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ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

STRUCTURAL ENGINEER :
SYAIFUL ASHARI, ST

CHAPTER
CHAPTER

ANALYSIS OF BEARING
8 CAPACITY
CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE
FOUNDATION

8.1 INTRODUCTION
Driven pile is a type of the deep foundation. This foundation is driven to the ground using a hammer
which is dropped from the prescribed height. The hammer is introduces energy to push the pile to the
soil.

The followings are several reason to use the driven pile foundation (deep foundation),as follows :
 The upper soil condition is so bad so the use of spread footing is very un economically.
 Large uplift capacity is required.
 Large lateral capacity is required.
 Requirement for pier foundation and abutment foundation in bridge structure.

This chapter describes the analysis of bearing capacity for driven pile foundation based on the soil
properties and in situ test, dynamic formula to predict the bearing capacity, lateral bearing capacity and
analysis of group pile.

8.2 TYPE OF PILE FOUNDATION


8.2.1 GENERAL
Load transfer from the super structure to the pile foundation is depends to the type of soil. The bearing
capacity of pile foundation is from the end bearing capacity and skin friction capacity.

Cohesionless soil provides the end bearing capacity and cohesive soil provide skin friction
capacity. For general soil condition the bearing capacity is provided by the end bearing capacity plus
with skin friction capacity.
The ultimate bearing capacity of pile foundation can be written as :

Qu = Qup + Qus [8.1]

where :
Qu = ultimate bearing capacity
Qup = ultimate end bearing capacity
Qus = ultimate skin friction capacity

8-1
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

And the allowable bearing capacity is :

Qup Qus
Qa = + [8.2]
SFp SFs

where :
SFp = safety factor for end bearing capacity (2.0 – 4.0)
SFs = safety factor for skin friction capacity (2.0 – 4.0)

8.2.2 END BEARING PILE


End bearing pile is pile foundation that the major of bearing capacity is provided by end bearing
capacity. The skin friction capacity in end bearing pile can be neglected because it has small
influence.

End bearing capacity is calculated as follows :

Qup = qup Ap [8.3]

where :
Qup = ultimate end bearing capacity
qup = ultimate end bearing pressure
Ap = end bearing contact area

8.2.3 FRICTION PILE


Friction pile is pile foundation that the major of bearing capacity is provided by skin friction capacity
(provided by adhesion). The end bearing capacity in end bearing pile can be neglected because it
has small influence.

Ultimate skin friction capacity is calculated as follows :

Qus = ∑ fs A s [8.4]

where :
Qus = ultimate skin friction capacity
fs = ultimate skin friction stress
As = skin friction contact area

8.3 LOAD TRANSFER MECHANISM


8.3.1 GENERAL
Pile foundation almost to carry the moment load, this moment is transfer becomes compressive axial
load and tensile axial load. The design of bearing capacity of pile foundation must consider the type
of load acts in the pile.

8-2
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

8.3.2 COMPRESSIVE AXIAL CAPACITY


The bearing capacity of pile foundation due to axial compressive load is provided by the end bearing
capacity and skin friction capacity.

8.3.3 UPLIFT AXIAL CAPACITY


The bearing capacity of pile foundation due to axial tensile load is provided only by the skin friction
capacity.

8.4 ANALYSIS OF AXIAL BEARING CAPACITY – SOIL PROPERTIES


8.4.1 GENERAL
Basic bearing capacity formula can be used for bearing capacity analysis for deep foundation with
several modifications. Analysis based on soil properties is using internal friction angle and
undrained shear strength.

8.4.2 CONTACT AREA


A. General
Contact area is the important thing to be considered in the pile foundation design. The contact area
may be different for different type of pile foundation.

B. Open Ended Steel Pipe Pile


When the pipe pile is driven the inside of the pipe will be plugged with the soil.
For condition of full plug, the end bearing contact area is the same with area of pipe if it is open
ended, as follows :

A p = A steel + A soil [8.5]

where :
Ap = end bearing contact area
Asteel = area of steel profile
Asoil = area of plug soil

For condition of partial plug, the end bearing contact area is half of the area of pipe if it is open
ended, as follows :

A p = 0.5(A steel + A soil ) [8.6]

where :
Ap = end bearing contact area
Asteel = area of steel profile
Asoil = area of plug soil

The skin friction contact area is the perimeter of the profile.

8-3
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

C. H Steel Pile
When the pipe pile is driven the inside of the pipe will be half plugged with the soil.

The end bearing contact area is :

A p = 0.5(A steel + A soil ) [8.7]

where :
Ap = end bearing contact area
Asteel = area of steel profile
Asoil = area of plug soil

The skin friction contact area is the perimeter of the pile with full plug.

8.4.3 END BEARING CAPACITY


A. General
The ultimate bearing capacity of pile foundation can be computed using the bearing capacity formula
as described in the previous chapter.

B. Bearing Capacity Formula


In general basic bearing capacity formula can be written as follows :

qu = cN*c + qN*q + γBN*γ [8.8]

Because the width of pile foundation is small (B is small), so the end term of the equation can be
neglected, so the end bearing pressure can be written as :

qup = cNc* + qN*q [8.9]

Ultimate end bearing capacity is computed as follows :

(
Qup = cN*c + qN*q A p) [8.10]

For the condition of cohesive soil (c=su and φ=0), the formula becomes :

qup = 9su [8.11]

where :
qp = ultimate end bearing pressure
su = undrained shear strength

N*c , N*q = bearing capacity factor (include depth factor, inclination factor)

8-4
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

Ultimate end bearing capacity is computed as follows :

Qup = (9su )A p [8.12]

C. Vesic’s Method
Vesic propose the end bearing capacity formula based on the expansion of cavities theory.

The end bearing capacity can be calculated as follows :

(
Qup = cN*c + σ'0 N*σ A p ) [8.13]

where :
Qup = ultimate end bearing capacity
σ’0 = mean normal ground stress at the level of pile point

Nc* , N*σ = bearing capacity factor

The variables above is defined as :

 1 + 2K 0 
σ'0 =  q'
 3 
[8.14]
K 0 = 1 − sin(φ )

where :
q’ = effective vertical stress at the pile point
K0 = coefficient of earth pressure
φ = internal friction angle

The bearing capacity factor is defined as :

( )
Nc* = N*q − 1 cot (φ)

3N*q [8.15]
Nσ* =
(1 + 2K 0 )

D. Janbu’s Method
The end bearing capacity can be calculated as follows :

(
Qup = cNc* + q' N*q A p ) [8.16]

8-5
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

where :
Qup = ultimate end bearing capacity
q’ = effective vertical stress at the pile point

N*c , N*q = bearing capacity factor

The bearing capacity factor is defined as :

( )
Nc* = N*q − 1 cot (φ)

( )
2 [8.17]
 
N*q =  tan(φ) + 1 + tan2 (φ)  e2η'tan φ
 

E. Coyle & Castello’s Method


Coyle & Castello’s method is used for cohesionless soil.

The end bearing capacity can be calculated as follows :

( )
Qup = q' N*q A p [8.18]

where :
Qup = ultimate end bearing capacity
q’ = effective vertical stress at the pile point

N*q = bearing capacity factor

F. Meyerhof’s Method
Meyerhof proposes two formula can be used for cohesionless soil and cohesive soil.

The table below shows the Meyerhof’s end bearing capacity formula, as follows :

TABLE 8.1 END BEARING CAPACITY – MEYERHOF


COHESIONLESS COHESSIVE
SOIL SOIL

( ) ( )
Qup = q' N*q A p ≤ 50N*q tan(φ) A p (
Qup = N*c c u Ap )

where :
cu = undrained cohesion

8.4.4 SKIN FRICTION CAPACITY


A. General
The ultimate bearing capacity of pile foundation can be computed using the bearing capacity formula
as described in the previous chapter.

8-6
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

B. α Method
The α method is calculates the skin friction resistance for cohesive soil based on the adhesion
factorα.

The skin friction capacity can be calculated as follows :

Qus = (αsu )A s
[8.19]
su = c

where :
Qus = ultimate skin friction capacity
α = adhesion factor
su = undrained shear strength
c = cohesion
As = skin friction contact area

The adhesion factor α is determined based on the undrained shear strength su usually use the
graph.

C. β Method
The β method is calculates the skin friction resistance for cohesionless soil based on the coefficient
of lateral earth pressure.

The skin friction capacity can be calculated as follows :

Qus = (βσ'v )A s
[8.20]
β = K tan(φs )

where :
Qus = ultimate skin friction capacity
σ’v = vertical effective stress at measured point
K = coefficient of lateral earth pressure
φs = friction angle of soil versus pile

Conservatively the lateral earth pressure can be computed, as follows :

Normally Consolidated Clays


K = 1 − sin(φs )
[8.21]

Over Consolidated Clays

K = (1 − sin(φs )) OCR
[8.22]

8-7
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

Bhushan propose the following equation to calculate β factor :

β = 0.18 + (0.65Dr ) [8.23]

where :
Dr = relative density

D. λ Method
The λ method is calculates the skin friction resistance for cohesive soil based on the coefficient of
lateral earth pressure.

The skin friction capacity can be calculated as follows :

Qus = (λ{σ'v +2 su })A s [8.24]

where :
Qus = ultimate skin friction capacity
λ = friction capacity coefficient
σ' v = average vertical stress of ground surface and pile tip

su = average undrained shear strength of ground surface and pile tip

The factor λ is depended to the embedment length of the pile usually use the graph.

8.5 ANALYSIS OF AXIAL BEARING CAPACITY – IN SITU TEST


8.5.1 GENERAL
Most practical method to obtain the bearing capacity is based on the in situ test such as standard
penetration test (SPT) and cone penetration test (CPT).

8.5.2 END BEARING CAPACITY – SPT


A. General
If the SPT data is used to obtain the bearing capacity it is recommended to use higher factor of safety
because inconsistency of the SPT test result.

B. Meyerhof’s Method
End bearing capacity based on the Meyerhof is :

 D
Qup =  40Ncor  A p ≤ 400Ncor [8.25]
 B

where :
Qup = ultimate end bearing capacity (kPa)

8-8
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

Ncor = corrected N SPT value


D = embedment length
B = pile diameter
Ap = end bearing contact area

Ncor must be taken as average value in the range of 8B above pile tip and 3B below pile tip.

8.5.3 SKIN FRICTION CAPACITY – SPT


A. General
If the SPT data is used to obtain the bearing capacity it is recommended to use higher factor of safety
because inconsistency of the SPT test result.

B. Meyerhof’s Method
The following is the skin friction capacity based on SPT test according to Meyerhof.

TABLE 8.2 SKIN FRICTION CAPACITY – MEYERHOF


LARGE DISPLACEMENT SMALL DISPLACEMENT
PILE PILE

Qus = (2Ncor )A s Qus = (Ncor )A s

where :
Qus = ultimate skin friction capacity (kPa)
Ncor = corrected N SPT value
As = skin friction contact area

C. Vesic’s Method
The following is the skin friction capacity based on SPT test according to Vesic.

TABLE 8.3 SKIN FRICTION CAPACITY – VESIC


LARGE DISPLACEMENT OPEN ENDED,
PILE H PILE

Qus =  801.54Dr  A s Qus =  251.54Dr  A s


4 4

   

where :
Qus = ultimate skin friction capacity (kPa)
Dr = relative density
As = skin friction contact area

8-9
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

8.5.4 END BEARING CAPACITY – CPT


A. General
The CPT data can be used to predict the bearing capacity based on the cone resistance and side
friction.

B. LCPC’s Method
End bearing capacity based on the LCPC method is :

Qup = (qcek c )A p [8.26]

where :
Qup = ultimate end bearing capacity (kPa)
qce = equivalent cone resistance at pile tip (kPa)
kc = cone end bearing factor
Ap = end bearing contact area

qce is taken as the average in the range of 1.5B above pile tip and 1.5B below pile tip.

The factor of cone end bearing is taken as :

TABLE 8.4 CONE END BEARING FACTOR


TYPE kc
Clay & Silt 0.600
Sand & Gravel 0.375
Chalk 0.400

8.5.5 SKIN FRICTION CAPACITY – CPT


A. General
The CPT data can be used to predict the bearing capacity based on the cone resistance and side
friction.

B. Meyerhof’s Method
Skin friction capacity based on cone resistance according to the Meyerhof is :

Qus = (0.005qc )A s [8.26]

where :
Qus = ultimate skin friction capacity (kPa)
qc = cone resistance (kPa)
As = skin friction contact area

8 - 10
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

If the side friction is used the following equation can be used :

TABLE 8.5 SKIN FRICTION CAPACITY – MEYERHOF


LARGE DISPLACEMENT SMALL DISPLACEMENT
PILE PILE

Qus = (1.5 − 2.0qs )A s Qus = (qs )A s

where :
Qus = ultimate skin friction capacity (kPa)
qs = side friction (kPa)
As = skin friction contact area

C. Nottingham & Schmertmann’s Method


Skin friction capacity based on cone resistance is :

TABLE 8.6 SKIN FRICTION CAPACITY – NOTTINGHAM & SCHMERTMANN


COHESIONLESS SOIL
COHESSIVE SOIL
z < 8B z ≥ 8B

 z 
Qus =  α's  fsc  A s Qus = (α's fsc )A s Qus = (α'c fsc )A s
 B  

where :
Qus = ultimate skin friction capacity (kPa)
qs = side friction (kPa)
z = depth to mid point of soil layer
B = pile diameter

α’s and α’c is determined based on the graph.

8.6 ANALYSIS OF AXIAL BEARING CAPACITY – DYNAMIC TEST


8.6.1 GENERAL
The pile bearing capacity can be predicted using the driving energy transferred to the pile using a
hammer. This method is known as dynamic method and can be used simply based on the final blow
count (final set).

8.6.2 SANDER’S METHOD


Sander propose dynamic formula to predict the axial load capacity of the driven pile as follows :

Wr h
Qa =
s(FS) [8.27]

where :
Qa = allowable axial bearing capacity

8 - 11
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

Wr = weight of hammer
h = hammer stroke / hammer fall distance
s = final penetration per blow at end of driving
FS = factor of safety (FS = 8)

8.6.3 ENGINEERING NEW’S METHOD


The most popular dynamic formula used is proposed by Engineering News (Wellington, 1888), as
follows :

Wrh
Qa =
(s + C)(FS) [8.28]

where :
Qa = allowable axial bearing capacity
Wr = weight of hammer
h = hammer stroke / hammer fall distance
s = final penetration per blow at end of driving
FS = factor of safety (FS = 6)
C = constant (drop hammer = 25 mm)
(single acting hammer = 2.5 mm)

8.6.4 MODIFIED ENGINEERING NEW’S METHOD


The following is dynamic formula which is modification of Engineering News Formula, as follows :

 e W h  Wr + n Wp 
2
Qa =  h r 
 (s + C)  Wr + Wp 
[8.29]

where :
Qa = allowable axial bearing capacity
Wr = weight of hammer
Wp = weight of pile + hammer
h = hammer stroke / hammer fall distance
s = final penetration per blow at end of driving
FS = factor of safety (FS = 6)
C = constant (C = 2.5 mm)
eh = efficiency of hammer
n = coefficient of restitution

The following is the hammer efficiency and coefficient of restitution, as follows :

8 - 12
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

TABLE 8.7 HAMMER EFFICIENCY


HAMMER
eh
TYPE
Drop Hammer 0.75 – 1.00
Single Acting Hammer 0.75 – 0.85
Double Acting Hammer 0.85
Diesel Hammer 0.85 – 1.00

TABLE 8.8 COEFFICIENT OF RESTITUTION


MATERIAL N
Wood Pile 0.00
Compact Wood On Steel Pile 0.25
Compact Wood Over Steel Pile 0.32
Steel On Steel Pile / Concrete Pile 0.50
Cast Iron Hammer On Concrete Pile 0.40

8.7 ANALYSIS OF UPLIFT CAPACITY


8.7.1 GENERAL
The uplift capacity of the driven pile is only provided by the skin friction capacity.

8.7.2 SKIN FRICTION CAPACITY


The skin friction capacity to determine the uplift capacity can be calculated with the similar procedure
as previously explained.

8.8 ANALYSIS OF LATERAL BEARING CAPACITY


8.3.4 GENERAL
During earthquake the pile foundation is take the lateral load from the result of super structure load.
When the pile subjected to lateral load the pile can be divided into two major categories, as follows :
 Rigid Pile, the pile length is short.
 Elastic Pile, the pile length is long.

8.3.5 MATLOCK & REESE’S METHOD


D. General
Matlock and Reese propose the elastic solution to analyze laterally loaded pile.

Due to the lateral load the following reactions can be calculated, as follows :
 Pile Deflection.
 Pile Slope.
 Bending Moment.
 Shear Force.
 Soil Reaction.

This method is can be used for pile embedded in granular soil.

8 - 13
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

E. Pile Deflection
The pile deflection at any depth of pile can be calculated, as follows :

 QT 3   2
x (z ) = A x   + B x  MT 
[8.30]
 EpIp   EpIp 
   

where :
x(z) = deflection at any depth of pile
Q = shear force at top of pile
M = bending moment at top of pile
Ep = modulus of elasticity of pile
Ip = moment of inertia of pile
Ax, Bx = constant

F. Pile Slope
The pile slope at any depth of pile can be calculated, as follows :

 QT 2   
θ(z ) = A θ   + Bθ  MT 
[8.31]
 EpIp   EpIp 
   

where :
θ(z) = slope at any depth of pile
Q = shear force at top of pile
M = bending moment at top of pile
Ep = modulus of elasticity of pile
Ip = moment of inertia of pile
Aθ, Bθ = constant

G. Pile Bending Moment


The pile bending moment at any depth of pile can be calculated, as follows :

M(z ) = Am (QT ) + Bm (M) [8.32]

where :
M(z) = bending moment at any depth of pile
Q = shear force at top of pile
M = bending moment at top of pile
Ep = modulus of elasticity of pile
Ip = moment of inertia of pile
Am, Bm = constant

8 - 14
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

H. Pile Shear Force


The pile shear force at any depth of pile can be calculated, as follows :
M
V (z ) = A v (Q ) + Bv   [8.33]
T

where :
V(z) = shear force at any depth of pile
Q = shear force at top of pile
M = bending moment at top of pile
Ep = modulus of elasticity of pile
Ip = moment of inertia of pile
A v, B v = constant

I. Soil Reaction
The soil reaction at any depth of pile can be calculated, as follows :

Q M
p(z ) = A p   + Bp  2  [8.34]
T T 

where :
p(z) = soil reaction at any depth of pile
Q = shear force at top of pile
M = bending moment at top of pile
Ep = modulus of elasticity of pile
Ip = moment of inertia of pile
Ap , Bp = constant

J. Characteristic Length of Soil-Pile System


The T variable is the characteristic length of soil-pile system, as follows :

EpIp
T=5 [8.35]
nh

where :
T = characteristic length
Ep = modulus of elasticity of pile
Ip = moment of inertia of pile
nh = constant of horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction

The pile of rigid if L ≤ 2T and the pile is elastic if L ≥ 5T.

8 - 15
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

The value of nh is as follows :

TABLE 8.9 NH

nh
SOIL
(kN/m3)
Loose Sand 1800 – 2200
Medium Sand 5500 – 7000
Dense Sand 15000 – 18000
Loose Submerged Sand 1000 – 1400
Medium Submerged Sand 3500 – 4500
Dense Submerged Sand 9000 – 12000

K. A & B Constant
The following table shows the A and B constant.

TABLE 8.10 A CONSTANT


A COEFFICIENT
z/T
Ax Ax Aθ Am Av
0.0 2.435 -1.623 0.000 1.000 0.000
0.1 2.273 -1.618 0.100 0.989 -0.227
0.2 2.112 -1.603 0.198 0.956 -0.422
0.3 1.952 -1.578 0.291 0.906 -0.586
0.4 1.796 -1.545 0.379 0.840 -0.718
0.5 1.644 -1.503 0.459 0.764 -0.822
0.6 1.496 -1.454 0.532 0.677 -0.897
0.7 1.353 -1.397 0.595 0.585 -0.947
0.8 1.216 -1.335 0.649 0.489 -0.973
0.9 1.086 -1.268 0.693 0.392 -0.977
1.0 0.962 -1.197 0.727 0.295 -0.962
1.2 0.738 -1.047 0.767 0.109 -0.885
1.4 0.544 -0.893 0.772 -0.056 -0.761
1.6 0.381 -0.741 0.746 -0.193 -0.609
1.8 0.247 -0.596 0.696 -0.298 -0.445
2.0 0.142 -0.464 0.628 -0.371 -0.283
3.0 -0.075 -0.040 0.225 -0.349 0.226
4.0 -0.050 0.052 0.000 -0.106 0.201
5.0 -0.009 0.025 -0.033 0.015 0.046

8 - 16
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

TABLE 8.11 B CONSTANT


B COEFFICIENT
z/T
Bx Bx Bθ Bm Bv
0.0 1.623 -1.750 1.000 0.000 0.000
0.1 1.453 -1.650 1.000 -0.007 -0.145
0.2 1.293 -1.550 0.999 -0.028 -0.259
0.3 1.143 -1.450 0.994 -0.058 -0.343
0.4 1.003 -1.351 0.987 -0.095 -0.401
0.5 0.873 -1.253 0.976 -0.137 -0.436
0.6 0.752 -1.156 0.960 -0.181 -0.451
0.7 0.642 -1.061 0.939 -0.226 -0.449
0.8 0.540 -0.968 0.914 -0.270 -0.432
0.9 0.448 -0.878 0.885 -0.312 -0.403
1.0 0.364 -0.792 0.852 -0.350 -0.364
1.2 0.223 -0.629 0.775 -0.414 -0.268
1.4 0.112 -0.482 0.688 -0.456 -0.157
1.6 0.029 -0.354 0.594 -0.477 -0.047
1.8 -0.030 -0.245 0.498 -0.476 0.054
2.0 -0.070 -0.155 0.404 -0.456 0.140
3.0 -0.089 0.057 0.059 -0.213 0.268
4.0 -0.028 0.049 -0.042 0.017 0.112
5.0 0.000 -0.011 -0.026 0.029 -0.002

8.3.6 DAVISSON & GILL’S METHOD


A. Pile Deflection
Davisson and Gill propose the elastic solution to analyze laterally loaded pile.

This method is can be used for pile embedded in cohesive soil.

B. Pile Deflection
The pile deflection at any depth of pile can be calculated, as follows :

 QR3   2
x (z ) = A ' x   + B' x  MR 
[8.36]
 EpIp   EpIp 
   
where :
x(z) = deflection at any depth of pile
Q = shear force at top of pile
M = bending moment at top of pile
Ep = modulus of elasticity of pile
Ip = moment of inertia of pile
A’x, B’x = constant

C. Pile Bending Moment


The pile bending moment at any depth of pile can be calculated, as follows :
M(z ) = A 'm (QR ) + B'm (M) [8.37]

8 - 17
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

where :
M(z) = bending moment at any depth of pile
Q = shear force at top of pile
M = bending moment at top of pile
Ep = modulus of elasticity of pile
Ip = moment of inertia of pile
A’m, B’m = constant

D. R Coefficient
The variable R is defined as follows :

EpIp
R=4 [8.38]
ks

where :
Ep = modulus of elasticity of pile
Ip = moment of inertia of pile
ks = modulus of subgrade reaction

8.3.7 BROM’S METHOD


A. General
Brom divide the condition as free head condition and restrained head condition.

Brom’s method only can be used for homogeneous soil, purely cohesive soil or purely
cohesionless soil.

B. Cohesive Soil
The following figure is the pressure diagram proposed by Brom for cohesive soil for free head
condition.

FIGURE 8.1 COHESIVE SOIL – FREE HEAD CONDITION

8 - 18
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

The minimum embedment depth of the pile due to shear force Q is :

Dmin =
(FS)Q(e + 1.5B + 0.5f ) + 1.5B + f
2.25Bsu
[8.39]
f=
(FS)Q
9suB

where :
Dmin = minimum embedment depth
Q = lateral shear force
e = eccentricity of lateral load
B = pile diameter
su = undrained shear strength
FS = safety factor (FS = 3)

The following figure is the pressure diagram proposed by Brom for cohesive soil for restrained head
condition.

FIGURE 8.2 COHESIVE SOIL – RESTRAINED HEAD CONDITION

The minimum embedment depth of the pile due to shear force Q is :


 Q(FS) 
Dmin =   + 1.5B
 [8.39]
 9suB 

where :

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ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

Dmin = minimum embedment depth


Q = lateral shear force
B = pile diameter
su = undrained shear strength
FS = safety factor (FS = 3)

C. Cohesionless Soil
The following figure is the pressure diagram proposed by Brom for cohesionless soil for free head
condition.

FIGURE 8.3 COHESIONLESS SOIL – FREE HEAD CONDITION

The minimum embedment depth of the pile due to shear force Q is :


3
0.5 γBDminKp
FS =
Q(Dmin + e )
[8.40]
2 φ
K p = tan  45 + 
 2

where :
Dmin = minimum embedment depth
Q = lateral shear force
B = pile diameter
su = undrained shear strength
e = eccentricity of lateral load
Kp = coefficient of passive lateral earth pressure
FS = safety factor (FS = 3)

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ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

The following figure is the pressure diagram proposed by Brom for cohesionless soil for restrained
head condition.

FIGURE 8.3 COHESIONLESS SOIL – RESTRAINED HEAD CONDITION

The minimum embedment depth of the pile due to shear force Q is :

Q(FS )
Dmin = [8.40]
1.5 γBK p

where :
Dmin = minimum embedment depth
Q = lateral shear force
B = pile diameter
su = undrained shear strength
Kp = coefficient of passive lateral earth pressure
FS = safety factor (FS = 3)

8.9 GROUP PILE FOUNDATION


8.9.1 GENERAL
When the load is becomes bigger the group pile must be used to carry the load. The design of group
pile must consider the efficiency of the group and the arrangement of the pile.

8.9.2 PILE CONFIGURATION


The minimum spacing between pile in group pile is :

s = (2.5 − 3.5 )D [8.41]

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ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY – DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION

where :
s = pile spacing
D = pile diameter

8.9.3 LOAD TRANSFER


The group pile may be subjected to centric load and eccentric load.

The load transfer to the pile due to centric load is :

P
P1 = [8.42]
n
where :
P1 = vertical load in one pile
P = total centric vertical load
n = number of pile

The load transfer to the pile due to eccentric load is :

P My x Mx y
P1 = ± ± [8.43]
n ∑ x 2 ∑ y2

where :
P1 = vertical load in one pile
P = total centric vertical load
Mx = moment about X axis
My = moment about Y axis
x = x distance from center of pile cap
y = y distance from center of pile cap
n = number of pile

8.9.4 GROUP EFFICIENCY


The group efficiency of group pile can be calculated based on the Converse – Labarre formula, as
follows :

  {n − 1}m + {m − 1}n  
Eg = 1 − θ 
  90mn 
[8.44]
−1 D
θ = tan
s
where :
Eg = efficiency of group pile
m = number of pile columns
n = number of pile rows

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