions 𝑢𝑘 , ∇𝑢𝑘 , 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤
𝑘=1 𝑁, in the function space 𝐿∞ (0, 𝑇; 𝐻1 ), we obtain from (110),
(136), (138), and (139) that
+ 𝜌𝑘−1 [𝑁 − 1, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 ]) 𝜀𝑘
󵄩󵄩 󵄩󵄩 𝑁+1
2𝑁 𝑁 (135) 󵄩󵄩𝐸𝜀 󵄩󵄩𝐿∞ (0,𝑇;𝐿2 ) ≤ 𝐶∗ 𝜀 , (140)
+∑( ∑ (𝜌𝑖 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔] + 𝜌𝑖−1 [𝑁 − 1, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 ])
𝑘=2 𝑖,𝑗=1,𝑖+𝑗=𝑘
where 𝐶∗ is a constant depending only on 𝑁, 𝑇, 𝜇, 𝜇1 , 𝑔, 𝑔1 ,
𝑢𝑘 , 1 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑁.
̃ (1) [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢0 ,→
∇𝑢𝑗 ) 𝜀𝑘 + 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅 󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀] , Lemma 13 is proved.
𝑁

where
̃ (1) [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢0 ,→
𝑅 󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀] Proof of Theorem 10. Consider the sequence {V𝑚 } defined by
𝑁
(136)
̂ 𝑁 [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝑢0 ,→
= (𝑅 󳨀 ̂ 𝑁−1 [𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢0 ,→
𝑢 , 𝜀] + 𝑅 󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀]) ℎ𝑥 .
V0 ≡ 0,
We decompose the sum ∑2𝑁
into the sum of two sums
𝑖=2 𝜕
󸀠󸀠
∑𝑁 and ∑ 2𝑁
; therefore, we deduce from (135) that V𝑚 − (𝜇 [V + ℎ] V𝑚𝑥 )
𝑖=2 𝑖=𝑁+1 𝜕𝑥 𝜀 𝑚−1
𝑁
(𝜇 [ℎ] − 𝜇 [𝑢0 ] + 𝜀𝜇1 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥 = ∑ ∇𝑢0 (𝜌𝑘 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔] 𝜕
= [(𝜇𝜀 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝜇𝜀 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥 ] + 𝐸𝜀 (𝑥, 𝑡) ,
𝑘=1 𝜕𝑥 (141)

+ 𝜌𝑘−1 [𝑁 − 1, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 ]) 𝜀𝑘 0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑡 < 𝑇,


𝑁 𝑁 V𝑚𝑥 (0, 𝑡) − ℎ0 V𝑚 (0, 𝑡) = V𝑚 (1, 𝑡) = 0,
+∑( ∑ (𝜌𝑖 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔] + 𝜌𝑖−1 [𝑁 − 1, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 ])
󸀠
𝑘=2 𝑖,𝑗=1,𝑖+𝑗=𝑘 V𝑚 (𝑥, 0) = V𝑚 (𝑥, 0) = 0, 𝑚 ≥ 1.

∇𝑢𝑗 ) 𝜀𝑘 󸀠
By multiplying two sides of (141) with V𝑚 and after
(137) integration in 𝑡, we have
2𝑁 𝑁
+ ∑ ( ∑ (𝜌𝑖 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔] + 𝜌𝑖−1 [𝑁 − 1, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 ]) 𝑡
󸀠
𝑡 𝜕𝐴 𝑚,𝜀
𝑘=𝑁+1 𝑖,𝑗=1,𝑖+𝑗=𝑘
𝑍𝑚 (𝑡) = 2 ∫ ⟨𝐸𝜀 (𝑠) , V𝑚 (𝑠)⟩ 𝑑𝑠 + ∫ (𝑠;
0 0 𝜕𝑡
∇𝑢𝑗 ) 𝜀 +𝑘 ̃ (1)
𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅 𝑁 [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢0 ,→
󳨀𝑢 , 𝜀]
V𝑚 (𝑠) , V𝑚 (𝑠)) 𝑑𝑠
𝑡
𝜕 (142)
𝑁 𝑘 + 2∫ ⟨ [(𝜇𝜀 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝜇𝜀 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥 ] ,
= ∑ [∑ (𝜌𝑖 [𝑁, 𝜇, 𝑔] + 𝜌𝑖−1 [𝑁 − 1, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 ]) ∇𝑢𝑘−𝑖 ] 𝜀𝑘 0 𝜕𝑥
𝑘=1 𝑖=1
󸀠
̃ (2) [𝜇, 𝑔, 𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑢0 ,→
+ 𝜀𝑁+1 𝑅 󳨀
𝑢 , 𝜀] ,
V𝑚 (𝑠)⟩ 𝑑𝑠,
𝑁
16 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

where ⋅ (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝜀𝐷3 𝜇1 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] (𝑥, 𝑡)


1
󵄩 󸀠 󵄩2 ⋅ ∫ [𝐷3 𝑔1 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] + 𝐷4 𝑔1 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ]
𝑍𝑚 (𝑡) = 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑚 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 𝐴 𝑚,𝜀 (𝑡; V𝑚 (𝑡) , V𝑚 (𝑡)) , 0
󸀠
𝐴 𝑚,𝜀 (𝑡; 𝑢, V) ⋅ (V𝑚−1 + ℎ󸀠 ) (𝑦, 𝑡) + 𝐷5 𝑔1 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ]
󸀠
= ⟨𝜇𝑚,𝜀 (𝑡) 𝑢𝑥 , V𝑥 ⟩ + ℎ0 𝜇𝑚,𝜀 (0, 𝑡) 𝑢 (0) V (0) , ⋅ (∇V𝑚−1 + ∇ℎ󸀠 ) (𝑦, 𝑡)] 𝑑𝑦,

𝑢, V ∈ 𝑉, (145)
and we have
𝜇𝑚,𝜀 (𝑥, 𝑡) 󵄨󵄨 󸀠 󵄨
󵄨󵄨𝜇𝑚,𝜀 (𝑥, 𝑡)󵄨󵄨󵄨 ≤ 𝜁1 , (146)
1 󵄨 󵄨
= 𝜇 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦) ̃𝑀 (𝜇)[1 + 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔)(1 + 2𝑀∗ )] + 𝐾 ̃𝑀 (𝜇1 )[1 +
0
(143) with 𝜁1 = 𝐾 ∗ ∗ ∗

1 𝐾𝑀∗ (𝑔1 )(1 + 2𝑀∗ )], 𝑀∗ = (𝑁 + 2)𝑀.


+ 𝜀𝜇1 (𝑥, 𝑡, ∫ 𝑔1 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 𝑑𝑦) , It follows from (146) that
0 𝑡 󵄨󵄨 𝜕𝐴 󵄨󵄨
󵄨󵄨 ̂ 󵄨󵄨
󵄨󵄨𝐽1 󵄨󵄨 ≤ ∫ 󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 𝑚,𝜀 (𝑠; V𝑚 (𝑠) , V𝑚 (𝑠))󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 𝑑𝑠
𝑔 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) 󵄨 󵄨 0 󵄨󵄨 𝜕𝑡 󵄨󵄨
(147)
= 𝑔 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, V𝑚−1 + ℎ, ∇V𝑚−1 + ∇ℎ) , 𝑡
󵄩󵄩 󵄩󵄩2
≤ 𝜁1 ∫ 󵄩󵄩V𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩𝑎 𝑑𝑠.
0
𝑔1 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡)
Estimating 𝐽̂2 . First, we need an estimation ‖(𝜕/𝜕𝑥)[(𝜇[V𝑚−1 +
= 𝑔1 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡, V𝑚−1 + ℎ, ∇V𝑚−1 + ∇ℎ) . ℎ] − 𝜇[ℎ])ℎ𝑥 ]‖.
We also note that
󵄩󵄩 󵄩
By using Lemma 13, we deduce from (142) that 󵄩󵄩𝜇 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝜇 [ℎ]󵄩󵄩󵄩𝐶0 (Ω)

≤ 2𝐾 ̃𝑀 (𝜇) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) 󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩


∗ ∗ 󵄩 󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) ,
󵄩󵄩 󸀠 󵄩2
󵄩󵄩V𝑚 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩 + 𝜇0 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑚 (𝑡)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩2𝑎 ≤ 𝑇𝐶∗2 𝜀2𝑁+2 󵄩󵄩 󵄩
󵄩󵄩𝐷𝑖 𝜇 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝐷𝑖 𝜇 [ℎ]󵄩󵄩󵄩
󵄩 󵄩
(148)
𝑡
󵄩 󸀠 󵄩2 ≤ 2𝐾 ̃𝑀 (𝜇) 𝐾𝑀 (𝑔) 󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩 , 𝑖 = 1, 3,
+ ∫ 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝑑𝑠 ∗ ∗ 󵄩 󵄩 𝑊1 (𝑇)
0
󵄩󵄩 󵄩
󵄩󵄩𝐷1 𝑔 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝐷1 𝑔 [ℎ]󵄩󵄩󵄩
𝜕𝐴 𝑚,𝜀
𝑡
+∫ (𝑠; V𝑚 (𝑠) , V𝑚 (𝑠)) 𝑑𝑠 󵄩 󵄩
0 𝜕𝑡 ≤ 2𝐾𝑀∗ (𝑔) 󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) .
(144)
𝑡󵄩 󵄩󵄩
󵄩󵄩 𝜕 󵄩 From the equation
+ 2 ∫ 󵄩󵄩󵄩 [(𝜇𝜀 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝜇𝜀 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥 ]󵄩󵄩󵄩
0 󵄩 󵄩 𝜕𝑥 󵄩󵄩
𝜕
𝑡
[(𝜇 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝜇 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥 ]
󵄩 󸀠 󵄩 󵄩󵄩 󸀠 󵄩2 𝜕𝑥
⋅ 󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑇𝐶∗2 𝜀2𝑁+2 + ∫ 󵄩󵄩V𝑚 (𝑠)󵄩󵄩󵄩 𝑑𝑠
󵄩 󵄩
0 = (𝜇 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝜇 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥𝑥
+ 𝐽̂1 + 𝐽̂2 . + (𝐷1 𝜇 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝐷1 𝜇 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥

+ 𝐷3 𝜇 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ]
We estimate the integrals on the right-hand side of (144) (149)
as follows. 1
⋅ (∫ (𝐷1 𝑔 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝐷1 𝑔 [ℎ]) 𝑑𝑦) ℎ𝑥
0
Estimating 𝐽̂1 . We note that
1
+ (𝐷3 𝜇 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝐷3 𝜇 [ℎ]) (∫ 𝐷1 𝑔 [ℎ] 𝑑𝑦)
0
󸀠
𝜇𝑚,𝜀 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝐷2 𝜇 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝐷3 𝜇 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ]
⋅ ℎ𝑥 ,
1
⋅ (𝑥, 𝑡) ∫ [𝐷3 𝑔 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] + 𝐷4 𝑔 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] it follows that
0 󵄩󵄩 𝜕 󵄩󵄩
󵄩󵄩 󵄩
󸀠 󵄩󵄩 [(𝜇 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝜇 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥 ]󵄩󵄩󵄩
⋅ (V𝑚−1 + ℎ󸀠 ) (𝑦, 𝑡) + 𝐷5 𝑔 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] 󵄩󵄩 𝜕𝑥 󵄩󵄩
(150)
󵄩 󵄩
⋅ 󸀠
(∇V𝑚−1 󸀠
+ ∇ℎ ) (𝑦, 𝑡)] 𝑑𝑦 + 𝜀𝐷2 𝜇1 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] ≤ 𝑑 (𝜇, 𝑔, 𝑀∗ ) 󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) ,
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 17

where 𝑑(𝜇, 𝑔, 𝑀∗ ) = 2𝑀∗ 𝐾 ̃𝑀 (𝜇)𝐾𝑀 (𝑔)[1 + √2(2 + Conflicts of Interest


∗ ∗

𝐾𝑀∗ (𝑔))].
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Next, by 𝜇𝜀 = 𝜇 + 𝜀𝜇1 , it follows that
󵄩󵄩 𝜕 󵄩󵄩
󵄩󵄩 󵄩 󵄩 󵄩
󵄩󵄩 [(𝜇𝜀 [V𝑚−1 + ℎ] − 𝜇𝜀 [ℎ]) ℎ𝑥 ]󵄩󵄩󵄩 ≤ 𝜁2 󵄩󵄩󵄩V𝑚−1 󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑊1 (𝑇) , (151) Authors’ Contributions
󵄩󵄩 𝜕𝑥 󵄩󵄩
All authors contributed equally to this article. They read and
where 𝜁2 = 𝑑(𝜇, 𝑔, 𝑀∗ ) + 𝑑(𝜇1 , 𝑔1 , 𝑀∗ ). approved the final manuscript.
By (151), we obtain
𝐽̂2 References
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