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Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) 残留气体分析仪

A residual gas analyzer (RGA) is a small and usually rugged mass spectrometer, typically
designed for process controland contamination monitoring in vacuum systems.
Utilizing quadrupole technology, there exists two implementations, utilizing either an open ion source
(OIS) or a closed ion source (CIS). RGAs may be found in high vacuum applications such as
research chambers, surface science setups, accelerators, scanning microscopes, etc. RGAs are
used in most cases to monitor the quality of the vacuum and easily detect minute traces of impurities

in the low-pressure gas environment. These impurities can be measured down to Torr levels,
possessing sub-ppm detectability in the absence of background interferences.
RGAs would also be used as sensitive in-situ leak detectors commonly using helium, isopropyl

alcohol or other tracer molecules. With vacuum systems pumped down to lower than Torr—
checking of the integrity of the vacuum seals and the quality of the vacuum—air leaks, virtual leaks
and other contaminants at low levels may be detected before a process is initiated.
残留气体分析仪(RGA)是一种小而通常坚固的质谱仪,通常用于真空系统中的过程控制和污染监测。利
用四极技术,存在两种实施方式,利用开放式离子源(OIS)或闭合离子源(CIS)。 RGA 可用于高真空
应用,如研究室,表面科学设置,加速器,扫描显微镜等。在大多数情况下,RGA 用于监测真空质量,并
可轻松检测低压气体中微量杂质环境。这些杂质可以测量到{\ displaystyle 10 ^ { - 14}} 10 ^ {{ -
14}} Torr 水平,在没有背景干扰的情况下具有亚 ppm 的可检测性。

RGA 还可以用作敏感的原位泄漏检测器,通常使用氦气,异丙醇或其他示踪剂分子。真空系统抽真空至低
于真空密封的完整性和真空泄漏的质量,虚拟泄漏和其他污染物的真空系统 10 ^ { - 5}} 10 ^ { - 5}
Torr 检查在启动过程之前可以检测到低水平。
How it Works
Residual Gas Analyzer Principles of Operation

怎么运行的 残余气体分析仪的操作原理

Step 1 Create the ions

When the mean free path of gas molecules in a vacuum system is on the order of a few cm or more (at <
10-3 Torr), electrons of a suitable energy will create mostly positive ions at a rate depending on the gas
pressure, temperature and species of the individual molecules. A hot filament is the source of the
electrons, the energy being 70 ev and the current a few milliamps. A stream of ions is then available and
electro-statically focused toward the mass filter.

After the electrons pass through the source grid, they continue through to the B/A gauge section, where
they produce more ions. These ions will strike the collector wire and produce a current there, proportional
to the total gas pressure.

Step 2 Filter the ions

A quadrupole mass filter consisting of an arrangement of 4 metal rods with a time-varying


electrical voltage of the proper amplitude and frequency applied, can be made to pass only ions
of a particular mass entering along the axis at one end, through to the other end. The mass filter
must be constructed very accurately to have the same passband throughout it's length.
步骤 2 过滤离子

四极质量过滤器由 4 个金属杆的排列组成,其具有适当幅度和频率的随时间变化的电压,可以使仅在一端
沿轴线进入的特定质量的离子传递到另一端。结束。质量过滤器必须非常精确地构造,以在整个长度上具
有相同的通带。

Step 3 Detect the filtered ions

The ions that pass through the mass filter are focused toward a Faraday cup and the current is measured
with a sensitive ammeter. The resultant signal being proportional to the partial pressure of the particular
ion species passed by the mass filter.

步骤 3 检测过滤后的离子

通过质量过滤器的离子聚焦在法拉第杯上,用敏感的电流表测量电流。得到的信号与质量过滤器通过的特
定离子种类的分压成比例。
Step 4 Amplify the signal

The current produced by the ions is very small. For example, at 10 -11 Torr partial pressure at mass 28 the
current at the faraday detector is approximately 10-14 amps. This requires an extremely sensitive amplifier.
The ions striking the B/A detector wire produce a comparatively larger current, on the order of 10 -9 amps
at 3.3 x 10-7 Torr.

步骤 4 放大信号
离子产生的电流非常小。例如,在质量为 28 的 10-11 托的分压下,法拉第检测器的电流约为 10-14 安培。
这需要一个极其敏感的放大器。撞击 B / A 探测器导线的离子产生相对较大的电流,在 3.3×10-7 乇下约为
10-9 安培。

Residual Gas Analyzers


April 7, 2014 by Dan Herring

A residual gas analyzer or RGA for short (Fig. 1) is a compact mass spectrometer, designed
for use either in the laboratory or out on the shop floor. These devices are often mounted for
in-situ use on a vacuum furnace (Fig. 2). RGA’s are typically designed for process control and
contamination monitoring in vacuum systems.
残余气体分析仪或简称 RGA(图 1)是一款紧凑型质谱仪,设计用于实验室或车间。这些装置通常安装在
真空炉上进行现场使用(图 2)。 RGA 通常设计用于真空系统中的过程控制和污染监测。

Figure 1 (a) Residual Gas Analyzer – Compact Monitoring System Figure 1 (b) – Residual Gas Analyzer – Typical RGA Component
(CPM) Differentially Pumped RGA. (Photograph Courtesy of Inficon) Parts (Photograph Courtesy of Inficon)

图 1(a)残余气体分析仪 - 紧凑型监测系统(CPM)差分
泵浦 RGA。 (照片由 Inficon 提供) 图 1(b) - 残余气体分析仪 - 典型的 RGA 组件(照
片由 Inficon 提供)

Applications for residual gas analyzers include distinguishing leaks from outgassing, fingerprinting
the process background, detecting helium and determining the effectiveness of gas line purging. A
typical RGA gas analysis can reveal how much of a particular species is present either in the
vacuum vessel or in the pump manifold (Fig. 3).

残余气体分析仪的应用包括区分泄漏与排气,指纹识别过程背景,检测氦气和确定气体管
线吹扫的有效性。典型的 RGA 气体分析可以揭示真空容器或泵歧管中存在多少特定物质
(图 3)。

Figure 2 – In-Situ Mounting of an RGA Unit (Photographs Courtesy of Vac-Aero International)


RGAs are used in most cases to monitor the quality of the vacuum and easily detect minute traces of
impurities in the low-pressure gas environment. These impurities can be measured down to 10 -14 Torr
levels, possessing sub-ppm detectability in the absence of background interferences.
RGAs can also be used as sensitive in-situ, helium leak detectors. With vacuum systems pumped
down to lower than 10-5 Torr for checking of the integrity of the vacuum seals and the quality of the
vacuum to detect air leaks, virtual leaks and other contaminants at low levels before a process is
initiated.

图 2 - RGA 装置的原位安装(照片由 Vac-Aero International 提供) 在大多数情况下 ,


RGA 用于监控真空的质量,并且可以在低压气体环境中轻松检测微量杂质。这些杂质可
以测量低至 10-14 托的水平,在没有背景干扰的情况下具有亚 ppm 的可探测性。 RGA 还
可用作敏感的原位氦泄漏检测器。将真空系统抽真空至低于 10-5 Torr,以检查真空密封
的完整性和真空质量,以便在开始过程之前检测低水平的空气泄漏,虚泄漏和其他污染物。
Distinguishing Leaks from Outgassing
A basic RGA scan from mass 2 to 50 atomic mass units can usually identify excessive outgassing
(i.e. high peaks for water at mass 17 and 18) from a leak – high peaks at 14 & 28 (nitrogen), and
sometimes 32 (oxygen). Other indicators of an air leak are argon (40) and carbon dioxide (44),
Often the oxygen peak is missing or very low, even if there is an air leak. Helium, for example, will
show up at mass 4.
区分泄漏与放气 质量为 2 至 50 原子质量单位的基本 RGA 扫描通常可以识别来自泄漏的
过量放气(即质量为 17 和 18 的水的高峰) - 在 14 和 28(氮),有时是 32(氧)的高
峰。空气泄漏的其他指标是氩气(40)和二氧化碳(44)。即使存在漏气,氧气峰值通
常也会缺失或非常低。例如,氦气将以质量 4 出现。
Fingerprinting
An RGA scan of the vacuum system (see Figure 1) prior to running a process can provide valuable
insights into the condition of the vacuum vessel. When problems occur (and they invariably do),
having a base line for comparative purposes is extremely helpful.

指纹 在运行过程之前对真空系统进行 RGA 扫描(参见图 1)可以为真空容器的状况提供


有价值的见解。当问题发生时(并且它们总是这样),为比较目的建立基线是非常有帮助
的。

Figure 3 – Typical RGA Analysis of a Vacuum Vessel


How It Works
The Residual Gas Analyzer consists of an ion source, a mass spectrometer, and a measurement
section (Fig. 4). The residual gas is ionized when it collides with the thermoelectrons discharged
from the high-temperature filament, and the ions that are thereby created accelerate and converge
onto the mass spectrometer. At the mass spectrometer, direct and alternating current voltages are
applied to the four cylindrical electrodes (quadropoles), which allow the ions to be separated by
mass. The separated ions are detected as electric current by the Faraday cup. The ion current is
proportional to the mass (partial pressure) of the residual gas.

图 3 - 真空容器的典型 RGA 分析 怎么运行的 残余气体分析仪由离子源,质谱仪和测量部


分组成(图 4)。当残余气体与从高温灯丝排出的热电子碰撞时,残留气体被电离,由此
产生的离子加速并会聚到质谱仪上。在质谱仪处,将直流和交流电压施加到四个圆柱形电
极(四极),这允许离子通过质量分离。通过法拉第杯将分离的离子检测为电流。离子电
流与残余气体的质量(分压)成比例。
Table 1 – Mass Values
More specifically, the operation of a RGA is conceptually quite simple although the mathematics of
the quadrupole mass analyzer section can become too complex for many undergraduates to
appreciate. This operation is diagrammed in Figure 1. First, an “ionizer” converts many neutral gas
molecules into positive ions in a well-controlled region at a specified electric potential. These ions
are next accelerated by a series of electrostatic “lenses” and formed into a beam that has about 20
eV of energy. The ion beam is subsequently passed into the quadrupole mass analyzer region. This
region acts as a filter. It will very nicely pass through ions with a user chosen mass to charge ratio
(M/e), but all the other ions get pushed aside into walls where they neutralize and become
undetectable. The ions that are passed through this filter are detected as current either at a “Faraday
cup” or using a secondary electron multiplier (also known as a “channeltron”). The channeltron gives
a large amplification of the signal from ions and consequently is used to enhance the sensitivity of
the RGA. By choosing a mass to charge ratio and making a measurement of the signal obtained,
one can immediately find out the number of those molecules present in the ionizer region of the
RGA. By sweeping through a whole range of M/e ratios, one can find a whole range of molecules
that are present and begin to understand the full range of chemical components in the gas.
表 1 - 质量值
更具体地说,RGA 的操作在概念上非常简单,尽管四极质量分析器部分的数学对于许多本科生来说可能变
得太复杂而无法理解。该操作如图 1 所示。首先,“离子发生器”将许多中性气体分子转换成在指定电位的
良好控制区域中的正离子。接下来,这些离子被一系列静电“透镜”加速,并形成具有约 20eV 能量的光束。
随后将离子束传递到四极质量分析器区域。该区域充当过滤器。用户选择的质荷比(M / e)可以很好地通
过离子,但是所有其他离子都会被推到墙壁中,在那里它们会中和并变得无法检测到。通过该滤波器的离
子在“法拉第杯”或使用二次电子倍增器(也称为“channeltron”)被检测为电流。 channeltron 对离子信
号进行大幅度放大,因此可用于增强 RGA 的灵敏度。通过选择质荷比并对所获得的信号进行测量,可以立
即找出 RGA 的离子发生器区域中存在的那些分子的数量。通过扫描整个范围的 M / e 比,人们可以找到存
在的全部分子并开始了解气体中的全部化学成分。

Fig
ure 4 – Cross Section of an RGA
2

The actual analyzer is located in the vacuum and consists of the following principle components:
 An ion source that ionizes neutral gas particles, which are then sorted in the mass filter on
the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio (m/e ratio)
 The ion current is measured using a Faraday detector or a secondary electron multiplier
(SEM) after the ions have left the separating system. The measured current is a parameter of the
partial pressure of the respective gas molecules or a parameter of fractals that may possibly have
been generated in the ion source
 A data analysis system processes the ion currents measured with the aid of the detector and
presents these currents in various forms. Today, data analysis software programs are capable of
supporting the user in interpreting mass spectra.

图 42- RGA 的横截面 实际的分析仪位于真空中,由以下主要部件组成: •离子源,使中性气体粒


子电离,然后根据质荷比(m / e 比)在质量过滤器中进行分类 •在离子离开分离系统后,使用法
拉第检测器或二次电子倍增器(SEM)测量离子电流。测量的电流是各个气体分子的分压参数或
者可能在离子源中产生的分形参数 •数据分析系统处理借助检测器测量的离子电流,并以各种形
式呈现这些电流。今天,数据分析软件程序能够支持用户解释质谱。

Maintenance & Repair


Despite our best efforts, it may occur that the RGA is in need or repair. The harsh environment of
heat-treating coupled with inadvertent exposure to atmosphere, pump oils, or other contaminants is
a fact of life. Filament replacement, ion source cleaning, and filter cleaning are examples of what can
be done. However, disassembly of certain components, such as the mass filter assembly will result
in costly and time-consuming factory repairs. Remember, an RGA is a delicate instrument!
In Summary
Residual Gas Analyzers can be a very effective tool to analyze system gas loads resulting from real
leaks, virtual leaks or chamber wall outgassing. RGAs have a number of advantages over traditional,
dedicated gas leak detectors including the ability to differentiate between different gas species,
comparable sensitivity levels, the ability to detect internal or “virtual” leaks and to detect and analyze
outgassing problems.

维护和维修 尽管我们付出了最大的努力,但 RGA 可能需要或修复。恶劣的热处理环境加上无意


中暴露在大气,泵油或其他污染物中是事实。细丝更换,离子源清洁和过滤器清洁是可以做的事
情的例子。然而,拆卸某些部件,例如质量过滤器组件将导致昂贵且耗时的工厂维修。请记住,
RGA 是一种精致的乐器!

综上所述
残余气体分析仪可以是一个非常有效的工具,用于分析真实泄漏,虚泄漏或室壁排气导致的系统
气体负荷。与传统的专用气体泄漏检测器相比,RGA 具有许多优势,包括能够区分不同的气体种
类,相当的灵敏度水平,检测内部或“虚拟”泄漏的能力以及检测和分析除气问题。

ion gauge
For pressure measurements in the UHV range.The idea of the ion gauge is to ionize the
rest gas and to measure the pressure via the ion concentration. The operating principle is
illustrated below.
用于 UHV 范围内的压力测量。离子计的想法是电离剩余气体并通过离子浓度测量压力。操作原理如下所示。
A hot filament emits electrons which are accelerated to go inside inside a cylindrical wire
cage. In the cage the electrons hit rest gas molecules and ionise them. The ions are
collected at the wire in the middle of the cage and the current from that wire is a measure
for the pressure. The ion current is proportional to the pressure of the rest gas. A problem is
that the sensitivity of the gauge depends on the chemical identity of the rest gas. The ion
gauge can be used in for pressures between 10-4 and 10-11 mbar. The upper limit is given by
the need to operate the filament in vacuum, so that it is not destroyed. The lower limit is
given by an unwanted effect: when an electron hits the cage it can produce a photon which
then can cause the emission of an electron from the centre wire, giving rise to a current
contribution in the opposite direction from the ion current. While this effect sounds extremely
unlikely it becomes the dominant contribution to the current at very low pressures. When the
ion gauge is exposed to a flux of electrons from some other source, it can also start to show
an artificially low pressure for the same reason.

热丝发出的电子被加速进入圆柱形线笼内部。在笼子里,电子撞击了静止的气体分子并使它们电
离。离子被收集在笼子中间的电线处,来自该电线的电流是压力的量度。离子电流与剩余气体的
压力成比例。问题是压力表的灵敏度取决于其余气体的化学特性。离子计可用于 10-4 和 10-11 毫
巴之间的压力。上限是由在真空中操作灯丝的需要给出的,因此它不会被破坏。下限由不希望的
效应给出:当电子撞击笼子时,它可以产生光子,然后可以引起来自中心线的电子发射,从而在
与离子电流相反的方向上产生电流贡献。虽然这种效果听起来极不可能,但它在非常低的压力下
成为对电流的主要贡献。当离子计暴露于来自其他来源的电子通量时,由于同样的原因,它也可
能开始显示人为的低压。

Residual Gas Analyzer


A Residual gas analyzer ( RGA) is a spectrometer that effectively measure the
chemical composition of a gas present in a low-pressure environment. The residual
gas analyzer actually ionizes separate components of the gas to create various ions,
and then detects and determines the mass-to-charge ratios. This process works
better in vacuum, where quality is easier to monitor and impurities and
inconsistencies are easier to detect because of the low pressure. Setups such as this
can be found inside ion beam accelerators and electron/ion scanning microscopes.
Importance of RGA: (1) It allows one to analyze the various gas phase reactions;
(2) It can monitor the changes occurring in any gas environment; (3) check for
vacuum leak; (4) check the mass flow controllers; etc. These type of information
may be difficult to determine by other methods, but can easily be found using a
RGA attached to the lowpressure environment or chamber.
Operation of RGA : There are five main components of a RGA: (1) Ionizer; (2)
Electrostatic Lens; (3)Mass Analyser and Filter; (4) Ion Detector; (5) Mass Spectrum.
残余气体分析仪
残余气体分析仪(RGA)是一种光谱仪,可有效测量低压环境中存在的气体的化学成分。残余气体分析仪
实际上电离单独的气体成分以产生各种离子,然后检测并确定质荷比。该过程在真空中工作得更好,质量
更容易监控,并且由于低压,杂质和不一致性更容易检测。诸如此类的设置可以在离子束加速器和电子/离
子扫描显微镜内找到。
RGA 的重要性:(1)它可以分析各种气相反应; (2)它可以监测任何气体环境中发生的变化; (3)检查
真空泄漏; (4)检查质量流量控制器;这些类型的信息可能难以通过其他方法确定,但可以使用连接到低压
环境或室的 RGA 轻松找到。
RGA 的操作:RGA 有五个主要组成部分:(1)电离器; (2)静电镜头; (3)质量分析器和过滤器;
(4)离子检测器; (5)质谱。

1. Ionizer :
In the Ionizer, the neutral gas atoms or molecules are converted into positive ions.
The Ionizer consists of the following parts: (a) two filaments for producing electrons;
(b) source grid which is an electrostatic wire mesh for setting up a constant
electrostatic potential inside the ionization region; and (c) insulating holders. There
is also a Faraday shield “basket” around the entire assembly to keep external
electrostatic potential from affecting the ionizer. Two wires, generally of Thoria
coated Iridium at -70V, on passing current emit electrons by “thermionic emission”
of energy 70 ev and a current of few milliamperes. These electrons are then
accelerated toward the wire mesh because of the applied potential difference
between the filaments and the wire mesh. The accelerated electrons then collide
with neutral gas atoms or molecules in the mesh and ionize it.
1.电离器:
在离子发生器中,中性气体原子或分子转化为正离子。离子发生器由以下部分组成:(a)两根用于产生电
子的灯丝; (b)源栅格,是用于在电离区域内设定恒定静电电位的静电丝网;及(c)绝缘夹持器。在整个
组件周围还有一个法拉第屏蔽罩“篮子”,以防止外部静电电位影响电离器。两条导线,通常是在-70V 下涂
覆钍的铱,在通过电流时通过能量 70ev 的“热电子发射”和几毫安的电流发射电子。然后,由于细丝和金属
丝网之间施加的电位差,这些电子朝向金属丝网加速。加速的电子然后与网格中的中性气体原子或分子碰
撞并使其电离。

When an electron collides with an atom or molecule M, it may not get ionized
(elastic collision) or get ionized (inelastic collision) something like: e- + M ⇒ 2e- +
M+. This ionization reaction requires significant energy (the“ionization potential” of
the molecule M) and that energy must be supplied by the electron. Table I gives the
energy required to ionize a variety of molecules into specific ions. Other kinds of
ionization reactions can also occur. For example a process called dissociative
ionization can occur. The chemical equation for such a reaction would look
something like: e- + MX ⇒ 2e- + M+ + X (or) 2e- + M + X+. Clearly, things can get
complex quickly. Indeed, an electron collision with a nitrogen molecule (N2) can
have well over a dozen possible outcomes! We only measure two, using an RGA:
The formation of N2+ and N+. A concept called “cross-section” is used to describe
the probability of an electron colliding or reacting with an atom or molecule. The
simplest form of the idea is relatively simple: an electron has to collide with a
molecule to initiate a reaction. Since the electrons move at least 100x faster than
molecules, we can often treat those molecules as if they were standing still. If the
molecule has a large radius (and therefore a large cross-section) the probability of
an electron colliding with it is relatively large too. These cross-sections are generally
measured as a function of ionization energy of the electron. In the table below,
ionization potential of some elements are given; all of the cross sections or
ionization potentials tend to have a maximum value near 70 eV to 200 eV. That is
why we use electrons of about 70eV to ionize molecules in the RGA. The ionization
process is relatively efficient at that energy. Note also that the cross section for
forming CF3+ is much larger than for forming other ions like CF + or C+. Consequently,
we should expect that the ionizer will produce, from CF 4 much more CF3+ than CF+ or
C+ and that the CF3+ signal will be the largest as a result.
当电子与原子或分子 M 碰撞时,它可能不会被电离(弹性碰撞)或被电离(非弹性碰撞),例如:e-
+M⇒2e-+ M +。该电离反应需要大量能量(分子 M 的“电离电位”),并且必须由电子提供能量。表 I 给
出了将各种分子电离成特定离子所需的能量。也可以发生其他种类的电离反应。例如,可以发生称为解离
电离的过程。这种反应的化学方程式如下:e- +MX⇒2e-+ M + + X(或)2e- + M + X +。显然,事情
很快就会变得复杂。实际上,与氮分子(N2)的电子碰撞可以产生十几种可能的结果!我们只测量两个,
使用 RGA:形成 N2 +和 N +。称为“横截面”的概念用于描述电子与原子或分子碰撞或反应的概率。最简
单的想法形式相对简单:电子必须与分子碰撞才能引发反应。由于电子的移动速度比分子快至少 100 倍,
我们通常可以将这些分子视为静止不动。如果分子具有大的半径(因此具有大的横截面),则电子与其碰
撞的可能性也相对较大。通常测量这些横截面作为电子的电离能的函数。在下表中,给出了一些元素的电
离电位;所有横截面或电离电位倾向于具有接近 70eV 至 200eV 的最大值。这就是为什么我们使用大约
70eV 的电子来电离 RGA 中的分子。电离过程在该能量下相对有效。还要注意,形成 CF3 +的横截面远大
于形成 CF +或 C +等其他离子的横截面。因此,我们应该期望离子发生器从 CF4 产生比 CF +或 C +更多
的 CF3 +,并且因此 CF3 +信号将是最大的。

RGAs come with similar tabular information on what ions are produced from various
gases. RGAs also often come with a “Relative ionization sensitivity” table that
describes the number of ions produced from a given molecule compared to an equal
number of nitrogen molecules. For example: Argon produces 1.2 times as many ions
as nitrogen and helium only 0.14. Consequently, one should expect smaller signals
from helium at a given pressure than from either argon or nitrogen.
RGA 提供了类似的表格信息,说明各种气体产生的离子。 RGA 还经常带有“相对电离敏感度”表,该表描
述了与相同数量的氮分子相比,从给定分子产生的离子数。例如:氩气产生的离子是氮气和氦气的 1.2 倍,
仅为 0.14。因此,人们应该期望在给定压力下来自氦的信号比来自氩气或氮气的信号更小。

2. Electrostatic Lens Assembly:


The Electrostatic Lens assembly, through a series of electrostatic “lenses” focuses
and accelerates the positive ions into a beam that has about 10-20eV of energy. The
ionizer wire mesh is generally set to 10 to 20 V above ground by the ionizer power
supply. Setting this at a potential above ground ensures that all the ions produced
have a significant potential energy of 10-20 eV {P.E.=K.E.= q x (V ion_region –
Vmass_filter)}. The mass filter region is usually kept at ground potential. Thus, positive
ions produced in the ion region basket having about 10-20eV of energy will
accelerate into the grounded mass filter region and travel through it at a reasonably
well-defined velocity (and KE) simply by setting the potential on the ionizer wire
mesh. Each lens is a simple disk with a hole in the center (of donut structure). When
a potential (negative potential with respect to the ionization region) is applied on
such a donut structure, electric fields are formed that can accelerate ions through it
as well as push them toward the center of the donut hole. The negative potentials
placed on the successive lenses produce a potential gradient and hence determines
the efficiency as well as the beam quality with which ions are accelerated into the
mass filter. The lens nearest to the ionizer wire mesh is usually called an “extractor”
lens. Some RGAs have only the extractor lens. Others have more than one lens for
focusing the ion beam and directing it into the mass filter.
2.静电透镜组件:
静电透镜组件通过一系列静电“透镜”聚焦并将正离子加速成具有约 10-20eV 能量的光束。通过离子发生器
电源,离子发生器金属丝网通常设定在地面上 10 至 20V。将其设置在地面以上的电位可确保产生的所有
离子具有 10-20eV 的显着势能{P.E. = K.E. = q x(Vion_region -Vmass_filter)}。质量过滤区域通常
保持在地电位。因此,在具有大约 10-20eV 能量的离子区域篮中产生的正离子将加速进入接地的质量过滤
器区域并且仅通过设定离子发生器金属丝网上的电势以合理明确的速度(和 KE)穿过它。 。每个镜头都
是一个简单的圆盘,中心有一个孔(圆环结构)。当在这样的环形结构上施加电势(相对于电离区域的负
电位)时,形成电场,该电场可以加速离子通过它并将它们推向环形孔的中心。放置在连续透镜上的负电
位产生电位梯度,因此决定了离子加速进入质量过滤器的效率以及光束质量。最靠近离子发生器金属丝网
的透镜通常称为“提取器”透镜。有些 RGA 只有提取镜头。其他人有一个以上的镜头用于聚焦离子束并将其
导入质量过滤器。

3. Mass Filtering (Quadrupole):


The accelerated and focused positive ions are then sorted out according to their
respective masses by employing electric and/or magnetic fields in the Mass
Analyzer. This unit acts as a filter. It very nicely passes through the ions with mass
to charge ratio (M/e) chosen by the user, and all the other ions get deflected aside
into the walls where they neutralize and become undetectable. Quadrupole mass
filters consist of 4 (“quad”) rods that are electrically biased (poles). No magnetic
fields are required to filter out different mass ions for this arrangement. These
carefully placed rods, when biased with both - dc and rf voltages, produces electric
fields of hyperbolic configuration in the centre, that confine very small ranges of M/e
(mass to charge ratio) to the central region. All other M/e ions are accelerated right
into the rods where they are neutralized and become undetectable.

3.质量过滤(四极杆): 然后通过在质量分析器中使用电场和/或磁场,根据它们各自的质量分选
加速和聚焦的正离子。该单元充当过滤器。它非常好地通过用户选择的质荷比(M / e)的离子,
并且所有其他离子被偏转到壁中,在那里它们中和并且变得不可检测。四极杆质量过滤器由4个
(“四”“)杆组成,这些杆是电偏置的(杆)。对于这种布置,不需要磁场来滤除不同的质量离子。
这些精心放置的杆在用直流和射频电压偏置时,在中心产生双曲线配置的电场,将M / e(质荷
比)的非常小的范围限制在中心区域。所有其他M / e离子都被加速到杆中,在那里它们被中和并
变得不可检测。

4. Ion Detection System.


The Ion detector system detects and calculates the mass-to-charge ratio of the
filtered ions as ion current either with a Faraday cup or an extended secondary
electron multiplier (also known as a “channeltron”). By choosing a specific mass to
charge ratio and making a measurement of the signal obtained, one can
immediately find out the number of those molecules present in the ionizer region of
the RGA. By sweeping through a whole range of M/e ratios, one can find a whole
range of molecules that are present and begin to understand the full range of
chemical components in the gas. (a) The Faraday cup is simply a piece of metal
biased at an appropriately negative potential (~ -50 V) so that the positive ions are
attracted towards it and get neutralized. The current flowing through the Faraday
cup is measured using a fast electrometer and this current is the relative signal
recorded by the RGA. The larger the current, the larger the signal and hence greater
the number of ions. Since current is simply the net flow of charge across a unit area
plane per unit time, and since a multiple ionized molecule carries more charge than
a singly ionized molecule, one should expect multiple ionized molecules to produce
a larger signal for a given number of ions. For example: each Ar ++ ion carries twice
the charge of an Ar+ ion; consequently the Ar++ signal should be twice as large as
the Ar+ signal if there are the exact same numbers of ions. This can cause the signal
of multiple charged ions to be larger than that predicted by just using the ionization
cross section.
4.离子检测系统。
离子检测器系统使用法拉第杯或扩展的二次电子倍增器(也称为“channeltron”)检测并计算过滤离子的
质荷比作为离子电流。通过选择特定的质荷比并对所获得的信号进行测量,可以立即找出 RGA 的离子发生
器区域中存在的那些分子的数量。通过扫描整个范围的 M / e 比,人们可以找到存在的全部分子并开始了
解气体中的全部化学成分。 (a)法拉第杯只是一块金属偏置在适当的负电位(〜-50 V),以便正离子被
吸引到它并被中和。使用快速静电计测量流过法拉第杯的电流,该电流是 RGA 记录的相对信号。电流越大,
信号越大,因此离子数越多。由于电流仅是每单位时间单位面积平面上的净电荷流,并且由于多电离分子
比单电离分子携带更多电荷,因此应该期望多个电离分子对于给定数量的离子产生更大的信号。例如:每
个 Ar ++离子带有两倍的 Ar +离子电荷;因此,如果存在完全相同数量的离子,则 Ar +信号应该是 Ar +
信号的两倍。这可以使多个带电离子的信号大于仅通过使用电离截面预测的信号。

(b) Secondary electron multiplier or channeltron are simply bent glass tubes
with a special interior coating (usually an oxidized metal such as Pb or Bi) that emits
several electrons (“secondary electron emission”) every time it is hit by either an
ion or an electron. The back end has a Faraday cup installed on the tube that
collects the electrons produced inside the tube. The front wide “mouth” end has a
collar that is connected to a low current power supply and is biased to a very large
negative voltage (~ -2 kV). The back end is kept very close to ground potential and
connected to a fast electrometer again. In some cases, the back-end can be
connected to a pulse counting circuit instead so that the current pulse from each
individual ion is counted rather than the time integrated current measured. Most
often, the current is simply measured. The advantage of a channeltron is that it
amplifies (M) the current of each ion by a very large factor. The value of the
amplification factor, M, can be on the order of 10 4 to 109 depending upon the
construction of the multiplier, the voltage used and the age of the device. This
allows one to measure trace gases with much improved signals. This enhances the
sensitivity of the RGA.
(b)二次电子倍增器或通道电子管是简单的弯曲玻璃管,带有特殊的内部涂层(通常是氧化金属,如 Pb
或 Bi),每次受到离子或者离子时,都会发出几个电子(“二次电子发射”)。一个电子。后端有一个安装
在管上的法拉第杯,用于收集管内产生的电子。前宽“嘴”端具有套环,该套环连接到低电流电源并被偏置
到非常大的负电压(〜-2kV)。后端保持非常接近地电位并再次连接到快速静电计。在某些情况下,后端
可以连接到脉冲计数电路,以便计算来自每个单独离子的电流脉冲而不是测量的时间积分电流。大多数情
况下,只是测量电流。 channeltron 的优点在于它以非常大的因子放大(M)每个离子的电流。放大系数
M 的值可以在 104 到 109 的数量级,这取决于乘法器的结构,使用的电压和器件的寿命。这使得人们可以
通过大大改善的信号来测量痕量气体。这增强了 RGA 的灵敏度。

5. RGA spectrum or Mass Scan Spectrum :


The spectrum depicts peaks of ions with mass to charge ratios in amu unit. An
“amu” is an “atomic mass unit” and corresponds roughly to the mass of one proton.
These M/e ratios are characteristic of all elements. For example, peaks in the
spectrum at 14 amu is N+, 20 amu is Ar2+, 28 amu is N2+, and 40 amu is Ar+. The
peak at 28 amu corresponds to molecular nitrogen in this case, but other molecules
might also have contributed to this signal (or any other signal for that matter). In
particular, carbon monoxide, CO+, has the same M/e ratio as N2+ to within the
detection capability of any ordinary RGA and consequently is always detected at 28
amu with nitrogen. The differences between N 2 and CO come in the total spectrum
of CO versus N2. N2 will produce signal peaks at primaily 28 and 14 amu while CO
will produce peaks at 28 (CO), 16(O) and 12(C) amu along with lesser peaks at
29(C13O and COH) and 13 (C13) amu..

5. RGA光谱或质谱扫描光谱: 光谱描绘了具有质量与电荷比的离子峰,单位为amu单位。 “amu”


是“原子质量单位”并且大致对应于一个质子的质量。这些M / e比率是所有元素的特征。例如,14
amu处的光谱中的峰是N +,20 amu是Ar 2 +,28 amu是N 2 +,40 amu是Ar +。在这种情况下,
28 amu处的峰值对应于分子氮,但是其他分子也可能对该信号(或该问题的任何其他信号)有贡
献。特别地,一氧化碳CO +具有与N2 +相同的M / e比,在任何普通RGA的检测能力范围内,因
此总是在28amu用氮气检测。 N2和CO之间的差异在于CO与N2的总光谱。 N2将在28和14 amu
处产生信号峰,而CO将在28(CO),16(O)和12(C)amu处产生峰,同时在29(C13O和
COH)和13(C13)amu处产生较小的峰。 。

Types of RGA : (1) Open ion source RGA and (2) Closed ion source RGA.
(1) Open Ion Source RGAs: These RGAs can only handle a maximum pressure of 1E-
4 Torr. If chamber pressure falls below this value, these RGA’s can usually be
attached directly to the vacuum chamber. They measure the gas present without
changing the gas composition or altering the vacuum environment.
(2) Closed Ion Source RGAs: Generally speaking, closed ion source RGAs operate
between 1E-2 and 1E-11 Torr. A closed ion source RGA, has a small ionizer, attached
to a quadrupole filter and has a tube with two openings: one for the electrons to
enter and one for the electrons to exit. Alumina rings seal the tube, and the majority
of the quadrupole is comprised of electrodes. As soon as the process begins and
electron contact is intitated, the ions are formed. However, the rest of the mass
analyzer is under high pressure.
RGA 的类型:(1)开放式离子源 RGA 和(2)闭合离子源 RGA。
(1)开放式离子源 RGA:这些 RGA 只能处理 1E-4 Torr 的最大压力。如果腔室压力低于此值,则这些
RGA 通常可以直接连接到真空腔室。它们测量存在的气体而不改变气体成分或改变真空环境。
(2)闭合离子源 RGA:一般来说,闭合离子源 RGA 工作在 1E-2 和 1E-11 Torr 之间。闭合离子源
RGA,具有小型离子发生器,连接到四极滤波器并具有带两个开口的管:一个用于电子进入,一个用于电
子离开。氧化铝环密封管,并且四极杆的大部分由电极组成。一旦该过程开始并且引发电子接触,就形成
离子。然而,质量分析仪的其余部分处于高压状态。

Cryopump
A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that traps gases and vapours by condensing
them on a cold surface, but are only effective on some gases. The effectiveness depends on the
freezing and boiling points of the gas relative to the cryopump's temperature. They are sometimes
used to block particular contaminants, for example in front of a diffusion pump to trap backstreaming
oil, or in front of a McLeod gauge to keep out water. In this function, they are called
a cryotrap, waterpump or cold trap, even though the physical mechanism is the same as for a
cryopump.
Cryotrapping can also refer to a somewhat different effect, where molecules will increase their
residence time on a cold surface without actually freezing (supercooling). There is a delay between
the molecule impinging on the surface and rebounding from it. Kinetic energy will have been lost as
the molecules slow down. For example, hydrogen will not condense at 8 kelvin, but it can be
cryotrapped. This effectively traps molecules for an extended period and thereby removes them from
the vacuum environment just like cryopumping.
低温泵
低温泵或“低温泵”是一种真空泵,它通过将气体和蒸汽冷凝在冷表面上来捕获气体和蒸汽,但仅对某些气
体有效。有效性取决于气体相对于低温泵温度的冷冻和沸点。它们有时用于阻挡特定污染物,例如在扩散
泵前面捕获回流油,或在 McLeod 压力计前面以阻挡水。在这个功能中,它们被称为低温冷阱,水泵或冷
阱,即使物理机制与低温泵相同。
冷冻包装也可以指一种稍微不同的效果,其中分子将增加它们在冷表面上的停留时间而不实际冷冻(过
冷)。分子撞击表面和从其反弹之间存在延迟。随着分子减慢,动能将会消失。例如,氢气不会以 8 开尔
文冷凝,但可以冷冻。这有效地捕获分子一段延长的时间,从而将它们从真空环境中移除,就像低温泵浦
一样。

Operation[edit]
Cryopumps are commonly cooled by compressed helium, though they may also use dry ice, liquid
nitrogen, or stand-alone versions may include a built-in cryocooler. Baffles are often attached to the
cold head to expand the surface area available for condensation, but these also increase the
radiative heat uptake of the cryopump. Over time, the surface eventually saturates with condensate
and thus the pumping speed gradually drops to zero. It will hold the trapped gases as long as it
remains cold, but it will not condense fresh gases from leaks or backstreaming until it is regenerated.
Saturation happens very quickly in low vacuums, so cryopumps are usually only used in high or
ultrahigh vacuum systems.
The cryopump provides fast, clean pumping of all gases in the 10 −3 to 10−9 Torr range. The cryopump
operates on the principle that gases can be condensed and held at extremely low vapor pressures,
achieving high speeds and throughputs. The cold head consists of a two-stage cold head cylinder
(part of the vacuum vessel) and a drive unit displacer assembly. These together produce closed-
cycle refrigeration at temperatures that range from 60 to 80K for the first-stage cold station to 10 to
20K for the second-stage cold station, typically.
操作[编辑]
低温泵通常由压缩氦冷却,但它们也可以使用干冰,液氮或独立版本可能包括内置低温冷却器。挡板通常
连接在冷头上以扩大可用于冷凝的表面积,但这些也增加了低温泵的辐射热吸收。随着时间的推移,表面
最终会被冷凝物饱和,因此泵送速度逐渐降至零。只要它保持冷却,它就会保留被困气体,但在再生之前
它不会从泄漏或回流中冷凝新鲜气体。饱和度在低真空中很快发生,因此低温泵通常仅用于高真空或超高
真空系统。
低温泵可在 10-3 至 10-9 Torr 范围内快速,清洁地泵送所有气体。低温泵的工作原理是气体可以冷凝并保
持在极低的蒸汽压力下,从而实现高速和高产量。冷头由两级冷头缸(真空容器的一部分)和驱动单元置
换器组件组成。这些一起产生封闭循环制冷,温度范围从第一级冷站的 60 到 80K 到第二级冷站的 10 到
20K,通常。

Some cryopumps have multiple stages at various low temperatures, with the outer stages shielding
the coldest inner stages. The outer stages condense high boiling point gases such as water and oil,
thus saving the surface area and refrigeration capacity of the inner stages for lower boiling point
gases such as nitrogen.
As cooling temperatures decrease when using dry ice, liquid nitrogen, then compressed helium,
lower molecular-weight gases can be trapped. Trapping nitrogen, helium, and hydrogen requires
extremely low temperatures (~10K) and large surface area as described below. Even at this
temperature, the lighter gases helium and hydrogen have very low trapping efficiency and are the
predominant molecules in ultra-high vacuum systems.
Cryopumps are often combined with sorption pumps by coating the cold head with highly adsorbing
materials such as activated charcoal or a zeolite. As the sorbentsaturates, the effectiveness of a
sorption pump decreases, but can be recharged by heating the zeolite material (preferably under
conditions of low pressure) to outgasit. The breakdown temperature of the zeolite material's porous
structure may limit the maximum temperature that it may be heated to for regeneration.
Sorption pumps are a type of cryopump that is often used as roughing pumps to reduce pressures
from the range of atmospheric to on the order of 0.1 Pa (10−3 Torr), while lower pressures are
achieved using a finishing pump (see vacuum).
一些低温泵在各种低温下具有多级,外部级屏蔽最冷的内部级。外层冷凝高沸点气体如水和油,因此节省
了内部级的表面积和制冷能力,用于低沸点气体如氮气。
当使用干冰,液氮,然后压缩氦时,冷却温度降低,可以捕获较低分子量的气体。捕获氮气,氦气和氢气
需要极低的温度(~10K)和大的表面积,如下所述。即使在这个温度下,较轻的气体氦气和氢气具有非常
低的捕集效率,并且是超高真空系统中的主要分子。
低温泵通常通过用高吸附性材料(例如活性炭或沸石)涂覆冷头来与吸附泵结合。当吸附剂吸收时,吸附
泵的有效性降低,但可以通过将沸石材料(优选在低压条件下)加热至脱气来再充电。沸石材料的多孔结
构的破坏温度可以限制它可以被加热到再生的最高温度。
吸附泵是一种低温泵,通常用作粗抽泵以将压力从大气压降至 0.1 Pa(10 -3 Torr),而使用精加工泵
(参见真空)可实现较低的压力。

Regeneration[edit]
Regeneration of a cryopump is the process of evaporating the trapped gases. During a regeneration
cycle, the cryopump is warmed to room temperature or higher, allowing trapped gases to change
from a solid state to a gaseous state and thereby be released from the cryopump through a pressure
relief valve into the atmosphere.
Most production equipment utilizing a cryopump have a means to isolate the cryopump from the
vacuum chamber so regeneration takes place without exposing the vacuum system to released
gasses such as water vapor. Water vapor is the hardest natural element to remove from vacuum
chamber walls upon exposure to the atmosphere due to monolayer formation and hydrogen
bonding. Adding heat to the dry nitrogen purge-gas will speed the warm-up and reduce the
regeneration time.
When regeneration is complete, the cryopump will be roughed to 50μm (50 milliTorr or μmHg),
isolated, and the rate-of-rise (ROR) will be monitored to test for complete regeneration. If the ROR
exceeds 10μm/min the cryopump will require additional purge time.
再生[编辑]
低温泵的再生是蒸发捕获的气体的过程。在再生循环期间,将低温泵加热至室温或更高温度,允许捕获的
气体从固态变为气态,从而通过减压阀从低温泵释放到大气中。
大多数使用低温泵的生产设备具有将低温泵与真空室隔离的装置,因此在不将真空系统暴露于释放的气体
如水蒸气的情况下进行再生。由于单层形成和氢键,水蒸气是暴露于大气时从真空室壁移除的最硬的自然
元素。向干燥氮气吹扫气体加热将加速预热并缩短再生时间。
当再生完成时,将低温泵粗加工至 50μm(50 毫托或 μmHg),隔离,并监测升速率(ROR)以测试完全
再生。如果 ROR 超过 10μm/ min,则低温泵需要额外的吹扫时间。