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Dog Training Encyclopedia

SmallDogsUSA.org created a compilation of the most important


information on dog training available.

The Dog Training Encyclopedia is comprised of 12 Categories


and 39 Articles with references and resources that expand to
complete the most thorough book on dog training available.

The Media section is available as a separate publication.

Whether dog training is your profession or you just want to


decode your dog's behavior, you will discover what you need to know.

Free publications, PUP-E-CARDS®, daily news, videos


and resources available at smalldogsusa.org or
news.smalldogsusa.org
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Contents

1 CATEGORIES 1
1.1 Dog training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.3 How dogs learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.4 Training methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.5 Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.1.6 Individualized and/or class training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.1.7 Specialized training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.1.8 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.1.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.1.10 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.1.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.1.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2 Assistance dog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.1 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3 Clicker training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3.2 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.5 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4 Dog agility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4.1 Competition basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.4.2 Agility obstacles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.4.3 Agility scoring and clean runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.4.4 Competition classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.4.5 Fairness among dogs and handlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

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1.4.6 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.4.7 Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.4.8 Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.4.9 Competition process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.4.10 Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.4.11 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.4.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.4.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.5 Herding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.5.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.5.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.6 Hunting dog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.6.1 Breeds and capabilities used in hunting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.6.2 Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.6.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.6.4 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.7 Leash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.7.1 Types of leashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.7.2 Leash laws in the United States of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.7.3 Dog leashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.7.4 Cat leashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.7.5 Other uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.7.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.7.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.8 List of dog sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.8.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.8.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.9 Obedience training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.9.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.9.2 Dog intelligence and training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.9.3 Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.9.4 Training devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.9.5 Competitive obedience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
1.9.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.9.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.9.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.10 Operant conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.10.1 Historical notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.10.2 Tools and procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
1.10.3 Factors that alter the effectiveness of consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.10.4 Operant variability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
CONTENTS iii

1.10.5 Avoidance learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39


1.10.6 Four term contingency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1.10.7 Operant hoarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.10.8 Biological correlates of operant conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.10.9 Operant conditioning in economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.10.10 Questions about the law of effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.10.11 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.10.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1.10.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1.11 Punishment (psychology) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1.11.1 Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1.11.2 Aversives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1.11.3 Importance of contingency and contiguity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1.11.4 Applied behavior analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1.11.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1.11.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1.12 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1.12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1.12.2 Brief history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1.12.3 Operant conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1.12.4 Natural and artificial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
1.12.5 Intermittent reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
1.12.6 Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
1.12.7 Shaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1.12.8 Chaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1.12.9 Persuasive communication & the reinforcement theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
1.12.10 Mathematical models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
1.12.11 Criticisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
1.12.12 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1.12.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1.12.14 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1.12.15 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
1.12.16 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

2 ARTICLES 56
2.1 Alpha roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.1.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.1.2 Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.1.3 Contemporary use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.1.4 Further sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.1.5 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.2 Animal attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
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2.2.1 Alligators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.2.2 Arthropods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.2.3 Bears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.2.4 Beavers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.2.5 Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.2.6 Bulls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.2.7 Chimpanzees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.2.8 Catfish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.2.9 Cats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.2.10 Cougars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.2.11 Coyotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.2.12 Crocodiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.2.13 Dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.2.14 Elephants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.15 Fox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.16 Hippopotamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.17 Horses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.18 Hyenas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.19 Komodo dragons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.20 Leopards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.21 Lions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.22 Racoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.23 Rats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.24 Sharks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.25 Snakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.2.26 Tigers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.2.27 Wolves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.2.28 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.2.29 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.2.30 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.2.31 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.2.32 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.3 Dog bite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.3.1 Health effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.3.2 Causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.3.3 Breed-specific attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.3.4 Human-dog interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.3.5 Legal issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.3.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.3.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.3.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
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2.4 Bark (sound) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70


2.4.1 Barking in dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.4.2 Types of barks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.4.3 Barking as nuisance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2.4.4 Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.4.5 Breeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.4.6 Naturally “barkless”dog breeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.4.7 Barking in other animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.4.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.4.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.4.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.5 Bite inhibition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.5.1 Evolution of Bite Inhibition in Modern Dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.5.2 Chemicals Involved in Aggression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.5.3 Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.5.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.6 BowLingual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.6.1 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.6.2 Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.6.3 Effectiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.6.4 Related products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.6.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.6.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.7 Canine Good Citizen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.7.1 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2.8 Dog collar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2.8.1 Basic collars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2.8.2 Training collars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
2.8.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.8.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.8.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.9 Dog communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.9.1 Dog-human communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.9.2 Evolution of dog-human communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
2.9.3 Dominance and submission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
2.9.4 Visual communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
2.9.5 Auditory communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
2.9.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2.9.7 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2.9.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2.9.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
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2.10 Coprophagia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
2.10.1 Humans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
2.10.2 Other animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
2.10.3 Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
2.10.4 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
2.10.5 Society and culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
2.10.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
2.10.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
2.10.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
2.11 Crate training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
2.11.1 Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
2.11.2 Crate selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
2.11.3 Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
2.11.4 Adverse effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
2.11.5 Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2.11.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2.12 Cyber-Enhanced Working Dog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2.12.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2.12.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2.13 Defence Animal Centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.13.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.13.2 Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.13.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.13.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.14 Detection dog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
2.14.1 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
2.14.2 Criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
2.14.3 Bed bug detection dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2.14.4 Wildlife scat detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2.14.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2.14.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
2.15 Dog aggression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2.15.1 Factors contributing to aggression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2.15.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.15.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.15.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.16 Dog behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.16.1 Evolution/Domestication/Co-evolution with humans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.16.2 Cognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
2.16.3 Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
2.16.4 Social behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
CONTENTS vii

2.16.5 Reproduction behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102


2.16.6 Behavior problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
2.16.7 Comparison of behavior with other canids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
2.16.8 Dogs in human society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
2.16.9 Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
2.16.10 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
2.16.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
2.16.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
2.17 Dog behaviourist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
2.17.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
2.17.2 Discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
2.17.3 Professional associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
2.17.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
2.17.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
2.17.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
2.18 Dog bite tug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
2.18.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
2.18.2 Size and design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
2.18.3 Puppy training with a bite tug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
2.18.4 Adult dog training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
2.18.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
2.18.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
2.18.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
2.19 Dog surfing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
2.19.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
2.19.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
2.19.3 Competitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
2.19.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
2.19.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
2.19.6 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
2.19.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
2.19.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
2.20 Dog–cat relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
2.20.1 Range of relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
2.20.2 Cultural impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
2.20.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
2.20.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
2.21 Dogs in the City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
2.21.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
2.21.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
2.22 Dogs in warfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
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2.22.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111


2.22.2 Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
2.22.3 Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
2.22.4 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
2.22.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
2.22.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
2.22.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
2.22.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
2.23 Fetch (game) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
2.23.1 Mathematics of Fetch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
2.23.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
2.23.3 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
2.23.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
2.24 Flirt pole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
2.24.1 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
2.24.2 Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
2.24.3 Health effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
2.24.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
2.24.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
2.24.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
2.25 Game (dog) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
2.25.1 Dog fighting breeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
2.25.2 Working terrier breeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
2.25.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
2.25.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.26 Gee and haw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.26.1 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.26.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.26.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.27 Gun-dog training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.27.1 Types of dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.27.2 Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.27.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
2.28 Housebreaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
2.28.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
2.28.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
2.29 Dog intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
2.29.1 Inherited abilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
2.29.2 Evaluation of intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
2.29.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
2.29.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
CONTENTS ix

2.30 The Intelligence of Dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128


2.30.1 Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
2.30.2 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
2.30.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
2.30.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
2.31 Pack (canine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
2.31.1 Pack behavior in specific species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
2.31.2 Dominance and the alpha wolf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
2.31.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
2.31.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2.32 Prey drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2.32.1 Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2.32.2 Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2.32.3 Degrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2.32.4 Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2.32.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2.33 Professional handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2.33.1 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2.33.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2.34 Separation anxiety in dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2.34.1 Typical behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
2.34.2 Causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
2.34.3 Treatment for separation anxiety in dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
2.34.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
2.34.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
2.35 Shepherd's whistle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
2.35.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
2.35.2 Mechanics and material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
2.35.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
2.35.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
2.36 Shock collar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
2.36.1 Types of devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
2.36.2 Frame of reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
2.36.3 Technical considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
2.36.4 Scientific studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
2.36.5 Criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
2.36.6 Praise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
2.36.7 Public control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
2.36.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
2.37 Soft mouth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
2.37.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
x CONTENTS

2.38 Twilight bark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146


2.38.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
2.39 Dog whistle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
2.39.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

3 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses 148


3.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
3.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
3.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Chapter 1

CATEGORIES

1.1 Dog training tioning, where it forms an association between an an-


tecedent and its consequence.* [2]
There are a variety of established methods of animals
training, each with its adherents and critics. Some of the
better known dog training procedures include the Koehler
method, clicker training, dominance-based training, neg-
ative reinforcement and relationship-based training. The
common characteristics of successful methods are know-
ing the animal's attributes and personality, accurate tim-
ing of reinforcement and/or punishment and consistent
communication.

1.1.1 Definition

Dancer with a Hoop

Dog training is the application of behavior analysis


which uses the environmental events of antecedents and
consequences to modify the behavior of a dog, either for it
to assist in specific activities or undertake particular tasks,
or for it to participate effectively in contemporary domes-
tic life. While training dogs for specific roles dates back
to Roman times at least, the training of dogs to be com- Dog training using positive reinforcement, with the dog exhibiting
patible household pets developed with suburbanization in the “down”position
the 1950s.
A dog learns from every interaction it has with its en- Dog training is teaching a response to cues or commands,
vironment.* [1] This can be through classical condition- or the performance of actions not necessarily natural to
ing, where it forms an association between two stimuli; the dog, and also raising a dog accommodated to his envi-
non-associative learning, where its behavior is modified ronment by modifying natural digging, barking and elim-
through habituation or sensitisation; and operant condi- inating behaviors. Dog training is defined as the purpose-

1
2 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

ful changing of a dog's behavior.* [3] to train desired behaviors, advocated the use of com-
Dog training can be socialisation to the domestic envi- pulsion and inducements, differentiated between primary
ronment, basic obedience training or training for special- and secondary reinforcers, and described shaping behav-
ized activities including law enforcement, search and res- iors, chaining components of an activity, and the im-
cue, hunting, working with livestock, assistance to people portance of timing rewards and punishments. The book
with disabilities, entertainment, dog sports, detection and demonstrated an understanding of the principles of op-
protecting people or property. erant conditioning almost thirty years before they were
formally outlined by B.F. Skinner in The Behavior of Or-
ganisms.* [9] While publishers of the 2001 reprint warn
1.1.2 History that some of the “compulsive inducements”such as the
switch, the spiked collar and the forced compliance are
unnecessarily harsh for today's pet dogs,* [10] the basic
Although research into how dogs learn and into cross-
principles of Most's methods are still used in police and
species communication has changed the approach to dog
military settings.* [11]
training in recent decades, understanding the role of early
trainers and scientists contributes to an appreciation of Marian Breland Bailey played a major role in develop-
how particular methods and techniques developed.* [4] ing empirically validated and humane animal training
methods and in promoting their widespread implemen-
tation.* [12] Marian was a graduate student under B.F.
Before 1900 Skinner. Her first husband Keller Breland also came to
study with Skinner and they collaborated with him, train-
In around 127-116 B.C. a Roman farmer, Marcus Varro, ing pigeons to guide bombs. The Brelands saw the com-
recorded advice on raising and training puppies for herd- mercial possibilities of operant training, founding Ani-
ing livestock. His writings indicate that not only was dog mal Behavior Enterprises (ABE). In 1955, they opened
training for specific tasks well established, but that the the “I.Q. Zoo”as both a training facility and a show-
value of early training was recognised.* [5] case of trained animals. They were among the first to use
In 1848 W. N. Hutchinson published his book Dog Break- trained animals in television commercials, and the first
ing: The Most Expeditious, Certain and Easy Method, to train dolphins and whales as entertainment, as well as
*
Whether Great Excellence or Only Mediocrity Be Required, for the navy. [12] Keller died in 1965, and in 1976 Mar-
With Odds and Ends for Those Who Love the Dog and ian married Bob Bailey, who had been director of ma-
the Gun. Primarily concerned with training hunting dogs rine mammal training for the navy. They pioneered the
such as pointers and setters, the book advocates a form of use of the clicker as a conditioned reinforcer for training
*
reward-based training, commenting on men who have“a animals at a distance. [11] ABE went on to train thou-
*
strong arm and a hard heart to punish, but no temper and sands of animals of more than 140 species. [12] Their
no head to instruct”and suggesting “Be to his virtues work had significant public exposure through press cov-
ever kind. Be to his faults a little blind.”* [6] Stephen erage of ABE-trained animals, bringing the principles of
Hammond, a writer for Forest and Stream magazine, ad- behavior analysis and operant conditioning to a wide au-
*
vocated in his 1882 book Practical Training that hunting dience. [13]
dogs be praised and rewarded with meat for doing the Konrad Lorenz, an Austrian scientist who is regarded as
correct behavior.* [7] developing the foundations of ethological research,* [14]
further popularised animal behaviorism with his books,
Man Meets Dog and King Solomon's Ring.* [15] Lorenz
War years stated that there were three essential commands to teach
a dog: “lie down”(stay where you are), “basket”(go
Konrad Most began training dogs for police work in Ger- over there) and “heel”(come with me).* [16]
many, and was appointed principal of the State Breed-
ing and Training Establishment for police dogs in Berlin, In 1935, the American Kennel Club began obedience tri-
where he carried out original research into training dogs als, and in the following years popular magazines raised
for a broad range of service tasks. At the outbreak of public awareness of the benefits of having a trained pet
war in 1914 he was charged with organising and direct- dog, and of*the recreational possibilities of dog training
ing the use of dogs to further the war effort. He headed as a hobby. [17] After WWII, the increasing complexi-
the Experimental Institute for Armed Forces' Dogs dur- ties of suburban living demanded that for a pet dog's own
ing the Second World War, and afterwards ran the Ger- protection and its owner's convenience, the dog should be
man Dog Farm, a centre for the training of working obedient. William Koehler had served as principal trainer
dogs, including assistance dogs for the blind. He played a at the War Dog Training Center, in California, and af-
leading role in the formation of the German Canine Re- ter the war became chief trainer for the Orange Empire
search Society and Society for Animal Psychology.* [8] Dog Club̶at the time, the largest dog club in the United
His 1910 publication, Training Dogs: A Manual, empha- States̶instructor for a number of breed *
clubs, and a dog
sised using instinctive behavior such as the prey drive trainer for the Walt Disney Studios. [18] In 1962 Koehler
1.1. DOG TRAINING 3

published The Koehler Method of Dog Training, in which it was acceptable to use “a tidbit now and then to over-
he is highly critical of what he calls“tid-bit training tech- come a problem.”Saunders perhaps began the shift away
niques”based in“the prattle of 'dog psychologists'".* [17] from military and police training methods, stressing re-
Amongst the training innovations attributed to Koehler peatedly the importance of reinforcement for good be-
is the use of a long line in conjunction with a complete haviour in training̶a move toward the positive training
absence of oral communication as a way of instilling at- methods used today.* [23]
tentiveness prior to any leash training. Koehler insisted In 1965, John Paul Scott and John Fuller identified the
that participants in his training classes used “emphatic critical periods for learning and social development in
corrections”, including leash jerks and throw chains, ex-
puppies, and published Genetics and the Social Behavior
plaining that tentative, nagging corrections were cruel in of the Dog, a landmark study of dog behavior.* [24]
that they caused emotional disturbance to the dog.* [19]
Vicki Hearne, a disciple of Koehler's, commented on the The 1980 television series Training Dogs the Woodhouse
widespread criticism of his corrections, with the expla- Way made Barbara Woodhouse a household name in the
nation that it was the emotionally loaded language used UK, and the first international celebrity dog trainer.* [25]
in the book that led to a number of court cases, and to Known for her “no bad dogs”philosophy, Woodhouse
the book being banned in Arizona for a time.* [20] De- was highly critical of “bad owners”, particularly those
spite the controversy, his basic method forms the core of she saw as“overly sentimental”.* [26] She described the
many contemporary training systems.* [21] “psychoanalyzing of dogs”as “a lot of rubbish”.* [27]
Her no-nonsense style made her a pop-culture icon, with
her emphatic“sit”and catch cry of“walkies”becoming
Post WWII part of the popular vernacular.* [28]
The Monks of New Skete, who were breeders and train-
ers of German Shepherds in Cambridge, New York, pub-
lished How to Be Your Dog's Best Friend: A Training Man-
ual for Dog Owners in 1978 and it became an immediate
best seller. Despite advocating a philosophy that “un-
derstanding is the key to communication and compassion
with your dog,”* [29] they endorsed confrontational pun-
ishments which were later shown to elicit dangerously ag-
gressive responses in many dogs.* [30]
In the 1980s veterinarian and animal behaviourist Ian
Dunbar discovered that despite evidence on the peak
learning periods in animals, few dog trainers worked
with puppies before they were six months old.* [25] Dun-
bar founded Sirius Dog Training, the first off-leash train-
ing program specifically for puppies, which emphasizes
the importance of teaching bite inhibition, sociality, and
other basic household manners, to dogs under six months
of age.* [31] Dunbar has written numerous books, and
is known for his international seminar presentations and
award-winning videos on puppy and dog behavior and
training.* [32]
Prior to the 1980s, Karen Pryor was a marine-mammal
trainer who used Skinner's operant principles to teach
dolphins and develop marine-mammal shows. In 1984,
Rudd Weatherwax trains Lassie.
she published her book, Don't Shoot the Dog: The New
Art of Teaching and Training, an explanation of operant-
In the 1950s Blanche Saunders was a staunch advocate
conditioning procedures written for the general pub-
of pet-dog training, travelling throughout the U.S. to pro-
lic.* [23] In the book Pryor explains why punishment as a
mote obedience classes.* [15] In The Complete Book of
way to get people to change often fails, and describes spe-
Dog Obedience, she said,“Dogs learn by associating their
cific positive methods for changing the behaviour of hus-
act with a pleasing or displeasing result. They must be
bands, children and pets.* [33] Pryor's dog training ma-
disciplined when they do wrong, but they must also be
terials and seminars showed how operant procedures can
rewarded when they do right.”* [22] Negative reinforce-
be used to provide training based on positive reinforce-
ment procedures played a key part in Saunders' method,
ment of good behavior.* [23] Pryor and Gary Wilkes in-
primarily the jerking of the choke chain. The mantra
troduced clicker training to dog trainers with a series of
taught to students was “Command! Jerk! Praise!" She
seminars in 1992 and 1993. Wilkes used aversives as well
felt that food should not be an ongoing reward, but that
4 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

as rewards, and the philosophical differences soon ended Typical positive reinforcement events will satisfy some
the partnership.* [34] physiological or psychological need, so it can be food, a
game, or a demonstration of affection. Different dogs will
find different things reinforcing. Negative reinforcement
21st century occurs when a dog discovers that a particular response
ends the presentation of an aversive stimulus. An aversive
The 21st century has seen the proliferation of television is anything that the dog does not like, such as a tight choke
programs and accompanying books that feature dog train- chain.* [39]
ing and rehabilitation,* [35] including Joel Silverman's
Good Dog U, Dog Whisperer with Cesar Millan, It's Me Punishment is operationally defined as an event that low-
or the Dog featuring Victoria Stillwell, The Underdog ers the probability of the behavior that it follows. It is
*
Show, Dogs in the City, and SuperFetch. The Association not“punishment”in the common sense of the word, [40]
of Pet Dog Trainers advises that television programs are and does not mean physical or psychological harm and
produced primarily for entertainment, and while all pro- most certainly does not mean abuse. Punishment sim-
grams will have good and not-so-good points, the viewer ply involves the presentation of an undesired consequence
should critically evaluate the information before deciding (positive punishment) when the wrong behavior is per-
which training tips to adopt.* [36] formed, such as a snap of the leash; or the removal of
a desired consequence (negative punishment) when the
wrong behavior is performed, such as the owner eating
1.1.3 How dogs learn the cheese that would have been the reward.* [41] A be-
havior that has previously been developed will cease if
Operant conditioning reinforcement stops. This is called extinction. A dog that
paws its owner for attention will eventually stop if it no
longer receives attention.* [42]

Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning (or Pavlovian conditioning) is a


form of learning in which one stimulus, the conditioned
stimulus, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stim-
ulus, the unconditioned stimulus.* [43] Basically, classi-
cal conditioning is when a dog learns to associate things
in its environment, or discovers some things just go to-
gether. A dog may become afraid of rain through an as-
sociation with thunder and lightning, or it may respond to
the owner putting on a particular pair of shoes by fetching
Reinforcement can be a game or toy, such as this tennis ball.
its leash.* [44] Classical conditioning is used in dog train-
ing to help a dog make specific associations with a partic-
Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning) is
ular stimulus, particularly in overcoming fear of people
a form of learning in which an individual's behavior
and situations.* [45]
is modified by its consequences. Two complementary
motivations drive instrumental learning: the maximiza-
tion of positive outcomes and minimization of aversive Non-associative learning
ones.* [37] There are two ways in which behavior is re-
inforced or strengthened: Positive Reinforcement occurs Non-associative learning is a change in a response to a
when a behavior is strengthened by producing some de- stimulus that does not involve associating the presented
sirable consequence; negative reinforcement occurs when stimulus with another stimulus or event such as reward
a behavior is strengthened by avoiding some undesirable or punishment.* [46] Habituation is non-associative learn-
consequence. There are two ways in which behavior is de- ing. An example is where a dog that reacts excitedly to
creased or weakened: negative punishment occurs when a door bell is subjected to repeated ringing without ac-
a behavior is weakened by not producing a reinforcing companying visitors, and stops reacting to the meaning-
consequence; and positive punishment occurs when a be- less stimuli. It becomes habituated to the noise.* [47] On
havior is weakened by producing a consequence that is the other side of habituation, is sensitization. Some dogs'
a disincentive. In combination, these basic reinforcing reactions to the stimuli become stronger instead of them
and punishing contingencies provide four ways for mod- habituating to the repeated stimuli or event.* [48] Desen-
ifying behavior.* [38] Reinforcement increases the rela- sitization is the process of pairing positive experiences
tive probability or frequency of the behavior it follows, with an object, person, or situation that causes fear or
while Punishment decreases the relative probability or anxiety.* [49] Consistent exposure to the feared object in
frequency of the behaviour it follows. conjunction with rewards allows the animal to become
1.1. DOG TRAINING 5

less stressed, thereby becoming desensitized in the pro- the same skills at six months of age than control puppies
cess. This type of training can be effective for dogs who the same age who were not previously allowed to watch
are fearful of fireworks.* [50] their mothers working.* [54] A 2001 study recorded the
Learned irrelevance is where dogs that are over-exposed behaviour of dogs in detour tests, in which a favourite
to a stimulus or cue learn the cue is irrelevant because toy or food was placed behind a V-shaped fence. The
the exposure has proven to be uneventful. So a dog demonstration of the detour by humans significantly im-
owner who continually says “Sit, sit”without response proved the dogs' performance in the trials. The experi-
or consequence, inadvertently teaches the dog to ignore ments showed that dogs are able to rely on information
provided by human action when confronted with a new
the cue.* [42]
task. Significantly, they did not copy the exact path of the
Learned helplessness is where a dog just simply shuts human demonstrator, but adopted the detour behaviour
down, in a situation where it has no option to avoid a shown by humans to reach their goal.* [55] A 1977 experi-
negative event. For learned helplessness to occur, the ment by Adler and Adler found that puppies who watched
event must be both traumatic and outside the dog's con- other puppies learn to pull a food cart into their cages by
trol.* [51] Family dogs that are exposed to unpredictable an attached ribbon proved considerably faster at the task
or uncontrolled punishment are at risk of developing dis- when later given the opportunity themselves. At 38 days
turbances associated with the learned helplessness disor- of age, the demonstrator puppies took an average of 697
der. Punishment which is poorly coordinated with iden- seconds to succeed, while the observers succeeded in an
tifiable avoidance cues or response options, such as when average of 9 seconds.* [56]
punishment takes place long after the event, meet the cri-
teria of inescapable trauma.* [41]
1.1.4 Training methods
Social learning
Koehler method
Social learning is the learning that occurs through observ-
Strictly following the model set out in the Koehler Method
ing the behavior of others. This form of learning does not
of Dog Training, some 50 years later, the Koehler method
need reinforcement to occur; instead, a model is required.
continues to be taught in both class and private training
While the model may not be intentionally trying to instill
formats. The method is based in the philosophy that a dog
any particular behavior, many behaviors that are observed
acts on its right to choose its actions. Koehler explained
are remembered and imitated.* [52] The domestic dog is
that a dog's learned behavior is an act of choice based on
a social species and its social dependency makes it aware
its own learning experience. When those choices are in-
of the behavior of others, which contributes to his own
fluenced by the expectation of reward, the behavior will
behavior and learning abilities. There is, however, ongo-
most likely be repeated, and when those choices are influ-
ing discussion about how much, and how, dogs can learn
enced by the anticipation of punishment, they will most
by interacting with each other and with people.* [53]
likely cease. Once the dog has learned that its choices
The term “social learning”encompasses several closely result in comfort or discomfort it can be taught to make
related concepts: allelomimetic behavior or mimicking the correct decisions. Action→Memory→Desire encap-
where, for example, puppies follow or copy others of their sulates the learning pattern used by the method; the dog
kind; social facilitation where the presence of another acts, remembers the consequences, and forms the desire
dog causes an increase in the intensity of a behaviour; to repeat or avoid those consequences. Adherents believe
and local enhancement which includes pieces of social that once the behavior has been correctly taught, it should
facilitation, mimicking, and trial-and-error learning, but be performed, thus making any correction, fair, reason-
is different from true observational learning in that the able, and expected.* [57] While the model has been used
dog actively participates in the behavior in the presence consistently since 1962, some of the punishment proce-
of the other dog and/or other environmental cues.* [53] dures described in the book are now not considered nec-
Four necessary conditions for observational learning are: essary, humane, or appropriate by many trainers.* [23]
attention, retention, motivation, and production. That is,
the dog must pay attention to the dog or person perform-
ing the modelled behavior; retain the information gath- Motivational training
ered about the behavior during the observation; be moti-
vated to reproduce the behavior in a time and place re- Purely positive or motivational training employs the use
moved from the original; and finally, produce the behav- of rewards to reinforce good behavior, and ignores all bad
ior, or some reasonable facsimile thereof.* [53] behavior.* [58] It is based in Thorndike's Law of Effect,
A 1997 study conducted by Slabbert and Rasa deter- which says that actions that produce rewards tend to in-
mined that pups between the ages of 9–12 weeks who crease in frequency and actions *
that do not produce re-
were permitted to observe their narcotics-detecting moth- wards decrease in frequency. [59]
ers at work generally proved more capable at learning Motivational training has its roots in captive animal train-
6 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

ing, where compulsion and corrections are both difficult sit, for example; or by 'shaping' where increasingly closer
and dangerous, and ignoring bad behavior is not problem- approximations to the desired behaviour are reinforced;
atic as the animal lives under controlled conditions. As a and by 'capturing' where the dog's spontaneous offering
dog training strategy, purely positive training is feasible, of the behaviour is rewarded.* [63] Once a behaviour is
but difficult, as it requires time and patience to control learnt and is on cue (command), the clicker and the treats
the rewards the dog receives for behavior. Some activi- are faded out.* [64]
ties such as jumping up or chasing squirrels are intrinsi- Clicker training uses no physical compulsion or correc-
cally rewarding, the activity is its own reward, and with tions and uses almost entirely positive reinforcements.
some activities the environment may provide reinforce-
Some clicker trainers use mild corrections such as a“non
ment such as when the response from dog next door en- reward marker"; an “Uhuh”or “Whoops”to let the
courages barking.* [58]
dog know that the behaviour is not correct, or corrections
Ruff Love is one program based on the method. Stating such as a “Time out”where attention is removed from
that “positive is not permissive”the program controls the dog.* [65]
the dog's environment using crates, tethers, and head hal-
ters to ensure the dog has little opportunity for bad be-
haviour and to ensure that the owner delivers all reinforce-
ments.* [60]

Electronic training
Clicker training
Electronic training involves the use of an electric shock as
an aversive. Common forms are collars which can be trig-
gered remotely, or that are triggered by barking, fencing
that delivers a shock when a dog wearing a special collar
crosses a buried wire, and mats that can be placed on fur-
niture to deliver a shock. Some aids deliver an aversive
such as a spray of citronella when triggered.* [66] The use
of electric shock aversives for training dogs is the subject
of considerable controversy. Supporters claim that the
use of electronic devices allows training at a distance and
the potential to eliminate self-rewarding behaviour, and
point out that properly used, they have less risk of stress
and injury than mechanical devices, such as choke chains.
Opponents cite the risks of physical and psychological
trauma associated with incorrect or abusive use.* [67]
In one study laboratory-bred Beagles were divided into
three groups. Group A received an electric shock when
the dogs touched the prey (a rabbit dummy fixed to a
motion device). Group H received a shock when they
did not obey a previously trained recall command during
Clicker-training using a metal cricket hunting. Dogs in group R received the electric shock ar-
bitrarily, i.e. the shock was administered unpredictably
Clicker training is a nickname given to a positive rein- and out of context. Group A did not show a significant
forcement training system based on operant conditioning. rise in salivary cortisol levels, while group R and group
The system uses conditioned reinforcers which are able H did show a significant rise. This led to the conclusion
to be delivered more quickly and more precisely than pri- that animals which were able to clearly associate the elec-
mary reinforcers such as food. The term 'clicker' comes tric stimulus with their action, i.e. touching the prey, and
from a small metal cricket adapted from a child's toy, consequently were able to predict and control the stressor,
however some trainers using the method use a whistle, a did not show considerable or persistent stress indicators,
word, or even a light as the conditioned reinforcer.* [61] while animals that were not able to control the situation
The basis of effective clicker training is precise timing to avoid the shock did show significant stress.* [67]
to deliver the conditioned reinforcer at the same moment In 2004 a study was published on German Shepherds
as the desired behaviour is offered. The clicker is used trained for protection work using shock collars, which
as a 'bridge' between the marking of the behaviour and showed that although electronically trained dogs can ex-
the rewarding with a primary reinforcer such as a treat cel as guard dogs, their behavior toward humans and work
or a toy.* [62] The behaviour can be elicited by 'luring' circumstances changed, often indicating heightened un-
where a hand gesture or a treat is used to coax the dog to certainty and reactivity.* [68]
1.1. DOG TRAINING 7

Model-rival training afraid.* [74]


Researchers have described several reasons why the dom-
Based on the principles of social learning, model-rival
inance model is a poor choice for dog training.* [75]
training uses a model, or a rival for attention, to demon-
First, a relationship based on dominance is established
strate the desired behaviour.* [69] The method was used
to gain priority access to scarce resources, not to impose
by Irene Pepperberg to train Alex the African Grey Parrot
particular behaviors on the less dominant animal,* [76]
to label a large number of objects. McKinley and Young
so the dominance model is irrelevant for most of the
undertook a pilot study on the applicability of a modified
behaviors that people want from their dogs, such as
version of the model-rival method to the training of do-
coming when called or walking calmly on a leash.* [75]
mestic dogs, noting that the dog's origins as a member of
Second dominance-submission relationships, once estab-
large and complex social groups promote observational
lished, are constantly tested and must be regularly rein-
learning. The model-rival training involved an interac-
forced.* [77] Thus people, particularly children and the
tion between the trainer, the dog, and a person acting as
elderly, may not be able to retain their rank and are at
a model-rival, that is, a model for desired behaviour and
risk of being injured if they attempt to do so.* [75] Third,
a rival for the trainer's attention. In view of the dog, a di-
dominant individuals gain priority access to resources,
alogue concerning a particular toy commenced between
but only while they are present, establishing dominance
the trainer and the model-rival. The trainer praised or
over a dog does not guarantee its behavior when the dom-
scolded the model-rival depending on whether the model-
inant individual is distant or absent.* [75]
rival had named the toy correctly. It was found that the
performance times for completion of the task were sim-
ilar for dogs trained with either operant conditioning or Relationship-based training
the model rival method. In addition, the total training
time required for task completion was comparable for Derived from the theories of symbolic interactionism, re-
both methods.* [70] lationship based training exploits the patterns of commu-
A Hungarian dog training group called Népszigeti nication, interpretation and adjustment between dogs and
Kutyaiskola use a variation of model-rival training which their trainers. Building on a positive relationship between
they describe as the Mirror Method. The mirror method them, the method sets out to achieve results that bene-
philosophy is that dogs instinctively learn by following the fit both the dog and the trainer, while at the same time
example of others in their social sphere. Core to the pro- enhancing and strengthening their relationship. The ba-
gram is including the dog in all aspects of the owner's life sic principles include ensuring that the dog's basic needs
and positive reinforcement of copying behaviors. Mir- have been met before beginning a training session, find-
ror method dog training relies on using a dog's natu- ing out what motivates the dog and using it to elicit be-
ral instincts and inclinations rather than working against haviours, interpreting the dog's body language to improve
them.* [71] communication between dog and trainer, using positive
reinforcement to encourage desired behavior, training in-
compatible behaviors to replace unwanted behaviours,
Dominance-based training and controlling the dog's environment to limit the possi-
bility of unwanted behaviours.* [78] A relationship-based
The concepts of“pack”and“dominance”in relation to approach to dog training is not reliant on using particu-
dog training originated in the 1940s and were popularized lar training aids or treats, the relationship is always there,
by the Monks of New Skete in the 1970s. The model is and the connection between dog and trainer is sufficiently
based on a theory that“dogs are wolves”and since wolves powerful to achieve the training goals.* [79]
live in hierarchical packs where an alpha male rules over
everyone else, then humans must dominate dogs in order
to modify their behavior.* [72] However, recent studies 1.1.5 Factors
have shown that wolves in the wild actually live in nu-
clear families where the father and mother are considered Training can take as many forms as there are trainers,
the pack leaders, and their offspring's status depends on however a detailed study of animal trainers found com-
their birth order which does not involve fighting to attain mon characteristics of successful methods: thoughtful in-
a higher rank, because the young wolves naturally follow terpretation of what the animal does prior to training, ac-
their parents' lead.* [73] curate timing and consistent communication.* [80]
Animal behaviorists assert that using dominance to mod-
ify a behavior can suppress the behavior without address-
Communication
ing the underlying cause of the problem. It can exacer-
bate the problem and increase the dog's fear, anxiety, and
aggression. Dogs that are subjected to repeated threats Main article: Dog communication
may react with aggression not because they are trying
to be dominant, but because they feel threatened and Dogs have become closely associated with humans
8 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

through domestication and have also become sensitive to Class training can be effective in encouraging socializa-
human communicative signals. Generally, they have a tion and play with a peer group. Popular advocates of
lot of exposure to human speech, especially during play, class training include Victoria Stillwell* [86] and Ian Dun-
and are believed to have a good ability to recognize hu- bar.* [87]
man speech. Two studies investigated the ability of a sin-
gle dog that was believed to be exceptional in its under-
standing of language. Both studies revealed the potential 1.1.7 Specialized training
for at least some dogs to develop an understanding of a
large number of simple commands on the basis of just Dogs are also trained for specific activities such as Com-
the sounds emitted by their owners. However the studies petitive Obedience, CGC Certification, Agility, Herding,
suggested that visual cues from the owner may be impor- Tracking, and Flyball, and to undertake particular roles
tant for the understanding of more complex spoken com- such as Detection dogs, Assistance dogs, Hunting dogs,
mands.* [81] Police dogs, Search and rescue dogs or Guard dogs.
Arthur Haggerty, who for forty years was the major sup-
plier of trained dogs for the U.S. entertainment industry,
Understanding advocated the teaching of tricks to pet dogs, explaining
that dogs bred for active duty herding, guarding or hunt-
Main articles: Dog behavior and Dog intelligence ing were unemployed in modern society. He believed
that dogs that are bored or frustrated, and consequently
For any of these techniques, consistency of the owner's badly behaved, would find a purpose, a stronger rela-
training/behavior and level of engagement can influence tionship with their owners, and a way of filling their idle
the affectiveness of any technique applied.* [82] hours in learning tricks.* [88] Haggerty advocated work-
ing with the breed or the individual dog's characteristics
to teach tricks based on retrieving, scenting, vocalising
Innate characteristics and so on, publishing a trick aptitude chart for various
dog breeds. He distinguished between tricks based on the
In considering the natural behaviours of specific breeds of dog's normal behaviours (Kiss, Wag your Tail) and tricks
dogs, it is possible to train them to perform specialised, that were taught. While Haggerty was publicly critical of
highly useful, tasks. For example, Labrador retrievers are trainers using total positive reinforcement for obedience
the favoured breed for the detection of explosives. This is training,* [89] he encouraged food rewards for trick train-
because of a combination of factors including their food ing.* [88]
drive which enables them to keep focused on a task de-
spite noise and other distractions. Most working breeds
of dogs are able to be trained to find people with their
1.1.8 Tools
sense of smell (as opposed to their sense of sight). Cocker
Spaniels are able to be trained as part of a termite detec- 1.1.9 See also
tion team. Their relatively small size enables them to fit
into small spaces, and their light weight allows them to • Alpha roll
walk on areas of ceiling which would be dangerous to • Bark (dog)
anything heavier. In fact, although unusual, termite de-
tection dogs are much more reliable at detecting termites • Conformation showing
than humans who rely on a basic system of tapping and
• Dog agility
listening. Because of their ability to learn signals by sight
and for their energetic and athletic natures, German Shep- • Dog sports
herds are able to be trained for work alongside search and
rescue teams and human apprehension teams.* [83] • List of dog trainers
• Obedience training

1.1.6 Individualized and/or class training General:


Individualised training is used with dogs that have an ur-
• Animal cognition
gent or unique training problem such as fear, hyperactiv-
ity, aggression (and other related problems), separation • Animal training
anxiety, biting, excessive barking, insecurity, destructive
behaviors, walking difficulties, and inappropriate elimi- • Ethology
nation.* [84]* [85] This type of training would normally • Operant conditioning
be undertaken where the problem naturally occurs rather
than a class situation. • Punishment (psychology)
1.1. DOG TRAINING 9

• Reinforcement [24] Scott, John Paul; John L. Fuller (1998). Genetics and
the Social Behavior of the Dog. Chicago: University of
• Reward system Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226743387.

• Dog behaviorist [25] Millan 2010, p. 89.

[26] Woodhouse 1982, p. 13.


1.1.10 Notes [27] Woodhouse 1982, p. 9.
[1] Millan 2010, p. 33. [28] Dudman, Helga (1996). The Dog's Guide to Famous Own-
ers: A Walkies Through History with Some Very Important
[2] Braslau-Schneck, Stacy (1998).“An Animal Trainer's In-
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ner (2009). “Survey of the use and outcome of
[4] Burch 1999, p. 1. confrontational and non-confrontational training meth-
[5] Millan 2010, p. 82. ods in client-owned dogs showing undesired behaviors”
. Applied Animal Behavior Science 117 (1): 47–
[6] Hutchinson 2005, p.11. 54. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2008.12.011. Retrieved 30
November 2012.
[7] Millan 2010, p. 83.
[31] Dunbar, Ian. “Sirius Dog Training”. Retrieved 30
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[10] Most 1954, p. 26.
[35] Millan 2010, p. 91.
[11] Millan 2010, p. 84.
[36] APDT (2010). “Can I Train My Dog Just Like They Do
[12] Bihm, Elson M.; J. Arthur Gillaspy, Jr. (1 June 2012). On TV? Reality TV versus Real Life”. Association of
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[37] Lindsay 2000, p. 247-248
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[38] Lindsay 2000, p. 246-247.
[13] Bailey, R. E.; J. A. Gillaspy, Jr. (2005). “Operant Psy-
chology Goes to the Fair: Marian and Keller Breland in [39] Lindsay 2000, p. 253.
the Popular Press, 1947–1966”. The Behavior Analyst
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[14] Tinbergen, N (1963). “On aims and methods of ethol- [41] Reid 1996, p. 108.
ogy”. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 20 (4): 410–433.
doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1963.tb01161.x. [42] Lindsay 2000, p. 213.

[43] Bouton, M. E. (2007). Learning and Behavior: A Con-


[15] Millan 2010, p. 87.
temporary Synthesis. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.
[16] Lorenz 1953, p. 43.
[44] Burch 1999, p. 3–5.
[17] Koehler 1962, p. 6.
[45] Dunbar, Ian (2007).“Classical Conditioning”. Dog Star
[18] Koehler 1962, p. 7. Daily. Retrieved 1 December 2012.

[19] Koehler 1962, p. 8. [46] “Animal Learning”. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved


September 21, 2011.
[20] Hearne 1987, p. 10.
[47] Reid 1996, p. 34–35.
[21] Millan 2010, p. 88.
[48] Lindsay 2000, p. 219.
[22] Saunders 1969, p. 11.
[49] “The Use of Positive Reinforcement Training Techniques
[23] Burch, Mary R. (1 August 2012). “The Evolution of to Enhance the Care, Management, and Welfare of Pri-
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shine.yahoo.com/. July 3, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2012. Rival Method”. The Other End of the Leash. Retrieved
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[51] Seligman, Martin E. P.; Steven F. Maier and James H.
Geer (1968).“Alleviation of Learned Helplessness in the [70] McKinley, S.; R. J. Young (2003). “The efficacy of the
Dog”. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 73 (3): 256–262. model-rival method when compared with operant condi-
doi:10.1037/h0025831. PMID 5658526 tioning for training domestic dogs to perform a retrieval-
selection task”. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81 (4):
[52] Bandura, Albert (1971). Psychological Modelling. New 357–365. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00277-0
York: Lieber-Antherton.
[71] Wogan, Lisa (November 2010). “The Mirror Method”.
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Older Well-Behaved Dogs”. The Whole Dog Journal.
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[74] “Position Statement on the Use of Dominance Theory in
[55] Pongrácz, Péter; Á. Miklósi, E. Kubinyi, K. Gurobi, Behavior Modification of Animals”. American Veteri-
J. Topál and V. Csanyi (2001). “Social learn- nary Society of Animal Behavior. Retrieved 16 Decem-
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tour task”. Animal Behaviour 62 (6): 1109–1117. [75] Yin, Sophia (2007).“Dominance versus leadership in dog
doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1866. training”. Compendium on Continuing Education for the
Practising Veterinarian, North American Edition 29 (7):
[56] Adler, Leonore Loeb; Helmut E. Adler (1977). “On- 414–4–8
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iaris)". Developmental Psychobiology 10 (3): 267–271. [76] Bernstein, Irwin S. (1981). “Dominance: The Baby and
doi:10.1002/dev.420100310. PMID 863122. the Bathwater”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):
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[57] Ancheta, Tony. “Koehler Dog Training”. Retrieved 2
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[59] Burch 1999, p. 4. [78] Woodard, Sherry (15 April 2011). “Why We Use
Relationship-Based Training”. Retrieved 2 December
[60] Garrett, Susan (2002). Ruff Love. Chicopee, MA: Clean
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[79] Clothier, Suzanne (2009).“Relationship Based Approach
[61] Pryor 1999, p. 4.
to Training”. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
[62] Pryor 1999, p. 29.
[80] McGreevy 2011, p. 280.
[63] Pryor 1999, p. 60–62.
[81] Fukuzawa, M.; D. S. Mills; J. J. Cooper (2005).
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[82] Arhant, Christine (2010). "Behavior of smaller and larger
[66] Burch 1999, p. 162. dogs: Effects of training methods, inconsistency of owner
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[67] Schalke, E.; J. Stichnoth; S. Ott; R. Jones-Baade dog”. Applied Animal Behavior Science 123 (3): 131–
(2007). “Clinical signs caused by the use of elec- 142. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2010.01.003. |first2= miss-
tric training collars on dogs in everyday life situations” ing |last2= in Authors list (help); |first3= missing |last3=
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doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2006.11.002. list (help); |first5= missing |last5= in Authors list (help)
[68] Schilder, Matthijs B.H.; Joanne A.M. van der Borg [83] McGreevy 2011, p. 116–279.
(2004). “Training dogs with help of the shock col-
lar: short and long term behavioral effects”. Ap- [84] Jane S. Orihel.“Management and Rehabilitation of Inter-
plied Animal Behaviour Science 85 (3): 319–334. Dog Aggression in Animal Shelters”. Retrieved 15 De-
doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2003.10.004. cember 2011.
1.2. ASSISTANCE DOG 11

[85] “Specializing in Dog Aggression and Dog Behavior”. • Millan, Cesar; and Melissa Jo Peltier (2010). Ce-
Dog Behavior Rehab. Retrieved 15 December 2011. sar's Rules, New York: Three Rivers Press ISBN
978-0307716873
[86] “Positively”. Victoria Stillwell. Retrieved 15 December
2011. • Monks of New Skete (1978). How to be Your Dog's
Best Friend: A Training Manual for Dog Owners,
[87] “Sirius Dog Training”. Ian Dunbar. Retrieved 15 De-
London : Little Brown
cember 2011.
• Most, K. (1954). Training Dogs, (J. Cleugh, Trans.),
[88] Haggerty, Capt. Arthur; Carol Lea Benjamin (1978).
Dog Tricks: Teaching your Dog to be Useful, Fun and En-
New York: Dogwise Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-
tertaining. New York: Howell Book House. ISBN 0-385- 929242-00-X
13493-2. • Pryor, Karen (1984). Don't Shoot the Dog: The New
[89] Miller, Stephen (July 17, 2006). “Captain Haggerty, 74, Art of Teaching and Training, New York: Bantam
Dog Trainer, Dog Author, Dog Cineaste”. The New York Books. ISBN 0-553-38039-7
Sun. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
• Pryor, Karen (1999). Clicker Training for Dogs,
[90] Victorian Consolidated Regulations (2008). “Prevention London: Ringpress Books. ISBN 1-86054-282-4
of Cruelty to Animals Regulations 2008 - SECT 9”. Re-
• Reid, Pamela J. (1996). Excel-Erated Learning, Ex-
trieved 2 December 2012
plaining (in Plain English) How Dogs Learn and
[91] Lindsay, 2005, p. 583 How Best to Teach Them, James & Kenneth Pub-
lishers.
[92] Lindsay, 2005, p. 584
• Saunders, Blanche (1969). Training You to Train
[93] “Ogmore illegal shock collar dog owner gets £2,000 fine” Your Dog, New York: Howell Book House. ISBN
. BBC News. 18 July 2011. 0-876-05457-2
[94] Victorian Consolidated Regulations (2008). “Prevention • Scott, John P.; and John L. Fuller (1965). Genetics
of Cruelty to Animals Regulations 2008 - SECT 17”. and the Social Behavior of the Dog, Chicago: Uni-
Retrieved 2 December 2012
versity of Chicago Press.
• Woodhouse, Barbara (1982). No Bad Dogs: the
1.1.11 References Woodhouse Way, New York, Simon & Schuster.
ISBN 0-671-54185-4
• Burch, Mary R.; and Jon S. Bailey (1999). How
Dogs Learn, New York: Howell Book House ISBN
0-8760-5371-1 1.1.12 External links
• Hearne, Vicki (1987). Adam's Task: Calling Ani-
mals by Name, New York: Alfred A. Knopf ISBN 1.2 Assistance dog
0-394-75530-8
Not to be confused with Service dog or Working dog.
• Hutchinson, Lieut-Gen WN (1865). Dog Breaking An assistance dog is a dog trained to aid or assist a
for the Gun: The Most Expeditious, Certain and Easy
Method, With Copious Notes on Shooting Sports, New
York: Vintage Dog Books, 2005 ISBN 9-781-8466-
4035-3

• Lindsay, Steven R. (2000). Handbook of Applied


Dog Behavior and Training, Vol 1, Adaptation and
Learning, Iowa State Press

• Lorenz, Konrad (1953). Man Meets Dog, (Marjorie


Kerr Wilson, Trans.) Hagerstown, MA: Kodansha
America, 1994

• Marlo, Shelby (1999). New Art of Dog Train-


ing, Chicago: Contemporary Books, ISBN 0-8092-
3170-0 An assistance dog pressing a button to open an automatic door.

• McGreevy, P., and R. Boakes (2011). Carrots and person with a disability. Many are trained by a specific
Sticks: Principles of Animal Training, Sydney: Dar- organization, others by their handler, sometimes with the
lington Press help of a professional trainer.
12 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

1.2.1 Classification
Assistance dogs fall into three general types: Guide,
Hearing, and Service.* [1] Most will be trained for only
one specialty, though “combination”dogs do exist.

• Guide dogs assist the blind and the visually im-


paired.

• Hearing dogs, or signal dogs, help the deaf and


hard of hearing.

Mobility assistance dog helping his handler stand up.

1.2.2 See also


• Assistance animal

• Autism service dog

• Dogs for the Disabled (in the UK)

• Medical response dog

• Mobility assistance dog

• Psychiatric service dog

Assistance Dog at food court at shopping mall. • Seizure dog

• Therapy dog
• Service dogs are not specifically trained for visual
or hearing impairment, but may have specific roles • Working dog
such as mobility assistance dogs, medical alert dogs,
and psychiatric service dogs.
1.2.3 References
In the United States, the term“service dog”may be used
synonymously with“assistance dog,”and is occasionally [1] Assistance Dogs International
used for other types of working dogs as well. These dogs
can in some instances be dual classified as therapy dogs.
Also any of the above named dogs“in training”are pro- 1.2.4 External links
tected under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
• Service Dogs and More - A large print site about
(ADA) and Americans with Disabilities Amendment Act
Assistance Dogs
(ADAA, which expanded some legal protections), even if
the handler at the time is not “using”the dog in the ca- • Assistance Dogs International
pacity for which it is being trained. In most of the rest of
the world a distinct separation between service dogs and • Delta Society's National Service Animal Resource
assistance dogs is observed. Center
1.3. CLICKER TRAINING 13

• DMOZ Open Directory Project: Service Dogs Keller Breland, worked with him researching pigeon be-
havior and training projects during World War II, when
• International Association of Assistance Dog Part-
pigeons were taught to “bowl”(push a ball with their
ners
beaks).* [6] They believed that traditional animal train-
• Service Dog Central (includes guide and hearing ing was being needlessly hindered because methods of
dogs as well) praise and reward then in use did not inform the animal of
success with enough promptness and precision to create
• Please Don't Pat Me Australia (information about the required cognitive connections for speedy learning.
Australian Assistance Dogs including guide, hear- They saw the potential for using the operation condition-
ing, medical, psychiatric assistance dogs and the ing method in commercial animal training.* [7] The two
relevant laws and minimum training standards re- later married and in 1947 created Animal Behavior En-
quired) terprises (ABE), “the first commercial animal training
business to intentionally and systematically incorporate
the principles of behavior analysis and operant condition-
1.3 Clicker training ing into animal training.”* [8]
The Brelands coined the term“bridging stimulus”in the
1940s to refer to the function of a secondary reinforcer
such as a whistle or click.* [8] ABE continued operations
until 1990, with the assistance of Bob Bailey after Keller
Breland died in 1965.* [8] They report having trained over
15,000 animals and over 150 species during their time in
operation.* [8]
Although the Brelands tried to promote clicker training
for dogs in the 1940s and 1950s, the method failed to
catch on until the late 1980s and early 1990s.* [9] In the
early 1990s, Karen Pryor and Gary Wilkes started giv-
ing clicker training seminars to dog owners; the first was
given in San Franscisco in 1992.* [9] In 1998, Alexandra
Kurland published “Clicker Training For Your Horse.”
*
[9]* [10] In the 21st century, training books began to ap-
pear for other companion animals, such as cats, birds, and
rabbits.* [11]

1.3.2 Methodology
Clicker-training a dog.
The first step in clicker training is teaching the animal to
Clicker training is a method for training animals that associate the clicker sound (or other chosen marker such
uses positive reinforcement such as a food treat, along as a whistle)* [2] with a treat. Every time the click sounds,
with a clicker or small mechanical noisemaker to mark a treat is offered immediately.
the behavior being reinforced. When training a new be-
havior, the clicker helps the animal to quickly identify the Next the click is used to signal that a desired behavior has
precise behavior that results in the treat. The technique happened. Some approaches* [1] are:
is popular with dog trainers, but can be used for all kinds
of domestic and wild animals.* [1] • capturing: catching the animal in the act of doing
something that is desired, for example sitting or ly-
Sometimes instead of a click to mark the desired behav- ing down. Eventually the animal learns to repeat the
ior, other distinctive sounds are made (such as“whistle, a behavior for a treat.
cluck of the tongue, a snap of the fingers, or even a word”
)* [2] or visual or other sensory cues (such as a flashlight, • shaping: gradually building a new behavior by re-
hand sign, or vibrating collar),* [3] especially helpful for warding each small steps toward it.
deaf animals.
• luring: using the treat like a magnet to get the animal
to move toward the desired position.
1.3.1 History
Once the behavior is learned, the final step is to add a cue
B. F. Skinner first identified and described the princi- for the behavior, such as a word or a hand signal.* [1] The
ples of operant conditioning that are used in clicker train- animal will have learned that a treat is on the way after
ing.* [4]* [5] Two students of Skinner's, Marian Kruse and completing the desired behavior.
14 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

1.3.3 See also • Orr, Joan and Teresa Lewin, “Getting Started:
Clicking With Your Rabbit”(2006, Sunshine
• Animal training Books), ISBN 978-1890948238.
• Dog training • Pryor, Karen“Getting Started: Clicker Training for
Cats”(2012, Karen Pryor Clickertraining), ISBN
• Operant conditioning
978-1-890948-14-6 (Kindle edition).
• Cat training • Pryor, Karen,“Getting Started: Clicker Training for
• The Amazing Acro-Cats Dogs”(2004, Interpret Publishing), ISBN 1-86054-
282-4

1.3.4 References • Pryor, Karen,“Reaching the Animal Mind: Clicker


Training and What It Teaches Us About All Ani-
[1] “Clicker Training Your Pet”, ASPCA, accessed July 28, mals”(2010, Scribner), ISBN 978-0743297776.
2014.
• Spector, Morgan,“Clicker Training for Obedience”
[2] “5 Clicker Training Myths”, Wag the Dog, accessed July (1999, Sunshine Books), ISBN 978-0962401787.
29, 2014.

[3] “Clicker Training for Deaf Dogs”, Deaf Dog Education 1.3.6 External links
Action Fund, accessed July 29, 2014.

[4] Skinner, B.F. (1951). How to teach animals. Scientific


• “Clicker Training Your Pet”, ASPCA
American, 185, 26-29.

[5] Skinner, B.F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An


experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-
1.4 Dog agility
Crofts.

[6] Peterson, G. (2000). The Discovery of Shaping or B.F.


Skinnerʼs Big Surprise. The Clicker Journal: The Mag-
azine for Animal Trainers, 43, 6-13.

[7] Bailey and Gillaspy, Operant Conditioning Goes to the


Fair,The Behavior Analyst 2005, pp 143-159.

[8] “Animal Behavior Enterprises”, History of Behavior


Analysis, accessed July 28, 2014.

[9] “Modern Training and Clicker Training for Pet Owners”


, History of Behavior Analysis, accessed July 28, 2014.

[10] Kurland, Alexandra, “Clicker Training for Your Horse”


(2004 edition, Ringpress Books), ISBN 1-86054-292-1.
A hairless Chinese Crested taking part in an agility competition.
[11] See “Further Reading”.
Dog agility is a dog sport in which a handler directs a
dog through an obstacle course in a race for both time
1.3.5 Further reading and accuracy. Dogs run off leash with no food or toys
as incentives, and the handler can touch neither dog nor
• Alexander, Melissa C., “Click for Joy: Questions obstacles.* [1]* [2]* [3]* [4]* [5]* [6] Consequently the han-
and Answers from Clicker Trainers and Their Dogs” dler's controls are limited to voice, movement, and var-
(2003, Sunshine Books), ISBN 978-1890948122. ious body signals, requiring exceptional training of the
animal and coordination of the handler.
• Castro, A. (2007): The bird school - Clicker training
for parrots and other birds. ISBN 978-3-939770- In its simplest form, an agility course consists of a set of
03-9. standard obstacles laid out by a judge in a design of his
or her own choosing in an area of a specified size. The
• Johnson, Melinda,“Getting Started: Clicker Train- surface may be of grass, dirt, rubber, or special matting.
ing for Birds”(2003, Sunshine Books), ISBN 978- Depending on the type of competition, the obstacles may
1890948153. be marked with numbers indicating the order in which
• Kurland, Alexandra, “Clicker Training for Your they must be completed.
Horse”(2004, Ringpress Books), ISBN 1-86054- Courses are complicated enough that a dog could not
292-1. complete them correctly without human direction. In
1.4. DOG AGILITY 15

competition, the handler must assess the course, de- • Agility field left side: A competition agility field
cide on handling strategies, and direct the dog through showing (clockwise from lower left) a tunnel, the
the course, with precision and speed equally important. dogwalk, the judge standing in front of a winged
Many strategies exist to compensate for the inherent dif- jump, two additional winged jumps, dog executing
ference in human and dog speeds and the strengths and the teeter-totter with his handler guiding, and the
weaknesses of the various dogs and handlers. tire jump.

• Course map showing the layout of the course in the


preceding photos. Maps like this are commonly
1.4.1 Competition basics used by officials to communicate the course to han-
dlers.
Because each course is different, handlers are allowed a
short walk-through before the competition starts. During • Agility field right side: The right side of the same
this time, all handlers competing in a particular class can agility field showing (clockwise from foreground)
walk or run around the course without their dogs, deter- the weave poles, the pause table, the A-frame, two
mining how they can best position themselves and guide winged jumps, the collapsed tunnel (or chute), and
their dogs to get the most accurate and rapid path around a wingless jump. Numbered orange plastic cones
the numbered obstacles. The handler tends to run a path next to obstacles indicate the order in which the dog
much different from the dog's path, so the handler can must perform them.
sometimes spend quite a bit of time planning for what is
usually a quick run.
The walk-through is critical for success because the 1.4.2 Agility obstacles
course's path takes various turns, even U-turns or 270°
turns, can cross back on itself, can use the same obstacle The regulations of different organizations specify some-
more than once, can have two obstacles so close to each what different rules and dimensions for the construction
other that the dog and handler must be able to clearly dis- of obstacles. However, the basic form of most obstacles
criminate which to take, and can be arranged so that the is the same wherever they are used. Obstacles include the
handler must work with obstacles between himself and following:
the dog, called layering, or at a great distance from the
dog.
Contact obstacles
Printed maps of the agility course, called course maps, are
often made available to the handlers before they run, to Tunnels
help the handlers plan their course strategy. The course
map contains icons indicating the position and orienta- Jumps
tion of all the obstacles, and numbers indicating the or-
der in which the obstacles are to be taken. Course maps
were originally drawn by hand, but nowadays almost all
course maps are created using a program called Clean
Run Course Designer.
Each dog and handler team gets one opportunity together
to attempt to complete the course successfully. The dog
begins behind a starting line and, when instructed by his
handler, proceeds around the course. The handler typ-
ically runs near the dog, directing the dog with spoken
commands and with body language (the position of arms,
shoulders, and feet).
Because speed counts as much as accuracy, especially at
higher levels of competition, this all takes place at a full-
out run on the dog's part and, in places, on the handler's This winged single jump is adjusted in height so that small dogs
such as Pembroke Welsh Corgis may compete against similar-
part as well.
sized dogs.
Scoring of runs is based on how many faults are in-
curred. Penalties can include not only course faults, such
as knocking down a bar in a jump, but also time faults, Jump (or hurdle) Two uprights supporting a horizon-
which are the number of seconds over the calculated stan- tal bar over which the dog jumps. The height is ad-
dard course time, which in turn is determined based on justed for dogs of different heights. The uprights
the competition level, the complexity of the course, and can be simple stanchions or can have wings of vari-
other factors. ous shapes, sizes, and colors.
16 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

Double and triple jump (or spread jump) Two up- fence hurdle, long hurdle, window hurdle, and water
rights supporting two or three horizontal bars spread hurdle.
forward or back from each other. The double can
have parallel or ascending horizontal bars; the triple
always has ascending bars. The spread between the Miscellaneous
horizontal bars is sometimes adjusted based on the
height of the dog.

Panel jump Instead of horizontal bars, the jump is a


solid panel from the ground up to the jump height,
constructed of several short panels that can be re-
moved to adjust the height for different dog heights.

A Chinook on a pause table

An Australian Shepherd jumping through a tire jump.

Broad jump (or long jump) A set of four or five


slightly raised platforms that form a broad area over
which the dog must jump without setting their feet
on any of the platforms. The length of the jump is
adjusted for the dog's height.

Tire jump A torus shape roughly the size of a tire (18


inches (46 cm) to 24 inches (61 cm) inside diam-
eter), suspended in a frame. The dog must jump
through the opening of the“tire"; like other jumps,
the height is adjusted for dogs of different sizes. The
tire is usually wrapped with tape both for visibility
and to cover any openings or uneven places in which
the dog could catch. Many organizations now allow A Border Collie demonstrates fast weave poles.
or require a so-called displaceable or breakaway tire,
where the tire comes apart in some way if the dog
hits it hard enough.* [8] Table (or pause table) An elevated square platform
about 3-foot-by-3-foot (1-meter-by-1-meter) square
Other hurdles UKC agility allows a variety of hurdles onto which the dog must jump and pause, either sit-
not found in other agility organizations: bush hur- ting or in a down position, for a designated period
dle, high hurdle, log hurdle, picket fence hurdle, rail of time which is counted out by the judge, usually
1.4. DOG AGILITY 17

about 5 seconds. The height ranges from about 8 1.4.3 Agility scoring and clean runs
to 30 inches (20 to 76 cm) depending on the dog's
height and sponsoring organization. Each organization has its own rules about what constitutes
a fault, and whether one can earn a qualifying score with
faulted runs. A completed run that passes the minimum
Pause box A variation on the pause table. The pause defined standards for time, faults, points, etc., is referred
box is a square marked off on the ground, usually to as a qualifying run and in some cases earns credit to-
with plastic pipe or construction tape, where the dog wards agility titles. A qualifying run is also referred to as
must perform the “pause”behavior (in either a sit a leg. A clean run or clear round is one with no faults.
or a down) just as he would on the elevated table.
Different organizations place different values on faults,
which can include the following:
Weave poles Similar to a slalom, this is a series of 5 to
12 upright poles, each about 3 feet (0.91 m) tall and
spaced about 24 inches (61 cm) apart (spacing for 1.4.4 Competition classes
AKC was 21 inches (53 cm) until it was changed
in January 2010. The extra three inches was to re- Given the available set of obstacles and possible faults,
lieve stress on the dog's back.), through which the there are many permutations of games, or classes, that one
dog weaves. The dog must always enter with the first can play on the agility field. A typical course is laid out
pole to his left, and must not skip poles. For many within a 100-by-100-foot (30 by 30 m) area, with roughly
dogs, weave poles are one of the most difficult ob- 10 to 20 feet (3.0 to 6.1 m) between obstacles.
stacles to master. Judges design their own courses (in NADAC, judges can
do so or can select from previously designed courses) us-
Other obstacles UKC agility allows the following obsta- ing the rules of the sanctioning organization. Each orga-
cles not found in other agility organizations: swing nization decides which classes are valid for achieving ti-
plank, sway bridge, and platform jump. NADAC tles and how each must be performed, but there are many
also uses a hoop obstacle. A Hoopers course con- similarities.
sists entirely of hoops, but hoops may be used in Some of the common types of courses or classes are
other courses as well.
• Standard, Regular, or Agility: This is a numbered
course consisting of (usually) at least one of each of
References for equipment the three primary contact obstacles (not including
the crossover) plus jumps, tunnels, and weave poles
Equipment specifications for various organizations: of various flavors. A novice course might consist of
as few as 15 obstacles; a higher-level course might
• AKC (PDF), under “Obstacle Specifications and have 22. The dog must negotiate the obstacles in the
Performance Requirements”(United States) correct order within the standard course time (SCT).

• ASCA (PDF), in Appendix A “Equipment Speci- • Jumpers or Jumping: This numbered course con-
fications”(United States) sists primarily of various types of jumps and, de-
pending on the organization, also weave poles and
• CKC, Canadian rules, see Appendix A (Canada) tunnels. The dog must negotiate the obstacles in the
correct order within the standard course time (SCT).
The dogs achieve their fastest speed on these courses
• CPE, follow the “Rules”link (United States)
because there are no contact obstacles to slow them
down.
• FCI (PDF), under“Obstacle Specification”(Inter-
national)
• Gamblers, FAST, Jackpot, or Joker: An unnum-
bered course. The game typically consists of two
• NADAC (North America)
parts, an opening period and the closing period, also
known as the gamble, joker, or jackpot. In the open-
• TDAA (North America) ing period, the dog has a certain amount of time in
which to do whatever obstacles the handler deems
• USDAA (North America) appropriate and accrues points based on the obsta-
cles completed. At the end of the allocated time
• UKC, list of equipment, no specs (North America) for the opening period, a horn or whistle blows. At
that point, the gamble begins. The dog has a certain
• The Kennel Club, partial specs (United Kingdom) small amount of time (about 15 seconds) in which to
18 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

complete a sequence of obstacles designated by the agility course, with the handlers exchanging a baton
judge ahead of time. (In FAST, there is no opening between sections.
and closing period and this sequence may be taken
at any time during the run.) The challenge is that
there is a line on the ground past which the handler 1.4.5 Fairness among dogs and handlers
must not step, typically paralleling the gamble ob-
stacles and from 5 to 20 feet (1.5 to 6.1 m) away
depending on the level of competition. The handler
must choose an opening sequence that flows com-
fortably for the individual dog's skills and experi-
ence. The sequence must also be planned so that,
when the horn blows, the dog is in a good position
to immediately begin the gamble. The greatest chal-
lenge is the distance handling – getting the dog to
move or even turn away from you.

• Snooker: Loosely based on the billiard game of


Snooker. The course has at least three red jumps,
each numbered 1, and six other obstacles numbered
2 through 7. The dog accumulates points based on
the obstacle's number. This also has two parts, an
opening sequence and a closing sequence. In the Australian Koolie smooth coat competing in an agility trial.
opening sequence, the dog must complete a 1, then
any obstacle numbered 2 to 7, a different 1 and any 2
to 7 obstacle (including the one already performed),
and yet another different 1 and another 2-7 obsta-
cle. For example, the dog could perform the red on
the left for 1 point, the 7-point obstacle, the red in
the middle for 1 point and then the 7-pointer again,
then the red on the far side of the course and the
7-pointer one more time, for a total of 24 points in
the opening. After successfully completing this, the
dog must complete the obstacles 2-7, in order, for
an additional possible 27 points. Failure to follow
these rules exactly (such as knocking a bar or taking
2 reds in a row) results in the dog and handler being A St. Bernard competing in dog agility.
whistled off the course.
Although each organization has its own rules, all divide
• Strategy and entertainment value: The dogs dogs into smaller groups that are close to each other in size
might have to negotiate between other obsta- and experience for purposes of calculating winners and
cles without taking them or make a difficult qualifying scores: * [9]* [10]* [11] * [12]* [13]* [14]* [15]
entry to the obstacle, often combined with a
longer distance between the reds and the 7 so
that it consumes more time to do the higher- • Dogs are measured in height at the peak of their
point obstacle in the opening. withers (shoulders). They are then divided into
height groups; for example, dogs measuring between
12 and 16 inches (30 and 41 cm) might compete to-
• Power & Speed: The course consists of two sec-
gether with the jumps set at a height of 16 inches
tions. The first is an untimed “Power”section,
(41 cm). This ensures that dogs who might have
which features the contact equipment and any of the
an advantage on a particular course because of their
following at the discretion of the judge setting the
size (larger or smaller) keep the advantage to a min-
course: weaves, table, a-frame, spread jump, long
imum.
jump. If this section is negotiated without accru-
ing any faults, the dog and handler may go on to the • Dogs are further divided into their experience lev-
“Speed”section, which consists of a timed jumping els. So, for example, there may be competitions for
course. 12 inches (30 cm) Novice dogs, 12 inches (30 cm)
Intermediate dogs, and 12 inches (30 cm) Masters
• Team, Pairs, or Relay: Two or three dog-and- dogs. Dogs typically have to have certain numbers
handler teams each execute a portion of a Standard of successes at lower levels before they can move up
1.4. DOG AGILITY 19

to compete with more advanced dogs. Some organi-


zations allow beginner dogs to run on-leash in some
situations.
• Some organizations divide dogs into additional op-
tional categories because the dogs are older (usually
over seven years), need to jump at a lower height
than the regular standard, or the like. For example,
a veteran's class for older dogs might allow the dogs
to jump at a height lower than the standard height
and to have more time to complete the course. Oth-
erwise, dogs are not separated by age; they must only
be of at least a specified minimum age to compete.
• Some organizations divide handlers into additional
optional categories, such as junior handlers (usually A mixed-breed dog demonstrates the teeter at an agility class.
under 18), handicapped handlers, or senior handlers.

Dogs are not separated by breed in agility competitions. even quickly learning puppies must be finished growing
Some organizations require that dogs entering its compe- before training on equipment at standard height to prevent
titions must be purebred, but many organizations allow injury.
any sound, able-bodied dog, whether purebred or mixed- Introducing a new dog to the agility obstacles varies
breed. Blind dogs and dogs with disabilities judged to in response. Each individual dog learns at his own
make the course run physically dangerous to the dog are pace; confident dogs may charge over equipment with
generally ineligible for the dog's own safety. Among the little encouragement, while more timid dogs may take
major agility associations worldwide, the AKC stands out weeks to overcome their hesitations with much encour-
in its exclusion of deaf dogs from agility competition.* [9] agement. Both scenarios present their own challenges;
dogs may be overconfident and sloppy to the point where
they have a serious accident, so self-control must be
1.4.6 History
taught.* [16]* [18] Timid dogs need extra support to boost
their confidence.* [18] Given the right encouragement, a
Main article: History of dog agility
timid dog can gain confidence through learning the sport
itself.* [16]* [18] The size of the dog can also have an ef-
The history of dog agility can be traced to a demonstra- fect on training obstacles, particularly with the chute, in
tion at the Crufts Dog Show in the late 1970s in the United which smaller dogs are prone to getting trapped and tan-
Kingdom. Dogs were run around a course designed sim- gled inside.* [17] Great effort is taken in general to see
ilar to horse jumping courses during intermission as a that the dog is always safe and has a good experience
way to entertain the audience. It has since spread rapidly in training for agility so that they do not fear the obsta-
around the world, with major competitions held world- cles, and instead perform them willingly and with enthu-
wide. siasm.* [17]
The teeter-totter (or see-saw) and the weave poles are
1.4.7 Geography typically the most challenging obstacles to teach to any
dog.* [16] Many dogs are wary of the see-saw's move-
Main article: Geography of dog agility ment, and the weave poles involve a behavior that does
not occur naturally to the dog.* [16]* [17] Contact obsta-
cles in general are challenging to train in a manner that
Dog agility is an international dog sport with many dif- ensures that the dog touches the contact zone without sac-
ferent sanctioning organizations and competitions world- rificing speed. Whether for competition or recreation, the
wide. most important skill for an agility team to learn is how to
work together quickly, efficiently, and safely.* [17] Dogs
vary greatly in their speed and accuracy of completing a
1.4.8 Training
course, as well as in their preferences for obstacles; there-
Dogs can begin training for agility at any age; however, fore, the handler must adjust their handling style to suit
care is taken when training dogs under a year old so as and support the dog.
to not harm their developing joints.* [16] Dogs generally Training techniques for each piece of equipment varies.
start training on simplified, smaller, or lowered (in height) For example, the techniques for training the weave poles
agility equipment and training aids (such as ladders and include using offset poles that gradually move more in
wobbling boards to train careful footing);* [17] however, line with each other; using poles that tilt outward from
20 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

the base and gradually become upright; using wires or


gates around the poles forcing the dog into the desired
path; putting a hand in the dog's collar and guiding the
dog through while leading with an incentive; teaching the
dog to run full speed between two poles and gradually in-
creasing the angle of approach and number of poles; et
cetera.* [17]
Agility can be trained independently (for instance at
home) or with an instructor or club that offers classes.
Seasoned handlers and competitors, in particular, may
choose to train independently, as structured classes are
commonly geared towards novices.* [16] Seasoned han-
dlers often instead look to seminars and workshops that
teach advanced handling techniques, and then practice on
their own. Common reasons for joining an agility class
include:

• Access to agility equipment, especially the larger


contact obstacles, which can be expensive, difficult English Springer Spaniel
to build, and require a lot of space to use.* [18]
• Seeking the guidance and expertise of more experi- trial takes place, and another member to be the secretary,
enced handlers.* [18] who is responsible for providing competitors with the
• Enjoying the social venue that many classes pro- show premium or schedule̶a document that describes
vide.* [18] the specific competition, summarizes the rules, describes
the trial site, and includes an entry form̶receiving com-
• Training in a more distracting environment, which pleted entry forms, sending out running orders, producing
is helpful in preparation for competition.* [18] running-order lists for the day of competition, and com-
piling the results from the trial to send to the sanctioning
In addition to the technical and educational training, organization.
physical training must also be done.* [18] At the very
least, the dog must be fit enough to run and jump without The designated chief ring steward or ring manager is re-
causing stress or injury to its body. The handler can also sponsible for finding and assigning workers, almost al-
benefit from being physically fit, but with some handling ways volunteers, to perform the myriad tasks involved in
styles it is not necessary to keep up with the dog (nor is it putting on a trial. For example, if electronic timing is not
possible with very fast dogs).* [18] Being able to handle a being used, each class needs a timer, who ensures that the
dog from a distance allows mobility-impaired handlers to dog's running time is recorded, a scribe, who records the
participate in the sport en par with mobile handlers. Re- judge's calls as a dog runs the class, and pole setters (or
search has also demonstrated health benefits to handlers ring stewards), who ensure that jump bars are reset when
engaged in dog agility.* [19] they are knocked off and change jump heights for dogs of
different sizes.

1.4.9 Competition process


Competition locations
Competitions (also called trials or matches or shows) are
usually hosted by a specific local club. The club might Agility competitions require considerable space. Each
be devoted solely to dog agility, or it might be primarily ring is usually at least 100 feet (30 m) on each side,
a breed club that wants to promote the working abilities though exact dimensions vary according to the organisa-
of its breed, or it might be a club that hosts many types tions. Competitions can have anything from one up to
of dog sports. The club contracts with judges who are more than a dozen rings. The ground must be level and,
licensed by the sanctioning organization and applies to the ideally, grassy, although other surfaces are used.
organization for permission to hold a trial on a specific
In addition, competitors need space to set up quarters for
date or weekend; most trials are two-day weekend events.
their dogs and gear; when space permits, competitors of-
ten bring pop up canopies or screenroom awning tents
Key trial jobs for shade. Dogs, when not competing, are usually left
to rest in exercise pens, crates, or dog tents familiar and
The club designates a member to be the chairperson or enclosed environments in which they can relax and re-
show manager, who is responsible for ensuring that the cover between runs. Handlers also bring reflective cloths
1.4. DOG AGILITY 21

to protect their dogs from sun exposure and to calm them correspond to a grid: for example, if course maps are
down (by covering their crates with the cloths). There printed on a grid of 10-foot-by-10-foot squares, the posts
also needs to be space for many handlers with dogs on that hold the ring ropes marking the course's four sides
leashes to move freely around the rings without crowd- are often set 10 feet apart.
ing, and space for warming up, exercising, and pottying When the course builders finish, the judge walks through
dogs. Adjacent to the site, parking must be available for the course and double-checks that the obstacles are legal,
all competitors. At weekend or weeklong shows that of- that they are placed where the judge intended, and that
fer camping, space needs to be provided both for com- there are no unintended hazards on the course (such as
petitors' caravans and tents, and for the small fenced en-
potholes, uneven ground, or mud puddles) around which
closures or gardens that they set up around them. the course must be adjusted. For many classes, the judge
In heavily populated areas, therefore, it is uncommon to then measures the path through the course to determine
find real estate inexpensive enough to devote entirely to the optimal running distance of a typical dog. The judge
agility, so sites are usually rented for the weekend. Even uses that measurement with a speed requirement deter-
in more rural areas, agility-only sites are uncommon. mined by the rules to calculate the standard course time,
Popular locations include fairgrounds, large parks, cov- the time under which dogs must complete the course to
ered horse-riding arenas, and in cold-winter areas, large, avoid time faults. For example, if the course is 150 yards
empty warehouses in which mats or carpet can be laid. (or meters) long, and the rules state that dogs must run the
course at a rate of at least 3 yards (or meters) per second,
the standard course time would be 50 seconds. Other or-
Course design ganizations, though, leave the decision on course time to
the judge's discretion
Before the trial, each judge designs the courses that he or
she will judge at the competition. The sanctioning organi-
zation usually reviews and approves the courses to ensure Running a course and determining results
that they meet the organization's guidelines. Guidelines
include such issues as how far apart obstacles must be,
how many turns are allowed (or required) on a course,
which obstacles and how many of each must appear on
the course, and so on. The rules vary by level of compe-
tition and by organization.

Building a course and calculating times

A Weimaraner jumping an ascending triple-bar spread jump

The judge often holds a briefing for competitors before


each class, to review the rules and explain specific re-
quirements for a particular course. For Standard courses
for experienced competitors, the judge's briefing is often
minimal or dispensed with altogether. For novice han-
Golden Retriever in an agility competition.
dlers in classes with complex rules, the briefings can be
much longer.
Before each class, or the evening before the first class, The competitors then walk the course (as described ear-
course builders use course maps provided by the judges lier). When the walk-through ends, the gate steward or
to place equipment on the course. The chief course caller ensures that dogs enter the ring in the running or-
builder is usually an experienced competitor who under- der previously determined by the trial secretary and man-
stands what equipment is legal, how it must be config- ages changes to the running order for handlers who might
ured, how each must be aligned compared to other ob- have conflicts with other rings of competition. As each
stacles, and can direct several course-building volunteers dog and handler team runs the course, the dog is timed
to efficiently move the equipment into place. To make either by a person with a stopwatch or with an electronic
the job easier, courses are often marked in some way to timer, and the scribe writes the judge's calls and the dog's
22 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

final time on a scribe sheet or ticket, which is then taken 1.4.10 Injuries
to the score table for recording.
Surveys of handlers indicates that about 1 in 3 dogs incur
At the score table, scorekeepers compile the results in a
injuries from agility related activities. The most common
variety of ways. Some organizations require or encourage
types of injuries were (in order) strains, sprains and con-
computerized scorekeeping; others require certain types
tusions. Locations most commonly injured were shoul-
of manual score sheets to be filled out. When all the dogs
ders, back, phalanges (forelimb/hindlimb) and neck. In-
in a given height group, level, and class have run, the score
juries were most commonly perceived as being caused
table compares run times, faults, and any other require-
by interactions with bar jumps (contact), A-frames and
ments to determine placements (and, for classes that pro-
dog walk obstacles (contact and/or fall). There were no
vide qualifying points towards titles, which dogs earned
relationship between the use of warm-up and cool-down
qualifying scores).
exercises and injuries.* [20]* [21]
Each ring might run several classes during a day of com-
petition, requiring multiple course builds, walk throughs,
briefings, and so on. 1.4.11 See also
• Championship (dog)

Awards and Titles • Dog agility worldwide

• Dog sports

• Dock jumping

• Fifteen and Send Time

• Rat agility

• Show Jumping

1.4.12 References
[1] “AAC Rules and Regulations v4.0”. Retrieved April 6,
2011.

[2] “AKC Regulations for Agility Trials”. Retrieved De-


cember 8, 2009.

[3] “NADAC Exhibitor's Handbook”. Retrieved December


8, 2009.

[4] “Official UKC Rules and Regulations”. Retrieved April


6, 2011.

[5] “USDAA Rules and Regulations”. Retrieved December


8, 2009.

[6] “CKC Agility Rules and Regulations”. Retrieved May


A variety of rosette award ribbons from dog agility competitions.
9, 2014.

[7] “2011 Rulebook”. Canine Performance Events, Inc.


Awards are usually given for placements and for qualify- 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
ing scores. Such awards are often flat ribbons, rosettes,
commemorative plaques, trophies, medals, or pins. Some [8] “USDAA news release about tire specifications”. Re-
clubs award high-in-trial awards, calculated in various trieved December 7, 2011.
ways, or other special awards for the trial. Dogs who
[9] “AKC Rules (PDF; refer to“Classes, Titles, and Height
complete their final qualifying scores to become agility
Divisions”)". Retrieved December 7, 2011.
champions are often presented with special awards.
Many Kennel Clubs also award titles to those who man- [10] “ASCA Rules (PDF; refer to“Measuring a Dog's Height”
and“ASCA Sanctioned Classes, Divisions & Levels”)".
age to qualify enough times in a particular level. Most
Retrieved December 7, 2011.
clubs require three qualifying scores in any level to get
the corresponding title, however, other clubs may require [11] “CPE Rules (PDF; follow Rules and see pages 4, 5, and
more or less. 10)". Retrieved December 7, 2011.
1.5. HERDING 23

[12] “FCI Rules (Word; refer to “Tests, Categories, and


Classes”)". Retrieved December 7, 2011.

[13] “NADAC Rules and FAQs”. Retrieved December 7,


2011.

[14] “USDAA Certification Programs”. Retrieved December


7, 2011.

[15] “The Kennel Club General Information, Grading Struc-


ture, and Measurements”. Retrieved December 7, 2011.

[16] Margaret H. Bonham (2000). Introduction to Dog Agility.


Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 0-7641-1439-5.

[17] Julie Daniels (1991). Enjoying Dog Agility: From Back-


yard to Competition. Doral Publishing. ISBN 0-944875- A man herding goats in Tunisia
16-5.

[18] Jacqueline O'Neil (1998). All About Agility. Howell


Books. ISBN 0-87605-412-2.
Some animals instinctively gather together as a herd. A
[19] Dog Agility Exercise Study, University of Massachusetts group of animals fleeing a predator will demonstrate herd
Dept. of Kinesiology, April 2010. behavior for protection; while some predators, such as
wolves and dogs have instinctive herding abilities derived
[20] Cullen, K. L.; Dickey, J. P.; Bent, L. R.; Thomason, J.
J.; Moëns, N. M. M. (2013). “Survey-based analysis of
from primitive hunting instincts.* [1] Instincts in herding
risk factors for injury among dogs participating in agility dogs and trainability can be measured at noncompetitive
training and competition events”. Journal of the Ameri- herding tests. Dogs exhibiting basic herding instincts can
*
can Veterinary Medical Association 243 (7): 1019–1024. be trained to compete in herding and stock dog trials. [1]
doi:10.2460/javma.243.7.1019. PMID 24050569. Sperm whales have also been observed teaming up to herd
prey in a coordinated feeding behavior.* [2]
[21] Cullen, K. L.; Dickey, J. P.; Bent, L. R.; Thomason, J. J.;
Moëns, N. M. M. (2013). “Internet-based survey of the Herding is used in agriculture to manage domesticated
nature and perceived causes of injury to dogs participating animals. Herding can be performed by people or trained
in agility training and competition events”. Journal of the animals such as herding dogs that control the movement
American Veterinary Medical Association 243 (7): 1010– of livestock under the direction of a person.* [3] The peo-
1018. doi:10.2460/javma.243.7.1010. PMID 24050568. ple whose occupation it is to herd or control animals of-
ten have herd added to the name of the animal they are
herding to describe their occupation (shepherd, goatherd,
1.4.13 External links cowherd). These -herds may use herding dogs to as-
• Agility Association of Canada (AAC) sist them and a competitive sport has developed in some
countries where the combined skill of man and dog is
• AKC Rules and Regulations tested and judged in a Trial such as a Sheepdog trial.
Animals such as sheep, camel, yak and goats are mostly
• USDAA Rules and Regulations reared. They provide milk, meat and other products to
• NADAC Rules and Regulations the herders and their families.

• FCI Agility Regulations


• IFCS Agility Regulations
1.5.1 Notes

• ANKC Agility Trial Rules [1] Hartnagle-Taylor, Jeanne Joy; Taylor, Ty (2010). Stock-
dog Savvy. Alpine Publications. ISBN 978-1-57779-106-
• The Kennel Club (UK) Agility Regulations 5.

[2] http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/56563/
title/Sperm_whales_may_team_up_to_herd_prey
1.5 Herding
[3] Renna, Christine Hartnagle (2009). Herding Dogs. Ken-
Herding is the act of bringing individual animals to- nel Club Books. ISBN 978-1-59378-737-0.
gether into a group (herd), maintaining the group and
moving the group from place to place̶or any combina-
tion of those. While the layperson uses the term “herd- 1.5.2 See also
ing”, most individuals involved in the process term it
mustering, “working stock”or droving. • Herd (disambiguation)
24 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

• Herder Spaniels are adapted for cool, damp conditions, hence the
curly coat and whiplike tail of the latter.
• Herding dogs
Like spaniels, hounds generally fall into two types:
• Pastoralism Sighthounds and scenthounds. The scenthounds are the
younger of the two classes. Typical examples of the scen-
thound family include the Beagle, Bloodhound, mem-
bers of the Coonhound family, and the Grand Bleu de
1.6 Hunting dog Gascogne. There is great variety in how this group oper-
ates, but the one constant is having some of the strongest
For the species known as the African hunting dog, Cape noses in dogdom: Bloodhounds have been used for hun-
hunting dog, or painted hunting dog, see African wild dreds of years to track both man and beast, sometimes
dog. on trails that have been sitting on the ground for days.
Coonhounds were originally bred in the American South.
They are still used to this day to hunt many different
A hunting dog refers to a canine that hunts with or for
kinds of beasts, ranging in size from the squirrel to the
humans. There are several types of hunting dogs devel-
American black bear, so accordingly they are bred for
oped for various tasks. The major categories of hunting
great stamina in multiple terrain, on water and land (all
dogs include hounds, terriers, dachshunds, cur type dogs,
are excellent swimmers,) a loud booming bark that can
and gun dogs. Among these categories further divisions
carry for miles, and a short coat that pairs well with a hu-
can be made based upon the dogs' skill sets.
mid subtropical climate. Beagles have been bred since at
least the 16th century as rabbit and fox hunters who will
relentlessly pursue the scent of prey even when it goes
1.6.1 Breeds and capabilities used in hunt- to ground and were originally intended to work in large
ing packs:they have a gregarious temperament. A Grand
Bleu de Gascogne is a very large breed of scenthound that
For a list of breeds of each type, see the detailed articles is also quite old: it was a common dog for noblemen to
for each category: use in their hunting parties and also was a pack hunter;
many scenthounds in France were kept by wealthy men
to trail quarry on private estates.
Details about the Categories
Sighthounds are different from scenthounds in their
Spaniels definitively fall into two types: ones that seek methods and adaptations. The long lean head of the
prey in water and others that seek it on land. Spaniels sighthound gives it a greater degree of binocular vision,
are the oldest class of gundog in existence, going back at and the body is usually quite slender with an elongated
least to the late Renaissance. Flushing spaniels combine lower spine, giving a double suspension gallop when it
hunting, flushing, and retrieving skills. Flushing spaniels runs. In many cases this class is older than the scenthound
that are used in the modern field include the Brittany, group: the greyhound, the Scottish Deerhound, and the
the English Springer Spaniel, the slightly smaller Welsh Saluki have origins going well back into the Middle Ages
Springer Spaniel, and the field bred American and English and earlier. Their speed, agility and visual acuity are par-
Cocker Spaniels. The larger two chiefly are used for re- ticularly adapted for coursing game in open meadows or
trieveing and flushing game in thick grass or mild un- steppes, and all of them are adapted for running down
derbrush, with the Brittany having working habits closest prey rather than just sniffing for them until they catch up.
to later developed pointers. Cocker Spaniels are gener- They are independent in nature, and are worked singly or
ally used for thick prickly brush that they can duck, dive in a "brace" of two or three dogs. Sighthounds are gen-
and dodge in pursuit of smaller game like rabbits, and erally quiet and placid dogs compared to other hunting
Clumbers, Sussex, and Field Spaniels are preferred for breeds, but are capable of explosive speed. Rhodesian
their slower, methodical hunting pattern. Ridgebacks are one of the few hound breeds with both
capabilities, and though they are not the fastest runners
The American Water Spaniel, Irish Water Spaniel, they are notable for having exceptionable endurance.
Kooikerhondje, and the Boykin Spaniel are noted for their
water work and do very well in temperate water, with Setters and pointers hunt over long distances to find game
the last being adapted to subtropical swamps. They fall birds like members of the pheasant and quail family, us-
into the water spaniel category. Many of these breeds ing their noses to find the prey and then sneaking up
vary their game according to the desires of the hunter: on them in the brush, showing the hunter exactly where
American Water Spaniels are known to be able to go af- the bird is hiding. Most of this family comes from Eu-
ter animals as big as a large goose in the water or the rope, and would include the Shorthaired, Wirehaired,
much smaller prairie chicken out of the water. Boykin Shorthaired German Pointers and Weimaraner from Ger-
Spaniels have a coat more closely adapted to the warmer many, The Viszla from Hungary, Bracco Italiano from
temperatures of the American South whereas Irish Water Italy, and field bred Irish Setters, Irish Red and White Set-
1.6. HUNTING DOG 25

ters, English Pointers, English Setters, and Gordon Set- tremely popular for killing vermin. Unlike many other
ters from the British Isles. Many in this group share traitshunters, this group did not exclusively work in rural areas:
with spaniels in terms of the coat they have: it is easier to
rats were rampant in Victorian era London, Edinburgh,
pick out bits of nettle from a long coat than a short one Cardiff, Dublin, Birmingham, Belfast, and Glasgow, and
and the coat itself offers some protection from damp and poisons had marginal effects: the rats bred in the dirty
thorny conditions. conditions of these cities faster than traps could be laid.
Water dogs fall into two categories: the retrievers and It became very profitable for working class men to have a
multi-purpose. Retrievers are excellent swimmers with profession where they trained small dogs to sniff out and
kill as many rats as they could as fast as they could.
characteristic webbed feet, and many derive from either
Canadian, American, or British stock. Retrievers typi- In fox hunting, they are often paired with hounds should
cally have oily coats that help repel icy water, and are prey go to ground, since most breeds of terrier will pull
noted for having high intelligence and being very strongly the fox out of its hole and never back down until its master
bonded to their masters. The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling calls it off. Members of the bull and terrier subfamily are
Retriever is very unusual in the fact that it “tolls"-plays used in the United States and Australia for the hunting of
around in the hopes of attracting the attention of water- feral pigs, often paired with scenthounds-their job is to
fowl from above and then letting its master shoot the bird, wait until the hounds have found the pig and thereafter
whence it retrieves it and goes back in the blind. Golden to charge at it in an explosion of strength and stamina,
Retrievers are originally from Scotland: their long, flow- throwing themselves at the pig and keeping it busy until
ing double coats make them ideally suited to Scotland's the hunter comes to kill it. They are bred to have great
rainy wet climate and their patience on land and in wa- courage and lightning fast reflexes, protecting their master
ter is the stuff of legend; they shall wait for a bird for and the other dogs from the sharp tusks of an adult boar
hours and will obey their master so long as master re- and the bulldog blood of their ancestors whispers to them
wards him with fond affection. Chesapeake Bay Retriev- to bite down and never let go.
ers, very popular in the United States, are bred to jump in
water after ducks and geese even when there is a coating
of ice over the water-they have deep chests meant to act 1.6.2 Gallery
as a jackknife that will cut through it when they swim.
Most famous of all is the Labrador, native to an island in • Wolf hunt depicted in a 12th-century bestiary
Maritime Canada but popular around the world: the field
type Labrador has longer legs and a slimmer frame than • Medieval women hunting, illustration from a period
the show type that is better known in Britain, but both manuscript
show signs of being attracted to water from puppyhood. • Hunting Dog by Li Di, 12th-century Chinese paint-
Other water dogs are multi purpose. Standard Poodles ing
fall into the water dog category because they originally
were used by wealthy Germans to hunt ducks; they pre- • Boar hunting, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th
date most types of water dogs. Today there are kennels century)
in the United States that have revived the breed for this
• Hunting the hart (16th Century) from Turbervile,
purpose, with some dogs proving adept hunters at flush-
copied from Jaques du Fouilloux.
ing bobwhite quail and common pheasant and achieving
very high ranks in competitions, sometimes beating the
more popular Labrador Retriever. They are highly intel- 1.6.3 References
ligent, second only to Border Collies in rank in overall
aptitude, and hunters must be very specific in indicating
1.6.4 Further reading
what they want when giving commands: they cannot be
trained by conventional means and require very concrete
• Hunting dogs constellation Canes Venatici
signals to indicate what is desired so they may solve the
puzzle themselves. They are excellent swimmers whose • Deeley, Martin. “Working Gundogs: An Intro-
coat requires a simple bath after a swim and a simple duction to Training and Handling. (1990,reprinted
cut about an inch off the skin rather than the impracti- 2002) The Crowood Press. ISBN 1-85223-764-3.
cal show clips. Portuguese Water Dogs are medium-sized
dogs that will retrieve just about anything from the water • Fergus, Charles. Gun Dog Breeds, A Guide to
and have a strong instinct to swim, plus they will guard Spaniels, Retrievers, and Pointing Dogs, The Lyons
whatever quarry a hunter keeps: they are one of the only Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58574-618-5
water dogs that were bred to hunt fish.
• Roettger, Anthony Z. and Schleider, Benjamin H.
Terriers were bred to kill, and are one of the few hunt- III. (2004) Urban Gun Dogs: Training flushing dogs
ing dogs that have worked in urban environments: many for home and field. The Writer's Collective. ISBN
terriers of English, Scottish, and Irish extraction were ex- 1-59411-050-6
26 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

1.7 Leash
For other uses, see Leash (disambiguation).
A leash (also called a lead, lead line or tether) is a rope

Tenterfield Terrier on a long leash at a tracking trial

• Very short tab leashes; a clip attached to a loop han-


dle or to a short piece of leather with a knot or sim-
ilar short handle. Allows very close, tight control of
a dog in certain competition or training situations.
• Short, soft, braided leather leash with a loop han-
dle and a clip to attach to the collar, usually about
4 feet in length, commonly used during obedience
training. The softness enables the trainer to fold the
leash into a shorter length and the braiding allows a
firmer grip.
A clip-on leash attached to a dog's collar.
• Nylon webbing leash, also known as a track-
or similar material attached to the neck or head of an an- ing/training leash in the UK, usually 4 to 6 feet,
imal for restraint or control. On the animal, some leashes with a loop handle and clip, most commonly used
clip or tie to a collar, harness, or halter, while others go for walking dogs casually.
directly around the animal's neck. • Extended-length webbing leashes, 12 to 30 feet or
more, also known as a tracking/training leash in the
UK, usually with a loop handle and a clip, primarily
1.7.1 Types of leashes for training at a distance or during tracking sessions.
• Slip-leash, usually with a loop handle and an ad-
justable, slipping loop at the other end that goes
around the dog's neck. Often used in work or com-
petitions̶such as dog agility̶where the leash must
be quickly removed and replaced.
• Retractable, a hook on a thin rope that retracts au-
tomatically into a large plastic handle, allowing the
dog to wander 15 or 25 feet away while keeping
the leash taut (in theory preventing it from tangling
around obstacles or the dog's legs) but still allowing
the handler to reel in the dog for closer control.

There are also bicycle dog leashes, especially designed for


people who enjoy taking their pet in a ride with the bike.
The leash is an aluminum tube with a plastic coated ca-
ble which runs down through the tube. It extends out of
the tube end a couple of feet to allow for ease of move-
ment for the dog. One end connects to the bike and the
Nylon webbing leash, a common style other to the dog's collar. This keeps them safely away the
bike.* [1]
For dogs, leashes take many forms; for example: Cat leashes and harnesses are also available on the market
and are convenient for people who are not comfortable
• A simple metal chain. letting their pet free.* [2]
1.7. LEASH 27

1.7.2 Leash laws in the United States of laws and give localities power to make leash law, there
America are some other states in which leash laws apply statewide.
States that do not have statewide leash laws are
Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California,
Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa,
Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota,
Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mex-
ico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island,
South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont,
Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming.
In Connecticut, dogs are not permitted to run at large ex-
cept in the situation of hunting. Still, if the dog has vi-
cious propensities and the owner still allows it to run at
large and a person is bitten, the owner can be fined for up
to $1,000 and is also liable for 6 months of prison unless
the victim has abused the dog and provoked the harmful
behavior.
In Delaware, dogs are not allowed to run at large unless in
situations when the owner is present and has control over
the pet. An exception is for farm dogs. Also, during the
night dogs must be kept in an enclosure from which they
cannot escape, firmly secured with a collar or chain or
other device, so they cannot stray from the premises,* [3]
or are under the reasonable control of the owner or cus-
todian. If an owner does not respect these laws and if the
Sign near Conneaut Harbor (in Conneaut, Ohio) dog bites someone, the owner is subject to civil liability
and for fines of up to $1,500.
Many cities have passed legislation that requires dogs to Dogs in the District of Columbia must be kept on a leash
be on leash in public areas; in some areas, cats are also as well. They are also not permitted on school grounds
required to be restrained (under control) on a leash, in a when school is in session or on any public recreation area
kennel, or in a cat-proof yard or house. without a leash.* [4]
Purposes of a leash include: preventing animals from Indiana is one of the states that has a restraint statute,
frightening or biting people or other animals, defecating which means that dogs must be restrained at all times.
and urinating in inappropriate places, endangering traf- Otherwise, if the dog bites a person when not restrained
fic, digging up lawns, causing other damage, getting lost, the owner is subject to civil liability and criminal penal-
and getting away from owners. Leashes also provide a ties. (Cite needed; definition of “restraint”needed; dis-
clear method of communication and ensure control dur- cussion of local Indiana ordinances forbidding dog teth-
ing training of dogs. ering needed.) Dogs are allowed to run at large during
the night in Kentucky only if they are accompanied by
and under control of their owner.
According to the leash laws of Louisiana, dogs are prohib-
ited to run at large at all times of the day. The same law
applies in Maine, where the only exception is for hunting
dogs.
Missouri legislation requires that dogs are kept in leashes
that are no longer than 10 feet when they are in state parks
or on historic sites.* [5] Also, dogs that have rabies are not
permitted to run at large.
In Nebraska, dogs may run at large only in counties where
the population does not reach 80,000.
New Hampshire legislation does not allow dogs to run at
Cat wearing a harness and leash large unless they are accompanied by their owner or cus-
todian or when dogs are used for training or are trained
In the United States, leash laws are different within each for hunting, herding or exhibitions.
state. While some states do not have state-wide leash
28 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

Illinois legislation prohibits owners from walking their collar in order to maintain good control of the dog.* [10]
dogs when they are not in a leash. The material of which the leash is made of is not of great
Dogs in New York must be restrained or confined at all importance as long as the leash does not show evidence
times of the day. of wear or fraying. Therefore, leashes should be peri-
odically checked to ensure they are maintained in proper
According to the North Carolina law, dogs are allowed to condition.
run at large during the night only if they are accompanied
An important aspect of dog leashes is their sturdiness.
by their owner or a person who has received the owner's
permission to do so. Although rope leashes are quite cheap, they are vulnera-
ble to chewing and fraying and are not amongst the most
Ohio law requires one to “keep the dog under the rea- recommended types of leashes. However, it is consid-
sonable control of some person,”but does not require a ered that a better type of leash is the one made of nylon
leash except for “any female dog …at any time the dog because this material provides a bit of elasticity which is
is in heat.”There are additional provisions for “danger- meant to result in more comfort for the dog. On the other
ous dogs”that have injured a person or killed another hand, nylon leashes can cause chafe or can cut into the
dog.* [6] skin of the dog.
Pennsylvania legislation states that dogs must be confined Leather leashes are often preferred over the nylon ones
or firmly secured or reasonably controlled by a person, because of the resistance of the material and because it
within the property of the owner. becomes more flexible with age and it is softer. Leather
Tennessee law prohibits dogs to run at large except in is however more prone to be chewed when compared to
cases in which dogs are engaged in legal hunting or herd- nylon.
ing. The retractable dog leash is one of the most comfortable
West Virginia and Wisconsin are states that do not have leashes for the dogs because they allow them to go as far
a law that requires dogs to be leashed. Still, they do have as they want as long as the owner does not consider it
laws that hold dog owners and keepers liable for all dam- a danger. Retractable leashes are usually made of nylon
ages caused by dogs that are permitted to run at large.* [7] and the retractable device is made of plastic or a stronger
composite. Although these leashes can be convenient for
Different law applies to dangerous dogs and female dogs both the dog and the owner as it allows some control, they
as in different states they are prohibited to run at large make it difficult to keep an aggressive dog under control
at all times. Also, in states such as Connecticut and which can result in persons or other dogs being attacked.
Louisiana, guide dogs must also be leashed.* [8] Aggressive dogs should not be walked with such a leash
and also puppies should be kept closely to ensure its pro-
tection from various dangers such as cars.
1.7.3 Dog leashes
Some leashes are made of reflective materials and are
Dog leashes are used to walk the dog in public places. suitable for walking the dog at night. They are convenient
Having the dog wear a leash is a way of protecting the because they make the dog and the owner much more vis-
dog and other persons on the street. When walking a dog ible in the traffic, reducing the likelihood of accidents.
in crowded places they can get easily confused and lost In India, dog leashes are made from the usual materials,
or they could be involved in car accidents. Also, crowded including chain, leather and nylon. Australia is the biggest
places might cause them distress which might result in net importer of Indian made chain leashes, accounting for
attacking a person. Not to mention that in some areas nearly 22% of the Australian dog leash market.
walking the dog without a leash is against the law.
Dog leashes come in variety of designs and colors and
they can be made of leather, nylon or other composite 1.7.4 Cat leashes
materials. Also, the length is one of the important aspects
of the leash. The length of the leash must be chosen ac- Cat leashes are used with the purpose of preventing the
cording to the size of the dog and it is important because cat getting lost. Unlike dogs, cats rarely get into fights
it allows a good control. Leashes should not be either too or attack persons on the street so cat leashes are mainly a
long or too short. Too long leashes do not provide good safety measure to protect the pet itself. Very often the cat
control of the pet which can result in unpleasant accidentsleashes are replaced with harnesses because they avoid the
with more aggressive dogs whereas too short leashes are dangers of the leash which include escaping and running
uncomfortable for both the dog and the owner. The per- away or choking. Cats are more likely to not be willing
fect leash can restrain the dog but at the same time is notto be walked in a harness than dogs are. That is why cats
viewed as a punishment for the pet.* [9] are considered to need up to months to be able to adjust
High quality dog leashes have a good quality metal clip to wearing a harness.
and they can be made of leather, nylon or even chain. Cat leashes come in a variety of colors, designs and mod-
The metal clip must securely fasten to a metal ring on the els and they are also made of different materials. There
1.8. LIST OF DOG SPORTS 29

are cat leashes made of leather, nylon or rope. Whereas [9] “Dog Collars Leashes”. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
the leather leash is one of the best qualities because of the
characteristics of the material, it is also one of the most [10] “Dog Leash - How to Select the Best Basic Dog Leash”
. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
expensive and not very comfortable for the cat at the same
time. Nylon cat leashes and harnesses are however more [11] Noah Webster, “Leash”. Dictionary, 1828.
elastic and thus more comfortable and also provide more
control.
1.8 List of dog sports
1.7.5 Other uses
Dog sports are activities that involve dogs.
• Among hunters, a collection of three hares “( a brace
and a half”or tierce) or three creatures of any kind,
especially greyhounds, foxes, and deer, is called “a
leash”.* [11]

• Other types of key leashes include:

• Toddler leashes to ensure that young children


do not wander far away from their guardians,
and are typically attached as a harness to the
toddler, while the other end containing the
loop is held by the guardian. Toddler leashes
are a controversial product and parents have
strong opinions about it.
• Key leashes and lanyards are used to keep the
Training a retrieve in Schutzhund, a dog sport
keys attached to handbags.

• People enjoying BDSM sometimes uses a leash as a There is much discussion about what exactly defines a
sex toy. sport for dogs. Some issues are:

• Must a sport be entertaining to watch? Agility, Disc


1.7.6 See also dog, and Dock Jumping are very entertaining to
spectators, and often televised.
• Creance
• If a human companion is not actively involved, is it
• Fiador (tack)
actually a sport? Take greyhound racing, for exam-
• Child harness ple, or hunting from a duck blind, from which the
dog retrieves the game.
• Electronic leash
• Is 'any' activity a sport if a casual observer does not
understand the nature of the competition? For ex-
1.7.7 References ample, in a conformation show, the handler and dog
move around a ring for a judge to evaluate the dog's
[1]“Comparing Bicycle-mounted Leashes”. Retrieved 2010- appearance and structure; the skill and knowledge
05-10. required are not obvious to those uninterested in the
[2] “Cat Leash and Harness Devices”. Retrieved 2010-05- sport.
10.
This list is intended only to represent anything that anyone
[3] “Delaware Leash Law”. Retrieved 2010-05-10.
is likely to refer to as a dog sport, not to argue its validity
[4] “District of Columbia Leash Law”. Retrieved 2010-05- as sport.
10.

[5] “Missouri Leash Law”. Retrieved 2010-05-10. This list is incomplete; you can help by
expanding it.
[6] “Ohio Leash Law”. Retrieved 2012-04-30.

[7] “Wisconsin Leash Law”. Retrieved 2010-05-10.


• Agility
[8] “Overview of State Dog Leash Laws”. Retrieved 2010-
05-10. • Barn Hunt* [1]
30 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

• Greyhound jockey

• Hare coursing

• Herding or stock dog

• Hunting

• Hound trailing

• Junior showmanship

• Jack Russell hurdle racing


An Alaskan Malamute going over an A-frame during a dog • Lure coursing
agility competition
• Dog mushing

• Musical canine freestyle, canine dressage, heelwork


to music

• Nosework

• Obedience training

• Protection sports (including Schutzhund, PSA - Pro-


tection Sports Association, Service Dogs Of Amer-
ica and French Ring sport)

• Rally obedience
A Golden Retriever dock jumping into a pool
• Retrieving trials

• Bikejoring • Schutzhund

• Cani cross • Scootering

• Caniteering • Sheepdog trials (or herding)

• Carting • Sighthound disc sport


• Competition obedience • Sighthound racing (including Greyhound and Whip-
pet racing, coursing, and lure coursing)
• Conformation showing
• Skijoring
• Catchball (a variation on flyball)
• Skip dog
• Degility
• Sled dog racing
• Disc dog

• Dock jumping • Dog surfing

• Dog hiking, pack hiking • Terrier racing

• Dog scootering • Tracking trials (see also Tracking (dog))

• Earthdog trials • Treibball

• Field trials • Water work and water rescue

• Flyball • Weight pulling

• French Ring sport • Dachshund racing (or Wiener racing)

• Greyhound racing • Wheelchair mushing


1.9. OBEDIENCE TRAINING 31

1.8.1 References caring for and living with the dog participates and trains
the dog, as they will be the one who will be giving the
[1] Barnhunt.com commands. The relationship and trust between the dog
and handler are important for success.
• Sundance, K. (2010). 101 Ways to Do More With Basic or beginner's obedience is typically a short course
Your Dog: Make Your Dog a Superdog with Sports, ranging from six to ten weeks, where it is demonstrated to
Games, Exercises, Tricks, Mental Challenges, Crafts, the handler how to communicate with and train the dog in
and Bonding. Beverly, MA: Quarry Books a few simple commands. With most methods the dog is
trained one command at a time. Though there may or may
not be a specific word attached to it, walking properly on
1.8.2 See also
a leash, or leash control, is often the first training required
• Racing prior to learning other commands.

1.9 Obedience training


Obedience training usually refers to the training of a
1.9.1 History
dog and the term is most commonly used in that context.
Obedience training ranges from very basic training, such Working dogs have always learned to obey commands re-
as teaching the dog to reliably respond to basic commands lated to the work that they historically performed, such
such as“sit”,“down”,“come”, and“stay”, to high as when a herding dog moves a flock of animals in re-
level competition within clubs such as the American Ken- sponse to a shepherd's whistled directions, or a hunting
nel Club, United Kennel Club, and the Canadian Kennel dog searching for (or chasing down) quarry or leaving the
Club, where additional commands, accuracy and perfor- treed quarry at the hunter's command.
mance are scored and judged.
In the twentieth century, formalized dog training origi-
Obedience implies compliance with the direction or com- nated in military and police applications, and the meth-
mand given by the handler. For a dog to be considered ods used largely reflected the military approach to train-
obedient rather than simply trained in obedience, it must ing humans. In the middle and late part of the cen-
respond reliably each time its handler gives a command. tury, however, more research into operant conditioning
and positive reinforcement occurred as wild animal shows
became more popular. Aquatic mammal trainers used
clickers (a small box that makes a loud click when pushed
on) to“mark”desired behavior, giving food as a reward.
The change in training methods spread gradually into the
world of dog training. Today many dog trainers rely heav-
ily on positive reinforcement to teach new behaviors.
At a basic level, owners want dogs with which they can
pleasantly share a house, a car, or a walk in the park.
Some dogs need only a minimum amount of training to
learn to eliminate outside (be housebroken), to sit, to lie
down, or to come on command (obey a recall). Many
other dogs prove more challenging. New dog owners
might find training difficult and fail to make progress, be-
cause they expect dogs to think and act like humans, and
German Shepherd Dog
are surprised and baffled when the dogs don't.
Training a dog in obedience can be an ongoing and Dogs that demonstrate the previously mentioned basic
lengthy process depending on the dog, the methods used, skills, as well as walking reasonably well on a leash and
and the skill and understanding of both the trainer and a few other minor tasks, can be tested for and earn the
the handler. The level of obedience the handler wishes American Kennel Club's (AKC) Canine Good Citizen
to achieve with the dog is also a major factor in the time certification. While not a competitive obedience title, a
involved, as is the commitment to training by the handler. CGC certification demonstrates that the dog is sociable,
well behaved, and reliable in public settings.* [1] Some in-
Obedience training is often a prerequisite for or compo- surance companies will waive breed restrictions on dogs
nent of other training. with CGCs, and many states have passed resolutions sup-
The actual training of the dog can be done by anyone, the porting and encouraging CGC certification as a yardstick
trainer, owner, or a friend. Typically the individual who is for canine manners and responsible dog ownership.
32 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

1.9.2 Dog intelligence and training not trained using harsh corrective methods, as this train-
ing can be psychologically harmful to the dog and result
in further behavioral issues.* [2]* [3]

1.9.3 Commands

The specific command word is not important, but consis-


tency in usage is. There are certain commands that are
accepted as standard and commonly used.

Basic commands

• Sit: The dog is in a sitting position.

• Down: A dog is typically down when its elbows


(front feet) and hocks (rear legs) are touching the
ground or floor.

• Heel: The dog's head or shoulder is parallel to the


handler's leg on the left side of the handler.

• Come or Here: (referred to as the recall) “Call


your dog”equals “come”or “here”.

• Stay: The dog must remain in the position (sit,


down, stand) and location under which the com-
mand was given until it is released by the handler.

A White German Shepherd ready to obey. Advanced commands

Certain breeds, such as Doberman Pinschers, German • Stop – a dog that will simply stop whatever it is do-
Shepherds, Border Collies, Labrador Retrievers and ing and lie down on command no matter how far it is
Golden Retrievers, have reputations as being easier to from its keeper is a dog that can be taken anywhere.
train than others, such as some hounds and sled dogs.
Dogs that have been bred to perform one task to the ex- • Back up – keepers of large dogs or dogs with a rep-
clusion of all others (such as the Bloodhound or Husky), utation for aggressiveness can make strangers more
or that have been bred to work independently from their comfortable by teaching the dog to back up on com-
handler (such as terriers), may be particularly challenging mand.
with obedience training.
• Growl – the inverse of backing up. Some owners
Dog intelligence is exhibited in many different ways, and teach non-aggressive dogs to growl on a subtle com-
a dog that might not be easy to train might nonetheless be mand – not the word growl, usually a small hand ges-
quite adept at figuring out how to open kitchen cabinets ture – as a way of letting strangers know that you and
or to escape from the yard. Novice dog owners need to your dog value being left alone.
consider a dog's trainability as well as its energy level, ex-
ercise requirements, and other factors before choosing a • Shake - Directs the dog to shake whole body. Gen-
new pet. Very high intelligence is not necessarily a good erally used after bathing or swimming to prevent dog
thing in a companion dog, as smart dogs can require ex- from soaking owner.
tensive daily mental stimulation if they are not to become
bored and destructive. • Shake Hands or Shake - Directs dog to lift paw and
place it in the hand of the owner as if shaking hands.
No breed is impossible to obedience train, but novice
owners might find training some breeds quite difficult. • Steady – keep near by. The dog can walk free, but
The capacity to learn basic obedience̶and even compli- not dash off.
cated behavior̶is inherent in all dogs. Some breeds may
require more patience or creativity in training than others. • Stand – dog stands still. Useful for grooming. Many
Individual dogs that exhibit fearful or anxious behaviors dogs are groomed frequently and need to stand qui-
should also be handled with greater care, and especially etly during the process.
1.9. OBEDIENCE TRAINING 33

• Go to bed, kennel, or get in: Directs the dog to Flat collar Flat collars are commonly used in clicker
go to its bed or its crate and to remain there until training and other non-correction-based training, such as
released. The dog has freedom of movement in that puppy kindergarten. They are also effective in train-
location to stand up, turn around, or lie down, unlike ing small dogs, however they tend to lift the dog off
when placed in a Stay. Useful to keep a dog out the ground when giving corrections while the dog is dis-
from underfoot and safe in a busy or complicated tracted or in high adrenal mode. They are typically made
situation. of nylon or leather, and fasten with a buckle or quick-
release connection.
• Drop or drop it: Dogs pick up all sorts of things,
some of which they shouldn't have. A dog that
drops anything on command, no matter how attrac- Slip collar Slip collars (commonly called choke chain
tive (and “attractive”to a dog can be “rotten and or check chains) are made of metal links or rolled material
smelly”to a human), is a dog under control that the such as nylon or leather. A metal ring is at each end.
owner can prevent from eating dangerous items or Historically, slip collars have been used as a matter of
from destroying valued personal property. course, mostly in North America and the UK. In the last
few decades use of these collars has declined. Correctly
• Leave it: An adjunct to Drop, directing the dog to used, the collar should make a quick clicking not zipping
not touch an item. Also useful before the dog has sound when quickly snapped and released to startle or get
picked anything up. Leave it is also used in con- the attention of the dog and indicate to the handler that
junction with Take it. the technique was a swift jerk not a choke. The idea is not
to strangle the dog, though this can happen if the collar is
• Take it: The dog leaves a desired object, such
improperly used.
as a toy or treat, untouched until given this com-
mand. Alternatively, the dog takes and holds an ob-
ject which it has no interest in. This can protect an Martingale collar Martingale collars (also called
owner's, visitor's, or child's fingers. limited-slip collars) are usually made of flat nylon with
a smaller fixed-length section (made of either nylon or a
• Give: The dog has an object in its mouth and“gives”
short length of chain) that, when pulled on by the leash,
it to its owner by releasing the object into the owner's
shortens up tightening the collar around the dog's neck,
hand. Object of choice in training is usually a light-
to a limited extent. When properly fitted, martingales
weight dumbbell or a glove. This is useful for when
are looser than flat-buckle collars when not tightened, and
your dog has one of your belongings and you want it
less severely corrective than slip collars when tightened.
back before the dog hides it or chews it up.

• Speak: A dog, when taught this command, will bark Prong collars Prong collars (also called 'pinch col-
once (or more) when told to do so. lars') are a series of chain links with blunted open ends
• Roll Over: When taught this command a dog will turned towards the dog's neck. The design of the prong
lie down, roll over, and stand back up. collar is such that it has a limited circumference unlike
slip collars which do not have a limit on how far they
• Attack: A dog will attack something (or someone) can constrict on a dog's neck. The limited traction of the
when told to do so. Common commands are either martingale chain combined with the angle of the prongs
“Attack”or “Sic'em”. prevents the prongs moving close enough to pinch. The
collar is designed to prevent the dog from pulling by ap-
• Fetch: A dog will retrieve a thrown object (usually plying pressure at each point against the dog's neck.
a ball or a stick) and bring it back to the one who
threw it. Prong collars must never be turned inside out (with the
prongs facing away from the dog's skin), as this may cause
• Place : The dog is trained to go to a certain place injury against the body and head. Plastic tips are occa-
and stay there until released, usually a place in the sionally placed on the ends of the prongs to protect against
house selected by owner. tufts forming in the fur or, in the case of low quality man-
ufactured collars with rough chisel cut ends, puncturing
• With me: used when walking your dog to keep them the skin. Like the slip collar, the prong collar is placed
at your side and with your pace. high on the dog's neck, just behind the ears, at the most
sensitive point.
1.9.4 Training devices Some dogs can free themselves from prong collars with
large wire looped sides by shaking their head so that the
Collars links pop out, so some trainers have come to use a second
collar (usually an oversize slip collar) in addition to the
Main article: Dog collar prong collar so when this happens the dog does not run
loose.
34 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

Shock collars Shock collars (also known as E-collars) Schutzhund dog training. Bite tugs are perfect for pup-
transmit a remote signal from a control device the handler pies but can be used for training adult dogs as well.
operates to the collar. An electrical shock is transmitted
by the handler remotely, at varying degrees of intensity,
from varying distances depending on range frequency. It 1.9.5 Competitive obedience
is also done automatically in the bark electronic collar to
stop excessive barking, and invisible fence collar when
the dog strays outside its boundary. Shock collars are
widely used in some areas of the world and by some dog
obedience professionals.,.* [4] Some dog training associ-
ations, veterinary associations and kennel clubs condemn
their use.* [5]

Other devices

Leash Main article: Leash

The leash or lead is used to connect the dog to the handler,


lead the dog, as well as to control the dog in urban areas.
Most communities have laws which prohibit dogs from
running at large. They may be made of any material such This Smooth Collie retrieves an obedience dumbbell made of
as nylon, metal or leather. A six foot length is commonly wood; others are made of metal.
used for walking and in training classes, though leashes
come in lengths both shorter and longer. A long line (also Main article: obedience trial
called a lunge line) can be 3 metres (ten feet) or more in
length, and are often used to train the dog to come when
For dog owners who enjoy competition and relish the op-
called from a distance.
portunity to work as a highly tuned team with their dogs,
competitive obedience trials are available. Dogs can earn
obedience titles, including an obedience championship.
Clicker Main article: Clicker
In competition, merely sitting, lying down, or walking on
a leash are insufficient. The dog and handler must per-
The clicker is a small hand-held device that makes a dis-
form the activities off leash and in a highly stylized and
tinct, short sound to mark a desired behavior. (See clicker
carefully defined manner. For example, on a recall, the
training for a more detailed discussion of this methodol-
dog must come directly to the handler, without sniffing
ogy.) It has gained popularity in recent years as being
or veering to one side, and must sit straight in front of the
a means of training that does not involve physically cor-
handler, not at an angle or off to one side or the other.
recting the dog, though it may be used in conjunction with
Training for obedience competitions builds on basic obe-
these methods.
dience training.
The United Kennel Club (UKC), the Australian National
Head halter Main article: Dog collar Kennel Council (ANKC), the American Kennel Club
(AKC) and the Australian Shepherd Dog Club of Amer-
ica (ASCA) are some of the organizations which offer
Head halters are an alternative to collars that works simi-
titles in Competition Obedience.
larly to a horse halter. The halter fits over the dog's snout
and behind its head (leading it to sometimes be mistaken AKC obedience titles include: Companion Dog (CD),
for a muzzle). Halters reduce the dog's ability to success- Companion Dog Excellent (CDX), Utility Dog (UD),
fully pull on the leash, but do not eliminate it. If the halter Utility Dog Excellent (UDX), and Obedience Trial
is used with a sharp jerk on the leash, neck injury to the Champion (OTCH).
dog may result, but used correctly head halters have not In recent years, a new form of Obedience competition,
been shown to cause harm. known as Rally Obedience, has become very popular. It
was originally devised by Charles L.“Bud”Kramer from
the obedience practice of“doodling”- doing a variety of
Dog bite tug Main article: Dog bite tug interesting warmup and freestyle exercises. Rally Obedi-
ence is designed to be a “bridge”, or intermediate step,
Dog training bite tug is a tool usually used as retrieve between the CGC certification and traditional Obedience
developing skills. It is used for police, military and competition.
1.10. OPERANT CONDITIONING 35

Unlike regular obedience, instead of waiting for the


judge's orders, the competitors proceed around a course
of designated stations with the dog in heel position. The
course consists of 10 to 20 signs that instruct the team
what to do. Unlike traditional obedience, handlers are
allowed to encourage their dogs during the course.

Obedience for other purposes

There are many reasons for training dogs beyond the


level required for basic companionship. For example,
assistance dogs must obey their“sit”and“down”com-
mands perfectly at all times, but they do not have to con-
form to the rigid rules of competitive obedience.
Dogs competing in dog sports, such as flyball, agility or
Schutzhund, must be trusted in an open field, off leash and
surrounded by other people, dogs, hot dogs, and flying Diagram of operant conditioning
discs. This requires more focused attention on the owner
and a better recall than that found in most household com-
panion dogs, and more advanced training than that re- 1.10 Operant conditioning
quired for formal obedience.

Operant conditioning, sometimes referred to as instru-


1.9.6 See also mental learning, is a method of learning that occurs
through reinforcements and punishments for behavior.
• Clicker training It encourages the subject to associate desirable or un-
desirable outcomes with certain behaviors. Instrumental
• Dog sports conditioning was first discovered and published by Jerzy
Konorski and was also referred to as Type II reflexes.
• Dog training Mechanisms of instrumental conditioning suggest that the
behavior may change in form, frequency, or strength. The
• The Intelligence of Dogs expressions“operant behavior”and“respondent behav-
ior”were popularized by B.F. Skinner who worked on
• Musical canine freestyle reproduction of Konorskiʼs experiments. Operant be-
havior means that“a response is followed by a reinforcing
• Rally obedience (Rally-O)
stimulus”.
Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical con-
1.9.7 References ditioning (or respondent conditioning) in that operant con-
ditioning deals with the reinforcement and punishment
[1] “About Canine Good Citizen®". American Kennel Club. to change behavior. Operant behavior operates on the
Retrieved 31 March 2015. environment and is maintained by its antecedents and
consequences, while classical conditioning is maintained
[2] Laviolette, Niki (29 March 2015). “Key points to re- by conditioning of reflexive (reflex) behaviors, which
member when training a dog”. Tribune Star. Retrieved are elicited by antecedent conditions. Behaviors condi-
31 March 2015. tioned through a classical conditioning procedure are not
maintained by consequences.* [1] They both, however,
[3] “Natural Dog Obedience Training”. K9 Basics. 13 Oc-
tober 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2015. form the core of behavior analysis and have grown into
professional practices. Operant conditions are simple to
[4] The Facts About Modern Electronic Training Devices understand, after trial and error Learning is achieved. A
reward for overcoming an obstacle can give the inner mo-
[5] Shock Collars - The Shocking Truth, The Association of tivation needed to continue with success.
Pet Dog Trainers

1.9.8 External links


1.10.1 Historical notes
• AKC Obedience Regulations
36 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

Thorndike's law of effect Many of Skinner's writings are devoted to the applica-
tion of operant conditioning to human behavior.* [10] In
Main article: Law of effect 1957, Skinner published Verbal Behavior,* [11] which ex-
tended the principles of operant conditioning to language,
a form of human behavior that had previously been an-
Operant conditioning, sometimes called instrumental
alyzed quite differently by linguists and others. Skinner
learning, was first extensively studied by Edward L.
defined new functional relationships such as“mands”and
Thorndike (1874–1949), who observed the behavior of
“tacts”to capture the essentials of language, but he in-
cats trying to escape from home-made puzzle boxes.* [2]
troduced no new principles, treating verbal behavior like
When first constrained in the boxes, the cats took a
any other behavior controlled by its consequences, which
long time to escape. With experience, ineffective re-
included the reactions of the speaker's audience.
sponses occurred less frequently and successful responses
occurred more frequently, enabling the cats to escape
in less time over successive trials. In his law of effect, 1.10.2 Tools and procedures
Thorndike theorized that behaviors followed by satisfying
consequences tend to be repeated and those that produce
To shape behavior: antecedents and consequences
unpleasant consequences are less likely to be repeated.
In short, some consequences strengthened behavior and
Antecedents as well as the following consequences:
some consequences weakened behavior. Thorndike pro-
reinforcement and punishment are the core tools of op-
duced the first known animal learning curves through this
erant conditioning. It is important to realize that some
procedure.* [3]
terminology in operant conditioning is used in a way that
is different from everyday use.

Skinner “Antecedent stimuli”occurs before a behavior happens.


“Reinforcement”and“punishment”refer to their effect
Main article: B. F. Skinner on the desired behavior.

B.F. Skinner (1904–1990) often referred to as the father 1. Reinforcement increases the probability of a behav-
of operant conditioning. His work is most often cited in ior being expressed.
connection with this topic. His book “The Behavior of
Organisms”,* [4] published in 1938, initiated his lifelong 2. Punishment reduces the probability of a behavior
study of operant conditioning and its application to hu- being expressed
man and animal behavior. Following the ideas of Ernst
Mach, Skinner rejected Thorndike's reference to unob- “Positive”and“negative”refer to the presence or absence
servable mental states such as satisfaction, building his of the stimulus.
analysis on observable behavior and its equally observ-
able consequences.* [5] 1. Positive is the addition of a stimulus
To implement his empirical approach, Skinner invented
the operant conditioning chamber in which subjects such 2. Negative is the removal or absence of a stimulus (of-
as pigeons and rats were isolated from extraneous stim- ten adverse)
uli and free to make one or two simple, repeatable re-
sponses.* [6] This was similar to Thorndikeʼs puzzle box There is an additional procedure
and became known as the Skinner box. Another in-
vention, the cumulative recorder, produced a graphical 1. Extinction is caused by the lack of any consequence
record of these responses from which response rates could following a behavior. When a behavior is inconse-
be estimated. These records were the primary data that quential (i.e., producing neither favorable nor unfa-
Skinner and his colleagues used to explore the effects on vorable consequences) it will occur less frequently.
response rate of various reinforcement schedules.* [7] A When a previously reinforced behavior is no longer
reinforcement schedule may be defined as “any proce- reinforced with either positive or negative reinforce-
dure that delivers reinforcement to an organism according ment, it leads to a decline (extinction) in that behav-
to some well-defined rule”.* [8] Reinforcement is known ior.
as“behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e.
strengthened); behavior which is not reinforced tends to
die out-or be extinguished (i.e. weakened).”The effects This creates a total of five basic consequences -
of schedules became, in turn, the basic experimental data
from which Skinner developed his account of operant 1. Positive reinforcement (reinforcement): Occurs
conditioning. He also drew on many less formal obser- when a behavior (response) is followed by a stim-
vations of human and animal behavior.* [9] ulus that is appetitive or rewarding, increasing the
1.10. OPERANT CONDITIONING 37

frequency of that behavior. In the Skinner box ex- avoidance, the stimulation does not occur, avoidance
periment, a stimulus such as food or a sugar solution behavior seems to have no means of reinforcement.
can be delivered when the rat engages in a target be- Indeed this non-occurrence of the stimulus has been
havior, such as pressing a lever. This procedure is a problem for reinforcement theory, which has been
usually called simply reinforcement. dealt with in various ways. See section on avoidance
learning below.
2. Negative reinforcement (escape): Occurs when a
behavior (response) is followed by the removal of • Noncontingent reinforcement refers to delivery of
an aversive stimulus, thereby increasing that behav- reinforcing stimuli regardless of the organism's be-
ior's frequency. In the Skinner box experiment, neg- havior. Noncontingent reinforcement may be used
ative reinforcement can be a loud noise continuously in an attempt to reduce an undesired target behavior
sounding inside the rat's cage until it engages in the by reinforcing multiple alternative responses while
target behavior, such as pressing a lever, upon which extinguishing the target response.* [12] As no mea-
the loud noise is removed. sured behavior is identified as being strengthened,
there is controversy surrounding the use of the term
3. Positive punishment (punishment) (also called noncontingent “reinforcement”.* [13]
“Punishment by contingent stimulation”): Occurs
when a behavior (response) is followed by a stimu-
lus, such as introducing a shock or loud noise, re- • Schedules of reinforcement Schedules of rein-
sulting in a decrease in that behavior. Positive pun- forcement are rules that control the delivery of re-
ishment is sometimes a confusing term, as it denotes inforcement. The rules specify either the time that
the“addition”of a stimulus or increase in the inten- reinforcement is to be made available, or the number
sity of a stimulus that is aversive (such as spanking or of responses to be made, or both.
an electric shock). This procedure is usually called
• Fixed interval schedule: Reinforcement oc-
simply punishment.
curs following the first response after a fixed
4. Negative punishment (penalty) (also called“Pun- time has elapsed after the previous reinforce-
ishment by contingent withdrawal”): Occurs when ment.
a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of • Variable interval schedule: Reinforcement oc-
a stimulus, such as taking away a child's toy follow- curs following the first response after a vari-
ing an undesired behavior, resulting in a decrease in able time has elapsed from the previous rein-
that behavior. forcement.
5. Extinction: Occurs when a behavior (response) that • Fixed ratio schedule: Reinforcement occurs
had previously been reinforced is no longer effective. after a fixed number of responses have been
For example, a rat is first given food many times for emitted since the previous reinforcement.
lever presses. Then, in “extinction”, no food is • Variable ratio schedule: Reinforcement occurs
given. Typically the rat continues to press more and after a variable number of responses have been
more slowly and eventually stops, at which time lever emitted since the previous reinforcement.
pressing is said to be “extinguished.”
• Continuous reinforcement: Reinforcement
occurs after each response.* [14]
It is important to note that actors are not spoken of as
being reinforced, punished, or extinguished; it is the ac-
tions that are reinforced, punished, or extinguished. Ad- • Discrimination, generalization & context. Most
ditionally, reinforcement, punishment, and extinction are behavior is under stimulus control. Several aspects
not terms whose use is restricted to the laboratory. Nat- of this may be distinguished:
urally occurring consequences can also be said to rein- •“Discrimination”typically occurs when a re-
force, punish, or extinguish behavior and are not always sponse is reinforced only in the presence of a
delivered by people. specific stimulus. For example, a pigeon might
be fed for pecking at a red light and not at a
Some other common terms and procedures green light; in consequence, it pecks at red and
stops pecking at green. Many complex com-
• Escape and avoidance In escape learning, a be- binations of stimuli and other conditions have
havior terminates an (aversive) stimulus. For exam- been studied; for example an organism might
ple, shielding one's eyes from sunlight terminates the be reinforced on an interval schedule in the
(aversive) stimulation of bright light in one's eyes. presence of one stimulus and on a ratio sched-
In avoidance learning, the behavior precedes and ule in the presence of another.
prevents an (aversive) stimulus, for example putting •“Generalization”is the tendency to respond to
on sun glasses before going outdoors. Because, in stimuli that are similar to a previously trained
38 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

discriminative stimulus. For example, hav- petite”for that source of stimulation has been satis-
ing been trained to peck at “red”a pigeon fied. The opposite effect will occur if the individual
might also peck at “pink”, though usually becomes deprived of that stimulus: the effectiveness
less strongly. of a consequence will then increase. If someone is
•“Context”refers to stimuli that are continu- not hungry, food will not be an effective reinforcer
ously present in a situation, like the walls, ta- for behavior. Satiation is generally only a potential
bles, chairs, etc. in a room, or the interior problem with primary reinforcers, those that do not
of an operant conditioning chamber. Con- need to be learned such as food and water.* [15]
text stimuli may come to control behavior as 2. Immediacy: After a response, how immediately a
do discriminative stimuli, though usually more consequence is then felt determines the effectiveness
weakly. Behaviors learned in one context may of the consequence. More immediate feedback will
be absent, or altered, in another. This may be more effective than less immediate feedback. If
cause difficulties for behavioral therapy, be- someone's license plate is caught by a traffic camera
cause behaviors learned in the therapeutic set- for speeding and they receive a speeding ticket in
ting may fail to occur elsewhere. the mail a week later, this consequence will not be
very effective against speeding. But if someone is
Operant conditioning to change human behavior speeding and is caught in the act by an officer who
pulls them over, then their speeding behavior is more
Researchers have found the following protocol to be ef- likely to be affected.* [16]
fective when they use the tools of operant conditioning to
3. Contingency: If a consequence does not contin-
modify human behavior:
gently (reliably, or consistently) follow the target
response, its effectiveness upon the response is re-
1. State goal (aims for the study) That is, clarify ex- duced. But if a consequence follows the response
actly what changes are to be brought about. For ex- consistently after successive instances, its ability to
ample, “reduce weight by 30 pounds.” modify the response is increased. The schedule
of reinforcement, when consistent, leads to faster
2. Monitor behavior (log conditions) Keep track of
learning. When the schedule is variable the learning
behavior so that one can see whether the desired ef-
is slower. Extinction is more difficult when learning
fects are occurring. For example, keep a chart of
occurs during intermittent reinforcement and more
daily weights.
easily extinguished when learning occurs during a
3. Reinforce desired behavior (give reward for highly consistent schedule.* [15]
proper behavior) For example, congratulate the in-
dividual on weight losses. With humans, a record 4. Size: This is a “cost-benefit”determinant of
of behavior may serve as a reinforcement. For ex- whether a consequence will be effective. If the size,
ample, when a participant sees a pattern of weight or amount, of the consequence is large enough to
loss, this may reinforce continuance in a behavioral be worth the effort, the consequence will be more
weight-loss program. A more general plan is the effective upon the behavior. An unusually large lot-
token economy, an exchange system in which tokens tery jackpot, for example, might be enough to get
are given as rewards for desired behaviors. Tokens someone to buy a one-dollar lottery ticket (or even
may later be exchanged for a desired prize or re- buying multiple tickets). But if a lottery jackpot is
wards such as power, prestige, goods or services. small, the same person might not feel it to be worth
the effort of driving out and finding a place to buy
4. Reduce incentives to perform undesirable be- a ticket. In this example, it's also useful to note that
havior For example, remove candy and fatty snacks “effort”is a punishing consequence. How these op-
from kitchen shelves. posing expected consequences (reinforcing and pun-
ishing) balance out will determine whether the be-
havior is performed or not.
1.10.3 Factors that alter the effectiveness
of consequences The majority of these factors exist because of various bi-
ological reasons. The biological purpose of the Principle
When using consequences to modify a response, the ef- of Satiation is to maintain the organism's homeostasis (an
fectiveness of a consequence can be increased or de- organismʼs ability to maintain a stable internal environ-
creased by various factors. These factors can apply toment). When an organism has been deprived of sugar, for
either reinforcing or punishing consequences. example, the effectiveness of the taste of sugar as a rein-
forcer is high. However, as the organism reaches or ex-
1. Satiation/Deprivation: The effectiveness of a con- ceeds their optimum blood-sugar levels, the taste of sugar
sequence will be reduced if the individual's “ap- becomes less effective, perhaps even aversive.
1.10. OPERANT CONDITIONING 39

The Principles of Immediacy and Contingency exist for Free-operant avoidance learning
neurochemical reasons. When an organism experiences a
reinforcing stimulus, dopamine pathways in the brain are In this experimental session, no discrete stimulus is used
activated. This network of pathways “releases a short to signal the occurrence of the aversive stimulus. Rather,
pulse of dopamine onto many dendrites, thus broadcast- the aversive stimulus (mostly shocks) are presented with-
ing a rather global reinforcement signal to postsynaptic out explicit warning stimuli. There are two crucial time
neurons.”* [17] This allows recently activated synapses intervals determining the rate of avoidance learning. This
to increase their sensitivity to efferent (conducted or con- first one is called the S-S-interval (shock-shock-interval).
ducting outward or away from something) signals, thus This is the amount of time which passes during succes-
increasing the probability of occurrence for the recent sive presentations of the shock (unless the operant re-
responses that preceded the reinforcement. These re- sponse is performed). The other one is called the R-
sponses are, statistically, the most likely to have been the S-interval (response-shock-interval) which specifies the
behavior responsible for successfully achieving reinforce- length of the time interval following an operant response
ment. But when the application of reinforcement is either during which no shocks will be delivered. Note that each
less immediate or less contingent (less consistent), the time the organism performs the operant response, the R-
ability of dopamine to act upon the appropriate synapses S-interval without shocks begins anew.
is reduced.

Two-process theory of avoidance


1.10.4 Operant variability
This theory was originally proposed in order to explain
Operant variability is what allows a response to adapt to discriminated avoidance learning, in which an organism
new situations. Operant behavior is distinguished from learns to avoid an aversive stimulus by escaping from a
reflexes in that its response topography (the form of signal for that stimulus. The theory assumes that two pro-
the response) is subject to slight variations from one per- cesses take place:
formance to another. These slight variations can include
small differences in the specific motions involved, differ-
ences in the amount of force applied, and small changes in a) Classical conditioning of fear. During the first trials
the timing of the response. If a subject's history of rein- of the training, the organism experiences the pairing
forcement is consistent, such variations will remain stable of a CS with an aversive US. The theory assumes
because the same successful variations are more likely to that during these trials an association develops be-
be reinforced than less successful variations. However, tween the CS and the US through classical condi-
behavioral variability can also be altered when subjected tioning and, because of the aversive nature of the
to certain controlling variables.* [18] US, the CS comes to elicit a conditioned emotional
reaction (CER) – “fear.”

1.10.5 Avoidance learning b) Reinforcement of the operant response by fear-reduction.


As a result of the first process, the CS now signals
In avoidance learning an organism's behavior is re- fear; this unpleasant emotional reaction serves to
inforced by the termination or prevention of an (as- motivate operant responses, and those responses
sumed aversive) stimulus. There are two kinds of com- that terminate the CS are reinforced by fear termi-
monly used experimental settings: discriminated and nation. Although, after this training, the organism
free-operant avoidance learning. no longer experiences the aversive US, the term
“avoidance”may be something of a misnomer,
because the theory does not say that the organism
Discriminated avoidance learning “avoids”the US in the sense of anticipating it, but
rather that the organism “escapes”an aversive
internal state that is caused by the CS.
In discriminated avoidance learning, a novel stimulus
such as a light or a tone is followed by an aversive stim-
ulus such as a shock (CS-US, similar to classical con-
ditioning). During the first trials (called escape-trials) 1.10.6 Four term contingency
the animal usually experiences both the CS (Conditioned
Stimulus) and the US (Unconditioned Stimulus), show- Applied behavior analysis, which is the name of the disci-
ing the operant response to terminate the aversive US. pline directly descended from Skinner's work, holds that
During later trials, the animal will learn to perform the behavior is explained in four terms: conditioned stimulus
response during the presentation of the CS thus prevent- (S* C), a discriminative stimulus (S* d), a response (R),
ing the aversive US from occurring. Such trials are called and a reinforcing stimulus (S* rein or S* r for reinforcers,
“avoidance trials.” sometimes S* ave for aversive stimuli).* [19]
40 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

1.10.7 Operant hoarding and findings to the behavior of humans in the market-
place. One concept that encompasses both of economics
Operant hoarding is a referring to the choice made by and instrumental conditioning is consumer demand. With
a rat, on a compound schedule called a multiple sched- consumer demand, the focus is on the price of the com-
ule, that maximizes its rate of reinforcement in an op- modity and the amount purchased. The degree to which
erant conditioning context. More specifically, rats were price influences consumption is defined as being the elas-
shown to have allowed food pellets to accumulate in a ticity of demand. Certain commodities are more elastic
food tray by continuing to press a lever on a continuous than others. Price change in certain foods can affect the
reinforcement schedule instead of retrieving those pellets. amount bought, while gasoline and essentials seem to be
Retrieval of the pellets always instituted a one-minute pe- less effected by price changes. For these examples, gaso-
riod of extinction during which no additional food pellets line and essentials would be less elastic than certain foods
were available but those that had been accumulated ear- like cake and candy. On a graph model representation,
lier could be consumed. This finding appears to contra- something less elastic would not be stretched out as far as
dict the usual finding that rats behave impulsively in situ- a commodity that's consumption fluctuates greatly due to
ations in which there is a choice between a smaller food the price.* [26]
object right away and a larger food object after some de-
lay. See schedules of reinforcement.* [20]
1.10.10 Questions about the law of effect

1.10.8 Biological correlates of operant con- A number of observations seem to show that operant be-
ditioning havior can be established without reinforcement in the
sense defined above. Most cited is the phenomenon of
The first scientific studies identifying neurons that re- autoshaping (sometimes called“sign tracking”), in which
sponded in ways that suggested they encode for con- a stimulus is repeatedly followed by reinforcement, and in
ditioned stimuli came from work by Mahlon de- consequence the animal begins to respond to the stimu-
Long* [21]* [22] and by R.T. Richardson.* [22] They lus. For example, a response key is lighted and then food
showed that nucleus basalis neurons, which release is presented. When this is repeated a few times a pigeon
acetylcholine broadly throughout the cerebral cortex, are subject begins to peck the key even though food comes
activated shortly after a conditioned stimulus, or after a whether the bird pecks or not. Similarly, rats begin to
primary reward if no conditioned stimulus exists. These handle small objects, such as a lever, when food is pre-
neurons are equally active for positive and negative rein- sented nearby.* [27]* [28] Strikingly, pigeons and rats per-
forcers, and have been demonstrated to cause plasticity sist in this behavior even when pecking the key or pressing
in many cortical regions.* [23] Evidence also exists that the lever leads to less food (omission training).* [29]* [30]
dopamine is activated at similar times. There is consid- These observations and others appear to contradict the
erable evidence that dopamine participates in both rein- law of effect, and they have prompted some researchers
forcement and aversive learning.* [24] Dopamine path- to propose new conceptualizations of operant reinforce-
ways project much more densely onto frontal cortex re- ment (e.g.* [31]* [32]* [33] A more general view is that
gions. Cholinergic projections, in contrast, are dense autoshaping is an instance of classical conditioning; the
even in the posterior cortical regions like the primary autoshaping procedure has, in fact, become one of the
visual cortex. A study of patients with Parkinson's dis- most common ways to measure classical conditioning. In
ease, a condition attributed to the insufficient action of this view, many behaviors can be influenced by both clas-
dopamine, further illustrates the role of dopamine in pos- sical contingencies (stimulus-reinforcement) and operant
itive reinforcement.* [25] It showed that while off their contingencies (response-reinforcement), and the experi-
medication, patients learned more readily with aversive menterʼs task is to work out how these interact.* [34]
consequences than with positive reinforcement. Patients
who were on their medication showed the opposite to be
the case, positive reinforcement proving to be the more 1.10.11 See also
effective form of learning when the action of dopamine
is high. • Animal testing
• Applied behavior analysis (ABA; application of op-
erant and classical conditioning)
1.10.9 Operant conditioning in economics
• Behavioral contrast
Main article: Consumer demand tests (animals)
Further information: Behavioral economics • Behaviorism (philosophy behind behavior analysis)
• Behavior modification (old expression for ABA;
Both psychologists and economists have become inter- modifies behavior with consequences not an-
ested in applications of operant conditioning concepts tecedents)
1.10. OPERANT CONDITIONING 41

• Biofeedback [5] Skinner, B. F.“Are theories of learning necessary?" 1950,


Psychological Review,57, 193-216.
• Child grooming
[6] Schacter, Daniel L., Daniel T. Gilbert, and Daniel M.
• Cognitivism (psychology) (theory of internal mech- Wegner. “B. F. Skinner: The role of reinforcement and
anisms without reference to behavior) Punishment”, subsection in: Psychology; Second Edition.
New York: Worth, Incorporated, 2011, 278-288.
• Consumer demand tests (animals)
[7] Ferster, C. B. & Skinner, B. F.“Schedules of Reinforce-
• Educational psychology ment”, 1957 New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts

• Educational technology [8] Staddon, J. E. R; D. T Cerutti (February 2003).“Operant


Conditioning”. Annual Review of Psychology 54 (1):
• Experimental analysis of behavior (research in op- 115. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145124.
erant and classical conditioning) Retrieved 23 March 2013.

• Exposure therapy [9] Mecca Chiesa (2004) Radical Behaviorism: The philoso-
phy and the science
• Habituation
[10] Skinner, B. F. “Science and Human Behavior”, 1953.
• Jerzy Konorski New York: MacMillan

• Learned industriousness [11] Skinner, B. F. “Verbal Behavior”, 1957. New York:


Appleton-Century-Crofts
• Matching law
[12] Tucker, M., Sigafoos, J., & Bushell, H. (1998). Use of
• Negative (positive) contrast effect noncontingent reinforcement in the treatment of challeng-
ing behavior. Behavior Modification, 22, 529–547.
• Radical behaviorism (B.F. Skinner's philosophy)
[13] Poling, A., & Normand, M. (1999). Noncontingent re-
• Reinforcement learning inforcement: an inappropriate description of time-based
schedules that reduce behavior. Journal of Applied Be-
• Reward system havior Analysis, 32, 237–238.

• Power and control in abusive relationships [14] Schacter et al.2011 Psychology 2nd ed. pg.280-284 Ref-
erence for entire section Principles version 130317
• Preference tests (animals)
[15] Miltenberger, R. G.“Behavioral Modification: Principles
• Premack principle and Procedures”. Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008. p. 84.

• Psychological manipulation [16] Miltenberger, R. G.“Behavioral Modification: Principles


and Procedures”. Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008. p. 86.
• Sensitization
[17] Schultz, Wolfram (1998). Predictive Reward Signal of
• Social conditioning Dopamine Neurons. The Journal of Neurophysiology,
80(1), 1–27.
• Spontaneous recovery
[18] Neuringer, A. (2002). Operant variability: Evidence,
• Traumatic bonding functions, and theory. Psychonometric Bulletin & Re-
view, 9(4), 672–705.

[19] Pierce & Cheney (2004) Behavior Analysis and Learning


1.10.12 References
[20] Cole, M.R. (1990). Operant hoarding: A new paradigm
[1] Domjan, Michael, Ed., The Principles of Learning for the study of self-control. Journal of the Experimental
and Behavior, Fifth Edition, Belmont, CA: Thom- Analysis of Behavior, 53, 247–262.
son/Wadsworth, 2003
[21] “Activity of pallidal neurons during movement”, M.R.
[2] Thorndike, E.L. (1901). Animal intelligence: An experi- DeLong, J. Neurophysiol., 34:414–27, 1971
mental study of the associative processes in animals. Psy-
chological Review Monograph Supplement, 2, 1–109. [22] Richardson RT, DeLong MR (1991): Electrophysiolog-
ical studies of the function of the nucleus basalis in pri-
[3] Miltenberger, R. G.“Behavioral Modification: Principles mates. In Napier TC, Kalivas P, Hamin I (eds), The Basal
and Procedures”. Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008. p. 9. Forebrain: Anatomy to Function (Advances in Experimen-
tal Medicine and Biology, vol. 295. New York, Plenum,
[4] Skinner, B. F. “The Behavior of Organisms:An Experi- pp. 232–252
mental Analysis”, 1938 New York: Appleton-Century-
Crofts [23] PNAS 93:11219-24 1996, Science 279:1714–8 1998
42 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

[24] Neuron 63:244–253, 2009, Frontiers in Behavioral Neu- • scienceofbehavior.com


roscience, 3: Article 13, 2009
• Society for Quantitative Analysis of Behavior
[25] Michael J. Frank, Lauren C. Seeberger, and Randall C.
O'Reilly (2004) “By Carrot or by Stick: Cognitive Rein- • An Introduction to Verbal Behavior Online Tutorial
forcement Learning in Parkinsonism,”Science 4, Novem- • An Introduction to Relational Frame Theory Online
ber 2004 Tutorial
[26] Domjan, M. (2009). The Principles of Learning and Be-
havior. Wadsworth Publishing Company. 6th Edition. • [www.usu.edu/teachall/text/behavior/LRBIpdfs/
pages 244-249. Positive.pdf]

[27] Timberlake, W. (1983). Rats' responses to a moving ob- • [www.cehd.umn.edu/ceed/publications/tipsheets/


ject related to food or water: A behavior-systems analysis. preschoolbehaviortipsheets/posrein.pdf]
Animal Learning & Behavior. 11(3):309–320.

[28] Neuringer, A.J. (1969). Animals respond for food in the


presence of free food. Science. 166:399-401.
1.11 Punishment (psychology)
[29] Williams, D.R. and Williams, H. (1969). Auto-
maintenance in the pigeon: sustained pecking despite con-
tingent non-reinforcement. J. Exper. Analys. of Behav.
12:511–520.

[30] Peden, B.F., Brown, M.P., & Hearst, E. (1977). Journal


of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes.
3(4):377–399.

[31] Gardner, R.A., & Gardner, B.T. (1988). Feedforward vs


feedbackward: An ethological alternative to the law of ef-
fect. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 11:429–447.

[32] Gardner, R. A. & Gardner B.T.(1998) The structure of


learning from sign stimuli to sign language. Mahwah NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

[33] Baum, W. M. (2012) Rethinking reinforcement: Alloca-


tion, induction and contingency. Journal of the Experi-
mental Analysis of Behavior, 97, 101-124 .
Diagram of operant conditioning
[34] Locurto, C. M., Terrace, H. S., & Gibbon, J. (1981) Au-
toshaping and conditioning theory. New York: Academic
In operant conditioning, punishment is any change in
Press.
a human or animal's surroundings that occurs after a
given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood
1. Staddon, J. E. R. & Cerutti, D. T. (2003) Operant of that behavior occurring again in the future. As with
behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 54:115-14 2. reinforcement, it is the behavior, not the animal, that is
Kalat, J. (2013). Introduction to Psychology (10th ed.). punished. Whether a change is or is not punishing is only
Cengage Learning. 3. Elmes, D. (2011). Research Meth- known by its effect on the rate of the behavior, not by any
ods in Psychology (9th ed.). Cengage Learning. 4. Boyd, “hostile”or aversive features of the change. For exam-
D. (2014). Lifespan Development (7th ed.). Cengage ple, painful stimulation which would serve as a punisher
Learning. 5. Myers, D. (2011). Psychology (10th ed.). in many cases serves to reinforce some behaviors of the
Cengage Learning. 6. Ormrod, J. (2011). Human Learn- masochist.
ing (6th ed.). Pearson. 7. Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science
and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
1.11.1 Types
1.10.13 External links There are two types of punishment in operant condition-
ing:
• Operant conditioning article in Scholarpedia
• positive punishment, punishment by applica-
• Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis tion, or type I punishment, an experimenter pun-
• Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior ishes a response by presenting an aversive stimu-
lus into the animal's surroundings (a brief electric
• Negative reinforcement shock, for example).
1.11. PUNISHMENT (PSYCHOLOGY) 43

• negative punishment, punishment by removal, or behavior and a punishing effect, the less effective the pun-
type II punishment, a valued, appetitive stimulus ishment will be. One major problem with a time delay
is removed (as in the removal of a feeding dish). between a behavior and a punishment is that other be-
As with reinforcement, it is not usually necessary to haviors may present during that time delay. The subject
speak of positive and negative in regard to punish- may then associate the punishment given with the unin-
ment. tended behaviors, and thus suppressing those behaviors
instead of the targeted behavior. Therefore, immediate
Punishment is not a mirror effect of reinforcement. In ex- punishment is more effective in reducing a targeted be-
periments with laboratory animals and studies with chil- havior than a delayed punishment would be.
dren, punishment decreases the likelihood of a previously
reinforced response only temporarily, and it can produce
1.11.4 Applied behavior analysis
other “emotional”behavior (wing-flapping in pigeons,
for example) and physiological changes (increased heart
Main article: Applied behavior analysis
rate, for example) that have no clear equivalents in rein-
forcement.
Punishment is sometimes used for treatment programs in
Punishment is considered by some behavioral psychol-
applied behavior analysis in the most extreme cases, to
ogists to be a “primary process”– a completely in-
reduce dangerous behaviors such as head banging or bit-
dependent phenomenon of learning, distinct from rein-
ing exhibited most commonly by children or people with
forcement. Others see it as a category of negative rein-
special needs or disabilities. Punishment is considered
forcement, creating a situation in which any punishment-
one of the ethical challenges to autism treatment and is
avoiding behavior (even standing still) is reinforced.
one of the major reasons for discussion of professional-
izing behavior analysis. Professionalizing behavior anal-
1.11.2 Aversives ysis through licensure would create a board to ensure that
consumers or families had a place to air disputes. (see
Aversive stimulus, punisher, and punishing stimulus are Professional practice of behavior analysis)
somewhat synonymous. Punishment may be used for
(a) an aversive stimulus or (b) the occurrence of any 1.11.5 See also
punishing change or (c) the part of an experiment in
which a particular response is punished. However, some • Child grooming
things considered aversive (such as spanking) can become
reinforcing. In addition, some things that are aversive • Emotional blackmail
may not be punishing if accompanying changes are re-
• Lovaas technique
inforcing. A classic example would be mis-behavior that
is 'punished' by a teacher but actually increases over time • Power and control in abusive relationships
due to the reinforcing effects of attention on the student.
• Psychological manipulation
• Punishment
1.11.3 Importance of contingency and con-
tiguity • Traumatic bonding

One variable affecting punishment is contingency, which


is defined as the dependency of events. A behavior may 1.11.6 References
be dependent on a stimulus or dependent on a response.
• Skinner, B. F. (1938) The behavior of organisms.
The purpose of punishment is to reduce a behavior, and
New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
the degree to which punishment is effective in reducing
a targeted behavior is dependent on the relationship be- • Chance, Paul. (2003) Learning and Behavior. 5th
tween the behavior and a punishment. For example, if edition Toronto: Thomson-Wadsworth.
a rat receives an aversive stimulus, such as a shock each
time it presses a lever, then it is clear that contingency • Holth, P. (2005). Two Definitions of Punishment.
occurs between lever pressing and shock. In this case, The Behavior Analyst Today, 6(1), 43- 55 BAO .
the punisher (shock) is contingent upon the appearance of • http://www.class.uidaho.edu/psyc390/pdf/
the behavior (lever pressing). Punishment is most effec- 4-8-Side-Effects-and-Problems-with-Punishment.
tive when contingency is present between a behavior and pdf
a punisher. A second variable affecting punishment is
contiguity, which is the closeness of events in time and/or • Chance, Paul. (2009)“Learning and Behavior: Ac-
space. Contiguity is important to reducing behavior be- tive Learning Edition.”6th edition Belmont, CA:
cause the longer the time interval between an unwanted Wadsorth/Cengage Learning.
44 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

1.12 Reinforcement ample is that many people can explain in detail where
they were when they found out the World Trade Center
* *
This article is about the psychological concept. For was attacked. [3] [4]
the construction materials reinforcement, see Rebar. Reinforcement is an important part of operant or
For reinforcement learning in computer science, see instrumental conditioning.
Reinforcement learning. For beam stiffening, see
Stiffening.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a 1.12.1 Introduction

B.F. Skinner was a high profile researcher that articulated


many of the theoretical constructs of reinforcement and
behaviorism. Skinner defined reinforcers according to
the change in response strength rather than to more sub-
jective criteria, such as what is pleasurable or valuable
to someone. Accordingly, activities, foods or items con-
sidered pleasant or enjoyable may not necessarily be rein-
forcing (because they produce no increase in the response
preceding them). Stimuli, settings, and activities only fit
the definition of reinforcers if the behavior that immedi-
ately precedes the potential reinforcer increases in similar
situations in the future, for example, a child who receives
a cookie when he or she asks for one. If the frequency of
“cookie-requesting behavior”increases, the cookie can
be seen as reinforcing“cookie-requesting behavior”. If
however,“cookie-requesting behavior”does not increase
the cookie cannot be considered reinforcing.
Diagram of operant conditioning
The sole criteria that determines if an item, activity, or
food is reinforcing is the change in probability of a behav-
consequence that will strengthen an organism's future be- ior after administration of that potential reinforcer. Other
havior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific theories may focus on additional factors such as whether
antecedent stimulus. This strengthening effect may be the person expected the strategy to work at some point,
measured as a higher frequency of behavior (e.g., pulling but in the behavioral theory, reinforcement is descriptive
a lever more frequently), longer duration (e.g., pulling of an increased probability of a response.
a lever for longer periods of time), greater magnitude
(e.g., pulling a lever with greater force), or shorter la- The study of reinforcement has produced an enormous
tency (e.g., pulling a lever more quickly following the an- body of reproducible experimental results. Reinforce-
tecedent stimulus). ment is the central concept and procedure in special ed-
ucation, applied behavior analysis, and the experimental
Although in many cases a reinforcing stimulus is a re- analysis of behavior.
warding stimulus which is “valued”or “liked”by the
individual (e.g., money received from a slot machine, the
taste of the treat, the euphoria produced by an addictive 1.12.2 Brief history
drug), this is not a requirement. Indeed, reinforcement
does not even require an individual to consciously per- Much of the work regarding reinforcement began with
ceive an effect elicited by the stimulus.* [1] Furthermore, behavioral psychologists such as Edward Thorndike, J.
stimuli that are “rewarding”or “liked”are not always B. Watson and B.F. Skinner and their use of animal ex-
reinforcing: if an individual eats at a fast food restau- periments. B.F. Skinner is famous for his work on re-
rant (response) and likes the taste of the food (stimulus), inforcement and believed that positive reinforcement is
but believes it is bad for their health, they may not eat superior to punishment in shaping behavior.* [8] At first
it again and thus it was not reinforcing in that condition. glance, punishment can seem like just the opposite of
Thus, reinforcement occurs only if there is an observable reinforcement, yet Skinner argued that they differ im-
strengthening in behavior. mensely; he claimed that positive reinforcement results in
In most cases reinforcement refers to an enhancement of lasting behavioral modification (long-term) whereas pun-
behavior but this term may also refer to an enhancement ishment changes behavior only temporarily (short-term)
of memory. One example of this effect is called post- and has many detrimental side-effects. Skinner defined
training reinforcement where a stimulus (e.g. food) given reinforcement as creating situations that a person likes or
shortly after a training session enhances the learning.* [2] removing a situation he doesn't like, and punishment as
This stimulus can also be an emotional one. A good ex- removing a situation a person likes or setting up one he
1.12. REINFORCEMENT 45

doesn't like.* [8] Thus, the distinction was based mainly Negative reinforcement occurs when the rate of a be-
on the pleasant or aversive (unpleasant) nature of the havior increases because an aversive event or stimulus is
stimulus. removed or prevented from happening.* [12]* :253
Two other researchers, Azrin and Holz, expanded upon
operant conditioning by focusing on the definition of pun- • Example: A child cleans his or her room, and this
ishment in their chapter to Honigʼs volume on operant behavior is followed by the parent stopping “nag-
behavior, and they defined it as a“consequence of behav- ging”or asking the child repeatedly to do so. Here,
ior that reduces the future probability of that behavior.” the nagging serves to negatively reinforce the behav-
*
[9] Skinnerʼs assumptions regarding reinforcement and ior of cleaning because the child wants to remove
punishment were thus challenged throughout the 1960s, that aversive stimulus of nagging.
and some studies have shown that positive reinforcement
• Example: A person puts ointment on a bug bite to
and punishment are equally effective in modifying behav-
soothe an itch. If the ointment works, the person
ior; that debate, however, continues in studies today as to
will likely increase the usage of the ointment be-
whether or not reinforcement is more or equally as ef-
cause it resulted in removing the itch, which is the
fective as punishment.* [10] Edward Thorndike also did
negative reinforcer.
some work regarding reinforcement in learning theory
and believed that learning could occur unconsciously; that • Example: A company has a policy that if an em-
is, reinforcements or punishments could have an effect ployee completes their assigned work by Friday,
upon learning even if the person or organism is unaware they can have Saturday off. Working Saturday is the
of it.* [11] The research on the effects of positive and neg- negative reinforcer, the employeeʼs productivity will
ative reinforcement alongside punishment continue today be increased as they avoid experiencing the negative
as those concepts apply directly to many forms of learn- reinforcer.
ing and behavior.

Punishment
1.12.3 Operant conditioning
Positive punishment occurs when a response produces
a stimulus and that responses decreases in probability in
Main article: Operant conditioning
the future in similar circumstances.

The basic definition is that a positive reinforcer adds a • Example: A mother yells at a child when he or she
stimulus to increase or maintain frequency of a behavior runs into the street. If the child stops running into
while a negative reinforcer removes a stimulus to increase the street, the yelling ceases. The yelling acts as pos-
or maintain the frequency of the behavior. As mentioned itive punishment because the mother presents (adds)
above, positive and negative reinforcement are compo- an unpleasant stimulus in the form of yelling.
nents of operant conditioning, along with positive pun-
ishment and negative punishment, all explained below:
Negative punishment occurs when a response produces
the removal of a stimulus and that response decreases in
Reinforcement probability in the future in similar circumstances.

Positive reinforcement occurs when an event or stim- • Example: A teenager comes home after curfew and
ulus is presented as a consequence of a behavior and the the parents take away a privilege, such as cell phone
behavior increases.* [12]* :253 usage. If the frequency of the child coming home
late decreases, the privilege is gradually restored.
The removal of the phone is negative punishment
• Example: Whenever a rat presses a button, it gets a because the parents are taking away a pleasant stim-
treat. If the rat starts pressing the button more often, ulus (the phone) and motivating the child to return
the treat serves to positively reinforce this behavior. home earlier.

• Example: A father gives candy to his daughter when


Simply put, reinforcers serve to increase behaviors
she picks up her toys. If the frequency of picking up
whereas punishers serve to decrease behaviors; thus, pos-
the toys increases, the candy is a positive reinforcer
itive reinforcers are stimuli that the subject will work to
(to reinforce the behavior of cleaning up).
attain, and negative reinforcers are stimuli that the subject
*
• Example: A company enacts a rewards program in will work to be rid of or to end. [13] The table below il-
which employees earn prizes dependent on the num- lustrates the adding and subtracting of stimuli (pleasant
ber of items sold. The prizes the employees receive or aversive) in relation to reinforcement vs. punishment.
are the positive reinforcement as they increase sales. Further ideas and concepts:
46 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

• Distinguishing between positive and negative can be sleep, food, air, water, and sex. Some primary rein-
difficult and may not always be necessary; focusing forcers, such as certain drugs, may mimic the effects
on what is being removed or added and how it is of other primary reinforcers. While these primary rein-
being removed or added will determine the nature forcers are fairly stable through life and across individu-
of the reinforcement. als, the reinforcing value of different primary reinforcers
varies due to multiple factors (e.g., genetics, experience).
• Negative reinforcement is not punishment. The two, Thus, one person may prefer one type of food while an-
as explained above, differ in the increase (negative other abhors it. Or one person may eat lots of food while
reinforcement) or decrease (punishment) of the fu- another eats very little. So even though food is a primary
ture probability of a response. However, in negative reinforcer for both individuals, the value of food as a re-
reinforcement, the stimulus is an aversive stimulus, inforcer differs between them.
which if presented contingent on a response, may
also function as a positive punisher.
• The increase in behavior is independent of (i.e. not Secondary reinforcers
related to) whether or not the organism finds the
reinforcer to be pleasant or aversive. Example: A A secondary reinforcer, sometimes called a conditioned
child is given detention for acting up in school, but reinforcer, is a stimulus or situation that has acquired its
the frequency of the bad behavior increases. Thus, function as a reinforcer after pairing with a stimulus that
the detention is a reinforcer (could be positive or functions as a reinforcer. This stimulus may be a pri-
negative) even if the detention is not a pleasant mary reinforcer or another conditioned reinforcer (such
stimuli, perhaps because the child now feels like a as money). An example of a secondary reinforcer would
“rebel”or sees it as an opportunity to get out of class. be the sound from a clicker, as used in clicker training.
The sound of the clicker has been associated with praise
• Some reinforcement can be simultaneously positive or treats, and subsequently, the sound of the clicker may
and negative, such as a drug addict taking drugs for function as a reinforcer. As with primary reinforcers, an
the added euphoria (a positive feeling) and eliminat- organism can experience satiation and deprivation with
ing withdrawal symptoms (which would be a nega- secondary reinforcers.
tive feeling). Or, in a warm room, a current of ex-
ternal air serves as positive reinforcement because
it is pleasantly cool and as negative reinforcement Other reinforcement terms
because it removes uncomfortable hot air.
• A generalized reinforcer is a conditioned reinforcer
• Reinforcement in the business world is essential in that has obtained the reinforcing function by pair-
driving productivity. Employees are constantly mo- ing with many other reinforcers and functions as a
tivated by the ability to receive a positive stimulus, reinforcer under a wide-variety of motivating oper-
such as a promotion or a bonus. Employees are also ations. (One example of this is money because it is
driven by negative reinforcement. This can be seen paired with many other reinforcers).* [16]* :83
when employees are offered Saturdays off if they
complete the weekly workload by Friday. • In reinforcer sampling, a potentially reinforcing but
unfamiliar stimulus is presented to an organism
• Though negative reinforcement has a positive effect
without regard to any prior behavior.
in the short term for a workplace (i.e. encourages a
financially beneficial action), over-reliance on a neg-
• Socially-mediated reinforcement (direct reinforce-
ative reinforcement hinders the ability of workers to
ment) involves the delivery of reinforcement that re-
act in a creative, engaged way creating growth in the
* quires the behavior of another organism.
long term. [14]
• Both positive and negative reinforcement increase • The Premack principle is a special case of reinforce-
behavior. Most people, especially children, will ment elaborated by David Premack, which states
learn to follow instruction by a mix of positive and that a highly preferred activity can be used ef-
negative reinforcement.* [12] fectively as a reinforcer for a less-preferred activ-
ity.* [16]* :123

Primary reinforcers • Reinforcement hierarchy is a list of actions, rank-


ordering the most desirable to least desirable conse-
A primary reinforcer, sometimes called an unconditioned quences that may serve as a reinforcer. A reinforce-
reinforcer, is a stimulus that does not require pairing to ment hierarchy can be used to determine the relative
function as a reinforcer and most likely has obtained this frequency and desirability of different activities, and
function through the evolution and its role in species' is often employed when applying the Premack prin-
survival.* [15] Examples of primary reinforcers include ciple.
1.12. REINFORCEMENT 47

• Contingent outcomes are more likely to reinforce As can be seen from the above, artificial reinforcement is
behavior than non-contingent responses. Contingent in fact created to build or develop skills, and to generalize,
outcomes are those directly linked to a causal be- it is important that either a behavior trap is introduced to
havior, such a light turning on being contingent on “capture”the skill and utilize naturally occurring rein-
flipping a switch. Note that contingent outcomes forcement to maintain or increase it. This behavior trap
are not necessary to demonstrate reinforcement, but may simply be a social situation that will generally result
perceived contingency may increase learning. from a specific behavior once it has met a certain crite-
rion (e.g., if you use edible reinforcers to train a person to
• Contiguous stimuli are stimuli closely associated by
say hello and smile at people when they meet them, after
time and space with specific behaviors. They reduce
that skill has been built up, the natural reinforcer of other
the amount of time needed to learn a behavior while
people smiling, and having more friendly interactions will
increasing its resistance to extinction. Giving a dog a
naturally reinforce the skill and the edibles can be faded).
piece of food immediately after sitting is more con-
tiguous with (and therefore more likely to reinforce)
the behavior than a several minute delay in food de-
1.12.5 Intermittent reinforcement
livery following the behavior.
• Noncontingent reinforcement refers to response- Pigeons experimented on in a scientific study were more
independent delivery of stimuli identified as rein- responsive to intermittent reinforcement, than contin-
forcers for some behaviors of that organism. How- uous reinforcement.* [21] In other words, pigeons were
ever, this typically entails time-based delivery of more prone to act when they only sometimes could get
stimuli identified as maintaining aberrant behav- what they wanted. This effect was such that behavioral
ior, which decreases the rate of the target behav- responses were maximized when the reward rate was at
ior.* [17] As no measured behavior is identified as 50% (in other words, when the uncertainty was maxi-
being strengthened, there is controversy surrounding mized), and would gradually decline toward values on ei-
the use of the term noncontingent “reinforcement” ther side of 50%.* [22] R.B Sparkman, a journalist spe-
.* [18] cialized on what motivates human behavior, claims this
is also true for humans, and may in part explain human
tendencies such as gambling addiction.* [23]
1.12.4 Natural and artificial
In his 1967 paper, Arbitrary and Natural Reinforcement, 1.12.6 Schedules
Charles Ferster proposed classifying reinforcement into
events that increase frequency of an operant as a natu- When an animal's surroundings are controlled, its behav-
ral consequence of the behavior itself, and events that are ior patterns after reinforcement become predictable, even
presumed to affect frequency by their requirement of hu- for very complex behavior patterns. A schedule of rein-
man mediation, such as in a token economy where sub- forcement is a rule or program that determines how and
jects are “rewarded”for certain behavior with an ar- when the occurrence of a response will be followed by
bitrary token of a negotiable value. In 1970, Baer and the delivery of the reinforcer, and extinction, in which no
Wolf created a name for the use of natural reinforcers response is reinforced. Schedules of reinforcement influ-
called “behavior traps”.* [19] A behavior trap requires ence how an instrumental response is learned and how it
only a simple response to enter the trap, yet once entered, is maintained by reinforcement. Between these extremes
the trap cannot be resisted in creating general behavior is intermittent or partial reinforcement where only some
change. It is the use of a behavioral trap that increases responses are reinforced.
a person's repertoire, by exposing them to the naturally
occurring reinforcement of that behavior. Behavior traps Specific variations of intermittent reinforcement reliably
have four characteristics: induce specific patterns of response, irrespective of the
species being investigated (including humans in some
• They are “baited”with virtually irresistible rein- conditions). The orderliness and predictability of be-
forcers that “lure”the student to the trap havior under schedules of reinforcement was evidence
for B.F. Skinner's claim that by using operant condi-
• Only a low-effort response already in the repertoire tioning he could obtain “control over behavior”, in
is necessary to enter the trap a way that rendered the theoretical disputes of contem-
porary comparative psychology obsolete. The reliability
• Interrelated contingencies of reinforcement inside
of schedule control supported the idea that a radical be-
the trap motivate the person to acquire, extend, and
haviorist experimental analysis of behavior could be the
maintain targeted academic/social skills* [20]
foundation for a psychology that did not refer to mental
• They can remain effective for long periods of time or cognitive processes. The reliability of schedules also
because the person shows few, if any, satiation ef- led to the development of applied behavior analysis as a
fects means of controlling or altering behavior.
48 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

Many of the simpler possibilities, and some of the more • Variable ratio schedule (VR) – reinforced on av-
complex ones, were investigated at great length by Skin- erage every nth response, but not always on the nth
ner using pigeons, but new schedules continue to be de- response.* [16]* :88
fined and investigated.
• Lab example: VR4”= first pellet delivered on
2 bar presses, second pellet delivered on 6 bar
Simple schedules presses, third pellet 4 bar presses (2 + 6 + 4 =
12; 12/3= 4 bar presses to receive pellet).
• Real-world example: slot machines (because,
though the probability of hitting the jackpot is
constant, the number of lever presses needed
to hit the jackpot is variable).

• Fixed interval (FI) – reinforced after n amount of


time.

• Example: FI1”= reinforcement provided for


the first response after 1 second.
• Lab example: FI15”= rat's bar-pressing be-
havior is reinforced for the first bar press after
15 seconds passes since the last reinforcement.
• Real world example: washing machine cycle.

A chart demonstrating the different response rate of the four sim- • Variable interval (VI) – reinforced on an average of
ple schedules of reinforcement, each hatch mark designates a re- n amount of time, but not always exactly n amount
inforcer being given of time.* [16]* :89

• Example: VI4”= first pellet delivered after


• Ratio schedule – the reinforcement depends only
2 minutes, second delivered after 6 minutes,
on the number of responses the organism has per-
third is delivered after 4 minutes (2 + 6 + 4 =
formed.
12; 12/ 3 = 4). Reinforcement is delivered on
• Continuous reinforcement (CRF) – a schedule of the average after 4 minutes.
reinforcement in which every occurrence of the in- • Lab example: VI10”= a rat's bar-pressing be-
strumental response (desired response) is followed havior is reinforced for the first bar press after
by the reinforcer.* [16]* :86 an average of 10 seconds passes since the last
• Lab example: each time a rat presses a bar it reinforcement.
gets a pellet of food. • Real world example: checking your e-mail or
• Real world example: each time a dog defecates pop quizzes. Going fishing̶you might catch
outside its owner gives it a treat; each time a a fish after 10 minutes, then have to wait an
person puts $1 in a candy machine and presses hour, then have to wait 18 minutes.
the buttons he receives a candy bar.
Other simple schedules include:
Simple schedules have a single rule to determine when a
single type of reinforcer is delivered for specific response.
• Differential reinforcement of incompatible be-
havior – Used to reduce a frequent behavior with-
• Fixed ratio (FR) – schedules deliver reinforcement out punishing it by reinforcing an incompatible re-
after every nth response.* [16]* :88 sponse. An example would be reinforcing clapping
• Example: FR2”= every second desired re- to reduce nose picking.
sponse the subject makes is reinforced.
• Differential reinforcement of other behavior
• Lab example: FR5”= rat's bar-pressing behav- (DRO) – Also known as omission training proce-
ior is reinforced with food after every 5 bar- dures, an instrumental conditioning procedure in
presses in a Skinner box. which a positive reinforcer is periodically delivered
• Real-world example: FR10”= Used car dealer only if the participant does something other than the
gets a $1000 bonus for each 10 cars sold on the target response. An example would be reinforcing
lot. any hand action other than nose picking.* [16]* :338
1.12. REINFORCEMENT 49

• Differential reinforcement of low response rate • Ratio schedules produce higher rates of responding
(DRL) – Used to encourage low rates of responding. than interval schedules, when the rates of reinforce-
It is like an interval schedule, except that premature ment are otherwise similar.
responses reset the time required between behavior.
• Variable schedules produce higher rates and greater
• Lab example: DRL10”= a rat is reinforced resistance to extinction than most fixed schedules.
for the first response after 10 seconds, but if This is also known as the Partial Reinforcement Ex-
the rat responds earlier than 10 seconds there tinction Effect (PREE).
is no reinforcement and the rat has to wait 10
seconds from that premature response without • The variable ratio schedule produces both the high-
another response before bar pressing will lead est rate of responding and the greatest resistance to
to reinforcement. extinction (for example, the behavior of gamblers at
slot machines).
• Real world example: “If you ask me for a
potato chip no more than once every 10 min- • Fixed schedules produce “post-reinforcement
utes, I will give it to you. If you ask more of- pauses”(PRP), where responses will briefly cease
ten, I will give you none.” immediately following reinforcement, though the
pause is a function of the upcoming response re-
• Differential reinforcement of high rate (DRH) – quirement rather than the prior reinforcement.* [24]
Used to increase high rates of responding. It is like
an interval schedule, except that a minimum number • The PRP of a fixed interval schedule is fre-
of responses are required in the interval in order to quently followed by a “scallop-shaped”ac-
receive reinforcement. celerating rate of response, while fixed ratio
schedules produce a more“angular”response.
• Lab example: DRH10"/15 responses = a rat
must press a bar 15 times within a 10 second • fixed interval scallop: the pattern of re-
increment to get reinforced. sponding that develops with fixed interval
reinforcement schedule, performance on
• Real world example: “If Lance Armstrong is a fixed interval reflects subject's accuracy
going to win the Tour de France he has to pedal in telling time.
x number of times during the y-hour race.”
• Organisms whose schedules of reinforcement are
• Fixed time (FT) – Provides reinforcement at a fixed “thinned”(that is, requiring more responses or a
time since the last reinforcement, irrespective of greater wait before reinforcement) may experience
whether the subject has responded or not. In other “ratio strain”if thinned too quickly. This produces
words, it is a non-contingent schedule. behavior similar to that seen during extinction.
• Lab example: FT5”= rat gets food every 5 • Ratio strain: the disruption of responding that
seconds regardless of the behavior. occurs when a fixed ratio response requirement
• Real world example: a person gets an annu- is increased too rapidly.
ity check every month regardless of behavior • Ratio run: high and steady rate of responding
between checks that completes each ratio requirement. Usu-
ally higher ratio requirement causes longer
• Variable time (VT) – Provides reinforcement at an
post-reinforcement pauses to occur.
average variable time since last reinforcement, re-
gardless of whether the subject has responded or not. • Partial reinforcement schedules are more resistant to
extinction than continuous reinforcement schedules.
Effects of different types of simple schedules • Ratio schedules are more resistant than inter-
val schedules and variable schedules more re-
• Fixed ratio: activity slows after reinforcer and then sistant than fixed ones.
picks up.
• Momentary changes in reinforcement value
• Variable ratio: high rate of responding, greatest ac- lead to dynamic changes in behavior.* [25]
tivity of all schedules, responding rate is high and
stable.
Compound schedules
• Fixed interval: activity increases as deadline nears,
can cause fast extinction. Compound schedules combine two or more different sim-
ple schedules in some way using the same reinforcer for
• Variable interval: steady activity results, good resis- the same behavior. There are many possibilities; among
tance to extinction. those most often used are:
50 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

• Alternative schedules – A type of compound • Tandem schedules – Reinforcement occurs when


schedule where two or more simple schedules are two or more successive schedule requirements have
in effect and whichever schedule is completed first been completed, with no stimulus indicating when
results in reinforcement.* [26] a schedule has been completed and the next has
started.
• Conjunctive schedules – A complex schedule of
reinforcement where two or more simple schedules • Example: VR10, after it is completed the
are in effect independently of each other, and re- schedule is changed without warning to FR10,
quirements on all of the simple schedules must be after that it is changed without warning to
met for reinforcement. FR16, etc. At the end of the series of sched-
• Multiple schedules – Two or more schedules alter- ules, a reinforcer is finally given.
nate over time, with a stimulus indicating which is
in force. Reinforcement is delivered if the response • Higher-order schedules – completion of one
requirement is met while a schedule is in effect. schedule is reinforced according to a second sched-
ule; e.g. in FR2 (FI10 secs), two successive fixed
• Example: FR4 when given a whistle and FI6 interval schedules require completion before a re-
when given a bell ring. sponse is reinforced.
• Mixed schedules – Either of two, or more, sched-
ules may occur with no stimulus indicating which is Superimposed schedules
in force. Reinforcement is delivered if the response
requirement is met while a schedule is in effect. The psychology term superimposed schedules of rein-
• Example: FI6 and then VR3 without any stim- forcement refers to a structure of rewards where two or
ulus warning of the change in schedule. more simple schedules of reinforcement operate simulta-
neously. Reinforcers can be positive, negative, or both.
• Concurrent schedules – A complex reinforcement An example is a person who comes home after a long
procedure in which the participant can choose any day at work. The behavior of opening the front door is re-
one of two or more simple reinforcement sched- warded by a big kiss on the lips by the person's spouse and
ules that are available simultaneously. Organisms a rip in the pants from the family dog jumping enthusias-
are free to change back and forth between the re- tically. Another example of superimposed schedules of
sponse alternatives at any time. reinforcement is a pigeon in an experimental cage peck-
ing at a button. The pecks deliver a hopper of grain every
• Real world example: changing channels on a
20th peck, and access to water after every 200 pecks.
television.
Superimposed schedules of reinforcement are a type of
• Concurrent-chain schedule of reinforcement – compound schedule that evolved from the initial work on
A complex reinforcement procedure in which the simple schedules of reinforcement by B.F. Skinner and
participant is permitted to choose during the first his colleagues (Skinner and Ferster, 1957). They demon-
link which of several simple reinforcement sched- strated that reinforcers could be delivered on schedules,
ules will be in effect in the second link. Once a and further that organisms behaved differently under dif-
choice has been made, the rejected alternatives be- ferent schedules. Rather than a reinforcer, such as food
come unavailable until the start of the next trial. or water, being delivered every time as a consequence of
• Interlocking schedules – A single schedule with some behavior, a reinforcer could be delivered after more
two components where progress in one component than one instance of the behavior. For example, a pigeon
affects progress in the other component. An inter- may be required to peck a button switch ten times be-
locking FR60–FI120, for example, each response fore food appears. This is a “ratio schedule”. Also,
subtracts time from the interval component such that a reinforcer could be delivered after an interval of time
each response is “equal”to removing two seconds passed following a target behavior. An example is a rat
from the FI. that is given a food pellet immediately following the first
response that occurs after two minutes has elapsed since
• Chained schedules – Reinforcement occurs after the last lever press. This is called an “interval schedule”
two or more successive schedules have been com- .
pleted, with a stimulus indicating when one schedule
has been completed and the next has started In addition, ratio schedules can deliver reinforcement fol-
lowing fixed or variable number of behaviors by the indi-
• Example: FR10 in a green light when com- vidual organism. Likewise, interval schedules can deliver
pleted it goes to a yellow light to indicate FR3, reinforcement following fixed or variable intervals of time
after it is completed it goes into red light to following a single response by the organism. Individual
indicate VI6, etc. At the end of the chain, a behaviors tend to generate response rates that differ based
reinforcer is given. upon how the reinforcement schedule is created. Much
1.12. REINFORCEMENT 51

subsequent research in many labs examined the effects pecking keys; pecking responses can be made on either,
on behaviors of scheduling reinforcers. and food reinforcement might follow a peck on either.
If an organism is offered the opportunity to choose be- The schedules of reinforcement arranged for pecks on the
tween or among two or more simple schedules of re- two keys can be different. They may be independent, or
inforcement at the same time, the reinforcement struc- they may be linked so that behavior on one key affects
ture is called a “concurrent schedule of reinforcement” the likelihood of reinforcement on the other.
. Brechner (1974, 1977) introduced the concept of su- It is not necessary for responses on the two schedules to be
perimposed schedules of reinforcement in an attempt to physically distinct. In an alternate way of arranging con-
create a laboratory analogy of social traps, such as when current schedules, introduced by Findley in 1958, both
humans overharvest their fisheries or tear down their rain- schedules are arranged on a single key or other response
forests. Brechner created a situation where simple rein- device, and the subject can respond on a second key to
forcement schedules were superimposed upon each other. change between the schedules. In such a “Findley con-
In other words, a single response or group of responses by current”procedure, a stimulus (e.g., the color of the main
an organism led to multiple consequences. Concurrent key) signals which schedule is in effect.
schedules of reinforcement can be thought of as “or” Concurrent schedules often induce rapid alternation be-
schedules, and superimposed schedules of reinforcement tween the keys. To prevent this, a“changeover delay”is
can be thought of as“and”schedules. Brechner and Lin- commonly introduced: each schedule is inactivated for a
der (1981) and Brechner (1987) expanded the concept to brief period after the subject switches to it.
describe how superimposed schedules and the social trap
analogy could be used to analyze the way energy flows When both the concurrent schedules are variable inter-
through systems. vals, a quantitative relationship known as the matching
law is found between relative response rates in the two
Superimposed schedules of reinforcement have many
schedules and the relative reinforcement rates they de-
real-world applications in addition to generating social liver; this was first observed by R.J. Herrnstein in 1961.
traps. Many different human individual and social situa-
Matching law is a rule for instrumental behavior which
tions can be created by superimposing simple reinforce- states that the relative rate of responding on a particu-
ment schedules. For example a human being could have
lar response alternative equals the relative rate of rein-
simultaneous tobacco and alcohol addictions. Even more forcement for that response (rate of behavior = rate of
complex situations can be created or simulated by super-
reinforcement). Animals and humans have a tendency to
imposing two or more concurrent schedules. For exam- prefer choice in schedules.* [27]
ple, a high school senior could have a choice between go-
ing to Stanford University or UCLA, and at the same time
have the choice of going into the Army or the Air Force, 1.12.7 Shaping
and simultaneously the choice of taking a job with an in-
ternet company or a job with a software company. That Main article: Shaping (psychology)
is a reinforcement structure of three superimposed con-
current schedules of reinforcement.
Shaping is reinforcement of successive approximations to
Superimposed schedules of reinforcement can create a desired instrumental response. In training a rat to press
the three classic conflict situations (approach–approach a lever, for example, simply turning toward the lever is
conflict, approach–avoidance conflict, and avoidance– reinforced at first. Then, only turning and stepping toward
avoidance conflict) described by Kurt Lewin (1935) and it is reinforced. The outcomes of one set of behaviours
can operationalize other Lewinian situations analyzed by starts the shaping process for the next set of behaviours,
his force field analysis. Other examples of the use of su- and the outcomes of that set prepares the shaping process
perimposed schedules of reinforcement as an analytical for the next set, and so on. As training progresses, the
tool are its application to the contingencies of rent control response reinforced becomes progressively more like the
(Brechner, 2003) and problem of toxic waste dumping in desired behavior; each subsequent behaviour becomes a
the Los Angeles County storm drain system (Brechner, closer approximation of the final behaviour.* [28]
2010).

1.12.8 Chaining
Concurrent schedules
Main article: Chaining
In operant conditioning, concurrent schedules of rein-
forcement are schedules of reinforcement that are simul- Chaining involves linking discrete behaviors together in
taneously available to an animal subject or human partic- a series, such that each result of each behavior is both the
ipant, so that the subject or participant can respond on reinforcement (or consequence) for the previous behav-
either schedule. For example, in a two-alternative forced ior, and the stimuli (or antecedent) for the next behavior.
choice task, a pigeon in a Skinner box is faced with two There are many ways to teach chaining, such as forward
52 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

chaining (starting from the first behavior in the chain), In instrumental learning situations, which involve operant
backwards chaining (starting from the last behavior) and behavior, the persuasive communicator will present his
total task chaining (in which the entire behavior is taught message and then wait for the receiver to make a correct
from beginning to end, rather than as a series of steps). response. As soon as the receiver makes the response, the
An example is opening a locked door. First the key is communicator will attempt to fix the response by some
inserted, then turned, then the door opened. appropriate reward or reinforcement.* [30]
Forward chaining would teach the subject first to insert In conditional learning situations, where there is respon-
the key. Once that task is mastered, they are told to insert dent behavior, the communicator presents his message so
the key, and taught to turn it. Once that task is mastered, as to elicit the response he wants from the receiver, and
they are told to perform the first two, then taught to open the stimulus that originally served to elicit the response
the door. Backwards chaining would involve the teacher then becomes the reinforcing or rewarding element in
first inserting and turning the key, and the subject is taught conditioning.* [29]
to open the door. Once that is learned, the teacher inserts
the key, and the subject is taught to turn it, then opens
the door as the next step. Finally, the subject is taught 1.12.10 Mathematical models
to insert the key, and they turn and open the door. Once
the first step is mastered, the entire task has been taught. A lot of work has been done in building a mathemat-
Total task chaining would involve teaching the entire task ical model of reinforcement. This model is known as
as a single series, prompting through all steps. Prompts MPR, short for mathematical principles of reinforce-
are faded (reduced) at each step as they are mastered. ment. Killeen and Sitomer are among the key researchers
in this field.

1.12.9 Persuasive communication & the


reinforcement theory 1.12.11 Criticisms
Persuasive communication Persuasion influences any The standard definition of behavioral reinforcement has
person the way they think, act and feel. Persuasive been criticized as circular, since it appears to argue that
skill tells about how people understand the concern, response strength is increased by reinforcement, and de-
position and needs of the people. Persuasion can be fines reinforcement as something that increases response
classified into informal persuasion and formal per- strength (i.e., response strength is increased by things
suasion. that increase response strength). However, the correct
Informal persuasion This tells about the way in which usage* [31] of reinforcement is that something is a rein-
a person interacts with his/her colleagues and cus- forcer because of its effect on behavior, and not the other
tomers. The informal persuasion can be used in way around. It becomes circular if one says that a par-
team, memos as well as e-mails. ticular stimulus strengthens behavior because it is a rein-
forcer, and does not explain why a stimulus is producing
Formal persuasion This type of persuasion is used in that effect on the behavior. Other definitions have been
writing customer letter, proposal and also for formal proposed, such as F.D. Sheffield's“consummatory behav-
presentation to any customer or colleagues. ior contingent on a response”, but these are not broadly
Process of persuasion Persuasion relates how you in- used in psychology.* [32]
fluence people with your skills, experience, knowl-
edge, leadership, qualities and team capabilities.
History of the terms
Persuasion is an interactive process while getting the
work done by others. Here are examples for which
In the 1920s Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov may have
you can use persuasion skills in real time. Interview:
been the first to use the word reinforcement with respect
you can prove your best talents, skills and expertise.
to behavior, but (according to Dinsmoor) he used its ap-
Clients: to guide your clients for the achievement of
proximate Russian cognate sparingly, and even then it re-
the goals or targets. Memos: to express your ideas
ferred to strengthening an already-learned but weakening
and views to coworkers for the improvement in the
response. He did not use it, as it is today, for selecting
operations. Resistance identification and positive at-
and strengthening new behaviors. Pavlov's introduction
titude are the vital roles of persuasion.
of the word extinction (in Russian) approximates today's
Persuasion is a form of human interaction. It takes place psychological use.
when one individual expects some particular response In popular use, positive reinforcement is often used as a
from one or more other individuals and deliberately sets synonym for reward, with people (not behavior) thus be-
out to secure the response through the use of commu- ing“reinforced”, but this is contrary to the term's consis-
nication. The communicator must realize that different tent technical usage, as it is a dimension of behavior, and
groups have different values.* [29]* :24–25 not the person, which is strengthened. Negative reinforce-
1.12. REINFORCEMENT 53

ment is often used by laypeople and even social scientists [2] Mondadori C, Waser PG, and Huston JP. (2005). Time-
outside psychology as a synonym for punishment. This is dependent effects of post-trial reinforcement, punishment
contrary to modern technical use, but it was B.F. Skin- or ECS on passive avoidance learning. Physiol Behav: 18,
ner who first used it this way in his 1938 book. By 1953, 1103–9. PMID 928533
however, he followed others in thus employing the word
[3] White NM, Gottfried JA (2011). “Reward: What Is
punishment, and he re-cast negative reinforcement for the It? How Can It Be Inferred from Behavior?". PMID
removal of aversive stimuli. 22593908.
There are some within the field of behavior analysis* [33]
[4] White NM. (2011). Reward: What is it? How can it be
who have suggested that the terms“positive”and“neg-
inferred from behavior. In: Neurobiology of Sensation
ative”constitute an unnecessary distinction in discussing and Reward. CRC Press PMID 22593908
reinforcement as it is often unclear whether stimuli are
being removed or presented. For example, Iwata poses [5] Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). “Chapter
the question: "...is a change in temperature more accu- 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders”. In Sydor A,
rately characterized by the presentation of cold (heat) or Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation
the removal of heat (cold)?"* [34]* :363 Thus, reinforce- for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-
ment could be conceptualized as a pre-change condition Hill Medical. pp. 364–375. ISBN 9780071481274.
replaced by a post-change condition that reinforces the
[6] Nestler EJ (December 2013). “Cellular basis of memory
behavior that followed the change in stimulus conditions. for addiction”. Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 15 (4): 431–
443. PMC 3898681. PMID 24459410.

1.12.12 Applications [7] “Glossary of Terms”. Mount Sinai School of Medicine.


Department of Neuroscience. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
Partial or intermittent negative reinforcement can create
an effective climate of fear and doubt.* [35] [8] Skinner, B.F. (1948). Walden Two. Toronto: The
Macmillan Company.

[9] Honig, Werner (1966). Operant Behavior: Areas of Re-


1.12.13 See also search and Application. New York: Meredith Publishing
Company. p. 381.
• Applied behavior analysis
[10] Domjan, W. (2003). Aversive control: Avoidance and
• Behavioral cusp punishment. In: The Principles of Learning and Behav-
ior. CA: Thompson Learning. p. 302.
• Child grooming
[11] Shanks, David (2010). “Learning: From Association to
• Dog training Cognition”. Annual Review of Psychology (61): 273–301.
doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100519.
• Learned industriousness
[12] Flora, Stephen (2004). The Power of Reinforcement. Al-
• Overjustification effect bany: State University of New York Press.

• Power and control in abusive relationships [13] D'Amato, M. R. (1969). Melvin H. Marx, ed. Learn-
ing Processes: Instrumental Conditioning. Toronto: The
• Psychological manipulation Macmillan Company.

• Punishment [14] Harter, J. K. (2002). C. L. Keyes, ed. Well-Being in the


Workplace and its Relationship to Business Outcomes: A
• Reinforcement learning Review of the Gallup Studies. Washington D.C.: Ameri-
can Psychological Association.
• Reward system
[15] Skinner, B.F. (1974). About Behaviorism
• Society for Quantitative Analysis of Behavior
[16] Miltenberger, R. G.“Behavioral Modification: Principles
and Procedures”. Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008.
• Traumatic bonding
[17] Tucker, M.; Sigafoos, J. & Bushell, H. (1998). Use of
noncontingent reinforcement in the treatment of challeng-
1.12.14 References ing behavior. Behavior Modification, 22, 529–47.

[1] Winkielman P., Berridge KC, and Wilbarger JL. (2005). [18] Poling, A. & Normand, M. (1999). Noncontingent re-
Unconscious affective reactions to masked happy verses inforcement: an inappropriate description of time-based
angry faces influence consumption behavior and judge- schedules that reduce behavior. Journal of Applied Be-
ment value. Pers Soc Psychol Bull: 31, 121–35. havior Analysis, 32, 237–8.
54 CHAPTER 1. CATEGORIES

[19] Baer and Wolf, 1970, The entry into natural communities 1.12.15 Further reading
of reinforcement. In R. Ulrich, T. Stachnik, & J. Mabry
(eds.), Control of human behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 319–24). • Brechner, K.C. (1974) An experimental analysis of
Gleenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. social traps. PhD Dissertation, Arizona State Uni-
[20] Kohler & Greenwood, 1986, Toward a technology of gen- versity.
eralization: The identification of natural contingencies of
reinforcement. The Behavior Analyst, 9, 19–26.
• Brechner, K.C. (1977). An experimental analysis
of social traps. Journal of Experimental Social Psy-
[21] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ chology, 13, 552–64.
PMC1333219/
• Brechner, K.C. (1987) Social Traps, Individual
[22] Zeiler, MD (March 1972). “Fixed-interval behav- Traps, and Theory in Social Psychology. Pasadena,
ior: effects of percentage reinforcement.”. Journal of
CA: Time River Laboratory, Bulletin No. 870001.
the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 17 (2): 177–89.
doi:10.1901/jeab.1972.17-177. PMID 16811580.
• Brechner, K.C. (2003) Superimposed schedules ap-
[23] Sparkman, R. B. (1979). The Art of Manipulation. Dou- plied to rent control. Economic and Game Theory,
bleday Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 0385270070. 2/28/03, .
[24] Derenne, A. & Flannery, K.A. (2007). Within Session • Brechner, K.C. (2010) A social trap analysis of the
FR Pausing. The Behavior Analyst Today, 8(2), 175–86 Los Angeles County storm drain system: A rational
BAO for interventions. Paper presented at the annual con-
[25] McSweeney, F.K.; Murphy, E.S. & Kowal, B.P. (2001) vention of the American Psychological Association,
Dynamic Changes in Reinforcer Value: Some Misconcep- San Diego.
tions and Why You Should Care. The Behavior Analyst
Today, 2(4), 341–7 BAO • Brechner, K.C. & Linder, D.E. (1981), A social trap
analysis of energy distribution systems, in Advances
[26] Iversen, I.H. & Lattal, K.A. Experimental Analysis of Be- in Environmental Psychology, Vol. 3, Baum, A. &
havior. 1991, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Singer, JE, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
[27] Toby L. Martin, C.T. Yu, Garry L. Martin & Daniela & Associates.
Fazzio (2006): On Choice, Preference, and Preference
For Choice. The Behavior Analyst Today, 7(2), 234–48 • Chance, Paul. (2003) Learning and Behavior. 5th
BAO edition Toronto: Thomson-Wadsworth.

[28] Schacter, Daniel L., Daniel T. Gilbert, and Daniel M. • Dinsmoor, James A. (2004) "The etymology of ba-
Wegner. “Chapter 7: Learning.”Psychology. ; Second sic concepts in the experimental analysis of behav-
Edition. N.p.: Worth, Incorporated, 2011. 284-85. ior". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behav-
[29] Bettinghaus, Erwin P., Persuasive Communication, Holt, ior, 82(3): 311–6.
Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1968
• Ferster, C.B. & Skinner, B.F. (1957). Schedules
[30] Skinner, B.F., The Behavior of Organisms. An Experimen- of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-
tal Analysis, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1938 Crofts. ISBN 0-13-792309-0.
[31] Epstein, L.H. 1982. Skinner for the Classroom. Cham- • Lewin, K. (1935) A dynamic theory of personality:
paign, IL: Research Press Selected papers. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[32] Franco J. Vaccarino, Bernard B. Schiff & Stephen E.
Glickman (1989). Biological view of reinforcement. in • Michael, Jack. (1975) "Positive and negative rein-
Stephen B. Klein and Robert Mowrer. Contemporary forcement, a distinction that is no longer necessary;
learning theories: Instrumental conditioning theory and or a better way to talk about bad things". Behavior-
the impact of biological constraints on learning. Hillsdale, ism, 3(1): 33–44.
NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
• Skinner, B.F. (1938). The behavior of organisms.
[33] Michael, J. (1975, 2005). Positive and negative reinforce- New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
ment, a distinction that is no longer necessary; or a better
way to talk about bad things. Journal of Organizational • Skinner, B.F. (1956). A case history in scientific
Behavior Management, 24, 207–22. method. American Psychologist, 11, 221–33.
[34] Iwata, B.A. (1987). Negative reinforcement in applied
• Zeiler, M.D. (1968) Fixed and variable schedules of
behavior analysis: an emerging technology. Journal of
Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 361–78.
response-independent reinforcement. Journal of the
Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11, 405–14.
[35] Braiker, Harriet B. (2004). Who's Pulling Your Strings ?
How to Break The Cycle of Manipulation. ISBN 0-07- • Glossary of reinforcement terms at the University of
144672-9. Iowa
1.12. REINFORCEMENT 55

• Harter, J.K., Shmidt, F.L., & Keyes, C.L. (2002).


Well-Being in the Workplace and its Relationship to
Business Outcomes: A Review of the Gallup Stud-
ies. In C.L. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing:
The Positive Person and the Good Life (pp. 205–
224). Washington D.C.: American Psychological
Association.

1.12.16 External links


• An On-Line Positive Reinforcement Tutorial
• Scholarpedia Reinforcement

• scienceofbehavior.com
Chapter 2

ARTICLES

2.1 Alpha roll wild. Dr. Mech refers to this behavior as pinning, which
he describes as a dominance behavior.* [8] These dom-
An alpha roll is a technique used in dog training to dis- inance behaviors are shown significantly more often by
cipline a misbehaving dog. It consists of flipping the dog the breeding pair of the pack, but the purpose or role of
onto its back and holding it in that position, sometimes the behavior is controversial.
by the throat. The theory is that this teaches the dog that This suggests that this ritual does not serve as a behav-
the trainer is the pack leader (or alpha animal). ioral correction or punishment, nor as a reinforcement of
the dominance of the breeding pair. On the other hand,
dyadic play between wolves involves behavior like pin-
2.1.1 History ning. Wolf puppy play patterns demonstrate that pup-
pies prefer to assume the dominant role in play (see dog
The alpha roll was first widely popularized by the Monks behavior), and avoid the submissive roles such as being
of New Skete, in the 1978 book“How To Be Your Dog's pinned. This suggests that dogs do not instinctually panic
Best Friend”.* [1] (In the 2002 second edition of the if they are forced into this submissive position against
book, the monks recanted and strongly discouraged the their will. Although neither of these positions speaks di-
technique, describing it as“too risky and demanding for rectly to the issue of whether the alpha roll is an effective
the average dog owner.”* [2]) Although the 1976 book correction tool, it does call into question the behavioral
itself is widely regarded as a classic in dog training litera- validity of the technique.
ture and highly recommended for people trying to better
understand their dog, the alpha roll is now highly con-
troversial among animal behaviorists, since the theory of 2.1.3 Contemporary use
canine dominance has been drawn into question. In the
original context, the alpha roll was only meant to be used Position statements on dominance released by AVSAB
in the most serious cases.* [3] The theory behind the al- and APDT in 2009 draw into question the science be-
pha roll is based on a research study of captive wolves hind techniques that rely on dominance theory. It should
kept in an area too small for their numbers and composed never be used by inexperienced trainers, and never to cor-
of members that wouldn't be found together in a pack in rect undesired behavior caused by the dog's failure to un-
the wild. These conditions resulted in increased numbers derstand your command. Used in a controlled way and
of conflicts that scientists today know are not typical of coupled with praise and rewards when the dog changes
wolves living in the wild.* [4] Behaviors seen in wolves its behavior appropriately, it may have positive effect,
(specifically the alpha roll) living in atypical social groups but there is disagreement about its long-term effective-
and crowded conditions does not translate to dog training ness and safety. A 2009 study by University of Bristolʼs
especially since using the technique can be harmful to the Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences showed that
handler and the dog.* [5] methods of handling that relied on dominance theory ac-
tually provoked aggressive behavior in dogs with no pre-
vious known history of aggression.
2.1.2 Effects

It has been argued by some that a dog will only forcibly 2.1.4 Further sources
flip another animal onto its back during a serious fight
where the intent may be to kill the opponent* [6]* [7]. • Melissa Alexander. “The History and Misconcep-
tions of Dominance Theory”. Archived from the
Further, the name alpha roll is considered a misnomer original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October
by top wolf experts, such as David Mech, because the 2007.
practice as used as a behavioral correction bears little
relation to the natural behavior shown by wolves in the • Carmen Buitrago. “Debunking the Dominance

56
2.2. ANIMAL ATTACKS 57

Myth”. Retrieved 8 October 2007. [6] Nicole Wilde, CPDT (2001). “Leadership vs. Domi-
nance”. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
• Kathy Diamond Davis. “Alpha-Roll Training Can
Cause Serious Problems”. veterinarypartner.com. [7] Dr. Ian Dunbar. “History & Misconceptions of Domi-
nance Theory”. Archived from the original on 27 Septem-
Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
ber 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
Retrieved 8 October 2007.
[8] L. David Mech (1999). “Alpha status, dominance, and
• Krista Mifflin. “About That Alpha Roll”. division of labor in wolf packs”(PDF). Canadian Journal
about.com. Archived from the original on 15 Oc- of Zoology 77:1196-1203. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
tober 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007.

• Deb McKean. “Canine Handling in a Clinical Set-


ting”. Archived from the original on 30 September
2.2 Animal attacks
2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
Animal attacks are an uncommon cause of human fatal-
• Cindy Tittle Moore. “rec.pets.dogs Behaviour ities and injuries. The frequency of animal attacks varies
FAQ”. Archived from the original on 29 September with geographical location and historical period. Attacks
2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007. described in the following article have occurred in histor-
ical times with documentation. Instances of attacks that
• Mark Plonsky, PhD. “Punishment: Problems & can be attributed to the animal being confined or 'trapped'
Principles for Effective Use”. Archived from the prior to an attack have not been included. Serious injuries
original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October and fatalities are more likely to be incurred by infants,
2007. children and those with limited ability to defend them-
selves against an animal. A person is more likely to be
• Kelly Ryan.“Are You the Alpha?". Archived from
killed by an animal than they are to die from being hit by
the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 8 Oc-
lightening.* [1]
tober 2007.
Animal attacks have been identified as a major public
• Terry Ryan (2001). “Assessing the Alpha Roll” health problem. In 1997 it was estimated that up to
(PDF). The Association of Pet Dog Trainers. 2 million animal bites occur each year in the United
Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. States. Injuries caused by animal attacks result in thou-
Retrieved 8 October 2007. sands of fatalities worldwide every year.* [2] All causes of
death are reported to the Center for disease control each
year. Medical injury codes are used to identify specific
2.1.5 Footnotes cases.* [3] The World Health Organization uses identical
coding, though it is unclear whether all countries keep
[1] Monks of New Skete, The (1978). How To Be Your Dog's track of fatalities caused by animals.
Best Friend. Little, Brown & Company. ISBN 0-316-
60491-7.

[2] Monks of New Skete, The (2002). How To Be Your Dog's


2.2.1 Alligators
Best Friend. Little, Brown & Company. ISBN 0-316-
61000-3. In the original edition of this book, we recom- Main article: List of fatal alligator attacks in the United
mended a technique we termed“the alpha-wolf rollover” States by decade
...We no longer recommend this technique and strongly dis-
courage its use to our clients.... The conditions in which
it might be used effectively are simply too risky and de-
manding for the average dog owner; there are other ways 2.2.2 Arthropods
of dealing with problem behavior that are much safer and,
in the long run, just as effective. Bees, Wasps, Scorpions, and other stinging or biting
arthropods cause fatalities but these are not as often char-
[3] AVSAB. “Position Statement on the Use of Dominance
acterized as 'attacks'. It may be difficult to characterize
Theory in Behavior Modification of Animals”. American
some of these encounters as offensive or defensive. An
Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior. Retrieved 4 May
2011. arthropod 'attack' instead of causing tissue trauma such as
cutting, lacerating, crushing or the severing of body parts
[4] Adam Miklosi, PhD (2007). Dog Behavior, Evolution and may instead cause a physiological reaction that results in a
Cognition. Oxford University Press. pp. 83–93. ISBN human death. These effects are toxic effects and allergic
978-0-19-295852-5. effects.
[5] Sophia Yin, DVM, MS.“New Study Finds Popular“Al- Listing deaths due stings and allergic reactions from
pha Dog”Training Techniques Can Cause More Harm arthropods is not practical but some of the more unusual
Than Good”. Retrieved 5 May 2011. cases include:
58 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

Ants central Japan.* [32]

In 2006 a 68-year-old South Carolina woman died after


being attacked by fire ants while gardening.* [4] Residents European brown bear
in nursing homes have been attacked.* [5]
Jumper jack ants have caused numerous fatalities. In Main article: Eurasian brown bear
1931 two adults and an infant were killed in New South
Wales allegedly from jack jumper ants or Myrmecia pyri- Brown bears are considered unpredictable.* [33] In 2007,
formis.* [6] In 1963 another caused by an ant attack docu- a fatality occurred in Finland from an attack by a Euro-
mented in Tasmania.* [7]* [8] Identification of venom al- pean Brown Bear.* [34] Typically one or two people are
lergens began in the early 1990s.* [9] all in Tasmania and attacked rather groups, with no attacks being recorded
all due to anaphylactic shock.* [10]* [11]* [12]* [lower- against groups of more than seven.* [35]
alpha 1] The fatality rate was one person every four years
from the sting.* [14]
Grizzly bear
Bees
A grizzly bear entered the home of a couple and killed a
*
Africanized honey bees are known to attack people un- woman in January 2015. [36] Two people were attacked
provoked.* [15]* [16]* [17]* [18] but survived in glacier national Park in 2005.* [37]

Hornets 2.2.4 Beavers


Giant Asian Hornets in China have killed at least 42 peo-
Main article: Beaver attack
ple injured 1,675 more.* [19]* [20]

Beaver attacks are uncommon but are becoming more


2.2.3 Bears frequent. Beavers aggressively defend their terri-
tory.* [38] They may attack humans when suffering from
162 bear attacks were reported in the United States be- rabies,* [39]* [40] Beavers will attack on land or water.
tween 1900 and 1985. This is about two reported bear at- The front incisors are particularly sharp, and have passed
tacks per year.* [21] During the 1990s bears killed around through limbs and caused serious blood loss.* [41] One
three people a year in the U.S. and Canada.* [21]* [22] A beaver attack was known to be fatal when a 60-year-
black bear killed three teenagers in Algonquin Park in old fisherman in Europe had his artery bit open in his
Canada.* [23] The majority of attacks happened in na- leg.* [40] the attack was described as “the latest in a se-
tional parks.* [24] 1028 incidences of black bears act- ries of beaver attacks on humans in the country”, where a
ing aggressively toward people, 107 of which resulted in growing beaver population has increased its interactions
injury, were recorded from 1964 to 1976 in the Great with people.* [40]
Smoky Mountains National Park.* [23] After a 20-year
Non-fatal beaver attacks have included: an attack on a
ban, Florida is considering legislation that may permit
man swimming in Dobra River, Croatia.* [42] an attack
bear hunting to stop the expanding population of black
in saltwater on a snorkeler off the coast of Canada;* [41]
bears that are a menace in suburban neighborhoods.* [25]
the attack and biting of a woman in Virginia by a ra-
bid beaver;* [39] and an attack on a Boy Scout leader in
Asian black bears Pennsylvania.* [43]

Asian black bears are comparatively more aggressive to-


ward humans than those of Europe or Asia.* [26] In India, 2.2.5 Birds
attacks have increased. These occur near the Himalayan
region. Here, attacks increased from 10 in 1988–89 to Cassowary
21 in 1991–92.* [27] Recent bear attacks on humans have
been reported from Junbesi National Park and Langtang 1926 – a 16-year-old Queensland boy* [44]* [45]
National Park in Nepal, and occurred in villages as well
as in the surrounding forest.* [28] Li Guoxing, the second
person in history to have received a facial transplant, was Magpies
a victim of a black bear attack.* [29]* [30]
Between 1979–1989 nine people were killed in Japan Main article: Australian magpie § Swooping
.* [31] In 2009 one bear attacked a group of tourists in
2.2. ANIMAL ATTACKS 59

Ostrich 2.2.10 Cougars

1997-A woman in South Africa was killed while walking Main article: List of fatal cougar attacks in North
through a field on an ostrich farm.* [46] America

2009 - A five-year-old boy was attacked while hiking with


Roosters his family.* [72]

Roosters have been the cause of some fatalities, usually


by a bird during a match.* [47]* [48]* [49]* [50] Roosters 2.2.11 Coyotes
have killed babies.* [51]* [52]
Main article: Coyote attacks on humans

Swan Coyote attacks are uncommon and usually cause little


harm but have become more frequent. This is especially
Swans are large birds and are able to cause significant true in California. Beginning 30 years prior to 2006
harm.* [53] one hundred sixty took place mostly in the Los Angeles
County region.* [73] 41 attacks occurred during 1988–
1997, 48 attacks were verified from 1998 through 2003.
• 2012 - Kyaker killed in Chicago.* [54]
The majority of these incidents occurred in Southern Cal-
ifornia.* [74] Some coyotes chase joggers and bicyclists,
• 2009 - boaters were attacked by a swan that jumped confront people walking their dogs, and stalk small chil-
into their boats and attacked with its beak. One boat dren.* [74]
capsized.* [55]
• 2009 – a Canadian was killed by three coy-
otes.* [75]* [76]
2.2.6 Bulls
• 2013 - a three-year-old mistook a coyote as a dog
Cattle have killed people* [56] but bulls are more likely to and was bitten in the face.* [77]
attack and kill people in a variety of contexts. Interacting
• 2015 - a man working in his garden was at-
with the bull is part of some the sports in some cultures.
tacked.* [78]
This sometimes results in the death by bull attack.* [57]
Bulls attack and kill people on farms.* [58]* [59]* [60]
In 2010, a couple were passing through a field where a
2.2.12 Crocodiles
bull was pastured and the man was killed.* [61]
Main article: Crocodile attack

2.2.7 Chimpanzees Crocodile attacks often result in fatalities.* [79] Es-


timates of deaths due to attacks by the The Nile
crocodile is estimated be hundreds and possibly thou-
In 2012, villagers living near an African game reserve
* sands yearly.* [80]* [81] Attacks by Nile crocodiles range
were attacked by chimpanzees. One girl was killed. [62]
from 275 to 745 per year. 63% of these are fatal.
Only 30 attacks have been recorded per year by saltwater
crocodiles, of which 50% are fatal. Fatal attacks are typ-
2.2.8 Catfish ically made by very large crocodiles are considered to be
predatory. The Nile crocodile is considered to be the
1998 through 2007 – Three young Indian most prolific predator of humans among wild animals at
men.* [63]* [64]* [65] this time.* [82] Crocodile tracking technology is currently
under development that would prevent attacks.* [83]

2.2.9 Cats
2.2.13 Dogs
Though very rare cats have attacked and killed peo-
ple.* [66]* [67]* [68]* [69]* [70] A medical examiner de- Main article: Dog bite
termined that a cat smothered an infant in 1982 and
that previous documented cases were probably substan- The numbers of fatalities from dog attacks have not been
tiated.* [71] firmly established. Some estimates are 20 to 30 times
60 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

each year,* [84]* [85] while others set the figure some- Leopard attacks remain a danger in some areas.* [103]
where around 186.* [86] The National Health and Human One leopard in India killed over 200 people.* [103] Leop-
Services agency in the United States reports that 9.9% of ard attacks usually occur at night.
deaths caused by animals were from dogs.* [87]

2.2.21 Lions
2.2.14 Elephants
Main article: Lion § Man-eating
Wild elephants have attacked, harmed and killed peo-
ple.* [88]* [89] Jacky Boxberger, an Olympic athlete, Bùi Lions enter areas occupied by humans.* [104] Lion at-
Thị Xuân, a Vietnamese woman general and Allen Camp- tacks in Tanzania increased from 1990 to 2005. At least
bell, a professional elephant trainer were attacked and 563 villagers were attacked and many eaten over this pe-
killed by elephants. Elephants have attacked people in riod. Researchers argue that conservation policy con-
villages in India.* [90] tributes directly to human deaths. Lions have taken peo-
During the past five years there were 37,512 cases of wild ple from the center of large towns. Estimates stand at
elephant attacks with 54 casualties in Pu'er, south China's 550–700 people attacked by lions every year.* [105]
Yunnan Province* [91]

2.2.22 Racoon
2.2.15 Fox
A musician was attacked and had her ankle gnawed upon
In 2004, a fox attacked a woman as she exited her home in Central Park.* [106] A blind 10-year-old rescued her
in Scotland.* [92] friend from an attack.* [107] A Washington State jogger
was attacked.* [108]

2.2.16 Hippopotamus
2.2.23 Rats
The Hippopotamus is considered by some to be the most
dangerous animal in the world,* [93] killing up to 300 The National Health and Human Services agency
people each year.* [94]* [95] in the United States reported 3 fatalities between
1979 and 1990 from rats.* [109] When rats attack
it is directed typically toward small children or in-
2.2.17 Horses fants.* [110]* [111]* [112]* [113]

Between 1996 and 2009 the National Institutes for Safety


and Health 14 documented deaths resulted from a kick to 2.2.24 Sharks
the chest or abdomen by a horse.* [96]
Main article: Shark attack

2.2.18 Hyenas Twelve unprovoked shark attacks in Australia occurred in


2004 in Australia, two were fatal.* [114]
Attacks on humans by spotted hyenas are underre-
*
ported.* [97] A pair of hyenas were responsible for killing 1791 – an identified Aboriginal woman. [115]
27 people in Mulanje, Malawi in 1962.* [98] In 1910
spotted hyenas were observed to kill sufferers of African
sleeping sickness as they slept outside in camps.* [99] 2.2.25 Snakes
Further information: List of fatal snake bites in the
2.2.19 Komodo dragons United States

A man was bitten and subsequently lost his big toe to a The National Health and Human Services agency in the
Komodo dragon.* [100]* [101] Attacks occur infrequently United States reported 66 fatalities between 1979 and
in Indonesia.* [102] 1990 from snakes.* [109]

2.2.20 Leopards African Rock python

Main article: Leopard attack An African rock python killed two boys in Campbellton,
New Brunswick in 2013.* [116]
2.2. ANIMAL ATTACKS 61

Pythons • Wolf of Sarlat

Species of python have attacked people and caused hu- • Wolf of Soissons
man fatalities. These include: • Wolves of Ashta

• Early 19th century – Two people in Indonesia* [117] • Wolves of Hazaribagh

• 1910 or 1927 – a man on a hunting trip from • Wolves of Paris


Burma.* [118]
• Wolves of Périgord
• 1932 – a Filipino teenager was consumed by his
• Wolves of Turku
pet.* [119]

• 1995 – a 29-year-old tapper from southern


Malaysia* [119]
2.2.28 See also

• 2008 – a 25-year-old woman.* [120] • 2010 Sharm el-Sheikh shark attacks

• 2009, a 3-year-old Las Vegas boy was attacked but • 2013 New Brunswick python attack
rescued before being asphyxiated.* [121]
• Azaria Chamberlain disappearance
• 2009, a two-year-old Orlando area girl was
• Fatal dog attacks in the United States
killed* [122]
• Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916

2.2.26 Tigers • Kali River goonch attacks

Main article: Man-eating tigers • Kelly Keen coyote attack

• Kenton Joel Carnegie wolf attack


Tigers kill more people than any other big cat, and tigers
have been responsible for more human deaths through di- • List of fatal alligator attacks in the United States
rect attack than any other wild mammal.* [123] One hun- • List of fatal bear attacks in North America
dred twenty-nine people in the Sundarbans from 1969–
71.* [104]* [123] The Sundarbans are occupied by 600 • List of fatal cougar attacks in North America
royal Bengal tigers* [124] who before modern times used
to “regularly kill fifty or sixty people a year”attacks • List of fatal snake bites in the United States
continue to increase.* [124]* [125] • List of fatal shark attacks in the United States

• List of shark attacks in South African territorial wa-


Well-known and documented tigers ters
• Tigers of Chowgarh (1925–30) • List of wolf attacks in North America
• Tiger of Mundachipallam

• Tiger of Segur
2.2.29 Notes

• Tigress of Champawat (killed in 1907) [1] The total amount of deaths from this 20 year period due
to the ant could be higher. One account reports of another
• Tigress of Jowlagiri fatality in Tasmania and one in New South Wales.* [13]

2.2.27 Wolves 2.2.30 References

Main article: Wolf attacks on humans [1] “Injury Facts Chart”. National Safety Council. Retrieved
2015-04-09.

[2] Warrell, D.A. (1993). “Venomous bites and stings in the


• Kirov wolf attacks tropical world”. Med J Aust 159: 773–779.

• Wolf of Ansbach [3] Langley, Ricky L.; Morrow, William E. (1997). “Deaths
resulting from animal attacks in the United States”.
• Wolf of Gysinge Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 8: 8–16.
62 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

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wildlife. Reader's Digest ISBN 1-876689-34-X
• “Fatal Mountain Lion Attacks”. Southeastern Out-
•“The Man-Eater of Jowlagiri”, from Nine Man-
doors. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
Eaters and One Rogue, Kenneth Anderson, Allen &
Unwin, 1955 • “List of Mountain Lion Attacks on People in Cal-
• CrocBITE ifornia”. Retrieved 31 August 2007.

• “Fatal Alligator Attacks”. Southeastern Outdoors. • “List of Confirmed Cougar Attacks In the United
Retrieved 31 March 2006. States and Canada 1890 – 1990”. Retrieved 2
September 2007.
• “Alligator Attacks Fact sheet, p.4-5 (updated
11/29/05)" (PDF). Florida Fish and Wildlife Con- • “List of Confirmed Cougar Attacks In the United
servation Commission. Archived from the original States and Canada 1991 – 2000”. Retrieved 1
on 8 May 2006. Retrieved 12 April 2006. September 2007.
• Anitei, Stefan. “The Limits of the Human Nose: • NCIPC bibliography of articles on dog bites
How much can a human smell?" Softpedia. 22 Jan-
uary 2007. 17 November 2008 • Dogs Bite but Balloons and Slippers are More Dan-
• Batin, Christopher. “Bear Attacks!" Outdoor Life gerous by Janis Bradley, 2005
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• CDC Dog Bite Factsheet
• Brandt, Anthony. “Attack”. Outdoor Life 197.1
(1996): 52. • “List of Confirmed Cougar Attacks in the United
States and Canada 2001 – 2010”. Retrieved 5 May
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Attack”. The Journal of Emergency Medicine 24.3
(2003): 331–333. • Global Shark Attack File
66 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

2.3 Dog bite 2.3.2 Causes


Human behavior
“Dog Bite”redirects here. For the song, see Dog Bite
(song). Many human behaviors (especially by people unfamiliar
with dogs) may factor into bite situations. The majority of
Dog bites or dog attacks are attacks on humans by feral dogs will not respond to all or even any of these behaviors
or domestic dogs. With the close association of dogs and with aggression, however, some will. These behaviors in-
humans in daily life (largely as pets), dog bites – with clude:
injuries from very minor to significant – are extremely
common. • Challenging for food or water. For example, remov-
There is considerable debate on whether or not certain ing food from a dog, or appearing to intervene be-
breeds of dogs are inherently more prone to commit at- tween a dog and its food. Even when inadvertent,
tacks causing serious injury (i.e., so driven by instinct and this may trigger aggressive behavior in some ani-
breeding that, under certain circumstances, they are ex- mals.
ceedingly likely to attempt or commit dangerous attacks). • Attacking (or perceived attacking) a dog or its com-
Regardless of the breed of the dog, it is recognized that panions, or encroaching on its territory. Dogs are
the risk of dangerous dog attacks can be greatly increased pack hunters; they often have an instinct to defend
by human actions (such as neglect or fight training) or in- themselves and those they consider their “pack”
actions (as carelessness in confinement and control). (which could be other dogs, humans, cats, or even
Significant dog bites affect tens of million of people glob- other animals), and to defend their territory, which
ally each year.* [1] It is estimated that two percent of the may include areas they consider“theirs”or belong-
US population, from 4.5–4.7 million people, are bitten ing to their family. Any dog is unpredictable in the
by dogs each year.* [2] Most bites occur in children.* [3] presence of an intruder, especially but not always a
In the 1980s and 1990s the US averaged 17 fatalities per burglar.
year, while in the 2000s this has increased to 26.* [4] 77% • Sickness or injury. A sick or injured dog, or an
of dog bites are from the pet of family or friends, and 50% older animal, like people, may become “cranky”
of attacks occur on the dog owner's property.* [4] Animal or over-reactive, and may develop a tendency to be-
bites, most of which are from dogs, are the reason for come “snappish”.
1% of visits to an emergency department in the United
States.* [3] • Failure to recognize insecurity or fear. Like hu-
mans, dogs that feel insecure may ultimately turn
Fifty percent of the payout of home insurance due to at-
and defend themselves against perceived threat. It
tacks committed by homeowners' dogs. Attacks on the
is common for people to not recognize signs of fear
serious end of the spectrum have become the focus of in-
or insecurity, and to approach, triggering a defensive
creasing media and public attention in the late 20th and
reaction.
early 21st centuries.* [5]
• Intervention when dogs fight. When dogs fight, a
human stepping in between, or seeking to restrain
one of them without due care, may be badly bitten
2.3.1 Health effects as well.
• Threatening body language. Especially including di-
A person bitten by an animal potentially carrying rect staring (an act of aggression/perceived as threat-
parvovirus or rabies virus should consult a medical care. ening by dogs) or a person not known to the dog
An animal bite may also cause serious bacterial infections moving their face very close to the animal's own
of soft tissues or bone (osteomyelitis) which can become snout (may be perceived as a challenge, threatening,
life-threatening if untreated. or imposing). Staring is more dangerous when on
Rabies results in the death of approximately 55,000 peo- the same visual level as the dog (such as small chil-
ple a year, with most of the causes due to dog bites.* [1] dren), or when the human is unfamiliar.
Capnocytophaga canimorsus transmission (a gram- • Prey behaviors. Dogs retain many of the predatory
negative bacterium) following a dog bite can cause instincts of wolves, including the chasing of prey.
overwhelming sepsis in asplenic patients, the elderly, Running away from a dog or behaving in a manner
and the immunocompromised. Empiric treatment for suggesting weakness may trigger predatory behav-
this bacteria following a dog bite, consisting of a third- iors such as chasing or excited attack. For example,
generation cephalosporins early in the infection, should the instinct to jerk one's hands upwards away from
be instituted in these patient populations, or following an inquisitive dog may elicit a strong impulse to grab
deep bites or dog bites to the hand. and hold.
2.3. DOG BITE 67

• Ignoring warning signs. Trained attack dogs may act Training and aggression
against an intruder without warning.
In a domestic situation, canine aggression is normally
Note that attacks may be triggered by behaviors that are suppressed. Exceptions are if the dog is trained to at-
perceived as an attack, for example, a sudden unexpected tack, feels threatened, or is provoked. It is important
approach or touch by a stranger, or inadvertently stepping to remember that dogs are predators by nature, instinct
on any portion of the dog's anatomy, such as a paw or tail, is something that never completely disappears, and that
or startling a sleeping dog unexpectedly. In particular, the predatory behavior against other animals (such as chas-
territory that a dog recognizes as its own may not coin- ing other animals) may train a dog or a pack of dogs to
cide with the property lines that its owner and the legal attack humans. It is possible to acclimate a dog to com-
authorities recognize, such as a portion of a neighbor's mon human situations in order to avoid adverse reactions
backyard. by a pet Dog experts advocate removal of a dog's food,
startling a dog, and performing sudden movements in a
controlled setting to teach the dog who its leader is, to
Dog behavior
defuse aggressive impulses in common situations. This
Many adoption agencies test for aggressive behavior in also allows better animal care since owners may now re-
dogs, and euthanize an animal that shows certain types move an article directly from a dog's mouth or transport
of aggression. Alternatively, aggression can often be ad- a wounded pet to seek medical attention.
dressed with appropriate corrective training. Sources of Small children are especially prone to being misunder-
aggression include: stood by dogs, in part because their size and movements
can be similar to prey.* [8] Also, young children may un-
• Fear and self-defense. Like humans, dogs react intentionally provoke a dog (pulling on ears or tails is
when fearful, and may feel driven to attack out of common, as is surprising a sleeping dog) because of their
self-defense, even when not in fact being“attacked” inexperience. To avoid potential conflicts, even reliably
. Speed of movement, noises, objects or specific well-behaved children and dogs should never be allowed
gestures such as raising an arm or standing up may to interact in the absence of an adult who knows and un-
elicit a reaction. Many rescued dogs have been derstands the dog's personality and trained cues.
abused, and in some dogs, specific fears of men,
Dogs with strong chase instincts, (e.g. collies, shepherds),
women, skin coloring, and other features that recall
may fail to recognize a person as a being not to be herded.
past abusers, are not uncommon. A dog that feels
They may fixate on a specific aspect of the person, such
cornered or without recourse may attack the human
as a fast-moving, brightly colored shoe, as a prey ob-
who is threatening or attacking it. A dog may also
ject. This is probably the cause for the majority of non-
perceive a hand reached out toward its head as an
aggressive dogs chasing cyclists and runners. In these
attempt to gain control of the dog's neck via the col-
cases, if the individual stops, the dog often loses inter-
lar, which if done to a wary dog by a stranger can
est since the movement has stopped. This is not always
easily provoke a bite.
the case, and aggressive or territorial dogs might take the
• Territoriality and possessions. See above. Aggres- opportunity to attack.
sive possessiveness is considered a very important Additionally, most dogs that bark at strangers, particu-
type of aggression to test for, since it is most associ- larly when not on“their”territory, will flee if the stranger
ated with bites, especially bites to children.* [6] challenges it, though this is not recommended behaviour
• Predatory instincts. In isolation, predatory behav- as challenging the dog is just as likely to evoke a bite.
iors are rarely the cause of an attack on a human. Mailmen, being the classic example, provoke a strong ter-
Predatory aggression is more commonly involved as ritorial response because they come back day after day to
a contributing factor for example in attacks by mul- the dog's territory. In the dog's mind they are constantly
tiple dogs; a“pack kill instinct”may arise if multiple intruding on their territory and that sets up a learned be-
dogs are involved in an attack.* [7] havior.

• Pain or sickness. See above. As with fear, pain


can incite a dog to attack. The canonical example
Unsupervised children
of sickness-induced attack is the virulent behavior
caused by rabies.
This is arguably the most critical factor in fatal dog attacks
• Redirected aggression. A dog that is already ex- on children, who because of their small size are usually
cited/aroused by an aggressive instinct from one not able to withstand an attack until help arrives. Many
source, may use an available target to release its ag- adults survived severe dog attacks simply by virtue of the
gression, if the “target”does something to evoke fact that they were able to sustain and fend the dogs off to
this response from the dog (e.g. shouting & staring some degree until assistance arrived, although the elderly
at the dog for barking at the mailman). and disabled are particularly vulnerable.
68 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

Children often engage in behavior that will trigger a dog cases of fatal dog attacks; of which "pit bull terrier" or
attack. For example, approaching a chained dog, trying mixes thereof were reportedly involved in 76 cases. The
to hug or kiss an unfamiliar animal, trying to pull its tail or breed with the next-highest number of attributed fatali-
engaging in other behavior that the dog may feel is threat- ties was the Rottweiler and mixes thereof, with 44 fatali-
ening. Behavior such as this on the part of children may ties.* [2] A study based on more recent data (2000-2009),
invoke either an aggressive territorial response from the published in 2013, compared media accounts with re-
dog or an aggressive defensive behavior from the dog. ports available from animal control officials, determined
The age group with the second-highest amount of fatali- that, of their sample of 256 dog bite related fatalities,
breed could only be validly determined in 45 cases, and
ties due to a dog attack are 2-year-old children. Over 88%
of these fatalities occurred when the 2-year-old child was the attacks in these 45 cases were dispersed among 20
different breeds and 2 known mixes. For a further set
left unsupervised with a dog(s) or the child wandered off
to the location of the dog. of 401 dogs in media accounts of dog bite related fatal-
ity, reported breed differed between different media ac-
counts of the same attack 31% of the time, factoring in
2.3.3 Breed-specific attacks animal control accounts produced disagreement on breed
for 40% of attacks.* [11]
Dog attacks on humans that appear most often in the news
are those that require the hospitalization of the victim or
those in which the victim is killed. Dogs of all sizes have 2.3.4 Human-dog interaction
mauled and killed humans, although large dogs are capa-
ble of inflicting more damage quickly. See also: Anthrozoology

When dogs are near humans with whom they are familiar,
they normally become less aggressive. However, it should Despite domestication, dogs, like their ancestors wolves,
not be assumed that because a dog has been with humans, remain cunning, swift, agile, strong, territorial and vora-
it will not attack anybody - even a family member. Cau- cious̶even small ones have large, sharp teeth and claws
tion needs to be taken when approaching new dogs for the and powerful muscles in their jaws and legs and can in-
first time.* [9] flict serious injuries. The lacerations even from inadver-
tent dog scratches, let alone deliberate or reckless bites,
Due to the pit bull-type breeds' perceived aggression, are easily infected (most commonly by Capnocytophaga
owning such an animal is not allowed in Australia and ochracea or Pasteurella multocida). Medium-to-large
many European countries, and in several US and Cana- dogs can knock people down with the usual effects of falls
dian localities (see breed-specific legislation for details). from other causes.
It is sometimes argued that certain breeds are inherently Should affection or mutual respect not exist (as with feral
aggressive towards humans and shouldn't be allowed at dogs), should a dog be deliberately starved (dogs are usu-
all, or that, due to the popularity of certain potentially ally as resourceful as any large predators in getting food),
dangerous breeds, these dogs are often owned by irre- should a dog be conditioned to become an attacker, or
sponsible owners who provide insufficient training or, should someone intrude upon a dog's territory and pose a
worse, aggressiveness training. An opposing argument is threat, then the natural tendencies of a predator manifest
that no breed is inherently aggressive towards humans and themselves in a dog attack in which the dog uses its preda-
that regulating one breed simply moves the irresponsible tory abilities to defend itself. Extrication from such an
owners to start focusing on breeds that haven't yet been attack is difficult because of the dog's power and agility.
regulated, moving the problem to other breeds. This is Flight from a dog attack by running is usually impossible.
one of the positions taken by the American Veterinary
Medical Association.* [10] Education for adults and children, animal training, selec-
tive breeding for temperament, and society's intolerance
Although research and analysis* suggests that breed- for dangerous animals combine to reduce the incidence of
specific legislation is not completely effective in prevent- attacks and accidents involving humans and dogs. How-
ing dog attacks, with each new attack, pressure mounts to ever, improperly managed confrontations can lead to se-
enact such legislation. vere injury from even the most well-tempered dog.
Stiffened front legs and a raised ridge of hair along the
Breed disparity spine can be signs of an imminent attack (as well as of
interest, or anxiety and the start of the dog's “fight or
An early study (published 2000) in the US by the Centers flight”mechanism). A wagging tail often is an attempt
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) covered the to communicate excitement, though a tail held high over
years 1979-1998. The study found reports of 327 people the back can signal the dog becoming aroused - either
killed by dogs over the 20-year period. The CDC used for what humans see as for positive or negative reasons.
newspaper articles without corroboration by animal con- Dogs also have far superior hearing and olfactory senses
trol reports for breed“identifications”in 238 of the 327 than humans, as well as having the advantage of reading
2.3. DOG BITE 69

the body language of other humans and animals. An unprovoked attack on a jogger by two Cane Corsos
was reported in Lapeer, Michigan. The jogger died. The
two owners of the dogs were charged with Second de-
2.3.5 Legal issues gree murder, which carries a potential sentence of Life in
Prison.“The dogs involved in the attack have a history of
United States escaping from their kennel and have bitten at least twice
before.”* [18]
Although using a firearm against an attacking dog may
seem acceptable, laws in the United States which pro-
2.3.6 See also
hibit discharging a firearm in a city, and reckless endan-
germent may limit the extent to which a person is legally • Coyote attacks on humans
able to defend themselves in this way. Taking such ac-
tions where the dog/dogs involved were not acting aggres- • Dangerous Dogs Act 1991
sively towards humans may result in legal charges against
the person who shot the animal. No person in the United • Fatal dog attacks in the United States
States has ever been convicted of a crime for firing a gun • Wolf attacks on humans
or using any other weapon to stop or kill a dog that was
currently attacking him/her.* [12]
About whether an attacking dog could itself be criminally 2.3.7 References
liable, the California Court of Appeal for the Third Dis- [1] “Animal bites Fact sheet N°373”. World Health Orga-
trict explained: nization. February 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
Some state laws hold dog owners liable for the harm or
[2] “Dog Bite Prevention”. CDC. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
damage that their animal causes to people or other dogs.
For example, in recent years, Florida dog bite laws have [3] Ellis, R; Ellis, C (Aug 15, 2014). “Dog and cat bites.”
been changed so that prior vicious tendencies may no . American family physician 90 (4): 239–43. PMID
longer be needed to prove owner liability.* In Texas, dog 25250997.
attack victims are given two possible ways to prove owner [4] Statistics about dog bites in the USA and elsewhere
negligence when bringing a personal injury or wrongful
death claim. The first option is that of strict liability, [5] Reuters (2004-10-13). “Stray dog pack attacks Albanian
whereby a victim and their attorney must prove that ei- town”. IOL. Retrieved 2008-01-21. An Albanian town
ther the dog has attacked someone else previously (known had to call in police and hunters after a pack of 200 stray
as the “one bite law”) or else that the owner should mountain dogs attacked at least nine people. Headed by
a clearly identifiable leader, the snarling pack overran the
otherwise have known their dog was vicious and/or dan-
main street of the small northern town of Mamurras, its
gerous. The second option is that of owner negligence, mayor said on Wednesday. “Even in the movies I have
which could be argued in cases as various as dogs be- never seen a horde of 200 stray dogs from the mountains
ing allowed to roam freely around neighborhoods, or par- attacking people in the middle of a town,”Anton Frroku
ents allowing their children to play with pet dogs while said on Wednesday. He said the dogs bit at least nine peo-
unsupervised. Also in Texas, as of September 1, 2007, ple, aged from 20 to 60, dragging them to the ground and
`Lillian's Law' has taken effect, whereby the owner of inflicting serious wounds.
a dog that causes death or serious bodily injury may be
[6] John, Bisnar (12-11-2012). “Dog Agressive Posessive-
charged with a second or third degree felony when the
ness”. p. 1. Check date values in: |date= (help)
attack takes place outside the dog's normal place of con-
finement (Texas Health & Safety Code Chapter 882). [7] Shepard Haven Tips for Stopping a Dog Fight
In California, owners are subject to massive civil liabil- [8] “Dog Attack Statistics”. Graves Mclain.
ity for attacks by their dogs. The state allows a victim
to sue on two strict liability causes of action arising out [9] "Dog-Bite-Related Fatalities -- United States, 1995-1996".
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1997-05-30.
of a single attack̶one created by statute and one aris-
* Retrieved 2008-10-29.
ing from common law. [14] In 1989, the California State
Legislature enacted a special administrative hearing pro- [10] Spotlight on Dog Bite Prevention Week
cedure just for regulating “menacing dogs,”based on
the finding that “dangerous and vicious dogs have be- [11] Patronek, Gary J.; Sacks, Jeffrey J.; Delise, Karen M.;
Cleary, Donald V.; Marder, Amy R. (15 December
come a serious and widespread threat to the safety and
* 2013). “Co-occurrence of potentially preventable fac-
welfare of citizens of this state.” [15] To help imple- tors in 256 dog bite–related fatalities in the United States
ment it, the Judicial Council of California promulgated a (2000–2009)". Journal of the American Veterinary Med-
package of four forms in 1990.* [16] The notice of hear- ical Association (Schaumburg, Illinois, USA: American
ing bears the warning: “DO NOT BRING THE DOG Veterinary Medical Association) 243 (12): 1726–1736.
TO THE HEARING.”* [17] doi:10.2460/javma.243.12.1726. PMID 24299544.
70 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

[12] Woman's neighbor shoots dog Grass Valley man may face 2.4.1 Barking in dogs
animal cruelty charges
Dog barking is distinct from wolf barking. Wolf barks
[13] People v. Frazier, 173 Cal. App. 4th 613 (2009).
represent only 2.3% of all wolf vocalizations* [1] and
[14] Priebe v. Nelson, 39 Cal. 4th 1112 (2006). are described as “rare”occurrences.* [2] According to
Schassburger, wolves bark only in warning, defense, and
[15] See California Food and Agricultural Code Section
31601(a).
protest. In contrast, dogs bark in a wide variety of social
situations, with acoustic communication in dogs being
[16] See California Court Forms MC-600, MC-601, MC-602, described as hypertrophic.* [3] Additionally, while wolf
and MC-603 barks tend to be brief and isolated, adult dogs bark in
[17] California Court Form MC-601 long, rhythmic stanzas. Dogs have been known to bark
for hours on end.* [4]
[18] “Couple Whose Dogs Fatally Mauled Jogger Charged
With Murder”. WWJ. August 1, 2014. Retrieved August
While a distinct reason for the difference is unknown,
5, 2014. a strong hypothesis is that the vocal communication of
dogs developed due to their domestication.* [4] As evi-
• ^ Sacks, Jeffrey J., MD, MPH; Sinclair, Leslie, denced by the farm-fox experiment, the process of do-
DVM; Gilchrist, Julie, MD; Golab, Gail C., mestication alters a breed in more ways than just tame-
PhD, DVM; Lockwood, Randall, PhD. (Septem- ness.* [5] Domesticated breeds show vast physical differ-
ber 15, 2000). “Breeds of dogs involved in fa- ences from their wild counterparts, notably an evolution
tal human attacks in the United States between that suggests neoteny, or the retention of juvenile charac-
1979 and 1998”. JAVMA 217 (6): 836– teristics in adults.* [6] Adult dogs have, for example large
40. doi:10.2460/javma.2000.217.836. PMID heads, floppy ears, and shortened snouts – all characteris-
10997153. tics seen in wolf puppies.* [7] The behavior, too, of adult
dogs shows puppy-like characteristics: dogs are submis-
• ^ World Almanac and Book of Facts 1985. Double- sive, they whine, and they frequently bark. The experi-
day. ment illustrates how selecting for one trait (in this case,
tameness) can create profound by-products, both physical
• ^ World Almanac and Book of Facts 1988. World and behavioral.
Almanac Books.
The frequency of barking in dogs in relation to wolves
• ^ Breed-Specific Legislation in the United States. could also be the product of the very different social envi-
Linda S. Weiss, Michigan State University - Detroit
ronment of dogs. Dogs live in extraordinarily close range
College of Law (2001). Animal Legal and Histori- with humans, in many societies kept solely as companion
cal Web Center animals. From a very young age, humans tend to be one
• ^ “Nonfatal Dog Bite--Related Injuries Treated in of a dogʼs primary social contacts. This captive environ-
Hospital Emergency Departments”, CDC MMWR, ment presents very different stimuli than would be found
July 4, 2003. by wolves in the wild. While wolves have vast territories,
dogs do not. The boundaries of a captive dogʼs territory
will be visited frequently by intruders, thus triggering the
2.3.8 External links bark response as a warning. Additionally, dogs densely
populate urban areas, allowing more opportunity to meet
• NCIPC bibliography of articles on dog bites new dogs and be social. For example, it is possible that
kenneled dogs may have increased barking due to a de-
• Dogs Bite but Balloons and Slippers are More Dan- sire to facilitate social behavior. Dogsʼclose relationship
gerous by Janis Bradley, 2005 with humans also renders dogs reliant on humans, even
• CDC Dog Bite Factsheet for basic needs. Barking is a way to attract attention, and
the behavior is continued by the positive response exhib-
ited by the owners (e.g., if a dog barks to get food and the
owner feeds it, the dog is being conditioned to continue
2.4 Bark (sound) said behavior.)* [8]

A bark is a sound most commonly produced by dogs.


Other animals that make this noise include wolves, 2.4.2 Types of barks
pinnipeds, foxes and quolls. Woof is the most common
representation in the English language for this sound, es- Barking in domestic dogs is a controversial topic. While
pecially for large dogs. Other transliterations include the suggested that barking is “non-communicative,”* [9]
onomatopoeic ruff, arf, au au, bow-wow, and, for small data exists to show that it may well be a means of ex-
dogs, yip. “Bark”is also a verb that describes the sharp pression that became increasingly sophisticated during
explosive cry of certain animals. domestication. However, due to the lack of consensus
2.4. BARK (SOUND) 71

over whether or not dogs actually communicate using stery, barked. “One owner thought the scent was prefer-
their barks, there has not been much work done on cat- able to her dog's body odor.”* [13]
egorizing the different types of barking in dogs. That Dog barking can be a nuisance to neighbours, and is a
which has been done has been criticized by Feddersen- common problem that dog owners or their neighbours
Petersen as “lack[ing] objectivity.”Using sonographic may face. Many dogs can bark at 100 dBA. Even at 17.5
methods, Feddersen-Petersen identified several distinct yards away and with the dog outside a closed window,
types of barks, and then analyzed them for meanings, the noise level of a barking dog can be well over the level
functions, and emotions. He separated dog barks into that causes psychological distress.* [14] Different kinds of
subgroups based on said sonographic data:
barking often require different kinds of approach to re-
Not all breeds demonstrated every subgroup of barking. duction.
Instead, significant variance in vocalization was found be- Common approaches are as follows:
tween different breeds. Poodles showed the least of all
barking subunits. Additionally, barking in wolves was ob-
served as notably less diverse. For example, wolf barks 1. Attempting to understand, and if possible eliminate,
*
are rarely harmonic, tending instead to be noisy. [10] the causes of barking.

There is some evidence that humans can determine the 2. Using positive training methods to correct the be-
suspected emotions of dogs while listening to barks emit- haviour. Dogs may bark from anxiety or stress, so
ted during specific situations. Humans scored the emo- punishment can often cause problems by reinforc-
tions of dogs performing these barks very similarly and in ing a cycle of bad behaviour. Positive approaches
ways that made sense according to the situation at hand. can include:
In one example, when subjects were played a recording
of a dog tied alone to a tree, a situation in which one could • Repeated exposure to stimuli whilst calming
reasonably infer that the dog would be distressed, the hu- the dog and persuading it to remain quiet.
man listeners tended to rank the bark as having a high • Distraction as the stimulus happens, through
level of despair. It has been suggested that this may be treats, praise, or similar.
evidence for the idea that dog barks have evolved to be a
form of communication with humans specifically, since • Reshaping via clicker training (a form of
humans can so readily determine a dog's needs by simply operant conditioning) or other means to ob-
listening to their vocalizations.* [11] Further studies have tain barking behaviour on command, and then
found that the acoustic structure of a bark "[varies] con- shaping the control to gain command over si-
siderably with context.”* [12] These studies suggest that lence.
barks are more than just random sounds, and indeed hold 3. Seeking professional advice from local organiza-
some sort of communicative purpose. tions, dog trainers, or veterinarians.

4. Use of a mechanical device such as a bark collar.


2.4.3 Barking as nuisance There are several types, all of which use a collar de-
vice that produces a response to barking that the dog
Bark control
notices:
Nuisance-barking dogs sound off for no particular rea- • Citrus spray (“citronella”) - dogs as a rule
son. “Many dogs bark when they hear other dogs bark- do not like citrus. At the least, it is very no-
ing,”says Katherine A. Houpt, V.M.D., Ph.D., director ticeable and disrupts the pattern through sur-
of the Cornell Animal Behavior Clinic. Nuisance, inap- prise. These collars spray citrus around the
propriate, or excessive barking comprises between 13 and dog's muzzle when it barks. (Sometimes these
35 percent of behavior-problem complaints by dog own- devices make a“hissing”noise before spray-
ers, Houpt noted. The electric collars deliver an irritating ing, as an additional deterrent - see “Combi-
shock of adjustable intensity when a vibration sensor in nation and escalation devices”below)
the collar detects barking. The citronella collar releases a
spray of citronella when a microphone in the collar senses • Sonic/ultrasonic (including vibration) - these
barking. For the eight dogs that wore both types of col- collars produce a tone which humans may or
lars (one shepherd mix did not complete the study), all may not be able to hear, in response to bark-
owners found the citronella collar to be effective in re- ing. Over time, the sound becomes annoying
ducing or stopping nuisance barking and most preferred or distracting enough to deter barking.
the fragrance spray. Four out of eight owners said electric • Electrical - these collars produce a mild sting-
shocks had no effect on their dogs̶they kept on barking. ing or tingling sensation in response to a bark.
The citronella collars had problems, Juarbe-D'az noted. It is important that such devices have a failsafe
One dog owner complained that citronella oil stained the mechanism and shut off after a certain time, to
upholstery when the dog, fond of lying about on uphol- prevent ongoing operation.
72 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

• Combination and escalation devices - many • Albanian - ham ham


sound and/or electrical collars have combina-
tion or escalation systems. A combination • Arabic - hau hau; how how (‫ هو‬,‫)هو‬
system is one that (for example) uses both • Armenian -haf haf
sound and spray together. An escalation de-
vice is one that uses quiet sounds, or low lev- • Basque - au au; txau txau (small dogs); zaunk zaunk
els of output, rising gradually until barking (large dogs); jau jau (old dogs)
ceases. Escalation devices are effective since
they “reward”the dog for stopping sooner • Balinese - kong, kong
by not having “all-or-nothing”action, so the
• Belgium- woef, woef; blaf, blaf; waf, waf (large
dog can learn to react by stopping before much
dogs) Keff, keff; Wuff, Wuff (small dogs)
happens.
• Bengali - gheu, gheu; bhao, bhao
Note:
• Bulgarian - bau-bau (бау-бау); jaff, jaff (джаф-
• Various bark collars have been both praised, and джаф)
criticised, and some are considered inhumane by
• Burmese - woke, woke
various people and groups. Electrical devices espe-
cially come under criticism by people who consider • Catalan - bau, bau; bub, bub
them torturous and akin to electrocution. However
most Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Ani- • Chinese, Cantonese - wow, wow (汪汪)
mals agree that in a last resort even an electric collar
is better than euthanasia if it comes to an ultimatum, • Chinese, Mandarin - wang, wang (汪汪)
for a stubborn dog that will not stop any other way. It • Croatian - vau, vau
is generally agreed that understanding the communi-
cation and retraining by reward is the most effective • Czech - haf, haf; štěk (the bark itself)
and most humane way.
• Danish - vov, vuf

Surgical debarking • Dutch - blaf, blaf; kef, kef; waf, waf; woef, woef

• Esperanto - boj, boj


Main article: Surgical debarking
• Estonian - auh, auh
The controversial surgical procedure known as 'debark-
• Finnish - hau, hau; vuh, vuh; rauf, rauf
ing' is a veterinary procedure for modifying the voice box
so that a barking dog will make a significantly reduced • French - waouh, waouh; ouah, ouah; ouaf, ouaf; vaf,
noise. It is considered a last resort by some owners, on vaf; wouf, wouf; wouaf, wouaf; jappe jappe
the basis that it is better than euthanasia, seizure, or le-
gal problems if the matter has proven incapable of being • German - wuff, wuff; wau, wau;
reliably corrected any other way.
• Greek - ghav, ghav (γαβ, γαβ / γαυ, γαυ), bhav,
Debarking is illegal in many European states and opposed bhav (βαβ, βαβ)
by animal welfare organizations.
• Hebrew - hav, hav; hau, hau

2.4.4 Representation • Hindi - bho.n, bho.n (भों भों)

• Hungarian - vau, vau


Woof is the conventional representation in the English
language of the barking of a dog. As with other exam- • Icelandic - voff, voff
ples of onomatopoeia or imitative sounds, other cultures
“hear”the dog's barks differently and represent them in • Indonesian - guk, guk
their own ways. Some of the equivalents of “woof”in
• Irish - amh, amh
other European and Asian languages are as follows:
• Italian - bau, bau
• English - woof woof; ruff ruff; arf arf (large dogs
and also the sound of sea lions); yap yap; yip yip • Japanese - wan-wan (ワンワン); kyan-kyan (キャ
(small dogs), bow wow ンキャン)* [15]

• Afrikaans - blaf blaf; woef woef; keff keff (small • Korean - meong, meong ( , pronounced
dogs) [mʌŋmʌŋ])
2.4. BARK (SOUND) 73

• kurdi - hau hau (‫)حەو حەو‬ 2.4.6 Naturally “barkless”dog breeds


• Latvian - vau, vau
Compared to most domestic dogs, the bark of a dingo is
• Lithuanian - au, au short and monosyllabic. During observations, the barking
of Australian dingoes was shown to have a relatively small
• Macedonian - av, av variability; sub-groups of bark types, common among do-
• Malay - gong, gong (“menggonggong”means bark- mestic dogs, could not be found. Furthermore, only 5%
ing) of the observed vocalisations were made up of barking.
Australian dingoes bark only in swooshing noises or in a
• Marathi - bhu, bhu (भू भू) mixture atonal/tonal. Also, barking is almost exclusively
used for giving warnings. Warn-barking in a homotyp-
• Norwegian - voff, voff or boff ical sequence and a kind of “warn-howling”in a het-
• Persian - haap, haap (‫ هاپ‬،‫)هاپ‬ erotypical sequence has also been observed. The bark-
howling starts with several barks and then fades into a ris-
• Philippines - Aw Aw, Aw ing and ebbing howl and is probably, similarly to cough-
ing, used to warn the puppies and members of the pack.
• Polish - hau, hau
Additionally, dingoes emit a sort of “wailing”sound,
• Portuguese - au, au; ão-ão (nasal diphthong); béu- which they mostly use when approaching a water hole,
béu (toddler language); cain-cain (whining) probably to warn already present dingoes.* [16] Accord-
ing to the present state of knowledge, it is not possible to
• Romanian - ham, ham; hau, hau get Australian dingoes to bark more frequently by mak-
• Russian - gav, gav (гав-гав); tyav, tyav (тяв-тяв, ing them associate with other domestic dogs. However,
small dogs) Alfred Brehm reported a dingo that completely learned
the more“typical”form of barking and knew how to use
• Serbian - av, av it, while its brother did not.* [17] Whether dingoes bark
or bark-howl less frequently in general is not sure.* [18]
• Sinhala - බුඃ බුඃ buh, buh
The now extinct Hare Indian dog of northern Canada was
• Slovak - haf, haf; hau, hau not known to bark in its native homeland, though pup-
pies born in Europe learned how to imitate the barking
• Slovene - hov, hov
of other dogs.* [19] When hurt or afraid, it howled like a
• Spanish - guau-guau; gua, gua; jau, jau wolf, and when curious, it made a sound described as a
growl building up to a howl.* [20]
• Swedish - voff, voff; vov, vov; bjäbb, bjäbb
The Basenji of central Africa produces an unusual yodel-
• Tagalog - aw, aw; baw, baw like sound, due to its unusually shaped larynx.* [21] This
trait also gives the Basenji the nickname“Barkless Dog.”
• Tamil - வள் வள் - wal wal;லொள் லொள் - lol lol *
[22]
;வௌ வௌ - wow wow
• Thai - โฮ่ง โฮ่ง (pronounced [hôŋhôŋ]); บ๊อก บ๊อก (pro-
nounced [bɔ́ kbɔ́ k]) 2.4.7 Barking in other animals
• Turkish - hev hev; hav, hav
Many animals communicate via various vocalizations.
• Ukrainian - гав, гав (hau, hau); дзяв, дзяв (dzyau, While there is not a precise, consistent and functional
dzyau) acoustic definition for barking, researchers may clas-
sify barks according to several criteria.* [23] University
• Urdu - bow bow of Massachusetts Amherst researchers identified volume,
• Vietnamese - gâu gâu; ẳng ẳng pitch, tonality, noise, abrupt onset and pulse duration
are amongst the criteria that can be used to define a
• Welsh - wff, wff bark.* [24]
• Tamazight- hav hav; haw haw Besides dogs and wolves, other canines like coyotes and
jackals can bark. Their barks are quite similar to those
of wolves and dogs. The bark of a dingo is short and
2.4.5 Breeds monosyllabic.

The Huntaway is a working dog that has been selectively The warning bark of a fox sounds much like a dog's, but
bred to drive stock (usually sheep), by using its voice. It generally the vocalisation of foxes is higher and more
was bred in New Zealand, and is still bred based on ability drawn out than barks of other canids.
rather than appearance or lineage. There are also non-canine species with vocalizations that
74 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

could be described as barking. Because the Muntjac's [9] Coppinger, R; M. Feinstein. "'Hark! Hark! The dogs do
alarm call resembles a dog's bark, they are sometimes bark...' and bark and bark”. Smithsonian (21): 119–128.
known as Barking Deer. Eared seals are also known to [10] Feddersen-Petersen, D.U. (2000).“Vocalization of Euro-
bark. Prairie dogs employ a complex form of commu- pean wolves (Canus lupus lupus L.) and various dog breeds
nication that involves barks and rhythmic chirps.* [25] A (Canus lupus f., fam.)". Arch. Tierz (Kiel, Germany: In-
wide variety of bird species produce vocalizations that in- stitut für Haustierkunde, Christian-Albrechts-University)
clude the canonical features of barking, especially when 4: 387–397.
avoiding predators.* [24] Some primate species, notably
[11] Pongrácz, P; Molnár, C.; Miklósi, Á.; Csányi, V. (2005).
gorillas, can and do vocalize in short barks. “Human Listeners Are Able to Classify Dog (Canis
familiaris) Barks Recorded in Different Situations”.
Journal of Comparative Psychology. 2 119: 136–144.
2.4.8 See also doi:10.1037/0735-7036.119.2.136.

• Animal communication [12] Yin, S (2002). “A New Perspective on Barking in Dogs


(Canis familiaris)". Journal of Comparative Psychology.
• Debarking 2 116: 189–193. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.116.2.189.
[13] Juarbe-D'az, Soraya V; and Houpt, Katherine A.“Calm-
• Dog communication ing 'Nuisance-Barking' Dogs. [Web links]". myeducation-
research.org, The Pierian Press, 3 May 1996. Online. In-
• Dog training ternet. 18 May 1743. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
• Growling [14] Richard Murray and Helen Penridge. Dogs in the Urban
Environment. Chiron Media 1992, ISBN 0-646-07157-2,
pp. 21–22.
2.4.9 References [15] Rikaichan Japanese-English dictionary extension, version
2.01
[1] Schassburger, R.M. (1987). “Wolf vocalization: An in-
tegrated model of structure, motivation, and ontogeny”. [16] Laurie Corbett (2004).“Dingo”. Canids: Foxes, Wolves,
In H. Frank. Man and Wolf. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Jackals and Dogs. International Union for Conservation of
Dr. W. Junk. Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 8 April 2009.

[2] Coscia, E.M. “Ontogeny of timber wolf vocalizations: [17] Brehms Tierleben (in German). Leipzig, Wien: Bibli-
Acoustic properties and behavioral contexts.”. Ph.D. Dis- ographisches Institut. 1900. pp. 82–85.
sertation. (Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Dalhousie Uni- [18] Feddersen-Petersen, Dorit Urd (2008). Ausdrucksverhal-
versity). ten beim Hund (in German). Stuttgart: Franckh-Kosmos
Verlags-GmbH & Co. KG. ISBN 978-3-440-09863-9.
[3] Fedderson-Peterson, D.U. (2000). “Vocalization of Eu-
ropean wolves (Canus lupus lupus L.) and various dog [19] The Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society,
breeds (Canus lupus f., fam.)". Arch. Tierz (Kiel, Ger- Published, with the Sanction of the Council, Under the Su-
many: Institut für Haustierkunde, Christian-Albrechts- perintendence of the Secretary and Vice-secretary of the
University) 4: 387–397. Society, by Edward Turner Bennett, Zoological Society
of London, William Harvey, Illustrated by John Jackson,
[4] Coppinger, R.; M. Feinstein (1991). "'Hark! Hark! The William Harvey, G. B., S. S., Thomas Williams, Robert
dogs do bark...' and bark and hark.”. Smithsonian 21: Edward Branston, George Thomas Wright. Published by
119–128. Printed by C. Whittingham, 1830.

[5] Belyaev, D.K.; I.Z. Plyusnina, L.N. Trut (1984). “Do- [20] Fauna Boreali-americana, Or, The Zoology of the North-
mestication in the silver fox (Vulpus fulvus desm.) - ern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of
changes in physiological boundaries of the sensitive pe- the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late North-
riod of primary socialization”. Applied Animal Be- ern Land Expeditions, Under Command of Captain Sir
haviour Science 13 (4): 359–370. doi:10.1016/0168- John Franklin, R.N. By John Richardson, William Swain-
1591(85)90015-2. son, William Kirby, published by J. Murray, 1829.
[21] Adapted from the book “Why Pandas Do Handstands,”
[6] Fox, M.W. (1986). Saunders, W.B., ed. “The influence
2006, by Augustus Brown.
of domestication upon behavior of animals”. Abnormal
Behaviour in Animals (Philadelphia): 179–187. [22] BCOA African Stock Project - 1945 Letter from Africa

[7] Dechambre, E. (1949). “La theorie de la foetal- [23] Not Only Dogs, But Deer, Monkeys And Birds Bark To
isation et la formation des races de chiens et de Deal With Conflict. Science Daily. 15 July 2009.
porcs”. Mammalia (in French) 13: 129–137. [24] Lord, Kathryn., Feinstein, Mark., Coppinger, Raymond.
doi:10.1515/mamm.1949.13.3.129. Barking and mobbing. Behavioral Processes. 2009.
[8] Fox, M.W. (1971). “Behavior of wolves and related [25] Walker, Matt. Burrowing US prairie dogs use complex
canids”. Malabar, FL. language. BBC Earth News. 2 February 2010.
2.5. BITE INHIBITION 75

2.4.10 External links rior animal as an act of submission. The superior animal
could, in theory, kill the other immediately, but he instead
(relationship building) shows mercy as the alpha. Submission was thought to re-
duce losses for an animal that knows it cannot challenge
• "Is the Bark Worse Than the Bite?". Jennifer K. the other.* [8]
Rudolph, BS, and Lawrence Myers, DVM, MS,
A few years later, this idea was challenged by Rudolf
PhD, Veterinary Forum, 1994
Schenkel, who suggests that, quite contrary to Lorenzʼ
• “Article from ASPCA's Virtual Pet Behaviorist on s beliefs, the inferior dog is the one with his jaws open
working with barking problems” near to the superiorʼs neck. The superior canine remains
growling and his posture is erect, as though to prepare for
• Sound of foxes barking. Wav file.
an attack. Schenkel suggests that the bite inhibition in this
instance is shown by the inferior to show that he does not
dare to bite the superior.* [9]
2.5 Bite inhibition
Bite inhibition, sometimes referred to as a soft mouth 2.5.2 Chemicals Involved in Aggression
(a term which also has a distinct meaning), is a behavior
in carnivorans (dogs, cats,* [1] etc.) whereby the animal Testosterone has a major effect on aggression in animals.
learns to moderate the strength of its bite. It is an impor- Dogs with excess testosterone are found to act out vio-
tant factor in the socialization of pets.* [2] lently, and are far less likely to practice bite inhibition,
*
Bite inhibition is typically learned as part of juvenile play especially without proper training. [10]
behaviors, when the animal is still in the company of its In observations of a wild population of gray wolves, or
mother and siblings: by biting each other during play, the canis lupus, levels of adrenal glucocorticoid(GCs) were
young animals learn that biting a companion too strongly found to be elevated in dominant wolves. GCs affect the
leads to the abrupt termination of play activities.* [3] stress responses in vertebrates, redirecting energy from
Bite inhibition is an important factor in the socialization systems such as the digestive and reproductive to the
of pets because many breeds do not innately have the abil- senses and heart to eliminate immediate threats.
ity to monitor the strength of their bites. In addition to its However, while short-term increases in GCs can be ben-
role in domestication, bite inhibition is also a significant eficial under stress, long-term increases are harmful to
part of the development of dominance hierarchy in wild health, as GCs contribute to immune and reproductive
animals such as wolves.* [4] system suppression, as well as loss in muscle mass.* [11]
Therefore, being a dominant individual in the pack has
a high cost(and high benefit), while accepting subordina-
2.5.1 Evolution of Bite Inhibition in Mod- tion is low cost-low benefit.* [12]
ern Dogs
Catecholamines, such as epinephrine, or adrenaline,
Modern dogs learn bite inhibition for the same reason that norepinephrine, and dopamine, also have effects on ag-
their ancestors, the wolves, did: in order to establish an gression. An increase in catecholamines assist with the
effective dominance hierarchy. Dominance hierarchy is body's fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow
a term which describes the "pecking order" in groups of to the muscles, decreasing pain sensitivity, and improv-
animals.* [5] It allows for tranquility in large groups when ing attention. Dogs with higher levels of these chemicals
each individual knows its place. Dominance hierarchies tend to be more aggressive, because they are more ready
are formed in groups of canines through intense displays to fight.* [13]
of aggression.* [6] However, this type of vying for domi-
nance has only been observed in forced groupings of cap-
tive wolves.* [7] In the wild, this trend is less common, as
2.5.3 Training
wolves tend to group off into family units instead of unre-
Bite inhibition is typically learned as part of juvenile play
lated adults. Therefore, the alpha male and alpha female
behaviors, when the animal is still in the company of its
would simply be the parents, and the offspring would sub-
mother and siblings: by biting each other during play, the
mit readily. Bite inhibition, then, naturally occurs as the
young animals learn that biting a companion too strongly
pups learn not to bite their siblings and parents too hard.
leads to the abrupt termination of play activities. This
behavior is crucial later in life, as well, when dogs need
Lorenz vs. Schenkel: Interpreting Canine Aggres- to maintain the carefully constructed dominance hierar-
sion chies. Therefore, a useful method for training a puppy or
dog to monitor the strength of its bite would simply be
Austrian scientist Konrad Lorenz explains that the infe- to ignore the dog immediately after the incident occurs.
rior animal shows its most vulnerable part to the supe- This way, the dog learns that harmful biting will lead to
76 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

punishment. [14] Miller, Pat. “Teaching Bite Inhibition”. The Whole Dog
Journal. Belvoir Media Group. Retrieved 12 November
A dogʼ s first instinct to unpleasant stimulus is not a bite. A 2014.
dog will use several techniques to stop what he perceives
as a threat before he resorts to biting. Therefore, it is im-
portant to avoid suppressing important canine communi-
cations such as growling and snarling. If a dog learns that 2.6 BowLingual
a growl is an inappropriate response to a threat, then hu-
mans may be encountered with an unexpected bite when BowLingual (バウリンガル), or“Bow-Lingual”as the
they accidentally, for example, step on the dogʼs tail. North American version is spelled, is a computer-based
Even a dog that would never bite out of anger can snap dog-to-human language translation device developed by
when met with a painful or threatening stimulus, so train- Japanese toy company Takara and first sold in Japan in
ing in bite inhibition can be useful to keep them from 2002. Versions for South Korea and the United States
accidentally hurting another dog or human.* [14] were launched in 2003. The device was named by Time
magazine as a “Best Invention of 2002.”The inventors
of BowLingual, Keita Satoh, Dr. Matsumi Suzuki and
2.5.4 References Dr. Norio Kogure were awarded the Ig Nobel Prize for
[1] Domestic Animal Behavior (4th edition) by Katherine A. “promoting peace and harmony between the species.”
Houpt, Wiley-Blackwell Publications, 2005 The device is presented as a “translator”but has been
[2] Before & After Getting Your Puppy: The Positive Ap- called an “emotion analyzer”. It is said to use technol-
proach to Raising a Happy, Healthy, & Well-Behaved Dog ogy to categorize dog barks into one of six standardized
by Ian Dunbar, New World Library, 2004 emotional categories. BowLingual also provides a phrase
which is representative of that emotion. The product in-
[3] The Everything Dog Obedience Book: from bad dog to
structions clearly state that these phrases “are for enter-
good dog -- a step-by-step guide to curbing misbehavior
tainment purposes only”and are not meant to be accurate
by Jennifer Bridwell, F+W Publications, 2007
translations of each bark.
[4] Lindsay, Steven R. (2001). Handbook of Applied Dog Be-
havior and Training, Volume 2: Etiology and assessment
of behavior problems. Iowa State University Press. 2.6.1 Features
[5] Ehrlich, Paul; Dobkin, David; Wheye, Darryl. “Domi-
nance Hierarchies”. web.stanford.edu. Retrieved 28 Oc- BowLingual has several functions which include dog
tober 2014. training tips, a “Bow Wow Diary,”tips on understand-
ing a dog's body language, a medical checklist and a
[6] Houpt, Katherine A. (2005). Domestic Animal Behavior.
Blackwell Publishing.
home alone bark recording function. The device con-
sists of a hand-held receiver that contains a LCD infor-
[7] Mech, L. David. “Alpha status, dominance, and division mation screen and functions as the controller and a wire-
of labor in wolf packs”. nrc research press. less microphone-transmitter which is attached to the dog's
[8] Lorenz, Konrad (2002). King Solomon's Ring. Routledge. collar.
Retrieved 28 October 2014. When a dog barks, the microphone records and transmits
[9] Schenkel, Rudolf. Submission: Its Functions and Features the sound to the hand-held unit for computer analysis by
in Wolf and Dog. Retrieved 28 October 2014. a database with thousands of dog barks pre-recorded into
it. The unit then categorizes the bark into one of six dis-
[10] O'Heare, James. “The Effects of Spaying and Neutering tinct dog emotions (happy, sad, frustrated, on-guard, as-
on Canine Behavior”. Association of Animal Behavior
sertive, needy) and displays the corresponding emotion
Professionals. James O'Heare. Retrieved 12 November
2014.
on the screen. After displaying the emotion, BowLingual
then displays a phrase which has been categorized to fit
[11] Creel, Scott. “Social Dominance and Stress Hormones” within the range of each emotion.
. Science Direct. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved 12 November
2014.
[12] Creel, Scott; Sands, Jennifer.“Social dominance, aggres- 2.6.2 Versions
sion and faecal glucocorticoid levels in a wild population
of wolves, Canis lupus”. Science Direct. Elsevier Ltd. Regional versionals of BowLingual have been released in
Retrieved 12 November 2014. Japan, South Korea, the US and Canada. The versions for
[13] Haller, J; Makara, G.B.; Kruk, M.R. “Catecholaminer- South Korean South Korea, the US and Canada have dif-
gic involvement in the control of aggression: hormones, ferent modifications in comparison to the Japanese ver-
the peripheral sympathetic, and central noradrenergic sys- sion. In May 2003, at the request of the Japan Foreign
tems”. Science Direct. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved 12 Novem- Ministry, Takara provided Japanese Prime Minister Ju-
ber 2014. nichiro Koizumi with two prototypes of the English ver-
2.7. CANINE GOOD CITIZEN 77

sion of BowLingual several months before it had been re- 2.6.6 References
leased in North America. Koizumi then presented these
to Russian President Vladimir Putin, for each of his dogs [1] Gadget's bark is bigger than its hype / Vet puts 'bark trans-
(Tosca, a standard Poodle, and Connie, a Labrador Re- lator' to the test. Verdict: nothing more than $120 curios-
triever), at ceremonies celebrating the 300th anniversary ity
of St. Petersburg. [2] Molnar et al. (2008) Classification of dog barks: a ma-
chine learning approach. Animal Cognition, 11, 389-400
2.6.3 Effectiveness
BowLingual uses customized voice-print analysis tech- 2.7 Canine Good Citizen
nology which has been adapted for dog barks. The ac-
curacy of this product can be affected by varying condi-
tions and situations. Sound interference can occur when
the wireless collar-microphone picks up noises made by
chain collars and collars with dog tags attached. As a re-
sult, the dog owner may believe that the device is mal-
functioning and not registering the dog bark correctly.
In windy conditions, the microphone will sometimes in-
terpret a gust of wind as a bark. Electrical equipment
and certain radio signals may trigger false readouts. Due
to improvements with the US and Canadian versions of
the products, these problems are more common with the
Japanese and South Korean versions.
One reviewer of the product, vet Sophia Yin stated “it's
not very useful because the translations aren't trustworthy
and most don't make sense.”* [1] Canine Good Citizen dog tag.
Csaba Molnar and colleagues at Eotvos Lorand Univer-
sity, Budapest, Hungary proved by computer-based ma- The Canine Good Citizen (CGC) program, established
chine learning algorythms that there are consistent dif- in 1989, is an American Kennel Club program to promote
ferences in the acoustics of dog barks according to the responsible dog ownership and to encourage the training
behavioural context and individuals.* [2] of well-mannered dogs. A dog and handler team must
take a short behavioral evaluation of less than half an
hour; dogs who pass the evaluation earn the Canine Good
2.6.4 Related products Citizen certificate, which many people represent after the
dog's name, abbreviating it as CGC; for example,“Fido,
In 2003 Takara launched a follow-up product for cats CGC”.
called Meowlingual (ミャウリンガル). It functioned The evaluation consists of ten objectives. All items must
similarly to BowLingual; however, it did not use the wire- be completed satisfactorily or the team fails. Test items
less microphone system. Instead, the microphone was include:
contained in the main hand-held unit so that the user had
to be close enough to, in effect, “interview”the cat.
Without the wireless component, Meowlingual was con- • Accepting a friendly stranger.
siderably cheaper than BowLingual. Meowlingual was
• Sitting politely for petting.
never launched in the U.S. or any other countries, so only
Japanese language versions exist. • Allowing basic grooming procedures.

• Walking on a loose lead.


2.6.5 External links
• Walking through a crowd.
• Time Magazine Best Inventions 2002, Bowlingual
• Sitting and lying down on command and staying in
• BowLingual Web page (archived) place.
• MeowLingual Web page (archived)
• Coming when called.
• Bowlingual presented by Japan prime minister to
Russian president • Reacting appropriately to another dog.

• Critical review • Reacting appropriately to distractions.


78 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

• Calmly enduring supervised separation from the


owner.

Evaluators sometimes combine elements during the ac-


tual test.
If all ten objectives are met, the handler can apply for a
certificate and special dog tag from the AKC stating that
the dog has earned the CGC.
Dogs do not have to be registered with the AKC to earn
a CGC, nor do they have to be purebred or, in fact, reg-
istered with any canine organization. The goal is to pro-
mote good citizenship for all dogs.
Since its inception, the CGC program has become the
model for similar programs around the world, is the back- Leather buckle collar with traditional buckle.
bone of other exams, such as those given for therapy dogs,
and is a good starting point for more advanced dog train-
ing. says you should be able to get two fingers underneath
the collar.* [5]

2.7.1 External links


• AKC Canine Good Citizen section

2.8 Dog collar


For the detachable white collar worn by Christian clergy,
see clerical collar.

A dog collar is a piece of material put around the neck


of a dog. A collar may be used for control, identifica-
tion, fashion, or other purposes. Identification tags and
medical information are often placed on dog collars.* [1]
Collars are also useful for controlling a dog manually, as
they provide a handle for grabbing. Collars are often used
in conjunction with a leash, and a common alternative to
a dog collar is a dog harness. Dog collars are the most
Nylon quick-release buckle collar with identification and medical
common form of directing and teaching dogs.* [2]
tags.
Dog collar is also an informal term for the clerical collar
used by Anglican vicars and other clergy.* [3]
• Flea collars are impregnated with chemicals that re-
pel fleas.* [6] They are usually a supplementary col-
2.8.1 Basic collars lar, worn in addition to the conventional buckle col-
lar.
• Buckle collars, also called flat collars, are usu-
ally made of nylon webbing* [4] or leather (less • Elizabethan collars, shaped like a truncated cone,
common materials can include polyester, hemp, or can be fitted on a dog to prevent it from scratching
metal) with a buckle similar to a belt buckle, or a a wound on its head or neck or licking a wound or
quick-release buckle, either of which holds the col- infection on its body.* [7]
lar loosely around the dog's neck. Identification is
commonly attached to such a collar; it also comes • Break-away collars look similar to buckle collars,
with a loop to which a leash can be fastened. This but have a safety mechanism installed that allows the
is the most standard collar for dogs. A flat collar dog to break free of the collar if excessive force is
should fit comfortably tight on your dog's neck. It applied. These collars are useful in situations where
should not be so tight as to choke your dog nor so a non-quick release collar could get snagged and
loose that they can slip out of it. The rule of thumb strangle the dog.* [8]
2.8. DOG COLLAR 79

• Safety Stretch Collars an elastic panel in the sturdy


nylon collar allows escape from potential strangu-
lation dangers such as branches, fences, gates and
other dogs. Unlike breakaways a stretch collar acts
like a traditional static collar when clipped with a
leash.

• Stud collars are leather collars fitted with dulled


points and/or metal studs that traditionally pre-
vented another animal from biting the dog's neck.
This type of collar dates back to ancient Greece,
when sheepdogs were given nail-studded collars to
protect them from wolves.* [9] In modern societies,
stud collars are more commonly considered a fash-
ion accessory.

• Painted collars are leather collars with a pattern


applied with safe water-resistant paint. Usually the
paint is applied manually. These collars are more Martingale Collar with Chain Loop; martingale collars also come
expensive than others because of handiwork. with a fabric loop instead of chain as well as optional buckles on
both styles.
• Oilcloth collars are made of vinyl woven with cot-
ton. They are long-lasting, water resistant and stain
Martingale collar
resistant. The surface of the material can be wiped
clean. These collars are sturdy and hard to tear. Martingale collars are recommended for Sighthounds be-
cause their heads are smaller than their necks and they can
• Spiked collars are made of nylon or leather mate- often slip out of standard collars. They can, however, be
rial and decorated with metal spikes. Commonly, used for any breed of dog. Their no-slip feature has made
the spikes are hand-set and tightly riveted for extra them a safety standard at many kennels and animal shel-
security. Spikes prevent other animals from biting ters. A martingale collar has 2 loops; the smaller loop
the dog's neck and serve as fancy accessory. is the “control loop”that tightens the larger loop when
pulled to prevent dogs from slipping out of the collar. A
• Reflective collars are made with 3M reflective tape correctly adjusted martingale does not constrict the dog's
that ensures the dog will be seen at night by ap- neck when pulled taut.
proaching vehicles. These collars are usually made
with nylon webbing and can provide reflection up to
1,000 feet in the dark.* [10] Head halters

Head halters, sold under the brand names “Comfort


Trainer”,Halti or Gentle Leader or Snoot Loop, are sim-
2.8.2 Training collars ilar in design to a halter for a horse. This device fastens
around the back of the neck and over the top of the muz-
Several types of collars are used for the purposes of train- zle, giving more control over a dog's direction and the
ing dogs, though sometimes a collar is not used at all intensity of pulling on a leash than collars that fit strictly
(such as in the case of dog agility training, where a col- around the neck. Pressure on this type of collar pulls the
lar could get caught on equipment and strangle the dog). dog's head towards the handler. These type of collars can
Each training collar has its own set of advantages and dis- stop a strong dog pulling an owner in an unsafe direction.
advantages (briefly outlined below) which trainers might They are also good for dogs that pull as the pressure will
consider before using a select one. Training collars are no longer be directly on their wind pipe.* [11]
typically used for training only and not left on the dog's
neck all the time, as some collars can be harmful or dan-
gerous if left on a dog unsupervised. Controversy Supporters of the head halter say that it
enables the handler to control the dog's head, and makes
the dog unable to pull using its full strength. It is espe-
Flat collars cially useful with reactive dogs, when control of the dog's
head can be a safety issue.
Most dogs are trained on leash using a buckle or quick- Those who do not recommend use of the head halter say
release collar. that some dogs find it unnatural and uncomfortable. If the
80 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

Main article: Dog § Biology

Most lighted collars utilize one or more light emitting


diodes for the light source and can be of virtually any
color, although red and blue are most common. Power is
provided by one or more batteries, most common types
being AAA and lithium coin cells to minimize the added
weight to the collar.

Flotation collar

A flotation collar (or buoyant collar) is a buoyancy aid


designed for dogs. Although it is not designed to be used
as a life preserver or life jacket, it can provide additional
buoyant support for the head of a dog when in the water.
It is often used in canine hydrotherapy services to assist
in the rehabilitation of injured dogs. The collar may be
constructed of closed cell foam material that is inherently
buoyant or be of a type that is inflated with air.

Aversive collars

Aversive collars use discomfort or pain to cause a


dog to stop doing unwanted behaviors.* [12] The use
The halter-style collar controls the dog's head but does not restrict of aversive collars is controversial, with many hu-
its ability to pant, drink, or grasp objects. mane and veterinary organizations recommending against
them.* [13]* [14]* [15]

collar is too tight, it may dig too deeply into the skin or • Shock collars (or training collars, remote training
the strap around the muzzle may push into the dog's eyes. collars, e-collars, electronic collars* [16] and hunt-
Cranial injury is a possible result from improper use of ing collars) are electronic training aids developed to
the head halter; if a dog is jerked suddenly by the leash at- deliver an electrical signal, vibration, tone, through
tached to the head halter, the dog's neck is pulled sharply contact points attached to a dog collar.* [17]* [18]
to the side, which might result in neck injury (though this Shock collars are illegal in Wales* [19] and many
can be true of all collars). If the nose strap is fitted too other countries. Some research indicates that train-
tightly, the hair on the muzzle can also be rubbed off, or ing using positive reinforcement achieves faster re-
the dog might paw and scratch at its face, causing injuries sults than the same behavior trained using shock col-
ranging from mere bare skin to severe abrasions. lars.* [20]

Wolf collars

Wolf collars or protection collars are metal collars fit-


ted with large spikes radiating away from the dog, usu-
ally worn by dogs protecting livestock in case they are
attacked by wolves or other predators. Such collars pro-
tect the neck of a dog from direct attack. It is rare to see
these collars being used in modern societies.

Lighted collar

A lighted collar (or collar light, dog light) is a collar that


emits light in order to make a dog more visible in the dark Prong collar; the looped chain limits how tightly the collar can
pull in the same way that a Martingale functions.
to their owners and more importantly, nearby motorists.
It should be noted that it is not designed to help a dog see
at night, as it is well documented that dogs have very good • Prong collars are a series of chain links with
vision in low light conditions. blunted open ends turned towards the dog's neck.
2.8. DOG COLLAR 81

The design of the prong collar is such that it has a snap, or correction. This is supposed to correct a
limited circumference unlike choke chains which do dog's unwanted behavior, such as leaving the“heel”
not have a limit on how far they can constrict on a position. Pulling harder or longer on the choke chain
dog's neck. The limited traction of the martingale presses on the dog's esophagus and restricts breath-
chain combined with the angle of the prongs pre- ing.
vents the prongs moving close enough to pinch. The
collar is designed to prevent the dog from pulling Cesar Milan's“Illusion collar”is a choke collar
by applying pressure at each point against the dog's wrapped in a buckle collar.* [24]
neck.
• Fur saver collars are a kind of choke chains that
Prong collars must never be turned inside out provide less effect on the dog's hair, thus not dam-
(with the prongs facing away from the dog's aging it. Fur saver collar can be used both for long
skin), as this may cause injury against the and short-haired breeds without making any harm to
body and head.* [21] Plastic tips are occasion- the dog's fur. It can be used for training and daily
ally placed on the ends of the prongs to pro- life as well.
tect against tufts forming in the fur or, in the
case of low quality manufactured collars with
rough chisel cut ends, irritating the skin. Like 2.8.3 See also
the choke chain, the prong collar is placed high
on the dog's neck, just behind the ears, at the • Collar
most sensitive point.* [22] • Muzzle (device)
Some dogs can free themselves from prong col-
lars with large wire looped sides by shaking • Shock collar
their head so that the links pop out, so some
trainers have come to use a second collar (usu-
2.8.4 References
ally an oversize check chain) in addition to the
prong collar so when this happens the dog does [1] Clayden, Paul, ed. (2011-05-25). The Dog Law Hand-
not run loose. book (2nd ed.). London: Sweet & Maxwell. p. 35. ISBN
978-0-414-04818-8.
• Force collars are leather with metal prongs stag- [2] Hodgson, Sarah (2006). Teach Yourself Visually Dog
gered along the inside; similar to a prong collar. Training. Wiley Default. ISBN 0-471-74989-3.

[3] “Dog collar clergy 'risk attack'". BBC News. 7 October


2007. Retrieved 30 December 2011.

[4] Ogburn, Philip; Crouse, Stephanie, Martin, Frank, Houpt,


Katherine (1 December 1998). “Comparison of be-
havioral and physiological responses of dogs wearing
two different types of collars”. Applied Animal Be-
haviour Science 61 (2): 133–142. doi:10.1016/S0168-
1591(98)00113-0.

[5] http://www.humanesociety.org/animals/dogs/tips/
collars.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)

Choke chain, showing how the chain pulls through the loop at [6] Cronce, P. C.; Alden, H. S. (11 November 1968).
one end. “Flea-Collar Dermatitis”. JAMA: the Journal of the
American Medical Association 206 (7): 1563–1564.
doi:10.1001/jama.1968.03150070101023.
• Choke chains (also called choke collars or slip
[7] Swaim, Steven F.; Renberg, Walter C.; Shike, Kathy
chains) are a length of chain with rings at either M. (2010-12-15). Small Animal Bandaging, Casting,
end such that the collar can be formed into a loop and Splinting Techniques. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell.
that slips over the dogs head and rests around the top ISBN 978-0-8138-1962-4.
of the dog's neck, just behind the ears.* [23] When
the leash is attached to the dead ring, the collar does [8] Monteiro, Melanie (2009). Safe Dog Handbook: A Com-
not constrict on the dog's neck. When the leash is plete Guide to Protecting Your Pooch, Indoors and Out.
Beverly, Mass.: Quarry Books. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-
attached to the live ring, the chain slips (adjusts)
59253-519-4.
tighter when pulled and slips looser when tension is
released. Training with this leash involves a quick [9] http://www.dogcollarsboutique.com/
jerk with an immediate release, called a leash pop, A-History-of-Dog-Collars-sp-17.html
82 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

[10] http://www.shopmimigreen.com/
Engraved-Buckle-Personalized-Dog-Collars/
Reflective-Dog-Collar-with-Engraved-Personalized-Name-Plate.
html

[11] https://www.sfspca.org/sites/default/files/dog_
head-halters-and-harnesses.pdf

[12] Humane Society. “Dog Collars: Aversive Collars”. Re-


trieved 2014-08-01.

[13] Humane Society. “Dog Collars: Aversive Collars”. Re-


trieved 2014-08-01.

[14] American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior.


“AVSAB Position Statement The Use of Punishment for
Behavior Modification in Animals”. Retrieved 2014-08-
01. Dogs communicating that their intentions are not aggression but
[15] San Francisco SPCA.“Trade in Your Pronged Dog Col- play - a form of metacommunication
lar”. Retrieved 2014-08-01.

[16] “Electronic dog collars in stomach of alligator solve The study of animal communication ̶sometimes called
Florida mystery”. Toledo Blade. August 29, 1995. zoosemiotics (defined as the study of sign commu-
nication or semiosis in animals; distinguishable from
[17] “Electric Dog Collars Hazardous”. The Milwaukee Jour-
anthroposemiotics, the study of human communication)
nal. 20 April 1977.
̶has played an important part in ethology, sociobiology,
[18] “Shocking dog collars recalled”. St. Petersburg Times. and the study of animal cognition.
May 20, 1976.

[19] “Ogmore illegal shock collar dog owner gets £2,000 fine”
. BBC News. 18 July 2011. 2.9.1 Dog-human communication
[20] http://blog.smartanimaltraining.com/2013/07/31/ Dogs were the first species to live so closely to hu-
new-findings-on-shock-collars-why-the-uk-wants-to-ban-them/
mans, starting between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago.
vv They have developed a complex way of communicat-
[21] “Herm Sprenger Prong Collar Covering Caps”. Luvmy- ing with humans and forming relationships, giving rise
dog.co.uk. Retrieved 30 December 2011. to the English phrase “man's best friend”.* [1] There
are many different definitions of communication.* [2]
[22] “How to fit a Prong Collar”. Leerburg. Retrieved 30 Communication between dogs and humans can take var-
December 2011.
ious forms.
[23] “Dictionary of Dog Collar Terms”. bigdogboutique.com. Since dogs were first domesticated by humans, dogs have
Retrieved 12 August 2012. learned to adapt to the social setting of humans. Dogs
[24] “Illusion collar”. Retrieved 2014-08-01. have either developed, or been artificially selected for,
traits and skills which allow them to live successfully with
humans. These behaviours include pointing, marking,
2.8.5 External links body posture and eye gaze direction.* [2] Humans com-
municate with dogs by using audible and tactile signals.
• A History of Dog Collars
The pointing gesture is a human-specific signal, is refer-
ential in its nature, and is a foundational building-block of
human communication. Human infants acquire it weeks
2.9 Dog communication before the first spoken word.* [3] In 2009, a study com-
pared the responses to a range of pointing gestures by
Dog communication is any transfer of information on dogs and human infants. The study showed little differ-
the part of one or more dogs that has an effect on the cur- ence in the performance of 2-year-old children and dogs,
rent or future behaviour of the dog(s), or another animal. while 3-year-old childrenʼ s performance was higher. The
Dog communication occurs in a variety of forms and is results also showed that all subjects were able to general-
part of the foundation of dog social behavior. Dogs use all ize from their previous experience to respond to relatively
the major sensory modalities to communicate, including novel pointing gestures. These findings suggest that dogs
visual (e.g. movements of their bodies and limbs), au- demonstrate a similar level of performance as 2-year-old
ditory (vocalizations), tactile (touch) and gustatory com- children that can be explained as a joint outcome of their
munication (scents, pheromones and taste). evolutionary history as well as their socialization in a hu-
2.9. DOG COMMUNICATION 83

man environment.* [4] To signal dominance, a wolf or dog stands stiff-legged and
tall. The ears are held erect and forward while the tail is
See also: coevolution held vertically with the hackles (erectile hairs along the
back) slightly raised. * [10]* [11]
2.9.2 Evolution of dog-human communi- A wolf or dog will show active submission by drawing
cation back the lips and ears, and lowering the body. The tail
is held low or completely tucked under the body, and the
There are several hypotheses about how dog-human com- back
*
may partially arch down to further display deference.
*
munication evolved. [10] [11]

It is believed that the ancestral precursor of the domestic A wolf or dog will communicate a more intense defer-
dog was a wolf-like canid. Aspects of the wolfʼs social ence through passive submissive behaviours. The animal
behavior have been artificially selected over many gener- rolls on his back, exposing the vulnerable underside and
ations to the modern domestic dogs. Wolves live and hunt throat. The paws are drawn into the body while eye con-
as a group. There are both positive and negative conse- tact is avoided. The tail may be tucked in and whimpering
quences of group-living and it is possible that the social noises may be heard. * [10]* [11]
communicative skills of dogs arose from the social be-
haviors of ancestral, group-living wolves.* [5]
2.9.4 Visual communication
Dogs have been domesticated by humans for thousands of
years. It is possible that during this period, dogs began to See also: Wolf body language
mimic the behaviors of humans. Dogs have been trained
by humans and have become dependent on humans. It has Tail: How high or low the tail is held, in relation to how
been suggested that this dependency trait enables them to the dog's breed naturally carries its tail, and how it is
communicate better with their owners. When dogs are moved can signify the dog's mood. When the tail is held
more exposed to humans, their communicative skills im- high, it shows that the dog is alert and aware; the tail be-
prove.* [6] tween the legs means that the dog is frightened. If the fur
The third reason is the domestication of dog which lead on the tail is also bristled, the dog is saying it is willing to
to their evolution domestic characteristics such as their defend itself or pups. If the dog does not have a tail, or it
tameness. This might be the most prominent reason of has been shortened or removed via docking, then similar
all. The tameness of dogs might have been naturally se- actions may occur with just the hind quarters.
lected when they started to live with humans or were al- Small, slow wags of the tail say the dog is questioning
ready selected for the tameness. By living together for things around the environment it is in. Either it is not sure
thousands of years, the dogʼs skill eventually evolved whether it should submit, the other creature is friendly, or
over time whether they are by artificial selection or nat- confused about its surroundings. Large, fast wags of the
ural selection.* [7] High ability of dog understanding hu- tail may be a sign of a happy, excited, or an energetic dog,
man comes from selection against fear and aggression to- but can also signal aggression.
wards human.* [8]
Dogs communicating with their tail were illustrated in
The social behaviors and their social cognition of dogs Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man
are not yet revealed fully. There are for sure, something and Animals published in 1872.
special about dogs and the relationship between dogs and
humans. It is important for the researchers to study more
• Examples of tail position communicating different
about social skills and the social relationship of dogs and
emotions in dogs.
humans. The research of the evolution of dogʼ s social be-
haviors might help in finding the evolution of social cog- •“Small dog watching a cat on a table”
nition in humans.
•“Dog approaching another dog with hostile inten-
tions”
2.9.3 Dominance and submission
•“Dog in a humble and affectionate frame of mind”
Further information: Dog behavior
•“Half-bred shepherd dog”

Genetic research has indicated that domesticated dogs •“Dog caressing his master”
evolved from a now extinct wolf-like canid.* [9] Wolves
primarily live in social family groups called “packs”in Dogs are said to exhibit a left-right asymmetry of the
which they communicate in ways that can be observed tail when interacting with strangers, and will show the
in their domesticated descendants. Included in this are opposite, right-left motion with people and dogs they
communications of dominance and submission.* [10] know.* [12]
84 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

Ears: Ear position relates the dog's level of attention, and


reaction, to a situation or animal. Erect ears facing for-
ward means the dog is very attentive. They lay their ears
back for the sounds surrounding them and also when in a
submissive state.
Dogs with drop ears, like Beagles, can't use these signals
very well, as the signals first developed in wolves, whose
ears are pricked. Wolf-like dogs (such as the Samoyed
or Husky) will, when content and happy, often hold their
ears in a horizontal position but still forward. This has
been referred to as the “wolf smile”.

Two dogs communicating aggression; note the teeth baring and


lip curl.

A dog communicating anxiety; note the white“half moon”eyes,


nose licking and sideways glance.

Mouth: Mouth expressions can provide information


about the dog's mood. When a dog wants to be left
alone, it might yawn (although yawning also might indi-
cate sleepiness, confusion, or stress) or start licking its
mouth without the presence of any food. When a dog
is happy or wants to play, it might pant with lips relaxed,
covering the teeth and with what sometimes appears to be
a happy expression and might appear as a smile to some
observers.
This dog is not“smiling”but is communicating that it is defensive Mouth expressions that indicate aggression include the
about its food treat.
snarl, with lips retracting to expose the teeth, although
some dogs also use this during play. However, some dogs
will pull back their“top lips”in what looks like an aggres-
Teeth baring: When a dog's lips curl back this shows sive way, when they are excited or happy. For example a
that the dog has a strong urge to bite. This is an uncon- dog prone to“smiling”may do so in greeting to a much
scious reflex, designed to get the soft flesh of the lips away loved owner and this should not be punished lest the dog
from the teeth before the dog bites, and is often misin- become less affectionate.
terpreted as a way of communicating aggressive intent.
For example, many dogs will curl their lips back into a A very common form of communication as well, is for a
“snarl”when they take a cookie or bone. A rare form dog to lick another dog, or a person. Dogs lick other dogs'
of teeth baring is seen in the form as a submissive grin. faces and mouths when they greet each other to indicate
This means that the dog will be submissive and friendly to friendliness. Dogs like to lick human skin not only for the
the person it is grinning at. In this event the dog will also salt from the sweat, but also as a form of greeting, such
display other behavioral cues, including tail wagging and as by briefly licking a person's hand after sniffing it.
lowered posture. The dog sometimes will show a submis- Licking is also used as a social bonding analogous to pri-
sive grin when it has recently done something it knows its mate social grooming and stroking. This can indicate in-
master would not like, or when it has been caught doing timacy. Such licking is longer and slower, as compared
it. to the brief licking of faces during a greeting.
2.9. DOG COMMUNICATION 85

Eyes and eyebrows: While dogs do not have actual eye-


brows, they do have a distinctive ridge above their eyes,
and some breeds, like the Labrador Retriever, Gordon
Setter, Rottweiler, Bernese Mountain Dog, German
Shepherd, and Doberman have markings there. A dog's
eyebrow movements usually express a similar emotion
to that of a human's eyebrow movements. Raised eye-
brows suggest interest, lowered brows suggest uncertainty
or mild anger, and one eyebrow up suggests bewilder-
ment. Eyes narrowed to slits indicate affection for the
person or animal the dog is looking at.

A dog holding its head to one side and its ears forward to focus
on a sound.

2.9.5 Auditory communication

Main article, including bark control training: Bark (utter-


ance)
Further information: Auditory communication in gray
wolves

Barks: Dogs bark for many reasons, such as when per-


ceived intruders (humans, dogs, or other animals un-
Two dogs stamping their feet, (maybe) to gain attention.
known to them) approach their living space, when hearing
an unfamiliar or unidentified noise, when seeing some-
Feet and legs: Although a dog's feet lack the dexterity of thing that the dog doesn't expect to be there, or when play-
ing. Barking also expresses such emotions as loneliness,
human hands, a dog can use them as an avenue of com-
munication. A dog might stamp its feet, alternating its left fear, suspicion, stress, and pleasure. Playful or excited
barks are often short and sharp and often made when a
and right front legs, while its back legs are still. This oc-
curs when the dog is excited, wants something, or wants dog is attempting to get a person or another dog to play.
its owner's attention. Pointers tend to tuck one front leg Dogs generally try to avoid conflict; their vocalizations are
up when they sense game nearby. part of what allows other dogs to tune into their emotions,
This behavior is not communicative so much as the dog i.e., whether they're aggressive or are in a playful mood.
exhibiting a fixed-action pattern called“the eye stalk.”It The bark of a distressed or stressed dog is high pitched,
is also common for dogs to paw or scratch for objects they repetitive, and increases its pitch as the dog becomes
desire. Many dogs are trained to mimic a human hand- more upset. For example, a dog that suffers separation
shake, offering a paw to a human stooping down and of- anxiety may bark when left home alone.
fering their own hand in exchange. Dogs might playfully Some breeds of dogs have been bred to bark when
slap each other with their paws to show gratitude toward chasing; for example, scent hounds whose handlers use
one another.
the bark to follow the dog if it has run out of sight.
Head: The leaning of a dog's head to the right or to the Coonhounds and Bloodhounds are good examples. Such
left often indicates curiosity and/or a sound it has not barking is often called “singing”because the sound is
heard before. It is also used to locate the source of the longer and more tonal.
sound by adjusting the ears, so that sound waves might Some research has suggested that dogs have separate
reach the ears at different times, enabling the source to barks for different animals, including dog, fox, deer, hu-
be located. This, however, may also be a sign of recogni- man, squirrel and cat.* [13]
tion to a familiar word.
Growls: Growls can express aggression, a desire to play,
If the dog's head is held high with its neck craning for- or simply that the dog doesn't want to participate in what's
ward, it is showing interest, although, it could also mean about to happen next (being picked up for example). Most
an aggressive mood if other body language is present. pet owners have therefore been urged to treat growls with
A bowed head indicates submission and can be a request special attention: always consider the context of a growl
for physical affection. and exercise caution. If the threat is very serious, then the
86 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

dog will usually start off with a very low toned but strong •“What is a 'Jewish Dog'? Konrad Lorenz and the
growl that rises in tone if ignored. Cult of Wildness.”Boria Sax, Society and Animals,
Howls: Howling may provide long-range communication Volume 5, Number 1, 1997, pp. 3–21(19)
with other dogs or owners. Howling can be used to locate • My Doggie Says...; Messages from Jamie by Fred
another pack member, to keep strangers away, or to call Haney ISBN 0-9785515-0-8
the pack for hunting. Some dogs howl when they have
separation anxiety. Dogs howling can also be caused by • On Talking Terms With Dogs: Calming Signals by
musical instruments, like harmonicas. Turid Rugaas ISBN 0-9674796-0-6
Further information: Twilight bark
2.9.8 References
Whines: Whining is a high-pitched vocalization that is
[1] Virányi, Zs., Topál, J., Gácsi, M., Miklósi, Á., Csányi,
often produced nasally with the mouth closed. A dog may V. 2004. Dogs respond appropriately to cues of humans'
whine when it wants something (e.g., food) wants to go attentional focus. Behavioural Processes, 66: 161-172
outside (possibly to excrete) wants to be let off the leash
(possibly to greet another dog or a person) or just wants [2] Elgier, Angel M., Andriana Jakovcevic, Gabriela
attention. A very insistent dog may add a bark at the end Barrera, Alba E. Mustaca, and Mariana Bentosela.
“Communication between domestic dogs (Canis
of a whine, in a whine-bark, whine-bark pattern.
familiaris) and humans: Dogs are good learners.”
Whimpers: A whimper or a yelp often indicates the dog Behavioural Processes 81 (2009): 402-08. Web. 28 June
is in pain or distress and is often emitted by dogs that have 2014.<http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0376635709000965/
been bitten too hard during a play-fight. The whimper or 1-s2.0-S0376635709000965-main.pdf?_tid=
yelp is used only when the dog intends to communicate 3664f5aa-15f6-11e4-84e9-00000aacb35f&acdnat=
its distress to a pack member (or human) to whom they 1406510974_77e069b46b3d5634401d5e008693abaf>.
are submissive or friendly, and the other dog or human is [3]
expected to react positively to the communication; dogs
engaged in serious fights do not whimper lest they betray [4]
weakness. Dogs also whimper when they are physically [5] Hare B, Tomasello M. 2005. Human-like social skills in
abused or neglected by people. dogs? Trends in cognitive sciences. 9: 439-444.
Yelps are often associated with the lowering of the tail [6] Reid P, 2008. Adapting to the human world: Dogs' re-
between the legs. Yelping can also indicate strong excite- sponsiveness to our social cues. Behavioural Processes,
ment when a dog is lonely and is suddenly met with af- 80:325-333.
fection, such as when a dog is left alone in a house during
[7] Monique U, Dorey N, Wynne C. 2009. What did domes-
the day and its owner comes through the door late at night.
tication do to dogs? A new account of dogs' sensitivity to
Such yelping is often accompanied by licking, jumping, human actions. Biological Reviews. 85:327-345.
and barking. Yelping is distinct from barking in that it is
softer, higher pitched, and lower volume. [8] Hare, B. and Tomasello, M. 2005. Human-like social
skills in dogs? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9: 439-444.
Dogs will often feign injury by yelping to gain the upper
hand over other puppies during play. Play yelps are often [9] Thalmann, O.; Shapiro, B.; Cui, P.; Schuenemann, V.J.;
confused for a sign of pain or distress: the dog not running Sawyer, S.K.; Greenfield, D.L.; Germonpré, M.B.; Sablin,
away after the yelp occurs reveals the ruse. M.V.; López-Giráldez, F.; Domingo-Roura, X.; Napier-
ala, H.; Uerpmann, H-P.; Loponte, D.M.; Acosta, A.A.;
Giemsch, L.; Schmitz, R.W.; Worthington, B.; Buik-
stra, J.E.; Druzhkova, A.S.; Graphodatsky, A.S.; Ovodov,
2.9.6 See also
N.D.; Wahlberg, N.; Freedman, A.H.; Schweizer, R.M.;
Koepfli, K.-P.; Leonard, J.A.; Meyer, M.; Krause, J.;
• Talking animal Pääbo, S.; Green, R.E.; Wayne, Robert K. (15 Novem-
ber 2013). “Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of
Ancient Canids Suggest a European Origin of Domes-
2.9.7 Bibliography tic Dogs”. Science (AAAS) 342 (6160): 871–874.
doi:10.1126/science.1243650. Retrieved 24 December
• Consciousness Explained by Daniel C. Dennett, 2014.
1992, ISBN 978-0-316-18066-5
[10]
• DOGS: A Startling New Understanding... by Ray-
[11] “Wolf Country, the pack, body postures and social struc-
mond and Lorna Coppinger, 2002, ISBN 978-0- ture”. Wolfcountry.net. Retrieved 2013-12-07.
684-85530-1
[12]“Asymmetric tail-wagging responses by dogs to different
• Dog Language by Roger Abrantes, 3rd Ed. 2001, emotive stimuli”, Current Biology, 17(6), 20 March 2007,
ISBN 978-0-9660484-0-7 pp R199-R201
2.10. COPROPHAGIA 87

[13] Derr, Mark.“Dogs' Vocalizations Aren't All Bark”. New 2.10.2 Other animals
York Times News Service. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
Invertebrates

2.9.9 External links


• Virtual Pet Behaviorist article on Canine Body Lan-
guage (ASPCA)

• Virtual Pet Behaviorist article on barking (ASPCA)

• Virtual Pet Behaviorist article on howling (ASPCA)

• International Association of Canine Professionals


(IACP)
Two common blue butterflies lap at a small lump of feces lying
on a rock.
2.10 Coprophagia
Not to be confused with Coprographia.
Coprophagia /kɒp.rə.ˈfeɪ.dʒi.ə/* [1] or coprophagy

A female fly feeding on feces

Coprophagous insects consume and redigest the feces of


large animals. These feces contain substantial amounts
A female Oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala) feeds on of semi-digested food (herbivores' digestive systems are
animal feces. especially inefficient). A notable feces-eating insect is the
dung-beetle and possibly the most common is the fly.
/kəˈprɒfədʒiː/ is the consumption of feces. The word
is derived from the Greek κόπρος copros, “feces”and Termites eat one another's feces as a means of obtain-
φαγεῖν phagein, “to eat”. Coprophagy refers to many ing their hindgut protists. Termites and protists have a
kinds of feces eating including eating feces of other symbiotic relationship (e.g. with the protozoan that al-
species (heterospecifics), of other individuals (alloco- lows the termites to digest the cellulose in their diet via the
prophagy), or its own (autocoprophagy), those once de- protists. For example, in one group of termites, there is a
posited or taken directly from the anus.* [2] three-way symbiotic relationship - termites of the family
Rhinotermitidae, cellulolytic protists of the genus Pseu-
In humans, coprophagia has been observed in individu- dotrichonympha in the guts of these termites, and intra-
als with mental illness. Some animal species eat feces as cellular bacterial symbionts of the protists.* [6]
a normal behavior; other species may not normally con-
sume feces but do so under very unusual conditions.
Vertebrates

2.10.1 Humans Domesticated and wild mammals are known to consume


feces. In the wild they either bury or eat waste to pro-
Coprophagia has been observed in individuals with tect their trail from predators. Mother cats are known to
schizophrenia,* [3] depression,* [4] and pica.* [5] eat the feces of their newborn kittens during the earliest
Consuming feces carries the risk of contracting diseases phase after birth, presumably to eliminate cues to poten-
and bacteria spread such as E. coli, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis tial predators and to keep the den clean.
E, pneumonia, polio, and influenza. Coprophagia also Rabbits reingest their own droppings (rather than chewing
carries a risk of contracting intestinal parasites. the cud as do cows and many other herbivores) to digest
88 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

their food and extract sufficient nutrients. Chewed plant remedy for bacterial dysentery; its efficacy (probably at-
material collects in a chamber between the large and small tributable to the antibiotic subtilisin from Bacillus subtilis)
intestine containing large quantities of symbiotic bacteria was anecdotally confirmed by German soldiers in Africa
that help with the digestion of cellulose and also produce during World War II”.* [12]
certain B vitamins. After being excreted, they are eaten Centuries ago, physicians tasted their patients' feces, to
whole by the rabbit and redigested in a special part of the better judge their state and condition.* [13]
stomach. The pellets remain intact for up to six hours
in the stomach; the bacteria within continue to digest the
plant carbohydrates. This double-digestion process en- 2.10.5 Society and culture
ables rabbits to use nutrients that they may have missed
during the first passage through the gut, as well as the Coprophagia is depicted in pornography, usually under
nutrients formed by the microbial activity and thus en- the term scat (from scatology).* [14]
sures that maximum nutrition is derived from the food
they eat.* [7] This process serves the same purpose within The 120 Days of Sodom, a novel by the Marquis de Sade
the rabbit as rumination does in cattle and sheep.* [8] written in 1785, is replete with detailed descriptions of
erotic sadomasochistic coprophagia.* [15] Thomas Pyn-
Cattle in the United States are often fed chicken lit- chon's award winning 1973 novel Gravity's Rainbow con-
ter. There are concerns that the practice of feeding tains a detailed scene of coprophagia.* [16] François Ra-
chicken litter to cattle could lead to bovine spongiform en- belais, in his classic Gargantua and Pantagruel, often em-
cephalopathy (mad-cow disease) because of the crushed ploys the expression mâche-merde or mâchemerde, mean-
bone meal in chicken feed. The U.S. Food and Drug ing shit-chewer. It is in turn a citation of the Greek come-
Administration regulates this practice by attempting to dians Aristophanes and particularly Menander, which of-
prevent the introduction of any part of a cow's brain or ten use the term skatophagos (σκατοϕάγος).* [17] In one
spinal cord into livestock feed.* [9] Other countries, like dialogue, Rabelais speaks of coprophagia as a Christian
Canada, have banned chicken litter for use as a livestock gesture, saying that monks swallow the shit of the world,
feed. that is the sins, and for this they are ostracized by soci-
The young of elephants, giant pandas, koalas, and hippos ety.* [18]
eat the feces of their mothers or other animals in the
herd to obtain the bacteria required to properly digest
vegetation found on their ecosystems.* [10] When they are
2.10.6 See also
born, their intestines do not contain these bacteria, they • Fecal-oral route, a route of disease transmission
are sterile. Without them, they would be unable to obtain
any nutritional value from plants. • Fecal bacteriotherapy
Hamsters, guinea pigs, chinchillas and naked mole-rat eat • Coprophilous fungi
their own droppings, which are thought to be a source of
vitamins B and K, produced by gut bacteria. Gorillas and • Scatophagidae
chimpanzees eat their own feces and the feces of other
gorillas and chimpanzees. This may serve to improve ab-
sorption of vitamins or of nutritive elements made avail-
2.10.7 References
*
able from the re-ingestion of seeds. [11] [1] Coprophagia. (2012). Dictionary.com September 2,
Pigs sometimes eat the feces of herbivores that leave a sig- 2012, from link
nificant amount of semi-digested matter, including their [2] Hirakawa, H (2001). “Coprophagy in leporids and other
own. In some cultures, it was common for poor families mammalian herbivores”. Mammal Review 31 (1): 61–80.
to collect horse feces to feed their pigs, which contributes doi:10.1046/j.1365-2907.2001.00079.x.
to the risk of parasite infection.
[3] Harada KI, Yamamoto K, Saito T. (2006). “Effective
treatment of coprophagia in a patient with schizophrenia
with the novel atypical antipsychotic drug perospirone”
2.10.3 Plants . Pharmacopsychiatry 39 (3): 113. doi:10.1055/s-2006-
941487. PMID 16721701.
Some carnivorous plants, such as pitcher plants of the
genus Nepenthes, obtain nourishment from the feces of [4] Wise, T.N., and R.L. Goldberg (1995). “Escalation
commensal animals. of a fetish: coprophagia in a nonpsychotic adult of nor-
mal intelligence”. J Sex Marital Ther 21 (4): 272–5.
doi:10.1080/00926239508414647. PMID 8789509.
2.10.4 History [5] Rose, E.A., Porcerelli, J.H., & Neale, A.V. (2000).“Pica:
Common but commonly missed”. The Journal of the
Lewin reported that "... consumption of fresh, warm American Board of Family Practice 13 (5): 353–358.
camel feces has been recommended by Bedouins as a PMID 11001006.
2.11. CRATE TRAINING 89

[6] Noda, S., Kitade, O., Inoue, T., Kawai, M., Kanuka, M., it is introduced properly. The initial stress from being
Hiroshima, K., Hongoh, Y., Constantino, R., Uys, V., confined can give way to“increased feelings of security,
Zhong, J., Kudo, T. and Ohkuma, M. (2007). “Cospeci- safety, and comfort”after repeated exposure to the crate.
ation in the triplex symbiosis of termite gut protists (Pseu- Long term or excessive crate confinement “may lead to
dotrichonympha spp.), their hosts, and their bacterial en- emotional and behavioral deterioration over time.”* [1]
dosymbionts.”. Molecular Ecology 16 (6): 1257–1266.

[7]“rabbit”. Encyclopædia Britannica (Standard ed.).


Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007.

[8] The Private Life of the Rabbit, R. M. Lockley, 1964.


Chapter 10.

[9] FDA Urged to Ban Feeding Chicken Litter to Cattle,


2009-11-02, L.A. Times

[10] “BBC Nature ̶Dung eater videos, news and facts”.


Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-11-27.

[11] “Nutritional Aspects of the Diet of Wild Gorillas”. Re-


trieved 2013-06-29.

[12] Lewin, Ralph A. (2001). “More on merde”. Per-


spectives in Biology and Medicine 44 (4): 594–607.
doi:10.1353/pbm.2001.0067. PMID 11600805.

[13] notes to The Works of Francis Rabelais, Volume II, Volume


2, p. 56
A dog in a wire crate strapped into a car for safe traveling.
[14] Holmes, Ronald M. Sex Crimes: Patterns and Behavior.
Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. p. 244. ISBN 0-
7619-2417-5. OCLC 47893709.
2.11.1 Rationale
[15] le Marquis de Sade (1785) Les 120 journées de Sodome,
ou L'École du Libertinage Proponents of crate training argue that dogs are den ani-
mals and that the crate acts as a substitute for a den. While
[16] Thomas Pynchon (1973) Gravity's Rainbow, Part 2, this is a widely held belief, there is little evidence to sup-
episode 4.
port it.* [1] Borchelt (1984) states:* [1]
[17] Rabelais, Book 1, ch. 40 and Book 3 chap. 25
The average dog book refers to dogs as “den
[18] Rabelais, Book 1, ch. 40 quote: “ilz mangent la merde
dwelling”animals and presumes that confining
du monde, c'est à dire, les pechez”
imparts a feeling of security to a puppy. Dogs,
in fact, are not den dwelling animals, although
2.10.8 External links in a variety of canids the dam will construct
a nest (often underground) for the pups. The
• King County, Washington, Animal Control Section. nest is a defense against predators and protec-
“Eating His Own or Other Animal Feces.” tion against inclement weather. The pups use it
as a“home base”from which they explore, in-
• Coprophagia in Dogs (ASPCA's Virtual Pet Behav- vestigate and play. There is no door on the den
iorist) which encloses the pups for many hours.* [2]
• Why Does My Dog Eat Feces? - Theresa A. Fuess,
Ph.D, College of Vet Medicine Nevertheless, once a dog gets used to a crate, they can
see it as a place of comfort and safety.* [1] The Humane
Society recommends crate training to create a place of
security and comfort for a dog, while cautioning that it is
2.11 Crate training not the best solution to animal behavior problems.* [3]

Crate training is the process of teaching a pet to accept


a dog crate or cage as a familiar and safe location. Advo- 2.11.2 Crate selection
cates claim that dogs are den-dwelling animals and that a
crate can become a den substitute. While this is a widely It is important to pick a crate that is the correct size for the
held belief, there is little evidence to support it. Regard- pet and is appropriate for its purpose. Often larger crates
less, most puppies can learn to tolerate crate training if come with some sort of divider so that a crate can grow
90 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

with the pet. The correct size for a crate is just enough to dirty the place where they sleep, so they will try as
room for the animal to stand up without hitting their head, much as possible to hold it while they are in their crate.
lay down and stretch out their paws and to turn around Of course, young puppies can not control their bladders
unimpeded. for long: about one hour for every month of age.* [9]
A crate for use at home can be larger than one used Owners of young dogs will have to continue to take the
for travel. Crates used for international transport puppy outside frequently.
should adhere to international regulations stipulated by Locking the dog in a crate and letting it whine, bark and
IATA.* [4]* [5] If the crate is too big the pet will be able attempt to escape is common but such attempts to in-
to use one end for rest and sleep while using the other as troduce crate training may cause a negative association
a toilet, it will undermine one of the purposes of crate with crating.* [1] The dog should become slowly accus-
training.* [6]* [7] tomed to the crate. This can involve making a crate an
A dogs natural instincts are to eliminate away from the inviting place by placing small familiar toys inside, mov-
area in which they eat and sleep. So if a crate is small ing the pet bed into crate, leaving unwashed items of the
enough that they cannot possibly defecate while having owner's clothing inside, rewarding pets for entering the
enough room to sleep well away from it, a dog will 'hold crate and remaining inside, incorporating the crate as part
it' as long as they possibly can. It's this instinct we take of play, feeding the pet in the crate, allowing the pet to
advantage of when using a crate as an aid for house train- explore and use the crate until it is no longer intimidat-
ing. ing, and eventually building to the pet sleeping in the crate
overnight.
During air travel, an oversized cage does not permit
the pet to use the sides easily as a brace during turbu- Part of proper crate or cage training requires the pet
lence.* [8] Likewise, crates that are too small pose a health owner to observe calm and relaxed behaviour around the
crate. The pet will attribute any emotional responses such
risk by restricting and preventing proper air-flow and ven-
tilation. This is of particular concern to domestic pets as raised voices or other nervous behaviours to the for-
eign object in their normal environment. It is important
of a brachycephalic (short-headed) breed where the re-
quirement is to allow extra room due to the high inci- for the owner not to create any negative associations with
the cage in order for the pet to accept the crate in a calm
dence of death in these pets during transport. Due to their
shortened airways and limited ability to cool themselves manner.
through panting, overheating while traveling poses a risk
to the health of such breeds.
2.11.4 Adverse effects

Without proper conditioning, dogs may vocalize their dis-


tress and make efforts to escape the crates. Crating sup-
presses the dog's behavior, removes the dog's freedom of
movement and is a negative punishment (removal of re-
ward) under operant conditioning. Dogs who do not re-
act well to negative punishment may find crating highly
stressful. Long term or excessive crate confinement“may
lead to emotional and behavioral deterioration over time.”
To the extent that crating reduces the amount of expo-
sure to different environmental and social situations, it
can make dogs more reactive (fearful or aggressive) or
intolerant of novel situations. Crating“may significantly
exacerbate the distress and emotional reactivity associ-
ated with separation distress”. Behavioral problems that
compels owners to crate train in the first place, may be
exacerbated by the negative effects of crating.* [1]
A dog may form a strong attachment to the crate eventu-
ally, feeling comfort and safety, after the initial feeling of
A dog in a soft crate. distress and vulnerability. This behavioral effect has been
compared to Stockholm syndrome. Dogs that are trained
to sleep in a crate, when allowed to sleep in a bedroom,
can show signs consistent with that of separation distress,
2.11.3 Training suggesting that dogs may love their crate “perhaps in
some cases more than they love the owner.”This bond
Crate training is often practiced with new puppies as a with the crate may interfere with the human-animal bond
method of house-training. Puppies naturally do not want and exacerbate bond-related behavior problems such as
2.12. CYBER-ENHANCED WORKING DOG 91

separation distress and owner-directed aggression.* [1] [8] http://www.dogfrt.co.nz/dog_cat_crate.htm


Steven Lindsay in Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior
[9] Spadafori, Gina (2001-02-25). “How long can a puppy
and Training states that while“the role of crate confine- “hold it”at night?". Petconnection.com. Retrieved 2011-
ment in the etiology of behavior problems has not been 11-03.
scientifically established [...] empirical impressions and
logic dictate that it probably plays an important role in the [10] “How to look after your dog (in Swedish)". Swedish
development or exacerbation of many adjustment prob- Board of Agriculture. 2012-09-24. Retrieved 2012-10-
lems.”* [1] He argues that “the widespread practice of 09.
routinely caging a dog at night and then again during the
day for periods totaling 16 to 18 hours (or more) is an ex- [11] “Regulations and advice relating to the keeping of dogs
tremely problematic practice that should not be condoned and cats (in Swedish)". Swedish Board of Agriculture.
or encouraged, because it probably underlies the devel- Retrieved 6 January 2014.
opment of many adjustment problems, including aggres-
sion.”* [1] The purpose of crate training, he says,“should [12] “Reasons for regulations on the keeping of dogs and cats
(in Swedish)". Swedish Board of Agriculture. Retrieved
be to get the dog out of the crate as soon as possible, and
6 January 2014.
to use the crate as little as possible in the service of train-
ing and space-management objectives.” [13] “The cage is not a place for a dog (in Finnish)". Finnish
Kennel Club. Retrieved 6 January 2014.

2.11.5 Legislation
In Sweden, regulations forbid keeping dogs in cages or 2.12 Cyber-Enhanced Working
other enclosures below a certain size. Exceptions are
made for some situations, such as during travels or at
Dog
dog shows/trials. Even then, the dogs have to be walked
every two hours or three hours. The size required for The Cyber-Enhanced Working Dog (CEWD) is a four-
an enclosure to be exempt from such regulations starts pound dog harness that is wrapped around a work force
at 2m² (21.5 ft², about the area of a single/twin mat- dog, such as a search and rescue dog. In its current sta-
tress.) for a small dog and up to 5.5m² (60 ft²) for tus, the apparatus is a prototype developed by computer
a large dog.* [10]* [11]* [12] Similar regulations exist in tech researchers at North Carolina State University and it
Finland.* [13] provides nearly 100 ways* [1] to communicate with a dog
wearing one, through vibrations produced by the harness
and voice commands sent through speakers.
2.11.6 References The harness could help future dog search and rescues, it
[1] Lindsay, Steven R. (2005).“2: House Training, Destruc-
can detect for gas leaks and it is also equipped with mi-
tive Behavior, and Appetitive Problems: Part 5: Crate crophones and cameras to help assist in rescues; it has
training + 9: Cynopraxis: Theory, Philosophy, and Ethics: an eight hour battery life. The apparatus can also detect
Part 3: Ethics and Philosophy”. Handbook of Applied the dog's stress level, which is considered both an impor-
Dog Behavior and Training, 3 Procedures and Protocols. tant factor to establish how much to prolong a search and
John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-8138-0754-9. rescue, as well as something that can shorten the dogʼs
life. To work with a Cyber-Enhanced Working Dogs, it is
[2] Borchelt, P. L.; Voith, V. L. (1982).“Diagnosis and treat-
necessary for the dogs to be specifically trained.* [1]* [2]
ment of separation-related behavior problems in dogs”.
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal
practice 12 (4): 625–635. PMID 6984556.
2.12.1 References
[3]“Crate Training,”Human Society of Amer-
ica,http://www.humanesociety.org/animals/dogs/ [1] Hahn, Jason. “This High-tech Harness Lets Humans and
tips/crate_training.html Dogs Communicate with Each Other.”. Digital Trends.
Retrieved 10 November 2014.
[4] “Traveller's Pet Corner”. Iata.org. 2010-10-01. Re-
trieved 2011-11-03.
[2] Raphelson, Samantha (6 November 2014). “Weekly In-
[5] http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/cargo/live_animals/pets. novation: Harness Could Allow Dogs, Humans To Com-
htm municate”. NPR. Retrieved 15 November 2014.

[6] “Crate Training”. Thedogtrainingsecret.com. Retrieved


2011-11-03.
2.12.2 External links
[7] “Why use a dog crate”. labradortraininghq.com. Re-
trieved 2014-09-26. • Official press release
92 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

2.13 Defence Animal Centre Detection skills

The Defence Animal Centre (DAC) is a training cen- The dogs, often springer spaniels, Labradors and Bel-
tre, based in Melton Mowbray, east Leicestershire, that gian Shepherds are mainly trained as Detection dogs to
trains animals (mainly dogs) for all three armedforces. It detect drugs, bombs and ancillary parts. Substances the
is also home of the Royal Army Veterinary Corps. The dogs are trained to detect include TNT, Cordtex, C-4 and
DAC now comes under command of the Royal School of Semtex.* [3]
Military Engineering.
Supply of animals
2.13.1 History
It trains about 300 dogs a year, taking about four to six
months to train. Some dogs are donated by the general
The Army moved in in 1946. RAF Police dogs began
public with the rest often purchased from both national
to be trained at the Centre from 1994, after merging
and international vendors. The Services Veterinary Hos-
RAF and Army dog training in April 1991. The Army
pital looks after the health of all the dogs (Canine Train-
School of Equitation's indoor riding school was opened
ing Squadron) and horses (Equine Training Squadron) of
by Princess Anne on 28 February 2008.* [1]
the UK armed forces (mainly the British Army). The site
was used as a training ground for the London Olympics
2012 for cycling and equestrian events.* [4]
2.13.2 Function

Organisation requirements In Combat

In the field, some military (and police) dogs can be fitted


with special bullet-proof vests to protect them.* [5]

Army School of Farriery

At the Centre is a School of Farriery (training to repair


horseshoes), recognised by the Worshipful Company of
Farriers and Farriers Registered Council. International
farrier competitions are held at the Centre annually. 140
horses can be stabled at the Centre, with 260 out at grass
in 240 acres (0.97 km2 ) of grazing.* [6]

2.13.3 References
[1] “Calendar of the British Royals (February 2008)". Re-
trieved 15 April 2014.

[2]“Pollok Country Park”. Glasgow City Council. Retrieved


15 April 2014.

[3] “Bomb dogs”. Retrieved 15 April 2014.

[4] “Training camps of Leicester and Leicestershire”. Re-


trieved 15 April 2014.
British Army Horse (Household Cavalry) on duty in London.
[5] “Canine vests”. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
As well as British defence organisations, it prepares dogs
for the UK Immigration Service, HM Prison Service, HM [6] “England Farriery team has a new manager”. Retrieved
Revenue and Customs (former HM Customs and Excise), 15 April 2014.
other UK government agencies and overseas agencies in-
cluding Irish Revenue Customs Service. UK police dogs
are trained in-house at nine regional training centres, such 2.13.4 External links
as the Met's site at Keston and Scotland's centre at Pollok
Country Park.* [2] • Defence Animal Centre
2.14. DETECTION DOG 93

2.14 Detection dog A detection dog or sniffer dog is a dog that is trained
to and works at using its senses (almost always the sense
of smell) to detect substances such as explosives, illegal
drugs, wildlife scat, or blood. Hunting dogs that search
for game and search dogs that search for missing hu-
mans are generally not considered detection dogs. There
is some overlap, as in the case of cadaver dogs, trained
to search for human remains. Some police dogs that are
used in drug raids are trained not only to locate narcotics,
but also persons who may be hiding from the police, as
well as stashed currency. Some detector dogs can locate
contraband electronics, such as illicit mobile phones in
prisons.* [2]
In recent years, detection dogs have emerged as a valuable
research tool for wildlife biologists. In California, dogs
are trained to detect the quagga mussel on boats at public
Detection dog training in U.S. Navy military for drug detection boat ramps, as it is an invasive species. Sniffer dogs have
also been enlisted to find bumblebee nests. Other studies
have employed detection dogs for the purposes of finding
and collecting the feces of a diverse array of species, in-
cluding caribou,* [3] black-footed ferret, killer whale, and
Oregon spotted frog.

2.14.1 Functions

An explosive detection dog with a member of the British Royal


Engineers (France, 1944). Such dogs were used during World
War 2 to find German "Shoe Mines", which were made from
wood and otherwise difficult to detect* [1]
A detection dog searches a car for explosives at a checkpoint in
Washington DC

Detection dogs have been trained to search for many


things, both animate and inanimate, including:

• Endangered animal species (e.g., black-footed fer-


ret,;* [4]* [5] The Bumblebee Conservation Trust has
trained an English Springer Spaniel to detect bee
colonies)

• Invasive species (e.g., quagga mussel)

• Human remains

• Crime evidence
A US Army handler and his scout dog in Vietnam (1960's) • Fire accelerants (i.e., arson investigation)* [6]
94 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

smeared with coffee, pepper and Vicks Vapo-rub. A snif-


fer dog can detect blood even if it has been scrubbed off
surfaces. In one case, a sniffer dog sniffed a drop of blood
on a wall although an attempt had been made to scrub
it off. It was so small that it couldn't be seen without a
microscope.
In one study, sniffer dogs had a 97.5% correct posi-
tive indication rate on detecting bed bugs (Cimex lectu-
larius) and their eggs – with zero false positives – all
while accurately distinguishing them from carpenter ants,
cockroaches and termites. They could detect as few as
a single adult specimen or 5 viable eggs, and were also
able to discriminate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs
from dead bed bugs, cast skins, and feces, with a 95% cor-
rect positive indication rate, with only a 3% false positive
rate on bed bug feces.* [8]

2.14.2 Criticism

Fruit inspection line-up in Devonport, Tasmania. Passengers Their use has been criticized as allowing the police to
leave their luggage between the yellow lines and the dog searches conduct searches without cause, in a manner that is un-
the luggage by smelling for fruit (2008) regulated.* [9]* [10] They have been criticized as a form
of show-policing, motivated more by the state's desire to
be seen to be doing something than any serious attempt
• Currency to respond to the dangers of drug use.* [11]
• Drugs In 2001 the Australian state of New South Wales intro-
duced legislation to provide police with powers to use
• Explosives drug detection dogs without a warrant in public places
such as licensed venues, music festivals and public trans-
• Firearms port.* [12] Repealed in 2005, it was reviewed in 2006 by
• *
Mobile phones (as contraband in prisons) [7] the New South Wales Ombudsman, who handed down a
report highly critical of the use of dogs for drug detec-
• Mold tion. The report stated that prohibited drugs were found
in only 26% of searches following an indication by a drug
• Plants, animals, produce, and agricultural items sniffer dog. Of these, 84% were for small amounts of
(used by customs services) cannabis deemed for personal use. The report also found
that the legislation was ineffective at detecting persons
• Polycarbonate optical discs such as DVDs (e.g.,
in supply of prohibited drugs, with only 0.19% of indi-
bootleg recordings)
cations ultimately leading to a successful prosecution for
• Termites supply.* [13]* [14]

• Bed bugs

• Wildlife scat
Norway
• Cancerous tumors in humans

• Hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) emergencies in hu- During a 3-year period (from 2008)“probably more than
mans 1000 pupils in about 90 classrooms”had been subjected
to a drug dog coming into a classroom”where it was“vol-
One notable quality of detection dogs is that they are untary for pupils to be present with the drug dog, but those
able to discern individual scents even when the scents are who want to leave the classroom must answer some ques-
combined or masked by other odors. In one case at an tions to police”.* [15] An article in Tidsskrift for straf-
Australian prison, a detection dog foiled an attempt to ferett, Norway's journal of criminal law, claims that such
smuggle drugs that had been hidden in a woman's bra and searches breach Norwegian law.* [15]
2.14. DETECTION DOG 95

United States dogs by stating that the “reliability of the dogs has been
impressive provided they are properly trained.”* [19] Sci-
In 2011, the Chicago Tribune reviewed the traffic stop entists at the university reviewed studies on the dogs and
data from Chicago-area police departments, and found concluded that although expensive for operators, canine
that “false alerts”were strongly biased against Hispanic detection dogs were promising.
suspects.* [16] For example, in Naperville, Illinois, an
Bed bug detection is complicated by the fact that the in-
average of 47% of all positive detection dog alerts re-
sects can hide almost anywhere. Bed bug detection dogs
sulted in subsequent discovery of narcotic drugs or drug
solve this problem because they are small and agile, find-
paraphernalia. Looking specifically at Hispanic suspects,
ing bugs in places humans cannot such as wall voids,
however, only 8% of the dogs' positive alerts resulted in
crevices and furniture gaps.
similarly fruitful searches. The report concedes that some
– but not all – of this disparity can be attributed to“resid- With the increase in global travel and shared living ac-
ual odors”, which linger even after contraband is removed commodations, bed bugs have become more prevalent.
from the vehicle. But given that the dogs themselves har- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency held a bed
*
bor no racial bias, the Tribune concludes that the dogs' re- bug summit [20] in April 2009 to address the ongoing
sponse is influenced by the biases and behaviors of their problem of bed bugs and how to eradicate them. The
handlers. Further still, the report points to the fact that certification of bed bug detection dogs was discussed.
very few states have mandatory training, testing or certi-
fication standards.* [16] • NPR's All Things Considered Using Dogs to Sniff Out
In June 2012, three Nevada Highway Patrol officers filed Bed Bugs
suit against Nevada's Director of Public Safety, alleging
that he destroyed the police dog program by intentionally • Fox Philadelphia Bed Bug Dog and Bed Bug Control
training canines to be “trick ponies”– to falsely alert Experts discussing use of Bed Bug Dogs
based on cues from their handlers – so as to enable offi-
cers to conduct illegal searches of vehicles. The lawsuit
claims that in so doing, he and other top Highway Patrol 2.14.4 Wildlife scat detection
officers had violated the federal Racketeer Influenced and
Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act.* [17] Scat is abundant in the wild and contains valuable
data.* [21]* [22] Additionally, it represents a fairly non-
invasive method of study for many species where previ-
2.14.3 Bed bug detection dogs ously live-capture predominated. Compared with other
methods of scat collection, dogs are able to survey larger
*
Bed bug detection dogs are specially trained by handlers areas in less time, at decreased costs. [23] Detection
to identify the scent of bed bugs. dogs have also been used with success to locate killer
whale feces,* [24] northern spotted owl pellets,* [25] and
With the increased focus on green pest management and salamanders.* [26]
integrated pest management, bed bug detection dogs are
gaining popularity in North America. Dogs are a safer
alternative to pesticide use as a management strategy. If 2.14.5 See also
operators can find out exactly where bed bugs are located,
they can minimize the area that needs to be sprayed. Dogs • Canine cancer detection
smell in parts per trillion, something a human cannot do,
and detect bed bugs through all life cycle phases from eggs • Demining
to nymphs to adults.
Bed bug detection dogs are quickly becoming main- • Dogs in warfare
stream. In 2011 the National Pest Management Associa-
• Florida v. Harris
tion released their“Bed Bug Best Management Practices”
*
[18] which outline the minimum recommendations re- • Florida v. Jardines
garding not only treatment, but the certification and use
of bed bug detection canines. The NPMA Best Manage- • Hypo alert dog
ment Practices emphasize the importance of having a bed
bug detection dog team certified by a third party organi- • Lucky and Flo – The world's first optical disc-detecting
zation with no affiliation to the trainer or company that dogs.
sold the canine.
• Mine clearance agency
Bed bug detection dogs are a viable and scientifically-
proven alternative to traditional methods of pest detec- • Nosework
tion. A 2008 report by the University of Kentucky
Department of Entomology endorsed bed bug detection • Police dog
96 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

2.14.6 References [16] Hinkel, Dan; Mahr, Joe (6 January 2011).“Tribune anal-
ysis: Drug-sniffing dogs in traffic stops often wrong”.
[1] “THE BRITISH ARMY IN NORMANDY 1944”. Im- Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
perial War Museum. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
[17] Vogel, Ed (26 June 2012). “Officers file suit alleging
[2] Jenkins, Austin (22 July 2009). “KPLU: Dogs Used to wrongdoing in police dog training program”. Las Vegas
Sniff Out Cell Phones in NW Prisons”. Publicbroad- Review Journal. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
casting.net. Archived from the original on 19 September
[18] “NPMA Bed Bugs Best Management Practices website
2012. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
home page”. National Pest Management Association.
[3] Wasser, Samuel K; Keim, Jonah L; Taper, Mark L; Lele, 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
Subhash R (2011). “The influences of wolf predation, [19] Potter, Michael F; Romero, Alvero; Haynes, Kenneth F.
habitat loss, and human activity on caribou and moose in “BATTLING BED BUGS IN THE USA” (PDF). In-
the Alberta oil sands”. Frontiers in Ecology and the En- ternational Conference on Urban Pests. Retrieved 5 July
vironment 9 (10): 546–51. doi:10.1890/100071. 2014.
[4] Reindl-Thompson, Sara A.; Shivik, John A.; Whitelaw, [20] “EPA's National Bed Bug Summit – April 14–15, 2009”
Alice; Hurt, Aimee; Higgins, Kenneth F. (2006). “Ef- (PDF). Retrieved 11 November 2010.
ficacy of Scent Dogs in Detecting Black-Footed Ferrets
at a Reintroduction Site in South Dakota”. Wildlife [21] Wasser, S K; Risler, L; Wasser, L M (1986). “Use of
Society Bulletin 34 (5): 1435–9. doi:10.2193/0091- techniques to extract steroid hormones from primate fe-
7648(2006)34[1435:EOSDID]2.0.CO;2. JSTOR ces”. Primate Report 14: 194–195.
4134282.
[22] Wasser, S. K.; Monfort, S. L.; Wildt, D. E. (1991).
[5] King, Anthony (24 August 2013). “The nose knows”. “Rapid extraction of faecal steroids for measuring repro-
New Scientist. ductive cyclicity and early pregnancy in free-ranging yel-
low baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus)". Re-
[6] “CADA Home Page”. Canine Accelerant Detection production 92 (2): 415–23. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0920415.
Association (CADA). Retrieved 10 November 2013. PMID 1886098.

[7] Anderson, Jessica (10 July 2008). “Prisons enlist dogs [23] Wasser, Samuel K; Davenport, Barbara; Ramage, Eliz-
to keep out phones: Canines part of effort to keep contra- abeth R; Hunt, Kathleen E; Parker, Margaret; Clarke,
band out of state facilities”. Baltimore Sun. Christine; Stenhouse, Gordon (2004). “Scat detection
dogs in wildlife research and management: Application
[8] Tsutsui, Neil D.; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Sutherland, Andrew to grizzly and black bears in the Yellowhead Ecosystem,
M.; Tabuchi, Robin L.; Moore, Sara E.; Lewis, Vernard Alberta, Canada”. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82 (3):
R. (2013). “Researchers combat resurgence of bed bug 475–92. doi:10.1139/z04-020.
in behavioral studies and monitor trials”. California Agri-
culture 67 (3): 172–8. doi:10.3733/ca.v067n03p172. [24] Ayres, Katherine L.; Booth, Rebecca K.; Hempel-
mann, Jennifer A.; Koski, Kari L.; Emmons, Can-
[9] Saville, Sebastian (9 July 2008). “Sniffer dog checks bite dice K.; Baird, Robin W.; Balcomb-Bartok, Kel-
into our civil liberties”. The Guardian. Retrieved 1 May ley; Hanson, M. Bradley; Ford, Michael J.; Wasser,
2010. Samuel K. (2012). “Distinguishing the Impacts of
Inadequate Prey and Vessel Traffic on an Endan-
[10] Marks, Amber (31 March 2008). “Smells suspicious”. gered Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Population”. PLoS
The Guardian. Retrieved 1 May 2010. ONE 7 (6): e36842. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...736842A.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036842. PMC 3368900.
[11] Race, K (2009). Pleasure Consuming Medicine: The queer PMID 22701560.
politics of drugs. Durham: Duke University Press.
[25] Wasser, Samuel K.; Hayward, Lisa S.; Hartman, Jen-
[12] “Police Powers (Drug Detection Dogs) Act 2001 No 115” nifer; Booth, Rebecca K.; Broms, Kristin; Berg,
. New South Wales. 14 December 2001. Retrieved 10 Jodi; Seely, Elizabeth; Lewis, Lyle; Smith, Heath
November 2013. (2012). “Using Detection Dogs to Conduct Simul-
taneous Surveys of Northern Spotted (Strix occiden-
[13] “Review of the Police Powers (Drug Detection Dogs)
talis caurina) and Barred Owls (Strix varia)". PLoS
Act 2001 No 115”. New South Wales Ombudsman. 14
ONE 7 (8): e42892. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...742892W.
September 2006. ISBN 1-921131-36-5.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042892. PMC 3419739.
[14] Dunn, Matthew; Degenhardt, Louisa (2009). “The use PMID 22916175.
of drug detection dogs in Sydney, Australia”. Drug and [26] “New Mexico Shelter Dogs Come to the Rescue for Rare
Alcohol Review 28 (6): 658–62. doi:10.1111/j.1465- Salamanders”. The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved 5 July
3362.2009.00065.x. PMID 19930020. 2014.
[15] Svarstad, Jørgen (19 November 2011). “Over 1000
osloelever narkosjekket”[Over 1000 Oslo students drug • Pentagon admits – Dogs are the best bomb detectors
checked]. Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Retrieved 11
September 2012. Media related to Detection dogs at Wikimedia Commons
2.15. DOG AGGRESSION 97

2.15 Dog aggression level of aggression that their breed standard suggests.
As well as breeding, a dog's experiences may affect his
chance of developing dog aggression. A dog that is at-
tacked as a puppy may develop fear-based dog aggression
towards all dogs, or perhaps only towards dogs that re-
semble the dog that attacked him. Although people tend
to bring these reactions out of dogs more often than dogs
themselves, dogs only pay attention to what their owners
allow.
Dogs that display dog-aggressive behaviour do not nec-
essarily show aggressive behaviour towards humans. The
two types of aggression are not necessarily related, and
do not always occur in the same animal.

2.15.1 Factors contributing to aggression


Factors contributing to the likelihood of the development
of dog aggression include:* [1]* [2]
Dog aggression as shown by Charles Darwin in his The Expres-
sion of the Emotions in Man and Animals.
• Anxiety, fear or phobia
Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and
breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. • Lack of structure

Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists • Lack of proper exposure to other dogs during the
as“the intent to do harm”. Many dogs show“displays critical socialization period
of aggression”such as barking, growling, or snapping in
the air, which are considered distance-increasing actions, • Early imprinting by an aggressive or nervous dam
those that intend to get the person or dog to move away
• A traumatic experience
from the dog. Some dog-aggressive dogs display aggres-
sion that is mainly defensive, and they harm another dog • Territorial behavior
only if they perceive that they have no option. Yet, other
dogs may develop dog-aggressive behaviour due to med- • Thyroid malfunction or other medical conditions
ical reasons, such as hormonal imbalances.
• Abuse from owners

• Medical or physical ailments

• Breeding and genetic predisposition

• Taken from mother too soon

• Lack of clear direction from owner

Dog aggression manifests at the age of adolescence to so-


cial maturity (6 months to 4 years). Warning signs such as
fear and/or nervousness around other dogs, displays of ag-
gression only under certain circumstances (while on leash,
in the presence of food, in the presence of the owner,
etc.), or most commonly, over-the-top play behavior can
Tosa (dog) be seen at any stage of the dog's development. Play be-
havior such as tackling, chasing, mouthing, nipping, paw-
Dog aggression is a common dog behavior, and can be ing, and wrestling are all normal canine behaviors that
seen in all breeds of dogs. The breed standard usually serve the evolutionary function of preparing the young
spells out whether dog aggression is common in the breed dog for later combat and hunting. Young dogs that en-
and to what degree it is allowed. Most of the terrier gage in excessive amounts of these behaviors are much
breeds and the bull breeds are believed to have a higher more likely to develop dog aggression as they age.
likelihood of developing dog-aggression upon reaching Dog-dog aggression should not be confused with dog-
maturity. Individual dogs may or may not display the human aggression (in the past, this was referred to as
98 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

“dominance”aggression when directed at the owner, but sociation to the stimulus than before. The final risk with
is now simply called owner-directed aggression). punishment in treating aggression is that it runs the risk of
Many people commonly mistake fear and anxiety-related punishing the aggressive display, such as growling, bark-
aggression as “dominance aggression,”which is inac- ing, baring teeth, etc., which are all warnings. Punish-
curate. Dominance is rarely the cause of aggressive be- ment decreases behavior, but does not modify it, so the
haviors in dogs, with fear and anxiety being the greatest dog may stop exhibiting aggressive displays (designed to
cause of both dog- and human-directed aggression. increase distance between the dog and the stimulus) and
skip straight to aggressive actions, such as biting.
Lack of exercise is not a cause of aggressive behavior,
although exercise boosts serotonin levels, which offsets “Dominance”based approaches are highly controversial
stress hormones such as cortisol, and can complement a and more formal study is needed to validate these meth-
behavior modification program. However, it is a com- ods. Further, these approaches carry a greater risk of
mon misbelief that aggressive dogs are “not exercised behavioral fallout, such as the escalation of the aggres-
enough.”Many aggressive dogs are exercised regularly. sive behavior and/or redirected aggression on the owner
or other family members.

Fading dog aggression 2.15.2 See also

The form that treatment for dog aggression takes depends • Dog behaviourist
on the underlying cause of the aggression, and an accurate • Game (dog)
assessment is therefore essential. Most reputable train-
ers recommend that a dog has a vet screen for medical
changes that may cause aggression before attempting any 2.15.3 References
form of behavioural modification.
[1] “Dog Aggression”. The Humane Society of the United
Dogs that are aggressive from fear can be that way either
States. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
from genetic predisposition (“weak nerves”), or from
a traumatic experience. With these dogs, a programme [2] “Aggressive Dog Training”. Help With Problem Dogs.
of gradual desensitisation (DS) and counter-conditioning K-9 Basics Dog Training. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
(CC) is often used to reduce the dog's reactivity to the
stimulus that triggers the aggression. This can be accom-
plished through management (minimizing the dog's expo- 2.15.4 External links
sure to situations where he can practice the behavior while
• American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior
working on the training program) food rewards, toy/play
rewards and praise as a reward. Ignoring aggressive be- • American College of Veterinary Behaviorists
haviors is not standard or sound advice when implement-
ing a DS/CC program. • Article from ASPCA Virtual Pet Behaviorist on ag-
gression in dogs
Behavior Adjustment Training (BAT) is a newly publi-
cized treatment option that uses functional analysis and • Article from ASPCA Virtual Pet Behaviorist on
systematic desensitization. With BAT, the dog's original working with dogs who are aggressive while on leash
function of increasing (or decreasing) distance is used as a
reinforcement for alternate behavior (head turns, ground
sniffing, body turns, etc.). This is done by creating set-up 2.16 Dog behavior
situations in which the dog is able to offer alternate be-
havior, and allowing/encouraging the dog to walk away.
Dog behavior is the range of actions and mannerisms
With repetition, the dog learns to turn her head, sniff the
made by the domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris, in con-
ground, etc. as a way to increase distance without aggres-
junction with themselves or their environment, which in-
sion, and gradually becomes comfortable with the former
cludes other organisms as well as the inanimate physical
trigger.
environment. It is the response of dogs to various stimuli
Punishing aggressive behaviors through the use of leash or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or sub-
“corrections”or leash “pops”and/or the use of train- conscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.
ing collars such as choke, prong or shock, is not recom-
mended in cases of fear-based aggression, as these mea-
sures run a high risk of increasing the dog's anxiety in 2.16.1 Evolution/Domestication/Co-
those situations. Further, it is difficult to control what the evolution with humans
dog associates the punishment to, as it is often what the
dog is looking at the moment it is corrected, so sloppy Main article: Origin of the domestic dog
application of punishment can create a more negative as-
2.16. DOG BEHAVIOR 99

humans.* [9]* [10] As a result of this physical and social


evolution, dogs, more than any other species, have ac-
quired the ability to understand and communicate with
humans. A resurgence of research in canine cognition has
revealed the range (and variability) of skills such as fol-
lowing pointing and gaze cues* [11]* [12]* [13] fast map-
ping of novel words* [14] and the conjecture that dogs
have emotions.* [15]
In a problem solving experiment dominant dogs generally
performed better than subordinate ones, but only when
they observed a human demonstratorʼs action. This sug-
gests that social rank affects performance in social learn-
ing situations and that in social groups with clear hier-
archy, dominant individuals will be the more influential
Dogs roughhousing.
demonstrators and the knowledge transfer will, therefore,
be unidirectional. If dog-human groups are regarded as
social units with some type of internal hierarchy, humans
The origin of the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris are usually considered as the leaders. In this scenario,
or Canis familiaris) is not clear. Nuclear DNA evidence the human will be the most influential demonstrator for
points to a single domestication 11,000-16,000 years ago the dominant dog. The subordinate dogs will learn better
*
that predates the rise of agriculture and implies that the from the dominant dog that is next in the hierarchy. [16]
earliest dogs arose along with hunter-gatherers and not
agriculturists.* [1] Mitochondrial DNA evidence points
to a domestication 18,800-32,100 years ago and that all 2.16.3 Senses
modern dogs are most closely related to ancient wolf fos-
sils that have been found in Europe,* [2]* [3] compared Further information: Dog § senses
to earlier hypotheses which proposed origins in Eurasia
as well as Eastern Asia.* [4]* [5]* [6] The 2 recent ge-
netic analyses indicate that the dog is not a descendant
of the extant (i.e. living) gray wolf but forms a sister Vision
clade, that the ancestor is an extinct wolf-like canid and
the dog's genetic closeness to modern wolves is due to
admixture.* [1]* [7]
How dogs became domesticated is not clear, however the
two main hypothesis are self-domestication or human do-
mestication.
There exists evidence of human-canine coevolution.

2.16.2 Cognition
Frequency sensitivity compared with humans.
Further information: Animal cognition
Like most mammals, dogs have only two
types of cone photoreceptor, making them
Cognition is the set of all mental abilities and processes dichromats.* [17]* [18]* [19]* [20] These cone cells
related to knowledge: attention, memory and working are maximally sensitive between 429 nm and 555 nm.
memory, judgement and evaluation, reasoning and Behavioural studies have shown that the dog's visual
"computation", problem solving and decision making, world consists of yellows, blues and grays,* [20] but they
comprehension and production of communication. Al- have difficulty differentiating red and green making
though dogs have been the subject of a great deal of their color vision equivalent to red–green color blindness
behaviorist psychology (e.g. Pavlov's dog), they do not in humans (deuteranopia). When a human perceives an
enter the world with a psychological “blank slate”. object as “red”, this object appears as “yellow”to
Rather, dog behavior is affected by genetic as well as en- the dog and the human perception of “green”appears
vironmental factors.* [8] as “white”, a shade of gray. This white region (the
As the oldest domesticated species, with estimates rang- neutral point) occurs around 480 nm, the part of the
ing from 9,000–30,000 years BCE, the minds of dogs in- spectrum which appears blue-green to humans. For
evitably have been shaped by millennia of contact with dogs, wavelengths longer than the neutral point cannot
100 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

be distinguished from each other and all appear as Play


yellow.* [20]
The dog's visual system has evolved to aid proficient hunt-
ing.* [17] While a dog's visual acuity is poor (that of a
poodle's has been estimated to translate to a Snellen rat-
ing of 20/75* [17]), their visual discrimination for moving
objects is very high; dogs have been shown to be able to
discriminate between humans (e.g., identifying their hu-
man guardian) at a range of between 800 and 900 me-
tres (2,600 and 3,000 ft), however this range decreases to
500–600 metres (1,600–2,000 ft) if the object is station-
ary.* [17]

Olfaction
Playtime
While the human brain is dominated by a large visual cor-
tex, the dog brain is dominated by an olfactory cortex. Dog-dog Play between dogs usually involves several
The olfactory bulb in dogs is roughly forty times bigger behaviours that are often seen in aggressive encounters,
than the olfactory bulb in humans, relative to total brain for example, nipping, biting, growling and biting. It is
size, with 125 to 220 million smell-sensitive receptors. therefore important for the dogs to place these behaviours
The bloodhound exceeds this standard with nearly 300 in the context of play, rather than aggression. Dogs signal
million receptors.* [8] their intent to play with a range of behaviours including a
“play-bow”,“face-paw” “open-mouthed play face”and
postures inviting the other dog to chase the initiator. Sim-
Hearing ilar signals are given throughout the play bout to maintain
the context of the potentially aggressive activities.* [24]
From a young age, dogs engage in play with one another.
Dog play is made up primarily of mock fights. It is be-
lieved that this behavior, which is most common in pup-
pies, is training for important behaviors later in life. Play
between puppies is not necessarily a 50:50 symmetry of
dominant and submissive roles between the individuals;
dogs who engage in greater rates of dominant behaviours
(e.g. chasing, forcing partners down) at later ages also
initiate play at higher rates. This could imply that win-
ning during play becomes more important as puppies ma-
ture.* [25]

Anatomy of the ear.


Dog-human The motivation for a dog to play with an-
The frequency range of dog hearing is approximately 40 other dog is distinct from that of a dog playing with a
Hz to 60,000 Hz,* [21] which means that dogs can de- human. Dogs walked together with opportunities to play
tect sounds far beyond the upper limit of the human audi- with one another, play with their owners with the same
tory spectrum.* [19]* [21]* [22] In addition, dogs have ear frequency as dogs being walked alone. Dogs in house-
mobility, which allows them to rapidly pinpoint the ex- holds with two or more dogs play more often with their
act location of a sound.* [23] Eighteen or more muscles owners than dogs in households with a single dog, indi-
can tilt, rotate, raise, or lower a dog's ear. The ears are cating the motivation to play with other dogs does not
often used in communication of, for example, the dog's substitute for the motivation to play with humans.* [26]
mood. A dog can identify a sound's location much faster It is a common misconception that winning and losing
than a human can, as well as hear sounds at four times the games such as “tug-of-war”and “rough-and-tumble”
distance.* [23] can can influence a dog's dominance relationship with hu-
mans. Rather, the way in which dogs play indicates their
temperament and relationship with their owner. Dogs
2.16.4 Social behavior that play rough-and-tumble are more amenable and show
lower separation anxiety than dogs which play other types
Further information: Dog communication of games, and dogs playing tug-of-war and “fetch”are
more confident. Dogs which start the majority of games
2.16. DOG BEHAVIOR 101

are less amenable and more likely to be aggressive.* [27] tus of the consistent winner is dominant and that of the
Playing with humans can affect the cortisol levels of dogs. loser subordinate.ʼʼ* [32] There is no reason to assume
In one study, the cortisol responses of police dogs and that a high-ranking individual in one group would also be-
border guard dogs was assessed after playing with their come high ranking if moved to another. Nor is there any
handlers. The cortisol concentrations of the police dogs good evidence thatʻʻdominanceʼʼis a lifelong character
increased, whereas the border guard dogs' hormone lev- trait. Competitive behavior was characterized by confi-
els decreased. The researchers noted that during the dent (e.g. growl, inhibited bite, stand over, mount, stare
play sessions, police officers were disciplining their dogs, at, chase, bark at) and submissive (e.g. crouch, avoid, dis-
placement lick/yawn, run away) patterns exchanged.* [33]
whereas the border guards were truly playing with them,
i.e this included bonding and affectionate behaviours. One test to ascertain which in a group was the dominant
They commented that several studies have shown that be- dog used the following criteria: When a stranger comes
haviours associated with control, authority or aggression to the house, which dog starts to bark first or if they start
increase cortisol, whereas play and affiliative behaviour to bark together, which dog barks more or longer? Which
decrease cortisol levels.* [28] dog licks more often the other dogʼs mouth? If the dogs
get food at the same time and at the same spot, which dog
starts to eat first or eats the other dogʼs food? If the dogs
Empathy start to fight, which dog wins usually?* [34]
In 2012, a study found that dogs oriented toward their Domestic dogs appear to pay little attention to relative
owner or a stranger more often when the person was size, despite the large weight differences between the
pretending to cry than when they were talking or hum- largest and smallest individuals; for example, size was not
ming. When the stranger pre-tended to cry, rather than a predictor of the outcome of encounters between dogs
approaching their usual source of comfort, their owner, meeting while being exercised by their owners nor was
dogs sniffed, nuzzled and licked the stranger instead. The size correlated with neutered male dogs.* [35] Therefore,
dogsʼ pattern of response was behaviorally consistent with many dogs do not appear to pay much attention to the ac-
an expression of empathic concern.* [29] tual fighting ability of their opponent, presumably allow-
ing differences in motivation (how much the dog values
the resource) and perceived motivation (what the behav-
Personalities ior of the other dog signifies about the likelihood that it
will escalate) to play a much greater role.* [33]
Several personality traits in dogs are recognised. These
include“Playfulness”,“Curiosity/Fearlessness,“Chase- Two dogs that are contesting possession of a highly valued
proneness”, “Sociability and Aggressiveness”and resource for the first time, if one is in a state of emotional
“Shyness–Boldness”.* [30]* [31] arousal, or if one is in pain, or if reactivity is influenced
by recent endocrine changes or motivational states such
as hunger, then the outcome of the interaction may be dif-
Leadership, dominance and social groups ferent than if none of these factors were present. Equally,
the threshold at which aggression is shown may be influ-
enced by a range of medical factors, or, in some cases,
precipitated entirely by pathological disorders. Hence,
the contextual and physiological factors present when 2
dogs first encounter each other may profoundly influence
the long-term nature of the relationship between those
dogs. The complexity of the factors involved in this type
of learning means that dogs may develop differentʻʻex-
pectationsʼʼabout the likely response of another indi-
vidual for each resource in a range of different situations.
Puppies learn early not to challenge an older dog and this
respect stays with them into adulthood. When adult an-
imals meet for the first time, they have no expectations
of the behavior of the other: they will both, therefore, be
Follow the leader
initially anxious and vigilant in this encounter (character-
Dominance is a descriptive term for the relationships be- ized by the tense body posture and sudden movements
tween pairs of individuals. Among ethologists, domi- typically seen when 2 dogs first meet), until they start to
nance is normally defined as ʻ ʻan attribute of the pat- be able to predict the responses of the other individual.
tern of repeated, agonistic interactions between two in- The outcome of these early adult–adult interactions will
dividuals, characterized by a consistent outcome in fa- be influenced by the specific factors present at the time of
vor of the same dyad member and a default yielding re- the initial encounters. As well as contextual and physio-
sponse of its opponent rather than escalation. The sta- logical factors, the previous experiences of each member
102 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

of the dyad of other dogs will also influence their behav- of humans, rather than their canine foster mother, though
ior.* [33] the wolf puppies were the exact opposite, spending more
time with their foster mother. The dogs also showed a
greater interest in the food given to them and paid lit-
Feral dogs tle attention to their surroundings, while the wolf puppies
found their surroundings to be much more intriguing than
In 2004, a study reviewed 5 other studies of feral dogs their food or food bowl. The wolf puppies were observed
published between 1975 and 1995 and concluded that taking part in agonistic play at a younger age, while the
their pack structure is very loose and rarely involves any dog puppies did not display dominant/submissive roles
cooperative behavior, either in raising young or in obtain- until they were much older. The wolf puppies were rarely
ing food.* [36] Feral dogs are primarily scavengers, with seen as being aggressive to each other or towards the
studies showing that unlike their wild cousins, they are other canines. On the other hand, the dog puppies were
poor ungulate hunters, having little impact on wildlife much more aggressive to each other and other canines,
populations where they are sympatric. However, feral often seen full-on attacking their foster mother or one an-
dogs have been reported to be effective hunters of rep- other.* [41]
tiles in the Galápagos Islands.* [37]* :267

2.16.8 Dogs in human society


2.16.5 Reproduction behavior
Further information: Human-canine bond
Further information: Canine reproduction § The repro-
ductive cycle and Canine reproduction § Copulation
Research has shown that there are individual differences
in the interactions between dogs and their human mas-
ters that have significant effects on dog behavior. In
2.16.6 Behavior problems 1997, a study showed that the type of relationship be-
tween dog and master, characterized as either compan-
A survey of 203 dog owners in Melboourne, Australia, ionship or working relationship, significantly affected the
found that the main behaviour problems reported by own- dog's performance on a cognitive problem-solving task.
ers were overexcitement (63%) and jumping up on people They speculate that companion dogs have a more depen-
(56%).* [38] dent relationship with their owners, and look to them to
solve problems. In contrast, working dogs are more inde-
pendent.* [42]
Separation anxiety

When dogs are separated from humans, usually the Dogs in the family
owner, they often display behaviours such as destructive-
ness, faecal or urinary elimination, hypersalivation or vo- Further information: Companion dog
calisation. Dogs from single-owner homes are approxi-
mately 2.5 times more likely to have separation anxiety
compared to dogs from multiple-owner homes. Futher-
more, sexually intact dogs are only one third as likely to Dogs at work
have separation anxiety as neutered dogs. The sex of dogs
Service dogs are those that are trained to help people
and whether their is another pet in the home do not have
with disabilities. Detection dogs are trained to using their
an affect on separation anxiety.* [39]
sense of smell to detect substances such as explosives, il-
legal drugs, wildlife scat, or blood. In science, dogs have
2.16.7 Comparison of behavior with other helped humans understand about the conditioned reflex.
canids
2.16.9 Attacks
After undergoing training to solve a simple manipulation
task, dogs that are faced with an insoluble version of the Main article: Dog attack
same problem look at the human, while socialized wolves In the UK between 2005 and 2013, there were 17 fatal
do not.* [40] dog attacks. In 2007-08 there were 4,611 hospital ad-
In 1982, a study to observe the differences between dogs missions due to dog attacks, which increased to 5,221 in
and wolves raised in similar conditions took place. The 2008-09. It has been estimated that more than 200,000
dog puppies preferred larger amounts of sleep at the be- people a year are bitten by dogs in England, with the an-
ginning of their lives, while the wolf puppies were much nual cost to the National Health Service of treating in-
more active. The dog puppies also preferred the company juries about £3 million.* [43] A report published in 2014
2.16. DOG BEHAVIOR 103

[2] Thalmann, O.; Shapiro, B.; Cui, P.; Schuenemann, V.J.;


Sawyer, S.K.; Greenfield, D.L.; Germonpré, M.B.; Sablin,
M.V.; López-Giráldez, F.; Domingo-Roura, X.; Napier-
ala, H.; Uerpmann, H-P.; Loponte, D.M.; Acosta, A.A.;
Giemsch, L.; Schmitz, R.W.; Worthington, B.; Buik-
stra, J.E.; Druzhkova, A.S.; Graphodatsky, A.S.; Ovodov,
N.D.; Wahlberg, N.; Freedman, A.H.; Schweizer, R.M.;
Koepfli, K.-P.; Leonard, J.A.; Meyer, M.; Krause, J.;
Pääbo, S.; Green, R.E.; Wayne, Robert K. (15 Novem-
ber 2013). “Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of
Ancient Canids Suggest a European Origin of Domes-
tic Dogs”. Science (AAAS) 342 (6160): 871–874.
doi:10.1126/science.1243650. Retrieved 24 December
2014.

[3] Wolpert, Stuart (November 14, 2013),“Dogs likely orig-


A dog's teeth can inflict serious injuries inated in Europe more than 18,000 years ago, UCLA bi-
ologists report”, UCLA News Room, retrieved December
10, 2014
stated there were 6,743 hospital admissions specifically
caused by dog bites, a 5.8% increase from the 6,372 ad- [4] Wang, Xiaoming. Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evo-
missions in the previous 12 months.* [44] lutionary History. Columbia University Press. pp. 233–
236.
In the US between 1979 and 1996, there were more than
300 human dog bite-related fatalities.* [45] It is estimated [5] Miklósi, Ãdám. Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition.
that two percent of the US population, 4.7 million people, Oxford. p. 167.
are bitten each year.* [46] In the US in 2013, there were
31 dog-bite related deaths. Each year, more than 4.5 mil- [6] Cossins, Dan (May 16, 2013),“Dogs and Human Evolv-
lion people in the US are bitten by dogs and almost 1 in ing Together”, The Scientist, retrieved January 12, 2014
5 require medical attention.* [47] [7] Viegas, Jennifer (January 16, 2014),“Dogs Not as Close
Kin to Wolves as Thought”, Discovery News, retrieved
December 10, 2014
2.16.10 See also
[8] Coren, Stanley (2004). How Dogs Think. First Free Press,
• Alpha roll Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2232-6.

• Dog communication [9] Shipman P (2011) The Animal Connection. A New Per-
spective on What Makes Us Human. New York: W.W.
• Dog intelligence Norton and Co

• Pack (canine) [10] Bradshaw J (2011) Dog Sense. How the New Science of
Dog Behavior Can Make You a Better Friend. New York:
• Pack hunter Basic Books
• Separation anxiety disorder (humans) [11] Hare B, Brown M, Williamson C, Tomasello M (2002)
The domestication of social cognition in dogs. Science
398: 1634–1636
2.16.11 References
[12] Hare B, Tomasello M (2005) Human-like social skills in
[1] Freedman, Adam H.; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M.; dogs? Trends Cogn Sci 9: 439–444
Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pe-
dro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Pe- [13] Teglas E, Gergely A, Kupan K, Miklosi A, Topal J (2012)
ter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Os- Dogs' gaze following is tuned to human communicative
car; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; signals. Current Biology 22: 209–212
Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam
[14] Kaminski J, Call J, Fischer J (2004) Word learning in a
R.; Parker, Heidi G.; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Va-
domestic dog: evidence for “fast mapping”. Science
sisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Harkins,
304: 1682–1683
Timothy T.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Ostrander, Elaine A.;
Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K.; Novembre, [15] Bekoff M (2007) The Emotional Lives of Animals. No-
John (16 January 2014). “Genome Sequencing High- vato: New World Publishers
lights Genes Under Selection and the Dynamic Early His-
tory of Dogs”. PLOS Genetics (PLOS Org) 10 (1): [16] Péter Pongrácz, Petra Bánhegyi and Ádám Miklósi (2012)
e1004016. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004016. PMC When rank counts̶dominant dogs learn better from a hu-
3894170. PMID 24453982. Retrieved December 8, man demonstrator in a two-action test ̶Behaviour 149
2014. (2012) 111–132
104 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

[17] Coren, Stanley (2004). How Dogs Think. First Free Press, [33] John W. S. Bradshaw, Emily J. Blackwell, Rachel A.
Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2232-6. Casey (2009) Dominance in domestic dogs - useful con-
struct or bad habit? Journal of Veterinary Behavior (2009)
[18] A&E Television Networks (1998). Big Dogs, Little Dogs: 4, 135-144
The companion volume to the A&E special presentation. A
Lookout Book. GT Publishing. ISBN 1-57719-353-9. [34] Pongrácz, P., Vida, V., Bánhegyi, P. & Miklósi, Á.
(2008). How does dominance rank status affect individual
[19] Alderton, David (1984). The Dog. Chartwell Books. and social learning performance in the dog (Canis famil-
ISBN 0-89009-786-0. iaris)?̶Anim. Cogn. 11: 75-82.
[20] Jennifer Davis (1998). “Dr. P's Dog Training: Vision in
[35] Bradshaw, J.W.S., Lea, A.M., 1993. Dyadic interactions
Dogs & People”. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
between domestic dogs during exercise. Anthrozoo¨s. 5,
[21] Elert, Glenn; Timothy Condon (2003). “Frequency 245-253
Range of Dog Hearing”. The Physics Factbook. Re-
trieved 22 October 2008. [36] van Kerkhove, W., 2004. A fresh look at the wolf-pack
theory of companion-animal dog social behavior. J. Appl.
[22] “How well do dogs and other animals hear”. Retrieved Anim. Welf. Sci. 7, 279-285
7 January 2008.
[37] Serpell, James (1995). “Origins of the dog: domestica-
[23] “Dog Sense of Hearing”. seefido.com. Retrieved 22 tion and early history”. The Domestic Dog. Cambridge:
October 2008. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 0-521-41529-2.

[24] Horowitz, A. (2009). “Attention to attention in domestic [38] Kobelt, A.J., Hemsworth, P.H., Barnett, J.L. and Cole-
dog Canis familiaris dyadic play.”. Animal Cognition 12: man, G.J. (2003). “A survey of dog ownership in sub-
107–118. urban Australia ̶conditions and behaviour problems.”
. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 82 (2): 137–148.
[25] Ward, C., Bauer, E.B. and Smuts, B.B. (2008).
doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(03)00062-5.
“Partner preferences and asymmetries in social play
among domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris, litter-
[39] Flannigan, G. and Dodman, N.H.A (2001).“Risk factors
mates”. Animal Behaviour 76 (4): 1187–1199.
and behaviors associated with separation anxiety in dogs”
doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.06.004.
. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
[26] Rooney, N.J., Bradshaw, J.W.S. and Robinson, I.H. 219 (4): 460–466. doi:10.2460/javma.2001.219.460.
(2000).“A comparison of dog–dog and dog–human play
behaviour.”. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 66 (3): [40] Miklósi, Adam; Kubinyi E; Topál J; Gácsi M; Virányi Z;
235–248. Csányi V. (29 April 2003).“A simple reason for a big dif-
ference: wolves do not look back at humans, but dogs do”
[27] Rooney, N.J. and Bradshaw, Jv.W.S. (2003). “Links . Current Biology;13(9) 13 (9): 763–6. PMID 12725735.
between play and dominance and attachment di-
mensions of dog-human relationships.”. Journal [41] Frank H; Frank MG (1982). “On the effects of
of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6 (2): 67–94. domestication on canine social development and be-
doi:10.1207/S15327604JAWS0602_01. havior”. Applied Animal Ethology 8 (6): 507–525.
doi:10.1016/0304-3762(82)90215-2.
[28] Horváth, Z., Dóka, A. and Miklósi A. (2008).“Affiliative
and disciplinary behavior of human handlers during play [42] Topál, J., Miklósi, Á. and Csányi, V. (1997). “Dog-
with their dog affects cortisol concentrations in opposite human relationship affects problem solving behavior in
directions.”. Hormones and Behavior 54 (1): 107–114. the dog.”. Anthrozoös 10: 214–224.

[29] Custance, D; Mayer, J (2012). “Empathic-like respond- [43] Prynne, M. “Dog attack laws and statistics”. The Tele-
ing by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) to distress in hu- graph. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
mans: an exploratory study”. Anim Cogn.: 851–9.
doi:10.1007/s10071-012-0510-1. [44] “Dog bite hospitalisations highest in deprived areas”.
NHS Choices. 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
[30] Svartberga, K. and Forkman, B. (2002). “Person-
ality traits in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)".
[45] Sacks, J.J. (2000). “Breeds of dogs involved in fatal hu-
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 79 (2): 133–155.
man attacks”. JAVMA 217 (6): 836–840. Retrieved April
doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00121-1.
14, 2015.
[31] Svartberg, K; Tapper, I; Temrin, H; Radesater, T; Thor-
man, S (February 2005). “Consistency of personality [46] Questions and Answers about Dog Bites
traits in dogs”. Animal Behaviour 69 (2): 283–291.
doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.04.011. [47] “Infographic: Dog bites by the numbers”. AVMA. 2014.
Retrieved April 14, 2015.
[32] Drews, C., 1993. The concept and definition of domi-
nance in animal behaviour. Behaviour. 125, 283-313 [48] Statistics about dog bites in the USA and elsewhere
2.17. DOG BEHAVIOURIST 105

2.16.12 External links and quantifiable behavioural events, in contrast with sub-
jective mental states. A dog practitioner using a be-
• havioural approach, regardless of title, typically works
one-on-one with a dog and its owner. This may be car-

ried out in the dog's home, the practitioner's office or the
• place where the dog is showing behavioural problems or
a variety of these locations for different sessions during
the treatment time. By observing the dog in his/her en-
2.17 Dog behaviourist vironment and skillfully interviewing the owner, the be-
haviourist creates a working hypothesis on what is moti-
vating, and thus sustaining, the behaviour. Office bound
A dog behaviourist is a person who works in modify- behaviourists may be disadvantaged when it comes to as-
ing or changing behavior in dogs. They can be experi- sessing behavioural modification, as the dog may act very
enced dog handlers, who have developed their experience differently in different locations and interviewing own-
over many years of hands-on experience, or have formal ers, no matter how thorough, may not provide enough
training up to degree level. Some have backgrounds in details. After establishing a motivating cause, the prac-
veterinary science, animal science, zoology, sociology, titioner will develop a step-wise, goal-based plan to alter
biology, or animal behavior, and have applied their ex- the behaviour in stages, continue their work with the pet
perience and knowledge to the interaction between hu- owner to guide and make changes in the plan as the goals
mans and dogs. Professional certification may be offered are met (or not) and conclude with a final write up of the
through either industry associations or local educational case and its outcome.
institutions. There is however no compulsion for behav-
iorists to be a member of a professional body nor to take The methods and tools of the behaviourist will depend
formal training. on several factors including the dog's temperament, the
behaviourist's personal philosophy on training, the be-
haviourist's experience, and the behavioural problems be-
2.17.1 Overview ing addressed. At one end of the spectrum, some be-
haviourists attempt to train dogs, refraining from the
While any person who works to modify a dog's behaviour use of aversive or coercive methods (and the tools as-
might be considered a dog behaviourist in the broadest sociated with them, such as choke, prong/pinch or elec-
sense of the term, an animal behaviourist, is a title given tric shock collars, kicking, hitting, poking, staring, shak-
only to individuals who have obtained graduate degrees ing, or rolling), choosing instead to rely on reward-based
in a related field and obtained post-graduate certifica- methods. Dog behaviourists and dog trainers with a
tion.* [1] The professional fields and course of study for knowledge of how to approach training in a behavioural
dog behaviorists include, but are not limited to animal sci- way usually do not offer guaranteed results.
ence, zoology, sociology, biology, psychology, ethology,
Other behaviourists believe that the use of verbal correc-
and veterinary science. People with these credentials usu-
tions, head collars, correction collars, or electric collars
ally refer to themselves as Applied Animal Behaviourists
are necessary or useful when treating particular dogs or
(PhD) or Veterinary Behaviorists (veterinary degree). If
particular behavioural problems. The general philosophy
they limit their practice to a particular species, they might
in use is to avoid methods that could cause confusion,
refer to themselves as a dog/cat/bird behaviorist.
fear, pain and anything other than mild stressors. Dog
While there are many dog trainers who work with be- trainers who use these techniques may or may not be util-
havioral issues, there are relatively few actual dog behav- ising a behavioural approach and may or may not have an
iorists. For the majority of the general public, the cost understanding of the science behind behaviour modifica-
of the services of a dog behaviorist usually reflects both tion. Dog behaviourists who lack professional credentials
the supply/demand inequity, as well as the level of train- are generally dog trainers who have developed their ex-
ing they have obtained, generally making their fees cost- pertise for working with problem dogs over many years of
prohibitive. Professional behaviorists can be identified by hands-on experience. They may or may not have studied
the post-nominals“CAAB”, indicating that they are Cer- behaviour formally in college or any dog training school.
tified Applied Animal Behaviorists, or “AVSAB Certi-
The differences between a dog behavioural problem and a
fied”, which represents the term, American Veterinary
dog training problem may be difficult for some dog own-
Society of Animal Behaviour Certified.
ers to understand, due to the lack of a formal definition.
At the same time, the dog training techniques utilised by
2.17.2 Discipline dog trainers and behaviourists may often compete when
considering which practitioner is better qualified to meet
Behaviourism is the theory or doctrine that human or an- the dog's or owner's needs. The disciplines of dog train-
imal psychology can be accurately studied only through ers who follow a behavioural approach, informed by the
the examination and analysis of objectively observable study of the science of behaviour modification, is often
106 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

juxtaposed against dog trainers who present themselves 2.18 Dog bite tug
as experts at solving behavioural problems. The discus-
sion and assessment, for some, may be more about ap-
propriate methods and tools, rather than use of the term
behaviourist. It is thought that dog trainers who study be-
haviour, tend to refrain from referring to themselves as
behaviourists, because they are aware that the title would
be inappropriate.

2.17.3 Professional associations


In order to assist dog owners and trainers understand and
utilise this behavioural training or become certified in
the practice, professional associations dedicated to the
development of behavioural dog training offer tools to
further their development. Different associations have
different standards, goals, and requirements for mem-
bership. Board-certified veterinary behaviourists are re-
quired to pass a credentialing application and exam to be
recognised as board-certified in the view of the American
Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). Behaviourists
may work and study towards formal accreditation with
one of the many colleges providing training. Some asso-
ciations might require accreditation to join, while others Malinois playing with dog bite tug made of French linen
may require a declaration of intent for continuing per-
sonal development. Accreditation, may also be offered
through local colleges and educational institutions.

2.17.4 See also


• B.F. Skinner

• Ivan Pavlov

• John Broadus Watson

• Dr. Tarek Sabrouty

Dog bite tug made of fire hose for puppy and adult dog training
2.17.5 References
A bite tug is an important drive and retrieve building
[1] “Behaviorism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". tool used in dog training. It is used for police, military
Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-18. and Schutzhund dog training.* [1] Bite tugs are perfect
for puppies but can be used for training adult dogs as
well.* [2] A bite tug is a good alternative to a solid rub-
2.17.6 External links ber ball. The latter one is hard on dog's teeth and in sit-
uation when a puppy is accidentally hit in the head with
• http://paact.co.uk a hard rubber ball he can lose drive. If the same dog is
hit by a tug he disregards the situation and keeps chasing
• http://iaabc.org
in drive. Bite pillows are larger tugs which are used for
• http://cfba.co.uk precision bite work training. Bite pillows are more safe
and increase accuracy in bite work.* [3]
• http://www.petfinder.com/dogs/dog-health/
veterinary-behaviorist
2.18.1 Materials
• http://whentostarttrainingapuppy.com/dogs/
dog-training/The Best Guide Review When Start Traditionally, bite tugs are made of leather, jute, fire hose,
Training A puppy synthetic fibers, etc.* [4] The harder the material a bite tug
2.19. DOG SURFING 107

is made of the more efforts a dog needs to exert. Durabil- ment can be with treats or the bite tug can be given to a
ity of a bite tug depends upon quality of materials used to dog for some time as a reward.
make it. Natural fabrics like leather and jute are safe and
non-toxic. Bite tugs made of the natural materials will
not endanger a dog's health and dog's teeth in particular. 2.18.4 Adult dog training
Bite tugs are heavy stuffed with safe materials. Still, it is
prohibited to leave a dog with a bite tug alone because a The smallest tug is suitable for the training of the kind.
dog can tear it apart and have serious health problems or Long tugs will not be effective as adult dogs can easily
even choke with the stuffing. grab them. Bite tugs with handles are easy to use. Tug
should be moved very fast so that a dog can not get at it.
Short quick movements make a dog move fast. Exercises
2.18.2 Size and design of this kind help to develop drive.

2.18.5 See also


• Dog training
• Obedience training
• Police dog

2.18.6 References
[1] Police dog equipment

[2] “Bite Training Puppies 8 Weeks and Older”. Leerburg.


Retrieved 7 December 2012.
Jute bite pad for dog training
[3] “Bite Tugs & Pillows”. ActiveDogs. Retrieved 20 March
There are various dimensions of dog bite tugs. They vary 2014.
in length and diameter. There are bite tugs with one, two,
three handles or with no handle at all. Usually, a dog [4] “Materials that are used in bite tug production”. For-
DogTrainers. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
trainer chooses a bite tug and its design himself relying
on his preferences. There are bite tugs with special bags
in which treats can be stored. 2.18.7 External links
• GSD bite training
2.18.3 Puppy training with a bite tug

2.19 Dog surfing

Leather bite tug for prey drive and retrieve skills building

Long bite tugs are used for puppies. The longer it is the
easier for a puppy to bite it. Two-month-old puppy can A dog surfing with a person in Maui, Hawaii
be already trained with a bite tug. Bite tugs suitable for
obedience training as well. It is always necessary to en- Dog surfing involves dogs that are trained to surf on
courage a dog for his efforts and attention. Encourage- surfboards, bodyboards, skimboards, windsurf boards
108 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

or to bodysurf. Historically, surfing dogs have been surfing together on one surfboard.* [16] In June 2012,
documented as occurring as early as the 1920s in the fifty dogs participated, and three Guinness World Records
United States. Competitions and exhibitions that fea- were broken, including a new record of eighteen for the
ture surfing dogs have occurred in various coastal ar- most dogs photographed on a surfboard.* [17]
eas of the United States,* [1]* [2]* [3] such as Del Mar, An annual dog surfing competition titled “Surf City
California,* [4] Imperial Beach, California and Jupiter, Surf Dog competition”is held in Huntington Beach, Cal-
Florida.* [2] ifornia.* [18] The first competition occurred in October
2009.* [19]
2.19.1 Overview In 2012, the Incredible Dog Challenge dog surfing com-
petition was held in San Diego, California.* [20]
Dog surfing involves dogs that are trained to surf on surf- In July 2013, the Big Dog Ranch Rescue in Wellington,
boards or bodyboards,* [5] either alone* [1]* [6] or with a Florida presented its first“Surfs Up, Dogs”competition
human on the board.* [7] Some dogs have been trained to as a fundraiser for the non-profit organization.* [21] The
ride a skimboard on the shore (after the board is initially competition was held in Jupiter, Florida.* [2]
skimmed by a human) and to windsurf with a human,* [8]
and bodysurfing dogs have also been documented in surf- Since 2012, the Noosa Festival of Surfing held each
ing media.* [5] Additionally, some dogs have been trained March in Noosa, Australia has played host to the Surf-
to ride on paddleboards with people.* [9] ing Dog Spectacular sponsored by local business Vet-
ShopAustralia.com.au. The Noosa Surfing Dog Spectac-
ular is an invitational event, where dogs and humans work
2.19.2 History together on stand up paddle boards (SUPs) with the prize
chosen by surfing legends such as Layne Beachley, and
Dog surfing has been documented as occurring in the given to the dog/person combination that catches the best
* *
1920s in California and Hawaii.* [10] In the 1930s, a wave. [22] [23] The winner of the 2015 event, was a dog
silent film titled On The Waves in Waikiki depicts Phillip called Hugsley, surfing with his owner Paul Jones and his
*
K. Auna and Night Hawk, his terrier, surfing together on daughter Opal. [24]
*
a wooden surfboard in Hawaii. [11] The terrier was able
to perform the hang ten surfing maneuver on the surf-
board.* [11] In 1944, a full page image of a surfing dog 2.19.4 See also
named “Rusty”was published in National Geographic
magazine.* [5] In the 1950s, UPI published a photograph • Index of surfing articles
of Joseph “Scooter Boy”Kaopuiki and his dog Sandy • List of dog sports
surfing in Hawaii, which was published in newspapers
throughout the United States.* [5] During this time, they • Skateboarding dog
were also reported about on the television show You Asked
For It!.* [5] Dave Chalmers and his surfing terrier mix
named Max, both from San Diego, California, were fea- 2.19.5 References
tured in several forms of media in the late 1970s through
the 1980s, including surf movies and a television appear- [1] Lloyd, Janice (January 25, 2010). "'Marmaduke' catches
ance on the show Amazing Animals.* [5] a wave with owners that surf with dogs”. USA Today.
Retrieved 28 July 2013.
A Labrador Retriever named Kam was documented in
Honolulu, Hawaii surfing partially lying down while si- [2] Sorentrue, Jennifer (July 6, 2013). “Dogs hang 10 at
multaneously drinking from a bottle of beer.* [5] Jupiter surfing competition”. The Palm Beach Post. Re-
trieved 28 July 2013. (subscription required)

[3] “Surfing season goes to the dogs”. Australian Broad-


2.19.3 Competitions casting Corporation. May 22, 2010. Retrieved 28 July
2013.
In dog surfing competitions, judging criteria may include
the dog's overall certainty on the board, wave size and ride [4] “Dogs learn to surf in Del Mar”. ABC Channel 10 News
length.* [12] (San Diego). June 29, 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.

The Loews Coronado Bay Resort Surf Dog Competition [5] Warshaw, Matt (2005). The Encyclopedia Of Surfing.
at Imperial Beach in California has been described as the Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 159. ISBN 0156032511
largest dog surfing competition in the United States.* [13]
[6] Goldish 2012, pp. 10–11.
The first competition was held in 2006.* [10] In 2011,
over fifty dogs participated,* [14] and the competition cat- [7] “New breed of surfer hits the waves as dog boardriding
egorized entries by small dogs, large dogs and tandem features at Noosa Festival of Surfing”. The Courier Mail.
dogs.* [15] Tandem surfing involves two or more dogs March 10, 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
2.20. DOG–CAT RELATIONSHIP 109

[8] Sundance, Kyra (October 1, 2010). 101 Ways to Do 2.19.7 Further reading
More with Your Dog! Quarry Books. pp. 69–70. ISBN
1610580702
• “1st Annual Dog Surfing Competition at Jupiter
[9] Rhodes-Delgado, Gabriella (July 16, 2013). “We knew Beach (gallery)". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved
she was barking! Leilani takes her dog surfing in a life- 28 July 2013.
jacket”. The Sun. Retrieved 29 July 2013.

[10] Goldish 2012, p. 8.


2.19.8 External links
[11] Goldish 2012, p. 9.

[12] Cole-MacMurray, Kirsten; Nishimoto, Stephanie (Jan- • Surf Dogs USA


uary 19, 2011). See Spot Run: 100 Ways to Work Out with
Your Dog. Quarry Books. p. 122. ISBN 1610580974

[13] (staff reporter) (July 2, 2008). “Some old sea dogs show 2.20 Dog–cat relationship
they're really cool canines by taking part in a surf compe-
tition for mutts”. Daily Mail. Retrieved 28 July 2013.

[14] Gillis, Carly (June 6, 2011). “Loews Coronado Bay Re-


sort Surf Dog Competition Supports DonorsChoose.org”
. Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 July 2013.

[15] “Dogs take to the waves for Californian surfing competi-


tion”. The Daily Telegraph. June 5, 2011. Retrieved 28
July 2013.

[16] Goldish 2012, p. 6.

[17] Harding, Jillian (June 18, 2012). “Loews Coronado Bay


Resort Surf Dog event saw spirited canine competition”. A dog and a cat face off. The cat is displaying defensive posture
PhillyBurbs.com. Retrieved 28 July 2013. typical of interactions between a cat and dog that have not been
socialized.
[18] Goldish 2012, p. 4.

[19] Barnett, Lindsay (October 13, 2009). “Your morning


adorable: Dogs compete for charity at Huntington Beach's
Surf City Surf Dog event”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved
28 July 2013.

[20] “King, a nine-year-old golden retriever rides a wave while


surfing in the Incredible Dog Challenge dog surfing com-
petition in San Diego”. Yahoo News. May 21, 2013.
Retrieved 28 July 2013.

[21] Randall, Mark (July 28, 2013). “Surfing dogs hang ten”
. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 28 July 2013.

[22] http://www.surfingdogspectacular.com. Missing or


empty |title= (help)

[23] http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/ A kitten and a dog that have been socialized and interact with
each other without aggression.
pets-become-surfing-stars-in-the-2015-surfing-dog-spectacular-20150304-13vanw.
html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
Dogs and cats have a range of interactions,* [1] with
[24] http://www.surfingdogspectacular.com. Missing or
empty |title= (help) natural instincts of each species leading towards antag-
onistic interactions; while individual animals can have
non-aggressive relationships with each other, particu-
2.19.6 Bibliography larly under conditions where humans have socialized non-
aggressive behaviors.
• Goldish, Meish (August 1, 2012). Surf Dog Mira- The generally aggressive interactions between the species
cles. Bearport Publishing. ISBN 1617726443 have been noted in cultural expressions.
110 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

2.20.1 Range of relationships 2.20.4 References

The signals and behaviors that cats and dogs use to com- [1] Mikkel Becker (6 May 2012). “Cats and dogs can live
together ̶with some help - today > pets - TODAY.com”
municate are different and can lead to signals of aggres-
. Today. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
sion, fear, dominance, friendship or territoriality being
misinterpreted by the other species.* [2] Dogs have a nat- [2] Coren, Stanley (2008-12-02).“17 Are Dogs and Cats In-
ural instinct to chase small prey that flee, an instinct com- competable (sic)". The Modern Dog: A Joyful Exploration
mon among cats.* [3] Most cats will flee from a dog, while of How We Live with Dogs Today. Simon and Schuster.
others will take actions such as hissing, arching their pp. 139–. ISBN 9781416593683. Retrieved 2 November
backs and swiping at the dog.* [3] After being scratched 2014.
by a cat, some dogs can become fearful of cats.* [4] [3] Hotchner, Tracie (2005-11-03). The Dog Bible: Every-
If appropriately socialized, cats and dogs may have re- thing Your Dog Wants You to Know. Penguin Group US.
lationships that are not antagonistic,* [4] and dogs raised pp. 792–. ISBN 9781440623080. Retrieved 23 June
with cats may prefer the presence of cats to other 2014.
dogs.* [5] Even cats and dogs that have gotten along to- [4] Johnson-Bennett, Pam (2007-11-27). Starting from
gether in the same household may revert to aggressive re- Scratch: How to Correct Behavior Problems in Your Adult
actions due to external stimuli, illness, or play that esca- Cat. Penguin. pp. 294–. ISBN 9781101201817. Re-
lates.* [6] trieved 3 November 2014.

[5] Houpt, Katherine A. (2011-01-25). Domestic Animal Be-


havior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists. John Wi-
2.20.2 Cultural impact ley & Sons. pp. 227–. ISBN 9780470958438. Retrieved
22 July 2014.
The phrase “fight like cats and dogs”reflects a natural [6] Society, Best Friends Animal (2010-10-19). Dog Tips
tendency for the relationship between the two species to From DogTown: A Relationship Manual for You and Your
be antagonistic.* [7] The phrase “to rain cats and dogs” Dog. National Geographic Society. pp. 67–. ISBN
comes from ancient beliefs that cats could make it rain 9781426206696. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
and dogs controlled the wind.* [8]* [9] Other phrases and
[7] Lang, J. Stephen (2004-11-08). 1,001 Things You Always
proverbs include “The cat is mighty dignified until the Wanted To Know About Cats. John Wiley & Sons. pp.
dog comes by”and “The cat and dog may kiss, but are 322–. ISBN 9780764573248. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
none the better friends”.* [10]
[8] Berger, Melvin; Berger, Gilda (1999). Can it rain cats
A Russian legend explains the antipathy between dogs and
and dogs?: questions and answers about weather. Scholas-
cats by stating that the devil has tricked the dog and cat tic Reference. ISBN 9780439146425. Retrieved 22 July
into thinking the other has its rightful fur.* [11] 2014.
Eugene Field's children's poem,“The Duel”, projects and
[9] Lee, Kaiman (2003-01-01). Cartoon-illustrated
amplifies the real life antipathy between cats and dogs on Metaphors: Idioms, Proverbs, Cliches, and Slang. En-
to a stuffed gingham dog and calico cat about whom the vironmental Design & Research Ctr. pp. 92–. ISBN
narrator has been told had an all-night fight during which 9780915250486. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
they“ate each other up.”* [12] In Fam Ekman's children's
book Katten's Shrekk (The Cat's Terror), a cat visits a mu- [10] Rogers, Katharine M. (2001-03-01). The Cat and the Hu-
seum to find that all of the artworks, like Mona Lisa and man Imagination: Feline Images from Bast to Garfield.
Venus de Milo, have been replaced by parodies featuring University of Michigan Press. pp. 143–. ISBN
9780472087501. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
dogs. The only piece not converted is The Scream which
“symbolizes the cat's terror in the face of so many dogs.” [11] Champfleury (1885). The Cat, Past and Present. G. Bell
*
[13] The American animated television series CatDog & sons. pp. 189–. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
featured the adventures of the protagonist, CatDog, a ge-
netically altered creature that had the head of a dog on [12] Bauer, Susan Wise (2008-08-01). Writing with Ease.
Peace Hill Press. pp. 160–. ISBN 9781933339290. Re-
one side of its body and the head of a cat on the other.
trieved 23 July 2014.
The episodes frequently played on “cats and dogs be-
ing what they are”to incorporate “a lot of running and [13] Keyser, Elizabeth Lennox; Pfeiffer, Julie (2001).
chasing”.* [14] Children's Literature. Yale University Press. pp. 186–.
ISBN 9780300088915. Retrieved 23 July 2014.

[14] Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle F. (2009-06-24). The Com-


2.20.3 See also plete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV
Shows, 1946-Present. Random House Publishing Group.
pp. 225–. ISBN 9780307483201. Retrieved 23 July
• Interspecies friendship 2014.
2.22. DOGS IN WARFARE 111

2.21 Dogs in the City


Dogs in the City is an American reality television series
that premiered on May 30, 2012, on CBS in the United
States.* [2] The series features New York City stand-up
comedian, personal trainer, and self-proclaimed “dog
guru”Justin Silver,* [3] who will help his clients solve
various issues they are having with their pets. The show
ended on July 11, 2012.

2.21.1 References
[1] Dogs in the City put on short leash with series ending
Wednesday with no bow wows | HULIQ

[2] “CBS Announces New Reality Series “Dogs in the


City,”Starring Justin Silver, New York City's Dog Guru
Who Solves Issues Between Dog Owners and Their Four-
Legged Friends, Premiering May 30”. The Futon Critic.
April 12, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2012.

[3] “25 Pet People of 2010”. Petside. 2010. Retrieved July


2, 2012.

2.21.2 External links


• Official website
A Malinois in the Israel Defense Forces

2.22 Dogs in warfare


Romans.* [1]* [2] The Molossus dog of the Molossia re-
“War dogs”redirects here. For other uses, see War Dogs.
gion of Epirus was the strongest known to the Romans,
Dogs in warfare have a long history starting in ancient
and was specifically trained for battle.* [3] Among the
Greeks and Romans, dogs served most often as sentries
or patrols, though they were sometimes taken into bat-
tle.* [4] The earliest use of war dogs in a battle recorded
in classical sources was by Alyattes of Lydia against the
Cimmerians around 600 BC. The Lydian dogs killed
some invaders and routed others.* [5]
Often war dogs would be sent into battle with large pro-
tective spiked metal collars and coats of mail armor.
During the Late Antiquity, Attila the Hun used giant
Molosser dogs in his campaigns.* [1] Gifts of war dog
breeding stock between European royalty were seen as
suitable tokens for exchange throughout the Middle Ages.
A United States Air Force Belgian Malinois atop an M2A3 Other civilizations used armored dogs to defend caravans
Bradley Fighting Vehicle in Iraq in 2007. or attack enemies. The Spanish conquistadors used ar-
mored dogs that had been trained to kill natives.* [6]
times. From 'war dogs' trained in combat to their use as In the Far East, Emperor Lê Lợi raised a pack of 100
scouts, sentries and trackers, their uses have been varied hounds, this pack was tended and trained by Nguyễn Xí
and some continue to exist in modern military usage. whose skills was impressive enough to promote him to the
Commander of a shock troop regiment.
2.22.1 History Later on, Frederick the Great used dogs as messengers
during the Seven Years' War with Russia. Napoleon also
War dogs were used by the Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, used dogs during his campaigns. Dogs were used up until
Sarmatians, Baganda, Alans, Slavs, Britons, and the 1770 to guard naval installations in France.
112 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

• 490 BC: At the Battle of Marathon, a dog follows his


hoplite master into battle against the Persians and is
memorialized in a mural.* [12]
• 480 BC: Xerxes I of Persia is accompanied by vast
packs of Indian hounds when he invades Greece.
They may have served in the military as well as be-
ing used for sport or hunting, but their purpose is
unrecorded.* [13]
• 281 BC: Lysimachus is slain during the Battle of
Corupedium and his body was discovered preserved
on the battlefield and guarded vigilantly by his faith-
ful dog.* [14]
• 231 BC: the Roman consul Marcus Pomponius
Matho, leading the Roman legions through the in-
land of Sardinia, where the inhabitants led guer-
rilla warfare against the invaders, used “dogs from
Italy”to hunt out the natives who tried to hide in the
caves.* [15]
• 120 BC: Bituito, king of the Arvernii, attacked a
small force of Romans led by the consul Fabius, us-
ing just the dogs he had in his army.* [16]
• 55 BC: Caesar's landing in Britain is opposed by
Celtic warriors and their dogs making the English
mastiff one of the oldest recorded breeds according
Dog of the Garrison of Sør-Varanger during a simulated arrest. to Caesar's description of them in his accounts.
• 1415: When Sir Piers Legh was wounded at the
The first official use of dogs for military purposes in the Battle of Agincourt, his mastiff stood over his mas-
United States was during the Seminole Wars.* [1] Hounds ter until the end of the battle and protected him for
were used in the American Civil War to protect, send many hours; they returned home to Lyme Hall in
messages, and guard prisoners* [7] Dogs were also used Cheshire where mastiffs were bred until the twenti-
as mascots in American World War I propaganda and re- eth century.
cruiting posters.
• 1500s: Mastiffs and other large breeds were used
extensively by Spanish conquistadors against native
2.22.2 Timeline Americans.* [17]
• 1914–1918: Dogs were used by international forces
Dogs have been used in warfare by many civilizations.
to deliver vital messages. About a million dogs were
As warfare has progressed, their purposes have changed
killed in action. Sergeant Stubby, a Boston bull ter-
greatly.* [8]
rier, was the most decorated war dog of World War
I and the only dog to be nominated for rank and
• Mid-7th century BC: In the war waged by the then promoted to sergeant through combat. Among
Ephesians against Magnesia on the Maeander, the other exploits, he is said to have captured a German
Magnesian horsemen were each accompanied by spy.* [18] He was also a mascot at Georgetown Uni-
a war dog and a spear-bearing attendant. The versity. Rags was another notable World War I dog.
dogs were released first and broke the enemy ranks,
followed by an assault of spears, then a cavalry • 1941–1945: The Soviet Union deployed dogs
charge.* [9] An epitaph records the burial of a Mag- strapped with explosives against invading German
nesian horseman named Hippaemon with his dog tanks, with limited success.
Lethargos, his horse, and his spearman.* [10]
• 1943–1945: The United States Marine Corps used
• 525 BC: At the Battle of Pelusium, Cambyses II uses dogs, donated by their American owners, in the
a psychological tactic against the Egyptians, arraying Pacific theater to help take islands back from
dogs and other animals in the front line to effectively Japanese occupying forces. During this period the
take advantage of the Egyptian religious reverence Doberman Pinscher became the official dog of the
for animals.* [11] USMC; however, all breeds of dogs were eligible to
2.22. DOGS IN WARFARE 113

train to be “war dogs of the Pacific”. Of the 549


dogs that returned from the war, only 4 could not
be returned to civilian life. Many of the dogs went
home with their handlers from the war.* [19] Chips
was the most decorated war dog during World War
II.

• 1966–1973: Approximately 5,000 US war dogs


served in the Vietnam War (the US Army did not
retain records prior to 1968); about 10,000 US ser-
vicemen served as dog-handlers during the war, and
the K9 units are estimated to have saved over 10,000
human lives. 232 military working dogs* [20] and
295* [21] US servicemen working as dog handlers
were killed in action during the war. It is estimated
that about 200 Vietnam War dogs survived the war
to be assigned at other US bases outside the US.
The remaining canines were euthanized or left be-
hind.* [22]* [23]
Military working dog wearing body armor, undergoing escala-
tion of force training in Afghanistan.
• 2011: United States Navy SEALs used a Belgian
Malinois military working dog named Cairo in
Operation Neptune Spear, in which Osama bin
Laden was killed.* [24]* [25] In ancient times, dogs, often large mastiff- or molosser-
type breeds, would be strapped with armor or spiked col-
lars and sent into battle to attack the enemy. This strat-
2.22.3 Roles egy was used by various civilizations, such as the Romans
and the Greeks. This approach has been largely aban-
doned in modern day militaries due to the fact that mod-
ern weapons would kill the dogs almost immediately, as
on Okinawa when U.S. soldiers quickly eliminated a pla-
toon of Japanese soldiers and their dogs.* [26]
Another program attempted during World War II was
suggested by a Swiss citizen living in Santa Fe, New Mex-
ico. William A. Prestre proposed using large dogs to kill
Japanese soldiers. He convinced the military to lease an
entire island in the Mississippi to house the training fa-
cilities. There the army hoped to train as many as two
million dogs. The idea was to begin island invasions
with landing craft releasing thousands of dogs against the
Japanese defenders, then followed up by troops as the
Japanese defenders scattered in confusion. One of the
biggest problems encountered was getting Japanese sol-
U.S. Army SP4 Bealock and scout dog “Chief”on patrol in diers to train the dogs with, as few Japanese soldiers were
Vietnam. being captured. Eventually, Japanese-American soldiers
volunteered for the training. The biggest problem was
Dogs have been used for many different purposes. Dif- with the dogs; either they were too docile, did not prop-
ferent breeds were used for different things, but always erly respond to their beach crossing training, or were ter-
met the demands of the handlers. Many roles for dogs rified by shellfire. After millions of dollars spent and in-
in war are obsolete and no longer practiced, but the con- conclusive results, the program was abandoned.* [27]
cept of the war dog still remains alive and well in modern The Soviet Union used dogs for anti-tank purposes begin-
warfare. ning in the 1930s. Earlier anti-tank dogs were fitted with
tilt-rod mines and trained to run beneath enemy tanks,
which would detonate the mines automatically. However,
Fighting the dogs were trained with stationary Russian tanks and
very seldom ran under moving tanks, instead being shot
Main article: Attack dog as they ran beside moving tanks. When both Russian and
German tanks were present, the dogs would preferentially
114 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

run towards the familiar Russian tanks.

Logistics and communication

About the time World War I broke out, many Euro-


pean communities used dogs to pull small carts for milk
deliveries and similar purposes.* [28] Several European
armies adapted the process for military use.* [29] In Au-
gust 1914, the Belgian Army used dogs to pull their
Maxim Guns on wheeled carriages and supplies or report-
edly even wounded in their carts.* [30] The use of dogs for
this purpose ceased with the advent of trench warfare af-
ter the first two months of the conflict. The French had
Medical researchers, and their allies in the armed forces,
250 dogs at the start of World War I. The Dutch army awarded military-style medals to animals in laboratories to
copied the idea and had hundreds of dogs trained and emphasize the martial significance of animal experimentation.
ready by the end of World War I (the Netherlands re- Here, Army Surgeon General Major General Norman T. Kirk,
mained neutral). The Soviet Red Army also used dogs on behalf of the Friends of Medical Research, bestows medals
to drag wounded men to aid stations during World War upon research dogs Trixie and Josie“for outstanding services to
II.* [31] The dogs were well-suited to transporting loads humanity.”
over snow and through craters.
Dogs were often used to carry messages in battle. They how canines were treated in World War II.* [32] In 1966,
would be turned loose to move silently to a second han- major reforms came to this field with the adoption of the
dler. This required a dog that was very loyal to two mas- Laboratory Animal Welfare Act.* [33]
ters, otherwise the dog would not deliver the message on
time or at all. Some messenger dogs also performed other
communication jobs, such as pulling telephone lines from Detection and tracking
one location to another.
Main article: Detection dog

Mascots
Many dogs were used to locate mines. They did not
prove to be very effective under combat conditions. Ma-
Main article: Military mascot
rine mine detecting dogs were trained using bare elec-
tric wires beneath the ground surface.* [34] The wires
Dogs were often used as unit mascots for military units. shocked the dogs, teaching them that danger lurked un-
The dog in question might be an officer's dog, an animal der the dirt. Once the dog's focus was properly directed,
that the unit chose to adopt, or one of their canines em- dummy mines were planted and the dogs were trained to
ployed in another role as a working dog. Some naval dogs signal their presence. While the dogs effectively found
such as Sinbad and Judy were themselves enlisted service the mines, the task proved so stressful for the dogs they
members. Some units also chose to employ a particular were only able to work between 20 and 30 minutes at a
breed of dog as their standard mascot, with new dogs re- time. The mine detecting war dogs anticipated random
placing the old when it died or was retired. The presence shocks from the heretofore friendly earth, making them
of a mascot was designed to uplift morale, and many were extremely nervous. The useful service life of the dogs
used to this effect in the trenches of World War I. was not long. Experiments with lab rats show that this
trend can be very extreme, in some tests rats even hud-
dled in the corner to the point of starvation to avoid elec-
Medical research tric shock.
Main article: Animal testing Dogs have historically also been used in many cases to
In World War II, dogs took on a new role in medical ex- track fugitives and enemy troops, overlapping partly into
perimentation, as the primary animals chosen for medical the duties of a scout dog, but use their olfactory skill in
research.* [32] The animal experimentation allowed doc- tracking a scent, rather than warning a handler at the ini-
tors to test new medicine without risking human lives, tial presentation of a scent.
though these practices came under more scrutiny after
the war. The United States' government responded by
Scouts
proclaiming these dogs as heroes.
The Cold War sparked a heated debate over the ethics of Some dogs are trained to silently locate booby traps and
animal experimentation in the U.S., particularly aimed at concealed enemies such as snipers. The dog's keen senses
2.22. DOGS IN WARFARE 115

of smell and hearing would make them far more effective


at detecting these dangers than humans. The best scout
dogs are described as having a disposition intermediate to
docile tracking dogs and aggressive attack dogs.* [35]
Scout dogs were used in World War II, Korea, and Viet-
nam by the United States to detect ambushes, weapon
caches, or enemy fighters hiding underwater, with only
reed breathing straws showing above the waterline. The
US operated a number of scout dog platoons (assigned
on a handler-and-dog team basis to individual patrols)
and had a dedicated dog training school in Fort Benning,
Georgia.* [35]

Sentries

Main article: Guard dog

One of the earliest military-related uses, sentry dogs were


used to defend camps or other priority areas at night and
sometimes during the day. They would bark or growl to
alert guards of a stranger's presence. During the Cold
Marine Raiders take scouting and messenger dogs to the frontlines War, the American military used sentry dog teams out-
on Bougainville, late 1943 side of nuclear weapons storage areas. A test program
was conducted in Vietnam to test sentry dogs, launched
two days after a successful Vietcong attack on Da Nang
Air Base (July 1, 1965). Forty dog teams were deployed
to Vietnam for a four-month test period, with teams
placed on the perimeter in front of machine gun tow-
ers/bunkers. The detection of intruders resulted in a rapid
deployment of reinforcements. The test was successful,
so the handlers returned to the US while the dogs were
reassigned to new handlers. The Air Force immediately
started to ship dog teams to all the bases in Vietnam and
Thailand.
The buildup of American forces in Vietnam created large
dog sections at USAF Southeast Asia (SEA) bases. 467
dogs were eventually assigned to Bien Hoa, Binh Thuy,
Cam Ranh Bay, Da Nang, Nha Trang, Tuy Hoa, Phu
Cat, Phan Rang, Tan Son Nhut, and Pleiku Air Bases.
Within a year of deployment, attacks on several bases
had been stopped when the enemy forces were detected
by dog teams. Captured Vietcong told of the fear and
respect that they had for the dogs. The Vietcong even
placed a bounty on lives of handlers and dogs. The suc-
cess of sentry dogs was determined by the lack of success-
ful penetrations of bases in Vietnam and Thailand. It is
estimated by the United States War Dogs Association that
war dogs saved over 10,000 U.S. lives in Vietnam.* [36]
Sentry Dogs were also used by the Army, Navy, and
Marines to protect the perimeter of large bases.

SCOUT DOG by Augustine G. Acuna, Vietnam Combat Artists


Program, CAT II, 1966-67. Image courtesy of National Museum Modern uses
of the U. S. Army.
Contemporary dogs in military roles are also often re-
ferred to as police dogs, or in the United States as a Mili-
tary Working Dog (MWD), or K-9. Their roles are nearly
116 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

U.S. Army military working dog searches among rubble and


trash outside a target building in Rusafa, eastern Baghdad, Iraq.
A canine unit of the Israel Defense Forces

as varied as their ancient cousins, though they tend to be


more rarely used in front-line formations. As of 2011,
600 U.S. Military dogs were actively participating in the
conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.* [37]
Traditionally, the most common breed for these police-
type operations has been the German Shepherd; in recent
years there has been a shift to smaller dogs with keener
senses of smell for detection work, and more resilient
breeds such as the Belgian Malinois and Dutch Shepherd
for patrolling and law enforcement. All MWDs in use to-
day are paired with a single individual after their training.
This person is called a handler. While a handler usually A dog inspects baggage for loading aboard a HMX-1 aircraft.
won't stay with one dog for the length of either's career,
usually a handler will stay partnered with a dog for at least
Law enforcement Main article: Police dog
a year, and sometimes much longer.
The latest canine tactical vests are outfitted with cameras
As a partner in everyday military police work, dogs have
and durable microphones that allow dogs to relay audio
proven versatile and loyal officers. Police dogs can chase
and visual information to their handlers.* [38]
suspects, track them if they are hidden, and guard them
In the 1970s the US Air Force used over 1,600 when they are caught. They are trained to respond vi-
dogs worldwide. Today, personnel cutbacks have re- ciously if their handler is attacked, and otherwise not to
duced USAF dog teams to approximately 530, stationed react at all unless they are commanded to do so by their
throughout the world. Many dogs that operate in these handler. Many police dogs are also trained in detection
roles are trained at Lackland Air Force Base, the only as well.
United States facility that currently trains dogs for mili-
tary use.* [39]
Change has also come in legislation for the benefit of the Drug and explosives detection Main article:
canines. Prior to 2000, older war dogs were required to Detection dog
be euthanized. The new law permits adoption of retired
military dogs.* [39] One notable case of which was Lex, Both MWDs and their civilian counterparts provide ser-
a working dog whose handler was killed in Iraq. vice in drug detection, sniffing out a broad range of
There are numerous memorials dedicated to war dogs, psychoactive substances despite efforts at concealment.
including March Field Air Museum in Riverside, Cali- Provided they have been trained to detect it, MWDs can
fornia;* [40] the Infantry School at Fort Benning, Geor- smell small traces of nearly any substance, even if it is
gia;* [40] at the Naval Facility, Guam, with replicas at the in a sealed container. Dogs trained in drug detection are
University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine normally used at ports of embarkation such as airports,
in Knoxville;* [41] the Alfred M. Gray Marine Corps Re- checkpoints, and other places where there is high secu-
search Center in Quantico, Virginia;* [42] and the Al- rity and a need for anti-contraband measures.
abama War Dogs Memorial at the USS Alabama Battle- MWDs can also be trained to detect explosives. As with
ship Memorial Park in Mobile, Alabama.* [43] narcotics, trained MWDs can detect minuscule amounts
2.22. DOGS IN WARFARE 117

of a wide range of explosives, making them useful for ter the war; to their former owners or new adopted ones.
searching entry points, patrolling within secure instal- The Vietnam War was different in that US war dogs
lations, and at checkpoints. These dogs are capable were designated as expendable equipment and were ei-
of achieving over a 98% success rate in bomb detec- ther euthanized or turned over to an allied army prior to
tion.* [44] the US departure from South Vietnam.* [48] Due to lob-
bying efforts by veteran dog handlers from the Vietnam
War Congress approved a bill allowing veteran US mili-
tary working dogs to be adopted after their military ser-
vice. In 2000, President Bill Clinton signed a law that
allowed these dogs to be adopted,* [49] making the Viet-
nam War the only American war in which US war dogs
never came home.* [23]* [50]

Other roles Military working dogs continue to serve as


sentries, trackers, search and rescue, scouts, and mascots.
Retired working dogs are often adopted as pets or therapy
dogs.

2.22.4 Images
A bound prisoner in an orange jumpsuit is intimidated with a dog • A U.S. soldier and his dog wait before conducting
by a U.S. soldier. an assault against insurgents in Buhriz

Intimidation The use of Military Working Dogs on • U.S. Naval Security Force K-9 Unit training
prisoners by the United States during recent wars in • U.S. Army working dog wearing body armor clears
Afghanistan and Iraq has been controversial. a building in Afghanistan
Iraq War: The United States has used dogs to intimi-
• Post World War II cartoon emphasizing the impor-
date prisoners in Iraqi prisons.* [45] In court testimony
tance of canines in medical research
following the revelations of Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse,
it was stated that Col. Thomas M. Pappas approved the • Ambulance dogs search for wounded men through
use of dogs for interrogations. Pvt. Ivan L. Frederick scent and hearing
testified that interrogators were authorized to use dogs
and that a civilian contract interrogator left him lists of • Belgian dogs trained to draw machine guns
the cells he wanted dog handlers to visit. “They were • German Bundeswehr dog demonstration
allowed to use them to ... intimidate inmates”, Fred-
erick stated. Two soldiers, Sgt. Santos A. Cardona and • A Navy Master-at-arms fires blank ammunition to
Sgt. Michael J. Smith, were then charged with maltreat- condition his dog to the sound
ment of detainees, for allegedly encouraging and permit- • A U.S. Air Force Security Forces dog handler at-
ting unmuzzled working dogs to threaten and attack them. tached to the Army's 3rd Special Forces Group in
Prosecutors have focused on an incident caught in pub- Afghanistan.
lished photographs, when the two men allegedly cornered
a naked detainee and allowed the dogs to bite him on each
thigh as he cowered in fear.* [46] 2.22.5 See also
Guantanamo Bay: It is believed that the use of dogs
• Ancient warfare
on prisoners in Iraq was learned from practices at
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base.* [46] The use of dogs on • Animals in War Memorial
prisoners by regular U.S. forces in Guantanamo Bay
Naval Base was prohibited by Donald Rumsfeld in April • Dickin Medal
2003. A few months later following revelations of abuses • Dogs of Roman Britain
at Abu Ghraib prison, including use of dogs to ter-
rify naked prisoners; Rumsfeld then issued a further or- • Examples of dogs that gained notability in war
der prohibiting their use by the regular U.S. forces in
• 1st Military Working Dog Regiment
Iraq.* [47]
• List of Labrador Retrievers
Retirement Traditionally, as in World War II, US mil- • War Dog Memorial (Bristol Township, Pennsylva-
itary working dogs (war dogs) were returned home af- nia)
118 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

2.22.6 References [24] Viegas, Jennifer (2 May 2011). “A U.S. Navy Seals' Se-
cret Weapon: Elite Dog Team”. Discovery.com. Re-
[1] Newton, Tom.“K-9 History: The Dogs of War!". Hahn's trieved 5 May 2011.
50th AP K-9. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
[25] Brammer, Jack; Steven Thomma (7 May 2011).“Obama
[2] “Dogs of War in European Conflict; Egyptians and Ro- thanks special forces for daring bin Laden raid”. Seattle
mans Employed Them in Early Warfare ̶Battle Dogs in Times. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
4000 B.C”. New York Times. February 21, 1915. p. S3.
Retrieved 2008-11-26. [26] Astor, Gerald (1996). Operation Iceberg: The Invasion
and Conquest of Okinawa in World War II. Dell. ISBN
[3] Morral, Timothy. “History of the Pit Bull”. Pit- 0-440-22178-1.
bull411.com. Retrieved Novembeg 26, 2008. Check date
values in: |accessdate= (help) [27] Winston Groom (2005). 1942: The Year that Tried Men's
Souls. Atlanta Monthly Press. pp. 166–168. ISBN 0-
[4] E.S. Forster,“Dogs In Ancient Warfare,”Greece & Rome 87113-889-1.
10 (1941) 114–117.
[28] Ouida (1872). A Dog of Flanders. Chapman & Hall.
[5] Polyaenus, Stratagems 7.2; Forster, “Dogs in Ancient
Warfare,”p. 114. [29] Dyer, Walter A. (2006). Pierrot the Carabinier: Dog of
Belgium. Diggory Press. ISBN 978-1-84685-036-3.
[6] Stannard, David. American holocaust: the conquest of the
New World. [30] Willmott, H.P. (2003). First World War. Dorling Kinder-
[7] History of the 19th Iowa Infantry; Hounds in the Ameri- sley. p. 59.
can Civil War- Chapter VII, p. 109; Retrieved 2014-05-
[31] “World War Two Combat: Axis and Allies”. Hahn's
31
50th AP K-9.
[8] Todaro, Giovanni (2011). I cani in guerra. Da Tutankha-
[32] “Canine Heroes and Medals”. History of Medicine: An-
mon a Bin Laden (in Italian). Oasi Alberto Perdisa. ISBN
imals as Cold Warriors. National Library of Medicine,
978-88-8372-513-5.
NIH. October 24, 2006. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
[9] Aelian, Varia Historia 14.46; Forster, “Dogs in Ancient
Warfare,”p. 115. [33] Buettinger, Craig (January 1, 1993). “Antivivisection
and the charge of zoophil-psychosis in the early twentieth
[10] P.A.L. Greenhalgh, Early Greek Warfare: Horsemen and century”. The Historian. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
Chariots in the Homeric and Archaic Ages (Cambridge
University Press, 1973, 2010), p. 145. [34] Putney, William. (2001) Always Faithful: A Memoir of
the Marine Dogs of World War II, New York: Simon &
[11] Polyaenus, Stratagems 7.9; Forster, “Dogs in Ancient Schuster Inc. ISBN 0-7432-0198-1
Warfare,”p. 114.
[35] Rubenstein, SP4 Wain (June 1969).“Scout Dogs - Enemy's
[12] Aelian, On the Nature of Animals 7.38. Worst Enemy..”. Danger Forward (U.S/ Army Quarter-
master Museum) 3 (2).
[13] Herodotus, Histories 7.187; Forster, “Dogs in Ancient
Warfare,”p. 115. [36]“War Dogs”. Fort Lee, Virginia: U.S. Army Quartermas-
ter Museum. January 9, 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
[14] Williams, Henry Smith. Historians History of the World
(Volume 4), p. 505. [37] Gardiner Harris (4 May 2011). “A Bin Laden Hunter on
[15] Zonara,'Epitomé historíon' VIII 19 P. I 401; E. Pais, 'Sto- Four Legs”. The New York Times Company. Retrieved
ria della Sardegna e della Corsica durante il periodo ro- 5 May 2011. There are 600 dogs serving in Afghanistan
mano' I, 154 (in 'Bibliotheca Sarda' n. 42). and Iraq, and that number is expected to grow substantially
over the next year.
[16] Orosius, 'Historiarum adversos paganos', V, 14.
[38] “War Dogs: K9 Storm Armor Protects Canine Soldiers”
[17] J.G. Varner and J.J. Varner, Dogs of the Conquest (Uni- . Military Gear News. 2011-05-17.
versity of Oklahoma Press, 1983)
[39] Mott, Maryann (April 9, 2003). “Dogs of War: Inside
[18] ""The Price of Freedom”exhibition”. Smithsonian In- the U.S. Military's Canine Corps”. National Geographic
stitution. Retrieved July 14, 2014. News. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
[19] http://worldwar2history.info/Marines/dogs.html [40] “War-Dogs.com”.
[20] Burnam (2008) p. 288-293 [41] “War Dog Memorial”. The University of Tennessee.
[21] Burnam (2008) p. 281-288
[42] Simpson, Tara K. (September 22, 2007). “War Dog
[22] CNN special report Memorial Tells Little-Known Tale”. Stars and Stripes.
Archived from the original on August 4, 2009. Retrieved
[23] Burnam (2008) p. XIV July 23, 2010.
2.22. DOGS IN WARFARE 119

[43] “Alabama War Dogs Memorial Foundation”. awdm.org. • Burnam, John C. (2008). A Soldier's Best Friend;
December 3, 2013. Archived from the original on De- Scout Dogs and their Handlers in the Vietnam War.
cember 3, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2014. The most re- Sterling Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4027-5447-0.
cent Working Military Dog memorial, and the only one
west of the Mississippi was dedicated on April 16, 2011 • Dowling, Mike C. (2011). Sergeant Rex: the un-
at the Rancho Coastal Humane Society in Encinitas, Cal- breakable bond between a Marine and his military
ifornia working dog. Atria Books. ISBN 9781451635966.
[44] “War Dogs”. U.S. Army Quartermaster Museum. Re-
• Michael, Ritland; Gary Brozek (2013). Trident K9
trieved 2008-07-08.
Warriors: my tales from the training ground to the
[45] Goodman, Amy (August 29, 2007). “Gonzales' tortured battlefield with elite Navy SEAL canines. St. Martin's
legacy lingers”. Seattle Post Intelligencer. Press. ISBN 9781250024978.

[46] White, Josh (July 26, 2005). “Abu Ghraib Dog Tactics
Came From Guantanamo”. Washington Post. p. A14. 2.22.8 External links
[47] Diamond, John (July 19, 2004). “Top commanders in • Born, K. M (January 8, 2007).“Quartermaster Dog
Iraq allowed dogs to be used”. USA Today. Training Program”. Fort Lee, Virginia: U.S. Army
[48] Burnam (2008) p. XIII-XIV Quartermaster Museum.

[49] Burnam (2008) p. 270-272 • Donn, Jeff (August 12, 2007).“Dogs in war receive
loyalty, top care”. Army Times. Associated Press.
[50] Watson, Julie (May 27, 2011). “Demand for adopting
retired military dogs soars after SEAL raid”. The Star • “K-9 History: The Dogs of War!" (not an official
(Toronto). military site). Hahn Air Base, West Germany: 50th
Air Police K-9 Section.

2.22.7 Further reading • “Military Working Dog Teams National Monu-


ment”.
• Dyer, Walter A. (2006). Pierrot the Carabinier: Dog
of Belgium. Meadow Books. ISBN 1-84685-036-3. • Pitts, 2ndLt. Mike (1966).“U.S. war dogs remem-
bered”. K-9 Heroes - Remembered. The United
• Richardson, E.H. (1920). British War Dogs; their States War Dogs Association.
training and psychology. London: Skeffington.
• “Vietnam Security Police Association K-9 pages”
.
• Rohan, Jack (2006). Rags, The Dog Who Went to
War. Liskeard: Diggory Press. ISBN 978-1-84685- • “War Dogs”. Fort Lee, Virginia: U.S. Army Quar-
364-7. OCLC 1348025. termaster Museum. January 9, 2007.

• “War dogs, military service dogs, battle dogs”. The


• Varner, John; J.J. Varner (1983). Dogs of the Con-
Bulldog Information Library.
quest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
ISBN 978-0806117935. • “War Dogs: Reference Bibliography”. Fort Lee,
Virginia: U.S. Army Quartermaster Museum.
• Whitridge-Smith, Bertha (2006). Only A Dog: The
True Story of a Dog's Devotion to His Master During •“Military Working Dog Public Domain Images Col-
World War. Lightning Source. ISBN 978-1-84685- lection”.
365-4.
• “Alabama War Dogs Memorial Foundation”.

• Wood, E. S.; R. M. Franklin (2005). Captain Lox- • “Dogs of the American Civil War: A Tribute”.
ley's Little Dog And Lassie The Life-saving Collie:
Hero Dogs of the First World War Associated With • “Irish Examiner article”.
The Sinking of H.M.S. Formidable. Burgress Hill:
Diggory Press. ISBN 978-1-905363-13-1. OCLC • The short film Big Picture: Canine College is avail-
62306949. able for free download at the Internet Archive
• Webcast Presentation by Marine Corps Sergeant
• Burnam, John C. (2006). Dog Tags of Courage: Mike Dowling about Sergeant Rex his memoir about
Combat Infantrymen and War Dog Heroes in Viet- his deployment to Iraq in 2004 along with military
nam. Lost Coast Press. ISBN 978-1-882897-88-9. working dog Rex
120 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

2.23 Fetch (game) the optimal path to a ball thrown in the water. While play-
ing Fetch with his Welsh Corgi, he noticed that the dog
ran along the beach for a certain distance before jump-
ing into the water. Because the dog is faster on land, this
technique minimizes the total retrieval time. He showed
that the dog is able to calculate the optimal point to jump
into the water with statistical significance, a problem Pen-
nings must resort to calculus to solve.
Perruchet and Gallego* [3] have demonstrated a method
for calculating this optimal path using calculus in a dif-
ferent way. They propose that the dog optimizes its be-
haviour on a moment-to-moment basis, choosing at each
moment the path that allows it to maximize its speed of
approach to the ball. This requires the dog to be able to
accurately estimate its speed on both land and water, but
does not rely on the premise that the dog plans the entire
route in advance.* [4]
A Chihuahua fetching a ball.

Fetch is a game usually played with a dog. An object, 2.23.2 References


such as a stick or ball, is thrown a moderate distance away
from the animal, and it is the animal's objective to grab [1] Ivars Peterson (2004-06-26).“Dogs Catching Frisbees”.
and retrieve it. Many times, the owner of the animal will Science News Online 165 (26). Archived from the original
say “Fetch”to the animal before or after throwing the on 2006-06-14.
object. In rare instances, cats, especially younger cats, [2] Tim Pennings (May 2003). “Do dogs know calculus?".
have been known to engage in fetch behavior. College Mathematics Journal (Mathematical Association
of America) 34 (3): 178–182. doi:10.2307/3595798.
JSTOR 3595798.
2.23.1 Mathematics of Fetch
[3] Pierre Perruchet and Jorge Gallego (January 2006). “Do
dogs know related rates rather than optimization?". Col-
lege Mathematics Journal (Mathematical Association of
America) 37 (1): 16–18. doi:10.2307/27646266. JSTOR
27646266.

[4] Ivars Peterson (2006-02-18). “Calculating Dogs”. Sci-


ence News Online 169 (7). Archived from the original on
2006-08-11.

2.23.3 Further reading


• Keith Devlin (2005-03-10). “Elvis: the Welsh
Corgi Who Knows Calculus”. The Math Instinct:
Why You're a Mathematical Genius (Along with Lob-
sters, Birds, Cats, and Dogs). Thunder's Mouth
A Cocker Spaniel fetches a ball in a pool on Fire Island.
Press. ISBN 978-1-56025-672-4.

Arizona State psychology professor Michael McBeath


has proposed a simple model to explain how dogs play 2.23.4 See also
Fetch. By mounting a camera on the head of a dog, he
found that the dog changed its speed and direction in or- • Least Time Principle
der to keep the frisbee's image in a constant position on
its retina. This approach, called the Linear Optical Tra-
jectory, makes the frisbee appear to move in a linear path 2.24 Flirt pole
at a constant speed. McBeath had previously noticed this
interception strategy in professional baseball players pur- A flirt pole, also called a “flirt stick”, is a piece of ex-
suing fly balls.* [1] ercise equipment for dogs that entices a dog to chase a
Tim Pennings,* [2] a mathematics professor at Hope Col- fast moving lure. This equipment is often used to phys-
lege, has found that dogs are somehow able to calculate ically condition a dog and improve his or her skills for
2.24. FLIRT POLE 121

Exercise with flirt pole where dog runs to chase lure

• Swinging while dragging the lure along the ground


will create an effect of an animal running or an ob-
ject escaping. In turn, the dog will run to chase the
lure.

• By snapping (flicking or quickly jerking) the pole,


the trainer causes the lure to “change directions”.

• Jerking or swinging the pole higher so the lure is in


the air entices the dog to jump while attempting to
catch the object.

• To prevent the dog from catching the lure too easily,


Flirt pole
the trainer can move the pole (and lure) faster, snap
the pole to change directions, or swing the lure in
better performance in certain competitions such as lure- the air, just out of the dogʼs reach.
coursing or Schutzhund. It is often used simply to get a
dog to exert a lot of energy in a small space. Occasionally the dog will, or must be allowed to, catch the
lure. This is a necessary part of the exercise; dog games
that never reward the dog for their hard work tend to make
2.24.1 Operation them distraught and unbalanced. (For this reason, bomb-
and drug-sniffing dogs have been found to become men-
A flirt pole is constructed of a long stick or pole made of a tally unhinged if they never find bombs or drugs and are
light wood, like bamboo, or a light plastic, like PVC, with occasionally taken on dummy missions where they have
a long string or rope attached at one end. Attached to the successful finds.)* [1]
other end of the rope is a lure such as a dog toy, hide, rag,
or other item depending on the exercise goal. The pole is Additionally, once the dog has caught the lure, the trainer
typically 3 to 5 feet (0.91 to 1.52 m) long with the rope can engage in pulling exercises by tugging at the pole and
about the same length, and the construction is similar to encouraging the dog to pull back (creating a "tug-o-war")
a fishing pole. in order to keep its prize.
When the trainer is ready, he or she gives the dog a com-
mand to release the lure and may resume swinging the
Movements
pole or end the session.
The owner or trainer holds the pole and through a variety
of motions, moves the rope and the lure. The idea is to Principles
move the lure so that the dog cannot catch it easily, i.e.,
“flirt”with the dog. The flirt pole used to condition dog for running and jump-
ing. Dogs have a natural prey drive that compels them
• The owner generally stands in one place while work- chase after and kill prey, typically smaller animals.* [2]
ing the pole to make the lure “active”or moving. In dog training, the prey drive can be used as an advan-
Standing in one spot and rotating to swing the pole tage because dogs with strong prey drive are also willing
around in a circle will cause the lure to move quickly to pursue moving objects such as toys, thus encouraging
in a wider circle. the dog to move or act in a particular way.
122 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

ing to teach skills that the dog will need later in protection
work, in particular, targeting skills and grip.* [3] A flat-
tened plastic bottle as a lure is hard to grip and teaches
the dog to bite hard and hang on.* [4]

Dog fighting

Even though the sport of dog fighting is illegal, historically


several types of equipment have been used to train and
condition fighting dogs. A flirt pole was commonly used
to train these dogs for cardiovascular and speed workouts
and to encourage prey drive.* [5]

Lure coursing

Using a flirt pole with a cloth or rag is common with train-


ers who train for lure coursing and other activities where
high prey drive is desired, and is referred to as“rag work”
.* [3] The moving of the rag encourages the development
of prey drive; catching the rag and shaking it afterwards
Flirt pole used to condition dog for running and jumping. build confidence.

The flirt pole promotes physical activity and stimulates Professional breeding
mental activity from the dog (running, jumping, watch-
ing, planning, changing direction) by stimulating the dogʼ Some trainers and researchers advocate beginning stim-
s prey drive by offering a constantly moving lure. The ulation and socialization very early in a puppyʼs life,
long pole and flexible rope make it easy for the trainer to especially for dogs that will be working dogs.* [6] This
use momentum to make the lure move fast (even faster creates dogs that have solid temperaments and are well-
than the dog can run), change directions quickly or move socialized. Some professional breeders advocate using
at variable heights. flirt pole skill exercises as a part of that conditioning in or-
der to create acceptable outlets for the prey drive, which,
The more the trainer can maneuver the pole and rope to
along with bite inhibition training, decreases the likeli-
make the lure emulate the way a small animal moves (even
hood of a puppy using his prey drive in an inappropriate
if the lure is non-animal, such as a rag), the more interest
manner.* [3]
the dog keeps in the object.
Even though the basis of the flirt pole is engaging the dog's
prey drive, these exercises do not necessarily increase the General use
drive. In fact, many trainers like to use the flirt pole to
give dogs an opportunity to express prey drive in a non- Dog owners and dog walkers who need to exercise dogs
destructive way, and use the flirt pole as a part of the train- but are unable to walk them (for example when the person
ing and socialization.* [3] is unable to walk or walking may be dangerous) some-
times use a flirt pole as a solution to exerting the dog's
energy in a small space, in a room or backyard.* [7]
2.24.2 Uses

In general, dogs that are inclined to run, jump, and chase 2.24.3 Health effects
enjoy the play time with this type of equipment that allows
them to indulge in their natural tendencies. Flirt poles are In addition to improving a dog's skills (in particular
often used in specific types of dog training. for competitive dogs), flirt pole exercises improve ca-
nine health. Active flirt pole work helps to strengthen
Schutzhund heart and lung function, improve balance, fine-tune motor
skills, and strengthen muscles and joints.
Schutzhund is a dog sport, developed in Germany, that Any exercise for dogs, including with the flirt pole, helps
tests dogs on police tasks including odor detection and release anxious energy (which leads to destructive behav-
search and rescue. Flirt pole work is often used in train- iors) and to maintain healthy body functions.
2.25. GAME (DOG) 123

Risks 6. The Flirt Pole: Dog Toy or Life Changer?, http://


notesfromadogwalker.com/2012/04/24/flirt-pole/
The type of activity that a flirt pole encourages is for
healthy dogs in good physical condition. Flirt pole ex-
ercises should not be done with very young dogs (under 2.25 Game (dog)
a year) or with dogs that are not in good health such as
obese dogs, dogs with joint problems or dogs with heart
problems. Game or Gameness is a quality of fighting dogs or
working terriers that are selectively bred and conditioned
Health risks include muscle and joint injuries, especially from a very early age to develop traits of eagerness despite
if jumping is involved since poor landings result in injury, the threat of substantive injury. Dogs displaying this trait
and over-exertion (too much hard running). In addition, can also be described as persevering, ready and willing,
without proper training, retrieving the lure from the dog full of fight, spirited, or plucky.* [1]
may be challenging.

2.25.1 Dog fighting breeds


2.24.4 See also
In dog fighting breeds gameness is valued as it gives the
• Dog training
dog the ability to maintain the attack in baiting, despite
ripped flesh, dehydration, exhaustion or broken bones. As
2.24.5 Notes one writer describes it, “Game is the dog that won't quit
fighting, the dog that'll die in the ring, the dog that'll fight
[1] Exercise My Dog, “Laser Tag Game” with two broken legs.”The scope and method of train-
ing to develop a game dog varies dramatically depending
[2] Canine Ergonomics: The Science of Working Dogs, pp. on the level and experience of the dog-fighter. A famous
185, 214 American“gamebred”breed of dog is the American Pit
[3] The Breeder's Guide to Raising Superstar Dogs, “The Bull Terrier. A famous Irish“gamebred”breed of dog is
Skills Phase” the Kerry Blue Terrier. A famous English “gamebred”
breed of dog is the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. A famous
[4] Trident K9 Warriors: My Tale from the Training Ground Japanese “gamebred”breed of dog is the Tosa. A fa-
to the Battlefield, p. 117 mous Argentinian“gamebred”breed of dog is the Dogo
[5] Veterinary Forensics: Animal Cruelty Investigations, p. Argentino.
246

[6] Pfaffenberger , Scott and Fuller , and Appleby 2.25.2 Working terrier breeds
[7] The Flirt Pole: Dog Toy or Life Changer?
Pertaining to working terriers and other small hunting
dogs, earthdog trials are used to determine the dog's
2.24.6 References gameness in hunting dangerous pest species underground.
The American Working Terrier Association currently of-
1. Laser Tag Game - Exercise My Dog, http://www. fers a Certificate of Gameness (CG) title* [2] as a basic
exercisemydog.com/dog-game-laser-tag instinct test (meaning that it is done without condition-
ing/training the dog, to see if the dog naturally exhibits
2. Canine Ergonomics: The Science of Working Dogs gameness) for working terriers and dachshunds. In the
(2009), ed. William. S. Henton, p. 185. CRC past, the Irish Kennel Club required the now-discarded
Press, Boca Raton, FL. ISBN 1420079921 Teastas Mor certification for champion animals (intended
for breeding) which involved "...showing gameness in at-
3. Trident K9 Warriors: My Tale from the Training
tacking badgers. Five minutes is the minimum period a
Ground to the Battlefield (2013), Michael Ritland &
terrier shall be in contact with the badger, except when
Gary Brozek, p 117. St. Martin Press, New York.
the terrier draws the badger in less time.”“Drawing”
ISBN 1250024978
meant pulling the badger out of the hole. The purpose
4. Veterinary Forensics: Animal Cruelty Investi- of the Teastas Mor was to determine the dog's capabil-
gations, Second Edition (2013), ed. Melinda ities for work and fitness for breeding, not primarily for
D.Merck, p. 246 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN entertainment as in the blood-sports of baiting.
1118472136

5. Guide to Raising Superstar Dogs (2008), 2.25.3 See also


Jerry Hope, Diamond Publishing, BN ID
2940014941709 • Dog aggression
124 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

• Dog behaviourist • Draft horse

• Instinct • Driving (horse)


• Prey drive • Horse-drawn vehicle

• Carting
2.25.4 References
[1] Stanley Coren (2006). Why does my dog act that way?: a 2.26.3 References
complete guide to your dog's personality. p. 193. ISBN
978-0-7432-9855-1.
[1] 'GEE' AND 'HAW'
[2] “American Working Terrier Association Certificate of
Gameness”. Retrieved 2008-03-22. [2] Test driving a dog sled: hang on and enjoy

[3] Pilgrim Jim's Treasure Field: To Haw and Gee

2.26 Gee and haw


Gee and haw are voice commands used to tell a draft 2.27 Gun-dog training
animal to turn right or left, or to direct sled dogs pulling
a sled or sleigh.* [1]* [2] Gee (pronounced“jee”) means
to turn to the off side (away from the driver). Haw means
to turn to the near side (towards the driver).
In the United States, the driver of draft animals sits on
their left, so animals will turn right to the gee command,
and left to the haw command. In England the driver
stands to the right of the animals, reversing the relative
directions they indicate (i.e., an English trained team of
horses will“haw”to the right, while an American trained
team will“haw”to the left ̶in both cases towards their
driver.) As James Lloyd Clark points out, “Generally,
work horses are not subject to a lot of international travel
so the fear of great confusion on the farm is minimal.”
*
[3]
The American meanings are used for dog sledding in A Spaniel Field Trial
Alaska and Canada.
Gun dogs are used to hunt all sorts of game. Many are
used in the pursuit of big game. The majority of working
2.26.1 In popular culture gun dogs are used to hunt upland game.

The song Pony Time, recorded in 1961 by Chubby


Checker and a number one hit that year, includes the 2.27.1 Types of dogs
lyrics
Gun dogs are divided into three primary classifications
Now you turn to the left when I say gee, based upon method of work:
You turn to the right when I say haw,
Now gee, ya ya little baby,
• Retrievers
Now haw, ya oh baby, oh baby, pretty baby,
Do it baby, oh baby, oh baby,
• Flushing spaniels
Boogety, boogety, boogety, boogety shoo. • Pointing breeds

2.26.2 See also


2.27.2 Training
• Working animal
The techniques used for training a dog depends very much
• Pack animal on the type of work the dog is expected to perform.
2.27. GUN-DOG TRAINING 125

Retrievers • Soft-mouth A soft-mouthed dog is one who will


pick up and hold game softly but firmly on the re-
Retriever Work Retrievers are used to find and retrieve trieve.
game that has been shot particularly when waterfowl
hunting. In order to work as a gun dog, a retriever should • Hardiness - A retriever should willingly re-enter
be trained to perform the following tasks and behaviors: cold water to make multiple retrieves.

• Remain under Control Retrievers used as gun- • Socialization Exposure of young dogs to new
dogs are trained to remain under control sitting places, strangers and strange dogs.
calmly and quietly until sent to retrieve.
The Training Process - The training process should start
• Mark downed game Marking is the process of when the dog is still a puppy. During training the retriever
watching for a falling bird or multiple birds. When is taught a series of skills. Throughout this process they
the command“mark”is given the dog should look up are exposed to different environments and situations that
for incoming birds and remember where each bird help them cope with the rigors of hunting. The key points
falls. of this training are:
• Perform a Blind Retrieve A blind retrieve is send-
ing a dog after a bird he has not seen fall. The han- •
dler sends the dog out to retrieve the bird, guiding
the dog with the use of a whistle and hand signals. • Water While most dogs are capable of swimming
young retrievers are typically introduced to water
• Delivery*Once the dog has completed the retrieve
gradually to build their confidence in the water.
it should gently but firmly hold the bird until com-
manded to release it to the handlerʼs hand. • Guns and Gunfire A Retriever should be trained to
• Shake on Command Following a retrieve a well ignore gunfire.
trained dog will not shake off excess water from its
fur until after the delivery is complete. • Boats A retriever should be taught to enter and exit
a boat with little disturbance and to sit calmly while
• Quarter Retrievers are often used in a secondary in the boat.
role as an upland flushing dog. The retriever must
work in a pattern in front of the hunter and must be • Obstacles The retriever is taught to overcome ob-
taught to stay within gun range. stacles, such as heavy cover, downed logs, sunken
tree limbs, etc.
• Remain Steady to Wing and Shot When hunting
upland birds, the flushing dog should be steady to • Diversions The retriever is taught ignore distrac-
wing and shot, meaning that it sits when a bird rises tions and continue with the work at hand.
or a gun is fired

Traits for Training - When selecting a retriever for Flushing spaniels


training consideration is given to:
Spaniels are trained primarily to quarter in front of the
• Biddableness - intelligence, controllability and hunter to flush game. Trained spaniels should possess the
open to learning following skills:

• Desire & Drive - a broad range of behaviors includ- • Retrieve to Hand The majority of hunters and all
ing the desire to retrieve and the willingness to take hunt test or field trial judges require that a dog de-
on significant obstacles to make a retrieve. They will liver a bird to hand, meaning that a dog will hold the
also demonstrate an exceptional interest in birds, bird until told to give it to the hunter directly.
bird feathers and bird scent which is termed“birdi-
ness”. • Soft Mouth It is desired that a springer deliver game
• Marking and Memory – consists of good eyesight with a soft mouth, meaning he does not puncture it
and depth perception and the ability to remember with his teeth. The game should always be fit for
each fall. the table. If a springer damages the bird, it may be
hard mouthed. This is a serious fault, but it can be
• Nose - dogs are led primarily by scent. A retriever difficult to determine whether it may have been ge-
should be able to use its nose to find downed game netic or caused by poor training methods. It is usu-
in heavy cover or to quarter a field to locate and flush ally wise to avoid breeding any springer that is hard
upland game birds. mouthed.
126 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

• Quarter A flushing spaniel's primary role is often as 2.27.3 See also


an upland flushing dog. Dogs must work in a zig-zag
pattern in front of the hunter seeking upland game • Retrievers
birds. The dog must be taught to stay within gun • Hunt Test
range to avoid flushing a bird outside of shooting
distance. This pattern is one of the primary crite- • Field Trials
ria used to judge a dog in a field trial.

• Scenting Having the ability to scent game is of vital 2.28 Housebreaking


importance to the hunter. A springer should have a
good nose in both wet and dry conditions. A dog
This article is about animal training. For comparable
with a good nose will learn to use the wind as it
training of small children, see toilet training. For the
quests for game, ever adjusting its pattern accord-
crime of housebreaking, see burglary.
ing to the nuances of the wind.
“House training”redirects here. For the episode of TV
series House, see House Training.
• Flushing The springer should have a positive flush.
Housebreaking (US English) or House-training
It should not hesitate or point when encountering
game. Some field trial dogs will often get airborne
during a flush. This is exciting to watch, but is not
necessary to win. Most hunters prefer that their dog
not flush in that style, as it can present a risk to the
dog.

• Hup This is the traditional command to sit and stay.


When hupped the dog can be given direction called
to the handler. The ability to hup a dog actively
working a running bird allow the handler and any
gunners to keep up without having to run.

• Follow Hand Signals Upland hunting involves pur-


suing wild game in its native habitat. Gun dogs must A dog trained to urinate outdoors rather than in its human own-
investigate likely covers for upland game birds. The ers' house
dog must be responsive to hand signals in order for
the hunter to be able to direct the dog into areas of (British English) is the process of training a domesticated
particular interest. animal that lives with its human owners in a house or other
residence to excrete (urinate and defecate) outdoors, or
• Steady When hunting upland birds, a flushing dog in a designated indoor area, rather than inside the house.
should be steady to wing and shot, meaning that he The pet owner's desire is to break the habit of eliminating
sits when a bird rises or a gun is fired. He does this in the house, hence the term. House-training (a term more
in order to mark the fall and to avoid flushing other commonly used in British English) or sometimes even
birds when pursuing a missed bird. potty training are common synonyms for housebreaking.
Housebreaking also refers to taking wild animals (e.g.
• Blind Retrieve An adequately trained and experi- Dingo) and domesticating them. In this case it is advis-
enced working springer can be expected to use all able to start at an early age.
of the aforementioned attributes to be conducted by
hand, whistle and command to a position whereby
an unmarked lost game bird can be picked and re- 2.28.1 See also
trieved to hand.
• Litter box
• Crate training
Pointing breeds

Bird dog training varies among breeds and handlers. Suc- 2.28.2 References
cessful bird dogs will naturally point at birds - this can not
be taught. However training is needed for them to hold
their point until the gun is in position, where upon the 2.29 Dog intelligence
bird is flushed and the dog drops to the gun. The bird dog
should also be trained to work a large area, by whistle and “Intelligence of dogs”redirects here. For the book, see
hand signals. The Intelligence of Dogs.
2.29. DOG INTELLIGENCE 127

Dog intelligence is the ability of a dog to learn, Collie, was featured on the cover of National Geographic
Magazine. Betsy's intelligence rivaled that of Rico's in
that she knew over 340 words and was able to connect an
object with a photographic image of the object, despite
having seen neither before.* [5]
In 2013, Dr. John Pilley, a professor emeritus of Wofford
College, published his book Chaser: Unlocking the Genius
of the Dog who knows a Thousand Words, * [6] within
which he documented the intellectual capabilities of his
border collie, “Chaser”, who had learned the names
and could associate by verbal command over 1000 words
at the time of its publishing. Chaser was documented as
capable of learning the names of new objects “by ex-
clusion”, and capable of linking nouns to verbs. Central
Many dogs can be trained easily to retrieve objects such as a stick. to the understanding of his border collie's remarkable ac-
complishments, Pilley argues, is the dog's breeding back-
think, and solve problems. Dog trainers, owners, and re- ground. He argues that border collies bred for herding
searchers have much difficulty agreeing on a method for work are uniquely suited for intellectual tasks like word
testing canine intelligence. association which may require the dog to work“at a dis-
tance”from their human companions; Pilley credits his
dog's selective breeding in addition to rigorous training
2.29.1 Inherited abilities for her intellectual prowess.
In his 1996 book Good Natured, ethologist Frans de Waal
Further information: Dog behavior and Pack (canine) discusses an experiment on guilt and reprimands con-
ducted on a female Siberian husky. The dog had the habit
Dogs are pack animals by nature and can understand so- of shredding newspapers, and when her owner returned
cial structure and obligations, and are capable of interact- home to find the shredded papers and scold her she would
ing with other members of the pack.* [1] act guilty. However, when the owner himself shredded
the papers without the dog's knowledge, the dog “acted
Dogs are able to read and react appropriately to human just as 'guilty' as when she herself had created the mess.”
body language such as gesturing and pointing, and to un- De Waal concludes that the “guilt”displayed by dogs is
derstand human voice commands.* [2] not true guilt but rather the anticipation of the behavior
of an angry superior in a given situation.* [7]

2.29.2 Evaluation of intelligence Studies in PNAS and PLoS One suggest that dogs
may feel complex emotions, like jealousy and anticipa-
* *
“Intelligence”is hard to define, whether in dogs, other tion. [8] [9] A French study found that dogs appear to
animals, or humans. The ability to learn quickly might recognize other dogs regardless of breed,* size, or shape,
be taken as a sign of intelligence, but such evidence must and distinguish them from other animals. [10]
be interpreted with care, because learning speed may be Psychological research has shown that human faces are
affected by such things as the effectiveness of the re- asymmetrical with the gaze instinctively moving to the
wards used in training or the motivation or activity level right side of a face upon encountering other humans to
of the dog. For example, some breeds, such as Siberian obtain information about their emotions and state. Re-
Huskies, are said to be not particularly rewarded by pleas- search at the University of Lincoln (2008) shows that
ing their owners, but quickly learn to escape from yards dogs share this instinct when meeting a human being, and
or catch small animals, often using ingenious ways of do- only when meeting a human being (i.e., not other animals
ing both.* [3] Various studies have attempted to estimate or other dogs). As such they are the only non-primate
intelligence by measuring the number of words or signs species known to do so.* [11]* [12]
a dog can learn. A recent example by animal psycholo-
School psychologist Kathy Coon developed the first intel-
gists Juliane Kaminski and colleagues reports that Rico,
* ligence test for dogs in 1976, with the work continuously
a Border Collie, could learn over 200 words. [4] Rico
revised through 2003. Assessments were developed to
could remember the names of several items for up to four
test short term memory, agility, ability to adapt, prob-
weeks after its last exposure (Kaminski et al. eliminated
lem solving, unique detour problems, and to see how the
the Clever Hans effect using strict protocols). Rico was
dog reacts to conditions which he or she finds unaccept-
also able to interpret phrases such as“fetch the sock”in
able. The performance of individual dogs was compared
terms of its component words (rather than considering its
to over 100 dogs on which the test was standardized. Ad-
utterance to be a single word). Rico could also give the
ditional breed norms were developed in her book, The
sock to a specified person. In 2008, Betsy, also a Border
128 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

Dog Intelligence Test.* [13] [11] K Guo, C Hall, S Hall, K Meints, D Mills (2007). “Left
gaze bias in human infants, rhesus monkeys, and domestic
Stanley Coren ranked dog breeds by intelligence in his dogs”. Perception. 36 ECVP. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
book The Intelligence of Dogs based on surveys done of
dog obedience judges, the article for which contains a [12] Alleyne, Richard (2008-10-29).“Dogs can read emotion
summary of the rankings obtained. in human faces”. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2010-06-
24.

[13] Coon, Kathy (1977). the dog intelligence test. Avon Books.
2.29.3 See also ISBN 0-380-01903-5.

• Dog training
• Cunliffe, Juliette (2004). The Encyclopedia of Dog
• The Intelligence of Dogs (with ratings) Breeds. Parragon Publishing. ISBN 0-7525-8276-
3.
• Cat intelligence
• Fogle, Bruce (2000). The New Encyclopedia of the
Dog. Doring Kindersley (DK). ISBN 0-7894-6130-
General:
7.

• Intelligence (trait)

• Animal cognition
2.30 The Intelligence of Dogs
• Conditioned response For the actual intelligence of dogs, see Dog intelligence.
The Intelligence of Dogs is a book on dog intelli-
• Emotion in animals

2.29.4 References
[1] Cimons, Marlene (Jan 6, 1999). “New Drug Can Let
Pooch Avoid Living a Dog's Life; Medicine: FDA OKs
antidepressant aimed at helping to ease separation anxi-
ety some neurotic canines experience.”. The Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved 2011-12-05.

[2] Gjersoe, Nathalia (Sep 23, 2013). “Dogs: an uncompli-


cated relationship”. The Guardian.

[3] http://siberianhuskycentral.com/siberian-husky-dogs/
are-siberian-huskies-good-dogs

[4] Kaminski, Juliane et al. (2004). Word Learning in a Do-


mestic Dog: Evidence for “Fast Mapping”. pp. 1682–
1683 doi=10.1126/science.1097859.

[5] Morell, Virginia (March 2008). “Minds of their Own”.


National Geographic. Retrieved 2008-10-13.

[6] Pilley, John (2013). Chaser: Unlocking the genius of the


dog who knows a thousand words. Houghton Mifflin Har-
court. ISBN 9780544102576.

[7] de Waal, Frans (1996). Good Natured. Harvard Univer-


sity Press. pp. 107–108. ISBN 0-674-35660-8.

[8] “Test reveals dogs' jealous side”. BBC News. 2008-12- Standard Poodle - among the most intelligent breeds.
08. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
gence by Stanley Coren, a professor of psychology at the
[9] “Functional MRI in Awake Unrestrained Dogs”. PLoS
University of British Columbia in Vancouver.* [1] Pub-
One. 2012-05-11.
lished in 1994, the book explains Coren's theories about
[10] Coren, Stanley (2013-10-08). “Do Dogs Know The Dif- the differences in intelligence between different breeds
* * *
ference Between Dogs and Other Animals?". Psychology of dogs. [2] [3] [4] Coren published a second edition in
*
Today. Retrieved 10 April 2015. 2006. [5]
2.30. THE INTELLIGENCE OF DOGS 129

Coren defines three aspects of dog intelligence in the accepted as a valid description of the differences among
book: instinctive intelligence, adaptive intelligence, and dog breeds in terms of the trainability aspect of dog in-
working and obedience intelligence.* [6] Instinctive intel- telligence.* [12]* [13]* [14] In addition, measurements of
ligence refers to a dog's ability to perform the tasks it was canine intelligence using other methods have confirmed
bred for, such as herding, pointing, fetching, guarding, the general pattern of these rankings* [15] including a new
or supplying companionship.* [6] Adaptive intelligence study using owner ratings to rank dog trainability and in-
refers to a dog's ability to solve problems on its own.* [6] telligence.* [16] 79 ranks are given (plus 52 ties), a total
Working and obedience intelligence refers to a dog's abil- of 131 breeds ranked:* [17]
ity to learn from humans.* [6]

Brightest Dogs
2.30.1 Methods
Understanding of New Commands: Fewer than 5 repeti-
tions.
Obey First Command: 95% of the time or better.* [18]

1. Border Collie

2. Poodle

3. German Shepherd

4. Golden Retriever

5. Doberman Pinscher

6. Shetland Sheepdog

7. Labrador Retriever
German Shepherd
8. Papillon
The book's ranking focuses on working and obedience
9. Rottweiler
intelligence. Coren sent evaluation requests to American
Kennel Club and Canadian Kennel Club obedience trial 10. Australian Cattle Dog
judges, asking them to rank breeds by performance, and
received 199 responses, representing about 50 percent of
obedience judges then working in North America.* [6] Excellent Working Dogs
Assessments were limited to breeds receiving at least 100
judge responses.* [6] This methodology aimed to elimi- Understanding of New Commands: 5 to 15 repetitions.
*
nate the excessive weight that might result from a simple Obey First Command: 85% of the time or better. [18]
tabulation of obedience degrees by breed. Its use of ex-
pert opinion followed precedent.* [7]* [8] 1. Pembroke Welsh Corgi
Coren found substantial agreement in the judges' rank- 2. Miniature Schnauzer
ings of working and obedience intelligence, with Border
collies consistently named in the top ten and Afghan 3. English Springer Spaniel
Hounds consistently named in the lowest.* [6] The highest
ranked dogs in this category were Border collies, Poodles, 4. Belgian Shepherd Dog (Tervuren)
German Shepherds, Golden Retrievers, and Doberman 5. Schipperke
Pinschers.* [9] Belgian Sheepdog
Dogs that are not breeds recognized by the American
Kennel Club or Canadian Kennel Club (such as the Jack 6. Collie
Russell Terrier) were not included in Coren's rankings. Keeshond

7. German Shorthaired Pointer


2.30.2 Evaluation 8. Flat-Coated Retriever

When Coren's list of breed intelligence first came out


there was much media attention and commentary both English Cocker Spaniel
pro* [10] and con.* [11] However over the years the rank-
ing of breeds and the methodology used have come to be Standard Schnauzer
130 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

9. Brittany Average Working/Obedience Intelligence

10. Cocker Spaniel Understanding of New Commands: 25 to 40 repetitions.


11. Weimaraner Obey First Command: 50% of the time or better.* [18]

12. Belgian Malinois 1. Soft-coated Wheaten Terrier


Bernese Mountain Dog Bedlington Terrier
Fox Terrier (Smooth)
13. Pomeranian

14. Irish Water Spaniel 2. Curly Coated Retriever


Irish Wolfhound
15. Vizsla
3. Kuvasz
16. Cardigan Welsh Corgi
Australian Shepherd

Above Average Working Dogs 4. Saluki


Finnish Spitz
Understanding of New Commands: 15 to 25 repetitions. Pointer
Obey First Command: 70% of the time or better.* [18]
5. Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
1. Chesapeake Bay Retriever German Wirehaired Pointer
Puli Black and Tan Coonhound
Yorkshire Terrier American Water Spaniel

2. Giant Schnauzer 6. Siberian Husky


Bichon Frise
3. Airedale Terrier
King Charles Spaniel
Bouvier des Flandres

4. Border Terrier 7. Tibetan Spaniel


Briard English Foxhound
Otterhound
5. Welsh Springer Spaniel American Foxhound
Greyhound
6. Manchester Terrier Wirehaired Pointing Griffon
7. Samoyed
8. West Highland White Terrier
8. Field Spaniel Scottish Deerhound
Newfoundland
Australian Terrier 9. Boxer
American Staffordshire Terrier Great Dane
Gordon Setter
10. Dachshund
Bearded Collie Staffordshire Bull Terrier
9. Cairn Terrier
Kerry Blue Terrier 11. Alaskan Malamute
Irish Setter
12. Whippet
10. Norwegian Elkhound Chinese Shar Pei
Wire Fox Terrier
11. Affenpinscher
Australian Silky Terrier 13. Rhodesian Ridgeback
Miniature Pinscher
English Setter 14. Ibizan Hound
Pharaoh Hound Welsh Terrier
Clumber Spaniel Irish Terrier
12. Norwich Terrier
15. Boston Terrier
13. Dalmatian Akita
2.30. THE INTELLIGENCE OF DOGS 131

Fair Working/Obedience Intelligence 2.30.3 See also


Understanding of New Commands: 40 to 80 repetitions. • Dog intelligence
Obey First Command: 30% of the time or better.* [18]
• Stanley Coren
1. Skye Terrier • Working dog
2. Norfolk Terrier • List of dog breeds
Sealyham Terrier

3. Pug 2.30.4 References


4. French Bulldog [1] Coren, Stanley (1995). The Intelligence of Dogs: A Guide
To The Thoughts, Emotions, And Inner Lives Of Our Ca-
5. Griffon Bruxellois nine Companions. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-
Maltese 553-37452-4.
6. Italian Greyhound [2] Boxer, Sarah (1994-06-05). “My Dog's Smarter Than
Your Dog”. NewYork Times.
7. Chinese Crested
[3] Wade, Nicholas (1994-07-03).“METHOD AND MAD-
8. Dandie Dinmont Terrier NESS; What Dogs Think”. NewYork Times.
Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen
Tibetan Terrier [4] Croke, Vicki (1994-04-21). “Growling at the dog list”.
Japanese Chin Tribune New Service (published in the Boston Globe).
Lakeland Terrier [5] “Showing all editions for 'The intelligence of dogs : a
guide to the thoughts, emotions, and inner lives or our ca-
9. Old English Sheepdog nine companions'". WorldCat. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
10. Great Pyrenees [6] Stanley Coren (July 15, 2009). “Canine Intelligence̶
Breed Does Matter”. Psychology Today. Retrieved 2011-
11. Scottish Terrier 08-16.
Saint Bernard
[7] Hart, BL; Hart (1985).“LA”. JAVMA 186: 1181–1185.
12. Bull Terrier
[8] Hart, BL; Hart (1988). The Perfect Puppy. New York:
13. Chihuahua Freeman.

14. Lhasa Apso [9] Stanley Coren. “Excerpted from “The Intelligence of
Dogs"". Retrieved 2011-10-23.
15. Bullmastiff
[10] Example: Perrin, Noel (April 10, 1994). “How Do Dogs
Think?". Chicago Sun-Times.
Lowest Degree of Working/Obedience Intelligence
[11] Example: “Coren's Canine List Has Owners Growling”
. April 30, 1994. Apr 30, 1994.
1. Shih Tzu
[12] Example:Csányi, Vilmos (2000). If dogs could talk: Ex-
2. Basset Hound ploring the canine mind. New York: North Point Press.

3. Mastiff [13] Example:Miklósi, Ádám (2009). Dog Behaviour, Evolu-


Beagle tion, and Cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

4. Pekingese [14] Davis, SL; Cheeke PR (August 1998). “Do domestic


animals have minds and the ability to think? A provisional
5. Bloodhound sample of opinions on the question.”. Journal of Animal
Science 76 (8): 2072–2079.
6. Borzoi
[15] Example: Helton, WS (November 2009).
7. Chow Chow “Cephalic index and perceived dog trainabil-
ity”. Behavioural Processes 83 (3): 355–358.
8. Bulldog doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2009.08.004.

9. Basenji [16] Coren, Stanley (2006). Why does my dog act that way? A
complete guide to your dog's personality. New York: Free
10. Afghan Hound Press.
132 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

[17] “Ranking of Dogs for Obedience/Working Intelligence by 2.31.1 Pack behavior in specific species
Breed”. Archived from the original on January 2, 2012.
African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) live and hunt in packs.
[18] Coren1995
Males assist in raising the pups, and remain with their
pack for life, while the females leave their birth pack at
about the age of two and a half years old to join a pack
2.31 Pack (canine) with no females. Males outnumber the females in a pack,
and usually only one female breeds, with all of the males.
For other uses, see Wolfpack. African wild dogs are not territorial, and they hunt co-
Pack is a social group of conspecific canids. Not operatively in their packs, running down large game and
tearing it apart. They cooperate in caring for wounded
and sick pack members as well as the young.* [1]
Gray wolves (Canis lupus) usually live in packs which con-
sist of the adult parents and their offspring of perhaps
the last 2 or 3 years. The adult parents are usually unre-
lated and other unrelated wolves may sometimes join the
pack.* [2]
Black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) have a single
long term mate, and usually hunt singly or in pairs. Both
parents care for the young, and the parents and their cur-
rent offspring are the pack. They will cooperate in larger
packs to hunt large game.* [3]
The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) has different social
behavior from the gray wolf: pack members hunt alone
for rodents, and come together mainly to defend their ter-
Canine packs often work cooperatively, as in this bison hunt. ritory from other packs.* [4]

A hunting pack of African wild dogs

White huskies dog sledding

Domestic dogs

See also: Dog behavior § Social behavior

Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris): Domesticated


dogs have had humans as part of dog social structure for at
least 12,000 years, and human behaviour is not the same
Pack size distribution of the African wild dog. as wolf behaviour. Studies of dog behaviour include stud-
ies of dogs and their interactions with humans,* [5] and
all species of canids - notably the red fox - form packs. “dumped”or “road”dogs that were raised by humans
Pack size and social behaviour within packs varies across and then left to fend for themselves (e.g. The Tuscany
species. Dog Project).* [6]
2.31. PACK (CANINE) 133

Pack organization in other canine species tus, which is trivial information, but its role as
pack progenitor, which is critical information.
• Golden jackal#Social and territorial behaviours The one use we may still want to reserve for
alpha is in the relatively few large wolf packs
• Dhole#Social and territorial behaviours
comprised of multiple litters. ... In such cases
• Coyote#Behavior the older breeders are probably dominant to the
younger breeders and perhaps can more appro-
• Golden jackal#Social and territorial behaviours priately be called the alphas. ... The point here
• Side-striped jackal#Social behavior and reproduc- is not so much the terminology but what the ter-
tion minology falsely implies: a rigid, force-based
dominance hierarchy.”* [11]

2.31.2 Dominance and the alpha wolf Use in dog training


Dominance is a ubiquitous phenomenon in social ani-
Gray wolves (Canis lupus) have been shown through ge-
mals. Animals which typically predominate over others
netic analysis to be of the same species as the domes-
are associated with the term alpha. Among pack-living
tic dog. Based in part on this close genetic relationship
wolves, alpha wolves are the genetic parents of most cubs
(though 12,000 years of domestication have altered the
in the pack. Such access to mating females creates strong
dog physically and socially), dog trainers have based tech-
selective pressure for intra-sex competition.
niques for modifying domestic dog behaviour on research
Wolves show deference to the alpha pair in their pack by on gray wolves in the wild.
allowing them to be the first to eat and, usually, the only
One of the most persistent theories in dog training lit-
pair to reproduce. Wolves use eye contact as an indica-
erature is the idea of the alpha wolf, an individual gray
tor of dominance or submission, but in order to establish
wolf who uses body language and, when needed, physi-
a dominant position they often also show physical supe-
cal force to maintain its dominance within the wolf pack.
riority through playing or fighting. Modern knowledge
The idea was first reported in early wolf research . It was
of wolves dismisses the idea of absolute alphas in a pack,
subsequently adopted by dog trainers.* [12] The term al-
favoring instead the concept of breeder wolves as the cen-
pha was popularized as early as 1976 in the dog train-
ters of life in a pack, in the sense that the pack leaders are
ing book How to Be Your Dog's Best Friend (Monks of
the common parents of at least some of the other pack
New Skete), which introduced the idea of the alpha roll,
members. As such, the smaller and more nuclear a pack
a technique for punishing unwanted dog behaviours. Psy-
is the status of alpha is less likely to be obtained through
chologist and dog trainer Stanley Coren in the 2001 book
fighting, and young wolves instead leave the pack to find
* How to Speak Dog says“you are the alpha dog...You must
a mate and produce offspring of their own. [7] Larger
communicate that you are the pack leader and dominant”
or less-nuclear packs may operate differently and possess *
* . [13]
more complex and flexible social structures. [8]
Training techniques assumed to be wolf pack related such
In the case of other wild canids, the alpha male may not
as scruff shaking, the alpha roll and recommendations
have exclusive access to the alpha female;* [9] moreover,
to be alpha to your dog continue to be used and rec-
other pack members may guard the maternity den used
ommended by some dog training instructors.* [14] It has
by the alpha female; as with the African wild dog, Lycaon
been suggested that the use of such techniques may have
pictus.* [10]
more to do with human psychology than with dog be-
As dominant roles may be deemed normal among social haviour;“dominance hierarchies and dominance disputes
species with extended parenting, it has been suggested and testing are a fundamental characteristic of all social
that the additional term alpha is not required merely to groups... But perhaps only we humans learn to use pun-
describe dominance due to its ubiquity, but should be re- ishment primarily to gain for ourselves the reward of be-
served for alpha males where they are the predominant ing dominant.* [15] Many contemporary trainers would
pack progenitor. For instance, wolf biologist L. David agree, advocating the use of rewards to teach commands
Mech stated and encourage good communication between owners and
their pets. Some canine behaviourists suggest that kind,
“calling a wolf an alpha is usually no more efficient training uses games to teach commands which
appropriate than referring to a human parent or can be utilised to benefit the owner's everyday life.* [16]
a doe deer as an alpha. Any parent is dominant
to its young offspring, so alpha adds no infor-
mation. Why not refer to an alpha female as the 2.31.3 See also
female parent, the breeding female, the matri-
• Pack hunter
arch, or simply the mother? Such a designa-
tion emphasizes not the animal's dominant sta- • Dog behavior
134 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

2.31.4 References
[1] Animal Diversity Web. “Lycaon pictus: Information”.
University of Michigan. Retrieved 21 April 2008.

[2] L. David Mech. “Schenkelʼs Classic Wolf Behavior


Study Available in English”. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
...Schenkelʼs 1947 “Expressions Studies on Wolves”,
the study that gave rise to the now outmoded notion of
alpha wolves. That concept was based on the old idea that
wolves fight within a pack to gain dominance and that the
winner is the “alpha”wolf. Today we understand that A Border Collie herding. This behaviour is an example of mod-
most wolf packs consist of a pair of adults called“parents” ified prey drive.
or “breeders,”and their offspring.

[3] Animal Diversity Web.“Canis mesomelas: Information” 2.32 Prey drive


. University of Michigan. Retrieved 21 April 2008.

[4] “Ethiopian Wolf”. Animal Info. 2005-03-07. Retrieved Eye-stalking, the tendency to watch potential
2015-02-26. prey, redirects here. For the study of eye move-
ment, see eye tracking. For eyes on the ends of
[5] llen Kienzle; Reinhold Bergler; Anja Mandernach (12 De- stalks, see eyestalk
cember 1998). ""A Comparison of the Feeding Behavior
and the Human-Animal Relationship in Owners of Nor-
mal and Obese Dogs"" 128. The Journal of Nutrition. pp. Prey drive is the instinctive inclination of a carnivore to
2779S–2782S. Retrieved 26 February 2015. find, pursue and capture prey. The term is chiefly used to
describe and analyse habits in dog training.* [1]
[6] Günther and Karin Bloch (2005). “DAS STRAßEN-
HUNDE,“TUSCANY DOG PROJECT"". Hundefarm-
eifel.de. Retrieved 26 February 2015. 2.32.1 Aspects
[7] Mech, L. David. 1999. In all predators the prey drive follows an inevitable se-
quence: Search (orient, eye); Stalk, chase; Bite (grab-
[8] Dutcher, Jim and Jamie. Wolves At Our Door, Simon and
bite, kill-bite); dissect, consume.* [2]* [3] In wolves, the
Schuster, 2002
prey drive is complete and balanced since it utilises the
[9] Gary Greenberg and Maury M. Haraway. 1998 whole range from search to kill and finally consumes the
prey in order to survive.* [3]
[10] C. Michael Hogan. 2009 In different breeds of dog certain of these five steps have
been amplified or reduced by human-controlled selective
[11] Mech, L. David (1999). “Alpha Status, Dominance,
and Division of Labor in Wolf Packs”. Jamestown, ND: breeding for various purposes. The “search”aspect of
Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. Cana- the prey drive, for example, is most valuable in detection
dian Journal of Zoology 77:1196-1203. Retrieved 21 dogs such as bloodhounds and beagles. The “eye-stalk”
April 2008. The point here is not so much the termi- is a strong component of the behaviors used by herding
nology but what the terminology falsely implies: a rigid, dogs, who find herding its own reward. The “chase”is
force-based dominance hierarchy. seen most clearly in racing dogs such as Greyhounds and
Lurchers, while the“grab-bite”and“kill-bite”are valu-
[12] “ClickerSolutions Training Articles - The History and able in the training of terriers.
Misconceptions of Dominance Theory”. Clickersolu-
tions.com. Retrieved 2015-02-26. In many breeds of dog, prey drive is so strong that the
chance to satisfy the drive is its own reward, and extrinsic
[13] Coren, Stanley (2001). “20”. How to Speak Dog (First reinforcers are not required to compel the dog to perform
Fireside edition ed.). Simon & Schuster. p. 250. ISBN the behaviour.
0-684-86534-3.

[14] “BC Boards”. Bordercollie.org. Retrieved 2015-02-26. 2.32.2 Benefits


[15] Pryor, Karen (August 1999). “4”. Don't Shoot the Dog!
In dog training, prey drive can be used as a performative
(Bantam trade paperback ed.). Bantam Books. p. 108.
ISBN 0-553-38039-7. advantage because dogs with strong prey drive are also
willing to pursue moving objects such as toys, which can
[16] “Dog behaviour pack leaders debunked”. Affinity Dog then be used to encourage certain kinds of behavior, such
Training. Retrieved 2013-08-16. as that of greyhound racing or the speed required in dog
2.34. SEPARATION ANXIETY IN DOGS 135

agility.* [4] Prey drive can be an important component of


pet dog training, obedience training and schutzhund as
well.* [5] Games such as fetch and tug-of-war can be an
effective motivator and reward for learning.
Certain aspects of the prey drive can be a disadvantage in
some dogs. In retrievers, for example, the dog is expected
to chase prey and bring it back to the human hunter, but
not bite or damage it. Herding dogs must exhibit the
stalking and chasing aspects of prey drive, but should
have strongly inhibited grab bite and kill bite stages to
prevent them wounding stock. Bull Terriers such as the
Staffordshire bull terrier have an amplified grab-bite as
they were originally bred to bait bulls (restrain bulls by
hanging onto their noses), but never needed to find or
stalk the prey.

2.32.3 Degrees
Levels of prey drive often vary substantially in different
dogs. Therefore, a dog with low drive does not make a Gaiting pugs
successful detection or search dog, but a dog who is too
high in prey drive may be unsuitable as a pet for a subur-
ban home, as it may become bored and destructive when championship, or if finished, to show in the Best of Breed
its high drive is not regularly satisfied. class as a “special”.

2.32.4 Balance 2.33.1 Education


Dogs are happiest and most balanced in overall behav- Becoming a professional handler does not require any for-
ior when their prey drive is properly stimulated and sat- mal schooling, but an apprenticeship under an established
isfied through play. Many professional dog trainers con- handler and an adherence to a code of ethics is sometimes
sider dog bite tug to be an effective training tool in prey required in order to join into one of the professional or-
drive and “retrieve”skills development. ganizations.

2.32.5 Notes 2.33.2 External links


[1] “How To Choose The Right Breed”. Darnfar.com. Re-
trieved 2011-12-06. • PHA, Professional Handler's Association

[2] Coppinger, Raymond (2001). Dogs, A New Understand- • Dog Handlers' Guild
ing of Canine Origin, Behavior, and Evolution. University
of Chicago Press. p. 116. • AKC's Registered Handlers Program
[3] article,“The Canine Prey Drive Instinct,”Paul Lindley.
• Canadian Professional Handlers Association
[4] “Playing with Prey Drive: The Key to Attitude and Enthu-
siasm in Performance Dogs”. The Dog Athlete. Retrieved
2011-12-06.
2.34 Separation anxiety in dogs
[5] “Understanding Prey Drive”. Flyballdogs.com. 1997-
01-07. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
Separation anxiety in dogs describes a condition in
which a dog exhibits distress and behavior problems when
separated from its handler. Separation anxiety typically
2.33 Professional handler manifests within 30 minutes of departure of the han-
dler.* [1] It is not fully understood why some dogs suffer
A professional handler, sometimes called a profes- from separation anxiety and others do not.* [2] The be-
sional dog handler is a person who trains, conditions havior may be secondary to an underlying medical con-
and shows dogs in conformation shows for a fee. Han- dition.* [3] A visit to the veterinarian is always recom-
dlers are hired by dog owners or breeders to finish their mended if a dog's behavior changes suddenly.
136 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

2.34.1 Typical behaviors As of 2012, a San Diego cable channel is offering


DOGTV, a cable-based television channel especially for
Dogs suffering from separation anxiety typically exhibit dogs whose owners are away. The programming, cre-
these behaviors: ated with the help of dog behavior specialists, is color-
adjusted to appeal to dogs, and features 3-6 minute seg-
• Following handler excessively ments designed to relax, to stimulate, and to expose the
dog to scenes of everyday life such as doorbells or rid-
• Pacing ing in a vehicle. The channel's proponents have indi-
cated positive reviews from a humane society shelter in
• Excessive salivating
Escondido, California.* [7] The “doggie resort”hosts
• Excessive shaking (usually seen in smaller breeds; of the opening party for Dog TV in San Diego reported
Chihuahua, Yorkshire Terrier) that some of their dogs seem to enjoy watching the an-
imated series SpongeBob SquarePants. The show's cre-
• Vomiting ators anticipate that dogs will watch Dog TV intermit-
• Destructive chewing tently, throughout the day, rather than remaining glued to
the set.* [8]* [9]* [10]
• Barking, howling, whining Another technology based solution for calming separation
• Urination, defecation in the house anxious dogs is a software named Digital Dogsitter.* [11]
The user first records his or her voice to the software.
• Self harm When the dog is alone, the software listens to the dog
and analyzes the incoming audio through the computer's
• Digging and scratching at doors or windows in an
microphone. Whenever the dog barks or howls, software
attempt to reunite with the handler* [4]
plays the owners voice to the dog and the dog stays calm.

2.34.2 Causes
Drugs
The cause of dog separation anxiety is unknown, but may
be triggered by: Dogs can also be treated with psychotropic drugs, such as
anti-depressants or anti-anxiety drugs A recent trend in
• a traumatic event treatment is the use of psychotropic drugs in animals to
treat similar psychological disorders to those displayed in
• a change in routine * [4] humans and mitigate the behavior related to these disor-
ders. These connections between human and animal psy-
• major life change (e.g. new home, new baby, death
chopharmacology can help to explain how similar neuro-
of a family member)
biology can be among different species.* [12]
• an underlying medical condition [1]
*
Similar to humans, Selective Serotonin Reuptake In-
hibitors, or SSRIs, or tricyclic anti-depressants are used
to treat anxious and depressive behavior in animals. One
2.34.3 Treatment for separation anxiety in
study tracked the effectiveness of clomipramine, a tri-
dogs cyclic anti-depressant, in reducing compulsive behaviors
through administration of a tricyclic anti-depressant in
Dogs suffering from separation anxiety are often“owner dogs. Behaviors displayed by these dogs include but
addicts.”Setting boundaries will boost a dog's confidence are not limited to tail-chasing, shadow-chasing, circling
and prepare it to be on its own.* [5] and chewing. The study found that after one month
Various techniques have been suggested for helping dogs of daily administration of the tricyclic anti-depressant
cope with separation anxiety: clomipramine, these compulsive behaviors decreased or
disappeared in 16 out of 24 dogs. Slight to moderate be-
• Leaving and returning home quietly, without fuss havior mitigation was shown in 5 dogs. These results sug-
*
[6] gest that clomipramine can be beneficial to canines dis-
playing anxiety behaviors.* [13]
• Providing plenty of exercise, play, and fun
Fluoxetine, an SSRI used by humans under the brand
• Practicing leaving to adjust the dog to your departure name Prozac, is now prescribed to dogs under the brand
name Reconcile. Another study found that dogs who
• Feeding the dog before you leave were being treated with both Reconcile and Behavioral
• Leaving the radio/TV on Modulation Treatment compared to dogs receiving a
placebo and behavioral therapy called Behavior Modu-
• Medicating the dog lation Treatment, were much more successful at miti-
2.34. SEPARATION ANXIETY IN DOGS 137

gating behaviors related to separation anxiety. After 8 [6] “Separation Anxiety In Dogs and How to Deal with It -
weeks of treatment, 72% of the dogs given fluoxetine dis- Coping with Destructive and Obsessive Compulsive Be-
played fewer adverse behaviors (Excessive salivation, in- haviors”. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
appropriate urination/defecation) while only 50% of the
placebo group had mitigated these behaviors.* [14] [7] Gorman, Steve. Dogs like to watch SpongeBob on TV.
The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved April 23, 2012.

Benzodiazepine treatment Benzodiazepines, such as [8] “Fetch the remote, it's DogTV | UTSanDiego.com”. Re-
trieved 2012-03-08.
alprazolam, are anxiolytic medications. Benzodiazepines
have also shown to be beneficial in the treatment of
[9]“Can Dog TV Make a Profit? - Businessweek”. Retrieved
stimuli-evoking anxiety, or phobias. One study on storm 2012-03-08.
phobias found that 30 out of the 32 canines involved in
the study had reductions in anxiety behavior after being [10] “DOGTV - Watch”. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
treated with alprazolam. However, this study suggests
that the best way to benefit from benzodiazepine treat- [11] “Digital Dogsitter - Cure for dogs' separation anxiety”.
ment is when it is being used in conjunction with Behav- Retrieved 2012-11-26.
ior Modulation Treatment and an anti-depressant.* [15]
[12] Hamby, Tori Medication now used to treat
petʼs behavioral disorders September 30, 2012
Adverse Effects The most common adverse effects re- http://www.huntersvilleherald.com/news/2012/09/30/
lated to fluoxetine treatment were decreased appetite, ex- medication-now-used-to-treat-pets-behavioral-disorders/
perienced by 23% of the dogs in the study, and lethargy,
experienced by 39% of the dogs in the study. Some ca- [13] Seksel, K; Lindeman, MJ (2001). “Use of clomipramine
in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, separation
nines actually experienced worsening anxiety and aggres-
* anxiety and noise phobia in dogs: A preliminary, clini-
sive behavior. [16] cal study”. Australian Veterinary Journal 79 (4): 252–
In the study with clomipramine, 9 dogs underwent with- 6. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.2001.tb11976.x. PMID
drawal after discontinuing treatment. 5 of those dogs 11349411.
were successful in overcoming the withdrawal, while 4
dogs relapsed.* [13] With regards to these results it is im- [14] Simpson, BS; Landsberg, GM; Reisner, IR; Ciribassi,
JJ; Horwitz, D; Houpt, KA; Kroll, TL; Luescher, A et
portant to note that these sample sizes were relatively
al. (2007). “Effects of reconcile (fluoxetine) chewable
small, so we should be cautious about making hasty con- tablets plus behavior management for canine separation
clusions. However, these studies have given us a look at anxiety”. Veterinary therapeutics 8 (1): 18–31. PMID
one of the many variables regarding psychoactive drug 17447222.
withdrawal.* [13]* [15]
With regards to benzodiazepine treatment, it has been [15] Crowell-Davis, Sharon L.; Seibert, Lynne M.; Sung,
Wailani; Parthasarathy, Valli; Curtis, Terry M. (2003).
found that canines can develop dependence to these types
“Use of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modi-
of medications and go through a similar withdrawal pro- fication for treatment of storm phobia in dogs”. Jour-
cess as humans. For example, their seizure threshold is nal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222
lowered and anxiety relapse can occur after stopping ben- (6): 744–8. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.222.744. PMID
zodiazepine treatment.* [17] Similarly to treatment of hu- 12675296.
man anxiety disorders, benzodiazepines are a last resort
treatment, due to their addiction potential.* [12] [16] Irimajiri, M; Luescher, AU; Douglass, G; Robertson-
Plouch, C; Zimmermann, A; Hozak, R (2009). “Ran-
domized, controlled clinical trial of the efficacy of flu-
2.34.4 References oxetine for treatment of compulsive disorders in dogs”.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
[1] Woodard, Sherry. “Separation Anxiety in Dogs”. Best 235 (6): 705–9. doi:10.2460/javma.235.6.705. PMID
Friends Animal Society. Retrieved 9 August 2012. 19751167.

[2] of the US, Humane Society. “Separation Anxiety”. Re- [17] Frey, Hans-Hasso; Philippin, Hans-Peter; Scheuler, Wolf-
trieved 9 August 2012. gang (1984). “Development of tolerance to the anticon-
vulsant effect of diazepam in dogs”. European Journal
[3] MD, Pet. “Separation Anxiety in Dogs”. Retrieved 9 of Pharmacology 104 (1–2): 27–38. doi:10.1016/0014-
August 2012. 2999(84)90365-0. PMID 6437848.

[4] “Separation Anxiety : The Humane Society of the United


States”. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
2.34.5 External links
[5] Kilcommons, Brian. “How to Cure Your Dog's Separa-
tion Anxiety”. Retrieved 9 August 2012. • Dog Anxiety Dietary Solution
138 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

2.35 Shepherd's whistle


A shepherd's whistle is a specialized, multi-pitch whis-
tle used to train and transmit commands to a sheepdog to
aid in herding.

2.35.1 History

A shepherd's whistle is commonly used for sheepdog tri-


als and was originally developed from a primitive whistle
made out of folding over a tobacco tin* [1] or dog-food
lid and punching a hole.

2.35.2 Mechanics and material

Unlike other whistles, they are placed inside the mouth


and the pitch is controlled by placement of the tongue
behind the whistle. They are commonly made of plastic, Originally used in the late 1960s to train hunting dogs,
aluminum, stainless steel, silver, brass, titanium, corion, early collars were very high powered. Many modern ver-
jade, buffalo horn and other materials. Shepherd's whis- sions are capable of delivering very low levels of shock.
tles are designed to communicate clearly and at distances Shock collars are now readily available and have been
up to several hundred yards the commands of the owner used in a range of applications, including behavioral mod-
to his working dog. They produce clear, high-frequency ification, obedience training, and pet containment, as well
tones of an easily modulated and variable pitch, allow- as military, police and service training. While similar sys-
ing the shepherd to communicate a variety of commands. tems are available for other animals, the most common
The pitch is designed to be at the optimal frequency are the collars designed for domestic dogs.
for the border collie's hearing, and for penetration and The use of shock collars is controversial and scientific evi-
distance to cut through adverse weather when gathering dence for their safety and efficacy is mixed. A few coun-
sheep. tries have enacted bans or controls on their use. Some
animal welfare organizations warn against their use or
actively support a ban on their use or sale. Some want
2.35.3 References restrictions placed on their sale. Some professional dog
trainers and their organizations oppose their use and some
[1] “The Shepherd's Whistles”, compiled by Kathleen Ward support them. Support for their use or calls for bans from
the general public is mixed.

2.35.4 External links


2.36.1 Types of devices
• Shepherd's whistle sounds
Pet containment systems

The most common use of shock collars is pet containment


2.36 Shock collar systems that are used to keep a dog inside the perimeter of
the residence without the construction of a physical bar-
The term shock collar is a term used in order to de- rier. This use of shock collars is increasingly popular in
scribe a family of training collars (also called e-collars, areas where local laws or homeowners' associations pro-
Ecollars, remote training collars, Zap collars, or elec- hibit the construction of a physical fence. Available sys-
tronic collars) that deliver electrical shocks of varying tems include: in-ground installation to preserve the aes-
intensity and duration to the neck of a dog (they can also thetics of the yard; above ground installation to reinforce
be applied to other places on the dog's body) via a radio- an existing barrier that was not sufficient in containing the
controlled electronic device incorporated into a dog col- dog; and wireless systems to allow for indoor use. Most
lar. Some collar models also include a tone or vibrational pet containment systems work by installing a wire around
setting, as an alternative to or in conjunction with the the perimeter of the yard. The wire carries no current
shock. Others include integration with Internet mapping (as opposed to electric fences which do carry a current at
capabilities and GPS to locate the dog or alert an owner high voltage that may be lethal in the event of unautho-
of its whereabouts. rized or defective installation or equipment) but forms a
2.36. SHOCK COLLAR 139

closed loop with a circuit box that transmits a radio signal sensation they deliver to the “static shock”that people
to the receiver collar worn by the dog (Lindsay 2005, p. sometimes get when reaching for a door knob or car door.
573). As the dog approaches the perimeter the collar will This is not to imply that shock collars emit static electric-
activate. A “scat mat”, is a battery operated or plug in ity but rather to give the potential user an idea of what
pad that delivers a shock if the animal walks on it. These a shock collar feels like. It's often startling, sometimes
pads are used on furniture, windowsills, counters or in painful, but has never been shown to cause physical in-
hallways to prevent an animal from touching or accessing jury.
an area. The animal learns to avoid receiving a shock by Comparing the effects of shock collars with other elec-
avoiding contact with the mat.
trical stimulation products, Dr. Dieter Klein has stated
that, “Modern devices ... are in a range in which nor-
Bark control collars mally no organic damage is being inflicted. The electric
properties and performances of the modern low current
remote stimulation devices ... are comparable to the elec-
Bark control collars are used to curb excessive or nui-
tric stimulation devices used in human medicine. Organic
sance barking by delivering a shock at the moment the
damage, as a direct impact of the applied current, can
dog begins barking. Bark collars can be activated by mi-
be excluded.”* [2] Shock of this nature carries little en-
crophone or vibration, and some of the most advanced
ergy (on the order of millijoules, 1 millijoule = 0.001
collars use both sound and vibration to eliminate the pos-
joule ). “At 0.914 joules the electric muscle stimula-
sibility of extraneous noises activating a response.
tion and contractions a human receives from an 'abdomi-
nal energizer' fitness product is exponentially stronger ̶
Training collars or remote trainers more than 1,724 times stronger̶than the impulse a dog
receives from a pet containment collar set at its highest
Training collars can be activated by a handheld device. level.”.* [3]
Better quality remote trainers have a large variety of lev-
els and functions, can give varying duration of stimula- • A“remote trainer”set on a low level emits 0.000005
tion, better quality stimulation, and have a beep or vibra- joules (5 microjoules).
tion option useful for getting the dogʼs attention. Proper
• A “bark collar”set on a high level emits 0.0003
training is an imperative for remote collar use, as mis-
joules (300 microjoules).
use can cause negative behavioral fallout (Polsky 2000).
Many recommend consulting a behaviorist or a certified • A“muscle stimulation machine”set on a“normal
training professional who is experienced with shock col- level”emits 2.0 joules.
lars for successful usage and application.
• Set on a “high level”it emits 6.0 joules.
Shock collars may be used in conjunction with positive
reinforcement and / or utilizing other principles of • An electric fence energizer [a “charged fence”–
operant conditioning, depending on the trainer's methods not a pet containment system] emits 3.2 joules.
either as a form of positive punishment, where the shock
is applied at the moment an undesired behavior occurs, • A modern defibrillator can emit up to 360
in order to reduce the frequency of that behavior; or as a joules.* [4]
form of negative reinforcement, where a continuous stim-
ulation is applied until the moment a desired behavior oc-
2.36.3 Technical considerations
curs, in order to increase the frequency of that behavior.
Electric shock can be characterised in terms of voltage,
current, waveform, frequency (of waveform), pulse rate
2.36.2 Frame of reference and duration. Although voltage, current and duration of
shock can be used to calculate the amount of energy ap-
“At low levels, the term shock is hardly fitting to describe plied (in Joules), these are not indicators of the inten-
the effects produced by electronic training collars, since sity of the stimulus or how it may be perceived by the
there is virtually no effect beyond a pulsing tingling or recipient. Static electric shocks that are experienced in
tickling sensation on the surface of the skin ... the word daily life are of the order of 10,000 volts, and yet are
shock is loaded with biased connotations, images of con- not painful or physically damaging because they are of
vulsive spasms and burns, and implications associated very low current. Modern shock collars can be set so that
with extreme physical pain, emotional trauma, physiolog- the current they give off is only mildly uncomfortable.
ical collapse, and laboratory abuses ... the stimulus or sig- No shock collar on the market today is limited to deliver
nal generated by most modern devices is highly controlled shocks of such low intensity. The lack of such limits is
and presented to produce a specific set of behavioral and because variable settings are essential, so that the shock
motivational responses to it.”* [1] collar can be adjusted to the level that the dog requires,
Some trainers who use shock collars will compare the and adjusted as situations change. The shock, and the
140 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

animal's perception of it, can be affected by a number of Christiansen et al study (2001a)


factors.
Christiansen et al., looked at behavioural differences be-
Individual variations in temperament, pain sensitivity and
tween three breeds of dogs when confronted by domestic
susceptibility to startle of dogs, means that shock settings
sheep (138 dogs; Elkhounds, hare hunting dogs and En-
must be carefully adjusted to produce a shock that is per-
glish setters).* [7] Two testing procedures were used and
ceived by the dog as aversive enough to stop the dog en-
shock collars were used to deter attacks on sheep. The
gaging in the unwanted behaviour. The single most im-
first, a path test, involved observing the dogs' reactions to
portant factor is the animal's level of arousal during train-
a set of novel stimuli (rag pulled across the track, bun-
ing. Normally salient stimuli, such as noises, commands
dle of cans thrown down, tethered sheep at 5m) as it was
and even shocks, may have no effect on a dog that is highly
walked. The second test involved monitoring the dog's
aroused and focused on an activity such as hunting.
reaction to a free-roaming sheep flock in a field. In this
In order to deliver consistent shocks, good contact must study they identified several factors that predicted a high
be made between the collar electrodes and the dog's skin hunting motivation and attack severity. These were lack
(the collar must be fitted according to the manufacturer's of previous opportunity to chase sheep, low fearfulness
instructions). Local humidity and individual variation in towards gunshots and unfamiliar people and general in-
coat density, skin thickness and surface conductivity, will terest in sheep when encountering them. Younger dogs
also affect the delivery of the shock. (<3 years of age) showed more pronounced initial hunting
The waveform, its frequency, the pulse rate, amperage, motivation and more frequent attacks. Elkhounds showed
voltage and impedance are important determinants of more hunting behaviour, more attacks and were more fre-
likely response. “Many e−collars appear to shift inten- quently given electric shocks during the tests. A shock
sity levels by altering the pulse duration or repetition rate collar was used to deter attacks on the sheep during the
while keeping the output current and voltage relatively experiments. Shocks (3000V, 0.4A, duration 1 second)
constant, depending on the electrode−skin load.”(Lind- were delivered when dogs came within a distance of 1-
say 2005, p. 573). 2m of the sheep, and were repeated until the dogs left
the area. The objective was to suppress an attack, but
Shock collars are sometimes referred to as delivering a not to damage the hunting ability of the dogs. Despite
“static shock"; however, static electricity is direct current frequently initiated chases and attacks, few shocks were
and carries little energy (order of millijoules). Shock col- delivered. This was because few dogs approached closer
lars make use of alternating current. It is therefore inap- than 1–2 m, and the intention was to deter proximity to
propriate to refer to shock collars as delivering a static sheep rather than to associate hunting behaviour with an
shock. aversive shock, which would impair future hunting be-
No regulations exist specifying the performance charac- haviour in other contexts.
teristics or reliability of these devices, so there is consid-
erable variation in shock level and waveform character-
Christiansen et al. study (2001b)
istics between manufacturers, and perhaps even between
batches of collars from a single manufacturer. The lack
The dogs used in the first study were re-tested using the
of regulation or standards, and the fact that some of the
same procedures in order to assess the long-term impact
safety features of shock collars are patented by specific
of the training on their reaction to sheep.* [8] Again, in the
manufacturers,* [5] means that the safety and operational
free-running tests the dogs were fitted with a shock collar,
characteristics of individual products cannot be verified.
which was used to deter approaches to within 1-2m of the
Over 31 years ago, in the USA, the Center for Veterinary sheep. Dogs that had previously been shocked in year 1
Medicine (CVM), a branch of the U.S. Food and Drug showed a significant increased in latency to approach a
Administration (FDA),“concurred”in regulatory action person during the path test (p<0.001), even though this
against a manufacturer of a bark collar, stating “Com- was not a condition under which shocks had been deliv-
plaints received, which were later corroborated by our ered. Owners reported behavioral differences between
own testing, included severe burns in the collar area and year 1 and 2 in 24 of the dogs. 18 of the 24 dogs had
possible personality adjustment injuries to the dogs. The shown no interest in sheep during that period, even though
shocking mechanism was found to be activated not only they had been interested in them during the first year tests.
by barking but by vehicle horns, slamming doors or any However, only one of those dogs had received shocks, so
other loud noise. CVM concurred in regulatory action the change in behaviour could not be attributed to the use
against the device since it was deemed to be dangerous to of the shock collar. When comparing ownersʼreports for
the health of the animal.”* [6] However, physical injuries the two years, the dogs showed a weaker inclination for
have not been shown to occur with current collars . chasing sheep and other prey than previously (p < 0:001),
but this variable was not affected by shock experience.
Dogs that had shown interest in sheep in year 1 showed a
2.36.4 Scientific studies persistent interest in year 2. No dogs chased or attacked
sheep as their first response, while half of them did so the
2.36. SHOCK COLLAR 141

first year. During the entire test period, the proportion of particularly be mentioned, that the quitting signal training
dogs attacking sheep was reduced to almost one fourth. was implied only on adult dogs within the frame of this
The number of shocks administered per dog was reduced study. Therefore, the results should not be interpreted as
by the second year, and only one of the dogs which re- that the quitting signal can not be a suitable method in
ceived el. shocks the first year needed el. shocks also police dog training. As previously stated training of the
the second year.The observations that both receivers and quitting signal requires a hard and a structured procedure.
non-receivers of el. shocks the first year showed a reduc- Thus, if the training, namely the conditioning, begins in
tion in the probability of chasing sheep, but the receivers puppyhood, the quitting signal can also be an effective
showing a larger reduction, show that el. shock treatment method in police dog training”. Comparing the effects of
provides an additional learning response. No adverse ef- the three punishment methods; “These results can prob-
fects on the dogs were observed with this training proce- ably be explained by that electronic training collar com-
dure, but in their discussion the authors commented “In plies completely with the punishment criteria, which were
order to ensure no negative effects, we recommend that defined by TORTORA (1982), in case of proof of the
the electronic dog collar may be used for such purposes proficient and experienced user. On the other hand when
only if it is used by skilled trainers with special compe- applying the pinch collar, these criteria can not be met
tence on dog behaviour, learning mechanisms, and of this even though perfect timing is applied since reactions of
particular device.” the dog and effectiveness of the method depends on sev-
eral different factors such as the willingness, strength and
motivation of the handler, as well as his/her proficiency.
Salgirli dissertation (2008) In addition to that, the visibility of the administrator and,
thus, of the punishment is another important factor in-
The aim of Salgirli's study was "...to investigate whether fluencing the efficiency of the pinch collar because the
any stress is caused by the use of specific conditioned sig- dog directly links the punishment with its owner. There-
nal, quitting signal, and/or pinch collars as alternatives to fore this method does not satisfy theʻʻpunishment crite-
electric training collars, and if they do so, whether the riaʼʼat all. The quitting signal on the other hand requires
stress produced in the process is comparable to the one criteria, such as good timing and structured training pro-
with electric training collars.”.* [9] The study population cedure, on account of complete conditioning in order to
were a group of 42 adult police dogs. The quitting sig- achieve effective results. Even if these criteria are met,
nal was a conditioned frustration equivalent to negative the personality trait of the dog is another factor, which
punishment. It was conditioned by associating failure to influences the efficiency of the signal.”* [9]
obtain an anticipated food reward with a specific vocal
signal. In the test, dogs were walked past a“provocateur”
who attempted to taunt the dog into a reaction. If the dog Schalke et al. study (2007)
reacted, it was punished, and if it failed to react on sub-
sequent provocations then the punishment was deemed Schalke et al. conducted a 7-month study to investigate
to have had a learning effect. The study is therefore a the effect of shock collars on stress parameters, in a series
comparison of negative and positive punishment meth- of different training situations.* [10] Heart rate and saliva
ods, and not a comparison of punishment with positive cortisol were used to determine the stress levels in three
reinforcement. Learning effect was measured by assess- groups of dogs. Group A received the electric shock when
ing the number of dogs that learned to quit a behaviour they touched the “prey”(a rabbit dummy attached to a
after application of the punishing stimulus. There was no motion device), Group H “ ( here”command) received the
statistical difference in learning effect between the pinch electric shock when they did not obey a previously trained
and shock collar, but the quitting signal produced a signif- recall command during hunting, and Group R (random)
icantly poorer learning effect compared to shock or pinch received random shocks that were unpredictable and out
collars (p < 0.01 in both cases). “Although the pinch of context. Group A did not show a significant rise in
collar caused more behavioral reactions, in the form of cortisol levels; the other two groups (R & H) did show
distress, than the electronic training collar, the electronic a significant rise, with group R showing the highest level
training collar elicits more vocal reactions in dogs than of cortisol. Salivary cortisol was measured, as this pro-
the pinch collars"; the explanation for increased vocalisa- cedure is less likely to cause stress related rise in cortisol.
tion in the shock collar group was that this was due to a From this the researchers concluded that the dogs who
startle response rather than pain reactions. could clearly associate the shock with their action (i.e.
Salivary cortisol was monitored to measure the stress lev- touching the prey) and as a result were able to predict and
els of the dogs, but this data was not presented in the dis- control whether they received a shock, did not show con-
sertation; behavioral observation was the sole measure of siderable or persistent stress. The evidence of increased
stress. The study concluded that the electronic training stress in the other groups was felt to support earlier find-
collar induces less distress and shows stronger “learning ings that poor timing and/or inappropriate use of a shock
effect”in dogs in comparison to the pinch collar. Com- collar puts the dog at high risk of severe and ongoing
menting on the quitting signal, the author stated“It should stress. They conclude that “The results of this study
142 CHAPTER 2. ARTICLES

suggest that poor timing in the application of high level used for the study. Test conditions involved presenta-
electric pulses, such as those used in this study, means tion of an unfamiliar dog. Dogs wore activated collars
there is a high risk that dogs will show severe and per- for period of 30 minutes per day for three days in two
sistent stress symptoms. We recommend that the use of consecutive weeks. The amount of barking was signifi-
these devices should be restricted with proof of theoreti- cantly reduced starting on the second day with both the
cal and practical qualification required and then the use of spray and shock collars. There was no significant differ-
these devices should only be allowed in strictly specified ence in effect between the two collar types. The treatment
situations.” group dogs showed a mild yet statistically significant in-
crease in blood cortisol level (an indicator of stress) only
on the first day of wearing the collars (as compared to the
Schilder & van der Borg study (2004) Control Group.)* [13] At the conclusion of the study, Dr.
Steiss and her team concluded that“In the pr