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LESLIE ELIZABETH BUCK

ANALYTICAL
TRIGONOMETRY WITH
APPLICATIONS
PREPARATION FOR
CALCULUS PART I

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ii
Analytical Trigonometry with Applications: Preparation for Calculus Part I
1st edition
© 2018 Leslie Elizabeth Buck & bookboon.com
ISBN 978-87-403-2275-0
Peer review by Theodore Koukounas, Maria Alzugaray and Jean Nicolas Pestieau

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iii
ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
WITH APPLICATIONS Contents

CONTENTS
1 Basic Definitions and Theorems 1
1.1 Angle Measurement and Arc Length 1
1.2 The Pythagorean Theorem 10
1.3 Right Triangle Trigonometry 14
1.4 Fundamental Trigonometric Identities 49

2 Graphs of Trigonometric Functions 48


2.1 Domain and Range of a Trigonometric Function 48
2.2 Graphs of Sinusoidal Functions 52
2.3 Graphs of Tangent, Cotangent, Secant and Cosecant 57
2.4 Transformations of the Graphs of Trigonometric Functions 64
2.5 Inverse Trigonometric Functions 89

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
WITH APPLICATIONS Contents

3 Trigonometric Identities and Equations 107


3.1 Review of Fundamental Trigonometric Identities 107
3.2 Sum and Difference of Angles Identities 115
3.3 Double- and Half-Angle Identities 126
3.4 Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product Identities 135
3.5 Solving Trigonometric Equations 141

4 Applications of Trigonometry 153


4.1 Right Triangle Trigonometry 153
4.2 The Law of Sines 158
4.3 The Law of Cosines 167
4.4 The Area of a Triangle 171

Endnotes 177

Index 182

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
WITH APPLICATIONS Links to Select Figures, Tables and Definitions

LINKS TO SELECT FIGURES,


TABLES AND DEFINITIONS
Definition 1.3.3 Trigonometric functions of a point, (x, y),
on the circumference of a circle of radius r 17
Figure 1.3.13 Reference triangles 31
Table 1.4.1 Fundamental trigonometric identities 44
Table 2.1.1 Domain and range of trigonometric functions 51
Table 2.5.3 Domain and range of inverse trigonometric functions 99
Table 3.2.1 Summary of sum/difference of angles identities 122
Table 3.3.2 Summary of double- and half-angle identities 130
Table 3.4.1 Product-to-sum and sum-to-product identities 139
Table 4.2.1 Summary for Law of Sines SSA case 164

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A special thanks to
Theodore Koukounas, Maria Alzugaray and Jean Nicolas Pestieau
for their wonderful insights and helpful criticism.

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
WITH APPLICATIONS Basic Definitions and Theorems

Chapter 1
Basic Definitions and Theorems
Learning Objectives:
 Review basic terminology
 Review the Pythagorean theorem
 Review definitions of trigonometric functions from a right triangle and a circle
 Review the fundamental trigonometric identities

Section 1.1 Angle Measurement and Arc Length


A ray is a half line. It has an initial point, but no terminal point. It is infinite in one direction. Two
rays that initiate from the same point form an angle in two dimensions. This point is called the
vertex of the angle. An angle is a circular measure delimited by its rays.

Figure 1.1.1 Angle

An angle that initiates from the positive x-axis is in standard position. A positive angle opens in the
counter-clockwise direction. A negative angle opens in the clock-wise direction.

Figure 1.1.2 Angles in standard position

Perpendicular rays form a right angle. A straight angle is composed of rays that digress from their
common vertex in opposite directions. Coincident rays form a zero angle. An acute angle measures

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
WITH APPLICATIONS Basic Definitions and Theorems

between a zero angle and a right angle. An obtuse angle measures between a right angle and a
straight angle. A reflex angle measures larger than a straight angle (positive or negative).

Figure 1.1.3 Some particular angles in standard position

Angle Measure

The most common units of angle measure are degrees and radians. A degree measures 1/360 of one
complete revolution. That is, one revolution measures 360 (degrees). A straight angle measures
180 and a right angle measures 90. A zero angle measures 0.

Definition 1.1.1 Degree

A degree is 1/360 of one single and complete revolution about a point.

Degree measure becomes more precise if finer units of measurement called minutes and seconds are
used. One degree equals 60 minutes and one minute equals 60 seconds just like on a clock.

1 revolution = 360 1 = 60' 1' = 60"

This measurement is called DMS, that is, Degrees Minutes Seconds. Precisely measured angles may
also be expressed in decimal degrees.

Example 1.1.1
Express the angle measure 33 28' 15" in decimal degrees. Note this DMS measurement has 6
significant figures or digits.

First convert seconds to minutes:


15" 1′ 1′
15" = ⋅ = = 0.25′
1 60" 4

Combine minutes and convert to degrees:

28.25′ 1°
28.25′ = ⋅ ′ ≈ 0.4708°
1 60

33 28' 15" ≈ 33.4708 (decimal degrees retaining 6 significant digits)

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Example 1.1.2
Express the angle measure 124.389 in DMS.

Subtract the whole degrees (124) from the fractional degrees. Convert the fractional degrees to
minutes.
60′
0.389° = (0.389°) ( ) = 23.34′

Subtract the whole minutes. Convert the fractional minutes to seconds.

0.34′ 60"
0.34′ = ⋅ ′ = 20.4"
1 1

124.389 ≈ 124 23' 20"

Radians

Definition 1.1.2 Radian

Radian measure is defined to be the circular arc length an angle subtends divided by the radius of
that arc.

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The arc length and the radius should be measured in consistent units. Radian measure is, therefore,
dimensionless. Radians are real numbers. To measure angles using arc length is natural and logical.
Thus, it is the angle measure of the System International (SI). An arc length of a circle (see Figure
1.1.4) is proportional to its radius. There are infinitely many arcs of different length that may be
drawn for a single angle. Hence, arc length alone cannot measure an angle. However, if the measure
of any arc drawn through a particular angle is divided by the length of its radius, the result is
constant. This constant is the angle measure. That is,
𝒔𝒔
𝜽𝜽 =
𝒓𝒓
where  denotes the angle measure (in radians), s denotes the length of the arc and r denotes the
length of the radius.

Figure 1.1.4 Arc length

In a circle of constant radius, the measure of its central angle is proportional to the length of the arc
subtended by that angle. The constant of proportionality is the length of the radius. If the radius
changes, the arc length changes proportionally for the same angle. Angle measure is proportional to
arc length.

If the length of the arc is equal to the length of its radius, then the angle subtended by this arc is
equal to 1 radian.
𝑠𝑠 𝑟𝑟
𝜃𝜃 = = =1
𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟

The following link provides a dynamic illustration of radian measure: Visualize radian measure by
Lucas
V. Barbosa.

The circumference of a circle is given by


C = 2r

where C is the circumference and r is the radius. The circumference is the arc length of a complete
circle, that is, the arc length of a circle is 𝑠𝑠 = 2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋. So by the definition of radian measure,

𝑠𝑠 2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋
𝜃𝜃 = = = 2𝜋𝜋
𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
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where  is the central angle. This shows that a complete revolution of 360 = 2. It follows that a
straight angle measures  radians, that is, 180 = . This yields a conversion factor for changing
from degree measure to radian measure and vice versa.

𝝅𝝅 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏°
= 𝟏𝟏 𝒐𝒐𝒐𝒐 = 𝟏𝟏
𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏° 𝝅𝝅
Similarly, it follows that a right angle measures /2 radians or 90 = /2.

Example 1.1.3
Convert 72 to radians.
72° 𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋
72° = ⋅ =
1 180° 5

This illustrates a useful concept known as unit analysis. The units indicate which conversion factor
should be used. Use the factor that divides the units being converted. In the above example, degrees
𝜋𝜋
were being converted to radians. The factor, , divides 72 degrees by 180 degrees. The result,
180°
2𝜋𝜋
, is thus unitless, that is, it is in radians. Radians are a unitless measure.
5

Example 1.1.4
Convert 135 to radians.
135° 𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋
135° = ⋅ =
1 180° 4

When converting DMS to radian measure, it is necessary to convert DMS to decimal degrees and
then follow the above steps.

Example 1.1.5
Convert 23 17' 58" to radians.

23.299° 𝜋𝜋
23° 17′ 58" ≈ 23. 299° = ⋅ ≈ 0.12944𝜋𝜋 ≈ 0.40664
1 180°

Example 1.1.6
Convert /3 to degrees.
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 180°
= ∙ = 60°
3 3 𝜋𝜋
Note in this example we used the reciprocal of the conversion factor in order to retain degree units.

Example 1.1.7
Convert 7/6 to degrees.
7𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 180°
= ∙ = 210°
6 6 𝜋𝜋

Example 1.1.8
Convert 2.4 to degrees.

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2.4 180°
2.4 = ∙ ≈ 140°
1 𝜋𝜋

No units are written when the angle measure is radians. When an angle measure is written without
units, it is known to be in radians. Two significant digits were retained in the above solution.

Arc Length

The definition of the radian provides a useful relationship between an arc length, its radius and the
subtended angle. This relationship may be used as a formula for computing arc lengths of circles.

𝒔𝒔
𝜽𝜽 =
𝒓𝒓
Reformulating:
𝒔𝒔 = 𝜽𝜽𝜽𝜽

where s denotes arc length,  denotes the angle (in radians by definition) and r denotes the radius as
previously stated. The units of s and r must be consistent in this formula.

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
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Example 1.1.9
Find the arc length subtended by a 30 angle in a circle of radius 2 meters.

30° 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
30° = ⋅ =
1 180° 6
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
𝑠𝑠 = ( ) (2 𝑚𝑚) = 𝑚𝑚
6 3

Example 1.1.10
5𝜋𝜋
Find the arc length subtended by an angle of in a circle of radius 12 centimeters.
3

5𝜋𝜋
𝑠𝑠 = ( ) (12 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐) = 20𝜋𝜋 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
3

Example 1.1.10
Two gears rotate together as shown in Figure 1.1.5. The larger gear has a radius of 9 inches while
the smaller gear has a radius of 4 inches.

Figure 1.1.5 Gears

a) After the smaller gear makes a complete revolution of 2 radians, through what angle does
the larger gear turn?

The total arc length of the smaller gear is

𝑠𝑠 = 2𝜋𝜋(4) = 8𝜋𝜋 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖.

As the smaller gear completes a rotation, the larger gear rotates a distance (arc length) of 8π
inches. The angle through which the larger gear turns is

𝑠𝑠 8𝜋𝜋
𝜃𝜃 =
𝑟𝑟 = 9 .

b) How many turns (revolutions) will the larger gear complete if the smaller gear rotates 29
turns?

The angle through which the larger gear turns is

8𝜋𝜋 232𝜋𝜋
𝜃𝜃 = (29) ( 9 ) = 9
.

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
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The number of turns (each of arc length 2π) is

232𝜋𝜋 1 116
⋅ = ≈ 12.9
9 2𝜋𝜋 9

The larger gear makes nearly 13 complete revolutions.

Area of a Sector

The area of a circle is given by


𝑨𝑨 = 𝝅𝝅𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐

where A is the area and r is the radius. The area of a semicircle is

𝟏𝟏 𝟐𝟐
𝑨𝑨 = 𝝅𝝅𝒓𝒓
𝟐𝟐

or half that of a circle. Table 1.1.1 shows the pattern continued. Notice that in each successive row
above, the angle is halved and likewise the area is halved. With inductive reasoning, the area of a
sector may be shown to be
𝟏𝟏 𝟐𝟐
𝑨𝑨 = 𝜽𝜽𝒓𝒓
𝟐𝟐
where A is the area of the sector,  is the central angle in radians and r is the radius.

central angle area

circle 2 r2
semi-circle  ½r2
quarter circle /2 ¼r2
eighth circle /4 1/8r2

. . .
. . .
. . .

general sector of angle   ½ r 2

Table 1.1.1 Area of a sector

Figure 1.1.6 Area of a sector

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
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Example 1.1.12
Find the area of a sector of radius 1.2 feet subtended by an angle of 2/3 radians.

1 2𝜋𝜋
𝐴𝐴 = ( ) (1.2 ft)2 = 0.48𝜋𝜋 ft 2
2 3

Example 1.1.13
Find the area of a sector of radius 6 kilometers subtended by an angle of 210.

7𝜋𝜋
𝜃𝜃 = 210° =
6
1 7𝜋𝜋
𝐴𝐴 = ( ) (6 km)2 = 21𝜋𝜋 km2
2 6

Example 1.1.14
A town code states that no landscape features may exceed 4 feet in height within a 20-foot radius of
the apex of a street corner.

Figure 1.1.7 Apex of a corner

Approximate the area of Mr. Greenblat’s property subject to this town code.

1 𝜋𝜋
𝐴𝐴 ≈ ( ) (20 ft)2 = 100𝜋𝜋 ft 2
2 2

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Section 1.2 The Pythagorean Theorem


The Pythagorean theorem relates the lengths of the sides of a right triangle in Euclidean geometry.
More specifically, it states that the sum of the squares of the legs of any right triangle equal the
square of the hypotenuse. If a and b represent the lengths of the legs of a right triangle and c
represents the length of the hypotenuse, then

a2 + b2 = c2 .

This theorem is named after the Greek mathematician Pythagoras (ca. 570 BC—ca. 495 BC)
although there is evidence to suggest that knowledge of this relation predates the Pythagoreans. It
may be the most well known theorem in mathematics and probably has more distinct and varied
proofs than any other theorem. A simple geometric proof utilizes Figure 1.2.1 below.

Figure 1.2.1 A geometric illustration of the Pythagorean theorem

"Pythagore". Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia
Commons

Two dynamic visualizations of the geometry of this theorem may be found at:

Geometric proof of the Pythagorean theorem

"Pythag anim". Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia
Commons

Proposition 47 of Euclid’s Elements provides an elaborate proof based upon the congruence of
triangles and the areas of rectangles. It is speculated that Pythagoras used a proof based on similar
triangles and proportionality (Maor 2007, p39).

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A simple algebraic proof utilizes the following geometric figure of a square of side length a + b
with another square of side length c inscribed inside (Gardner 1984, p. 154).

Figure 1.2.2 Another geometric illustration of the Pythagorean theorem

The area of each right triangle formed around the inner square is ½ab. The area of the large square is
equal to (a + b)2. It is also equal to the area of the inner square plus the areas of the four triangles,
that is, c2 + 4(½ab). So,
(a + b)2 = c2 + 4(½ab)
a2 + 2ab + b2 = c2 + 2ab
a2 + b 2 = c 2 .

Example 1.2.1
The legs of a right triangle measure 3 feet and 4 feet. Find the length of the hypotenuse.

c2 = 32 + 42 = 25

Solving, c = ± 5. However, c = 5 since the length of the hypotenuse cannot be negative.

Example 1.2.2
The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 13 centimeters. One leg measures 7 centimeters. Find the
length of the other leg.

(13)2 = 72 + b2
b2 = (13)2 – 72 = 169 – 49 = 120
𝑏𝑏 = √120 = √4√30 = 2√30 .

Example 1.2.1 above illustrates a Pythagorean triple (3, 4, 5).

Definition 1.2.1 Pythagorean triple

A Pythagorean triple is a set of three integers satisfying the Pythagorean theorem.

There is a specific relationship between the integers of a Pythagorean triple. This was formalized in
Euclid’s Elements.

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If a = m2 – n2 then b = 2mn and c = m2 + n2

where m and n are integers with m > n.

It is left as an exercise for the reader to show that substituting the aforementioned expressions for a,
b and c into the Pythagorean theorem yields equality.

Example 1.2.3
Let m = 5 and n = 4. Then a = (5)2 – (4)2 = 25 – 16 = 9, b = 2(5)(4) = 40 and c = (5)2 + (4)2 = 41.

There have been many other formulas derived for the generation of Pythagorean triples since the
time of Euclid (300 BC).

There are sixteen Pythagorean triples for c < 100. They are:

( 3, 4, 5) ( 5, 12, 13) ( 8, 15, 17) ( 7, 24, 25) (20, 21, 29)


(12, 35, 37) ( 9, 40, 41) (28, 45, 53) (11, 60, 61) (16, 63, 65)
(33, 56, 65) (48, 55, 73)
360°
(13, 84, 85) (36, 77, 85) (39, 80, 89) (65, 72, 97)

thinking .

360°
thinking . 360°
thinking .
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The Pythagorean theorem has great application. This will be illustrated extensively throughout this
text.

The Distance Formula

The distance formula is an application of the Pythagorean theorem.

Figure 1.2.3 Distance between two points

c2 = a2 + b2

D2 = (x1 – x2)2 + (y1 – y2)2

or

𝐷𝐷 = √(𝑥𝑥1 − 𝑥𝑥2 )2 + (𝑦𝑦1 − 𝑦𝑦2 )2

Example 1.2.4
Find the distance between the points (-2, 5) and (3, 7) in the xy-plane.

𝐷𝐷 = √(𝑥𝑥1 − 𝑥𝑥2 )2 + (𝑦𝑦1 − 𝑦𝑦2 )2

𝐷𝐷 = √(−2 − 3)2 + (5 − 7)2

𝐷𝐷 = √25 + 4

𝐷𝐷 = √29

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Section 1.3 Right Triangle Trigonometry


The trigonometric functions are defined to be ratios of the lengths of the sides of a right triangle.
With three sides of a triangle, there are six possible combinations and, as such, six trigonometric
functions.

Definition 1.3.1 Trigonometric functions

Let  be an acute interior angle of any right triangle. Let a represent the length of the leg of the
triangle adjacent to angle . Let o represent the length of the leg of the triangle opposite . Let h
represent the length of the hypotenuse (the longest side, opposite the right angle). The six possible
ratios of any two sides of this triangle are:

𝑜𝑜 ℎ
sin(𝜃𝜃) = csc(𝜃𝜃) =
ℎ 𝑜𝑜
𝑎𝑎 ℎ
cos(𝜃𝜃) = sec(𝜃𝜃) =
ℎ 𝑎𝑎
𝑜𝑜 𝑎𝑎
tan(𝜃𝜃) = cot(𝜃𝜃) =
𝑎𝑎 𝑜𝑜

where sin() is the sine function, cos() is the cosine function, tan() is the tangent function, csc()
is the cosecant function, sec() is the secant function and cot() is the cotangent function.

Figure 1.3.1 Relationship between the sides of a right triangle

The argument of each trigonometric function is  or an independent variable representing an angle.


When an angle (or the equivalent) is input to a trigonometric function, the output is a ratio of two
sides of a right triangle.

A note concerning notation: when writing function notation always include the argument of the
function. Sin is a topic of theology, not trigonometry. Sin is a trigonometric function.

Example 1.3.1

a) Find the values of the six trigonometric functions of  for the right triangle illustrated in
Figure 1.3.2.

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Figure 1.3.2

The length of the hypotenuse is found using the Pythagorean theorem. It may also be found
by recalling one of the Pythagorean triples, (3, 4, 5).

3 5
sin(𝜃𝜃) = csc(𝜃𝜃) =
5 3
4 5
cos(𝜃𝜃) = sec(𝜃𝜃) =
5 4
3 4
tan(𝜃𝜃) = cot(𝜃𝜃) =
4 3

b) Find the values of the six trigonometric functions of  for the right triangle illustrated in
Figure 1.3.2.

4 5
sin(𝛼𝛼) = csc(𝛼𝛼) =
5 4
3 5
cos(𝛼𝛼) = sec(𝛼𝛼) =
5 3
4 3
tan(𝛼𝛼) = cot(𝛼𝛼) =
3 4

The values of the trigonometric functions vary with the angle. It is of note in the above example that
sin() = cos() and  +  = /2.  and  are complementary angles. Sine and cosine are
cofunctions. In other words, the sine of an angle is equal to the cosine of that angle’s complement.
𝝅𝝅
𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬(𝜽𝜽) = 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜 ( − 𝜽𝜽)
𝟐𝟐

If an angle,  is evaluated within any of the trigonometric functions, the same result is obtained if
𝜋𝜋
the complement of said angle, ( − 𝜃𝜃), is evaluated within the cofunction. There are three pairs of
2
trigonometric cofunctions: the sine and the cosine (stated above); the secant and the cosecant; and
the tangent and the cotangent.

𝝅𝝅 𝝅𝝅
𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬(𝜽𝜽) = 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜 ( − 𝜽𝜽) 𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭(𝜽𝜽) = 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜 ( − 𝜽𝜽)
𝟐𝟐 𝟐𝟐

Definition 1.3.2 Cofunction

A cofunction is the function of the complement of an angle.

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If a right triangle is placed within a circle centered at (0, 0), keeping the angle of interest adjacent to
the axis of the domain (typically called the x-axis), the trigonometric functions may be redefined in
terms of the coordinates of the plane and the radius of the circle.

Figure 1.3.3 Right triangle within a circle of radius r centered at (0,0)

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Definition 1.3.3
Trigonometric functions of a point, (x, y), on the circumference of a circle of radius r
𝑦𝑦 𝑟𝑟
sin(𝜃𝜃) = csc(𝜃𝜃) =
𝑟𝑟 𝑦𝑦
𝑥𝑥 𝑟𝑟
cos(𝜃𝜃) = sec(𝜃𝜃) =
𝑟𝑟 𝑥𝑥
𝑦𝑦 𝑥𝑥
tan(𝜃𝜃) = cot(𝜃𝜃) =
𝑥𝑥 𝑦𝑦

where x is the length of the leg of a right triangle that is adjacent to the angle of interest, y is the
length of the leg opposite said angle, r is the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle and 𝜃𝜃 is a
central angle in standard position.

Please note that (x, y) is a point on the circumference of the circle defined by the equation

x2 + y2 = r2 .

This definition of the trigonometric functions is essentially a renaming of components or a change


of perspective.
Refer back to the triangle in Figure 1.3.3 to see that x2 + y2 = r2 is also the Pythagorean theorem.

Definitions 1.3.2 and 1.3.3 may be considered classic definitions of the trigonometric functions.
These functions may also be defined using a tangent line to a circle. The naming of the tangent
function is not a coincidence, but rather an intentional label suggestive of what it represents.
Likewise, the word sine comes from a corruption of the Sanskrit word for chord. The sine is still
sometimes referred to as the half-chord. The following video will help clarify how the tangent
function relates to the tangent line. It provides a deeper understanding of the trigonometric functions
and a more eloquent explanation of each function’s period, range and domain. These properties are
essential in understanding the graphs of these transcendental functions in the next chapter.

Tangent line definitions

Example 1.3.1
Find the values of the six trigonometric functions corresponding to the point (1, √3 ) in the xy-
plane.

Refer to Figure 1.3.4 below. Find the radius of the circle (hypotenuse of the triangle) passing
through the point using the Pythagorean theorem.

x 2 + y2 = r 2

(1)2 + (√3 )2 = r2

4 = r2

2=r

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Figure 1.3.4 for example 1.3.1

√3 2 2 √3 2√ 3
sin(𝜃𝜃) = 2 csc(𝜃𝜃) =
√3
= ∙
√3 √3
= 3

1 2
cos(𝜃𝜃) = sec(𝜃𝜃) = =2
2 1

√3 1 1 √3 √3
tan(𝜃𝜃) = 1 = √3 cot(𝜃𝜃) =
√3
= ∙
√3 √3
= 3

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Rationalize any irrational denominators using the multiplicative identity.

Example 1.3.2
Find the values of the six trigonometric functions corresponding to the point (-1, √3 ) in the xy-
plane.

Refer to Figure 1.3.5. Find the radius of the circle passing through the point using the Pythagorean
theorem.
x2 + y 2 = r 2

(1)2 + (√3 )2 = r2

4 = r2

2=r

Note that the length of each leg of the right triangle is positive, despite the signs on the coordinates
of the point. Thus |-√3| = √3 was used in the Pythagorean theorem above.

Figure 1.3.5 for example 1.3.2

√3 2 2 √3 2√3
sin(𝜃𝜃) = 2 csc(𝜃𝜃) =
√3
= ∙
√3 √3
= 3

1 2
cos(𝜃𝜃) = − sec(𝜃𝜃) = − = −2
2 1

√3 −1 1 √3 √3
tan(𝜃𝜃) = = −√3 cot(𝜃𝜃) = =− ∙ = −
−1 √3 √3 √ 3 3

Note that the absolute values of all six functions remain the same as in the previous example. The
values of the trigonometric functions in Example 1.3.1 and the values of the functions in Example
1.3.2 differ only in sign, if at all. This is due to the symmetry of the circle and the signs of the
coordinates in the xy-plane. If the same triangle is moved into quadrants 3 or 4 of the xy-plane, the
pattern continues.

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Example 1.3.3
Find the values of the six trigonometric functions corresponding to the point (-1, -3) in the
xy-plane. Refer to Figure 1.3.6. The radius of the circle is 2 as it was in the two last examples.

Figure 1.3.6 for Examples 1.3.3 and 1.3.4

√3 2 2 √3 2 √3
sin(𝜃𝜃) = − 2 csc(𝜃𝜃) = = − ∙ = − 3
− 3
√ √ 3 3

1 2
cos(𝜃𝜃) = − 2 sec(𝜃𝜃) = − = −2
1

− √3 −1 1 √3 √3
tan(𝜃𝜃) =
−1
= √3 cot(𝜃𝜃) = = ∙ = 3
− 3
√ √ 3 √3

Example 1.3.4
Find the values of the six trigonometric functions corresponding to the point (1, -3) in the xy-plane.

Refer to Figure 1.3.6. The radius is still 2.

√3 2 2 √3 2√ 3
sin(𝜃𝜃) = − 2 csc(𝜃𝜃) = = − ∙ = − 3
−√ 3 √3 √3

1 2
cos(𝜃𝜃) = sec(𝜃𝜃) = =2
2 1

− √3 1 1 √3 √3
tan(𝜃𝜃) =
1
= −√3 cot(𝜃𝜃) = =− ∙ = − 3
−√ 3 √3 √3

Observe how the signs of the ratios vary with each trigonometric function and with each quadrant of
the plane. In the first quadrant, the range values of all six trigonometric functions are positive. It is
no coincidence that x > 0 and y > 0 in quadrant I. In the second quadrant, only the sine function and
its reciprocal function, the cosecant, are positive. The definitions of the sine and the cosecant
involve y and r. r is the radius of a circle and, as such, is positive. In quadrant II, y > 0 and x < 0.
Hence a ratio of y and r is positive. The definitions of the other four trigonometric functions involve

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ratios of x and r or x and y. Therefore, the remaining four functions yield a negative output for
angles terminating in quadrant II. Continuing this line of reasoning, the only trigonometric functions
with positive output for angles terminating in quadrant III are the tangent and cotangent functions
since x < 0 and y < 0 in this quadrant. In quadrant IV, only the cosine function and its reciprocal
function, the secant, are positive. Figure 1.3.7 summarizes these facts employing a convenient
mnemonic device: ASTC. A is for ‘All’ positive in quadrant I, S is for ‘Sine’ including its reciprocal
function, cosecant, positive in quadrant II, et cetera. The acronym may stand for ‘All Should Try
Calculus.’ Use your imagination.

Figure 1.3.7 ASTC

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The previous four examples utilize a reference triangle. Refer back to Figures 1.3.5 and 1.3.6. The
notation ref indicates the reference angle. It is the same in all four examples. It is the interior angle
of the right triangle that is adjacent to the domain axis. , however, the argument of each
trigonometric function, is the central angle of the circle and is not necessarily equal to ref. In
Example 1.3.1, ref is equal to . In Example 1.3.2, ref is supplementary to . In Example 1.3.3, ref
is part of the angle denoted . The angle, , is in standard position and varies from example to
example.  is the angle being evaluated in each trigonometric function. If ref is evaluated in any of
the trigonometric functions the correct absolute value is obtained. In other words, if  and ref are
defined as in Figures 1.3.5 and 1.3.6, with  in standard position and ref adjacent to the domain
axis, then sin(ref ) = |sin |. The same is true for the other five trigonometric functions. Verify this in
the previous examples.

𝟎𝟎 < 𝜽𝜽𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓 < 𝟗𝟗𝟗𝟗°

If an equilateral triangle of side length 2 is bisected, then the reference triangle used in the previous
four examples may be derived (see Figure 1.3.8). An equilateral triangle is equiangular and the
measure of each interior angle is /3 or 60. The bisected angle is then /6 or 30. An angle bisector
in an equilateral triangle will also bisect the base at a right or 90 angle. This creates two equal right
triangles, each one being the reference triangle used in Examples 1.3.1 through 1.3.4.

Figure 1.3.8 Reference triangle

The angles π/6 and π/3 are both reference angles. They can be used to find the values of
trigonometric functions at other angles. The length of leg y above may be found using the
Pythagorean theorem.

𝑥𝑥 2 + 𝑦𝑦 2 = 𝑟𝑟 2

(1)2 + 𝑦𝑦 2 = (2)2

𝑦𝑦 2 = 3

𝑦𝑦 = √3

Examples 1.3.1 through 1.3.4 could be restated as follows:

Example 1.3.1A
𝜋𝜋
Find the exact values of the six trigonometric functions of .
3

Refer back to Figure 1.3.4 as necessary. Refer to the reference triangle in Figure 1.3.8 and apply the
definitions of the six trigonometric functions. Rationalize denominators as necessary.

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𝜋𝜋 √3 𝜋𝜋 2 2 √3 2√ 3
sin ( ) = 2
3
csc ( ) =
3 √3
= ∙
√3 √3
= 3

𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋 2
cos ( ) = sec ( ) = =2
3 2 3 1

𝜋𝜋 √3 𝜋𝜋 1 1 √3 √3
tan ( ) = 1 = √3
3
cot ( ) =
3 √3
= ∙
√3 √3
= 3

Example 1.3.2A
2𝜋𝜋
Find the values of the six trigonometric functions of .
3

2𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
Refer to back to Figure 1.3.5. 𝜃𝜃 = . 𝜃𝜃 = .
3 𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟 3

2𝜋𝜋 √3 2𝜋𝜋 2 2 √3
∙ = 233

sin ( )= 2 csc ( )= =
3 3 √3 √3 √3

2π 1 2𝜋𝜋 2
cos ( )=− sec ( ) = − = −2
3 2 3 1

2π √3 2𝜋𝜋 −1 1 √3 √3
tan ( ) = −1 = −√3 cot ( )= =− ∙ =−
3 3 √3 √3 √3 3

𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋 1 1
Note that cos ( ) = |cos ( )| = |− | = .
3 3 2 2

4𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋
If the reference triangle is moved into quadrants 3 or 4 of the xy-plane, angles and may be
3 3
evaluated in the trigonometric functions.

Example 1.3.3A
4𝜋𝜋 4𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
Find the values of the six trigonometric functions of . In Figure 1.3.6, 𝜃𝜃 = and 𝜃𝜃𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟 = .
3 3 3

4π √3 4π 2 2 √3 2√ 3
sin ( )= − 2 csc ( )= = − ∙ = − 3
3 3 −√ 3 √3 √3

4π 1 4π 2
cos ( )= − sec ( ) = − = −2
3 2 3 1

4π − √3 4π −1 1 √ 3 √3
tan (
3
) = −1 = √3 cot (
3
)= = ∙ = 3
−√3 √3 √3

Example 1.3.4A
5𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
Find the values of the six trigonometric functions of . In Figure 1.3.6, 𝜃𝜃 = 3 and 𝜃𝜃𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟 = 3.
3

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5π √3 5π 2 2 √3 2√ 3
sin ( )=− csc ( )= = − ∙ = −
3 2 3 − 3
√ √ 3 3
√ 3

5π 1 5π 2
cos ( )= sec ( )= =2
3 2 3 1

5π − √3 5π 1 1 √3 √3
tan ( )= = −√3 cot ( )= =− ∙ = −
3 1 3 − 3
√ √ 3 3
√ 3

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
The compliment of reference angle is reference angle . The trigonometric functions may be
3 6
𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 11𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
evaluated at , , , and by moving this reference triangle around the circle with adjacent
6 6 6 6 6
to the domain axis.

Example 1.3.5
Find the values of the six trigonometric functions corresponding to the points (√3, 1), (-√3, 1),
(-√3, -1) and (√3, -1) in the xy-plane. Refer to Figure 1.3.9. Find the radius of the circle.

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x2 + y2 = r 2

(√3 )2 + (1)2 = r2

4 = r2

2=r

Figure 1.3.9 for example 1.3.5

π
a) For coordinates (√3, 1) or  = :
6

1 2
sin(𝜃𝜃) = csc(𝜃𝜃) = = 2
2 1

√3 2 2
∙ √3 = 2√ 3

cos(𝜃𝜃) = sec(𝜃𝜃) = =
2 √3 √3 3 3

1 1 √3 √3 √3
tan(𝜃𝜃) =
√3
= ∙
√3 √3
=
3
cot(𝜃𝜃) =
1
= √3

Note that any of these values could have also been obtained using the cofunction identities.

𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
sin ( ) = = cos ( − ) = cos ( )
6 2 2 6 3
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
csc ( ) = 2 = sec ( − ) = sec ( )
6 2 6 3
𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
tan ( ) = = cot ( − ) = cot ( )
6 √3 2 6 3

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b) For coordinates (-√3, 1) or  = :
6

1 2
sin(𝜃𝜃) = csc(𝜃𝜃) = = 2
2 1

√3 2 2 √3 2√ 3
cos(𝜃𝜃) = − sec(𝜃𝜃) = =− ∙ =−
2 − 3
√ √ 3 3
√ 3

1 1 √3 √3 −√3
tan(𝜃𝜃) = = − ∙ = − 3 cot(𝜃𝜃) = 1
= −√3
−√ 3 √3 √3


c) For coordinates (-√3, -1) or  = :
6

1 2
sin(𝜃𝜃) = − csc(𝜃𝜃) = = −2
2 −1

√3 2 2 √3 2√ 3
cos(𝜃𝜃) = − sec(𝜃𝜃) = =− ∙ =−
2 −√ 3 √3 √3 3

−1 1 √3 √3 − √3
tan(𝜃𝜃) = = ∙ = 3 cot(𝜃𝜃) = −1 = √3
−√3 √3 √3

11π
d) For coordinates (√3, -1) or  = :
6

1 2
sin(𝜃𝜃) = − csc(𝜃𝜃) = = −2
2 −1

√3 2 2 √ 3 2√ 3
cos(𝜃𝜃) =
2
sec(𝜃𝜃) =
√3
= ∙ = 3
√3 √3

−1 1 √3 √3 √3
tan(𝜃𝜃) = =− ∙ =− 3 cot(𝜃𝜃) = −1 = −√3
√3 √3 √3

A short video illustrating the last five examples.

Another reference triangle may be derived through the bisection of a unit square along its diagonal.

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Figure 1.3.10 Reference triangle

The hypotenuse is obtained by applying the Pythagorean theorem. The reference angle is π/4.

Positioning this reference triangle within a circle centered at the origin around the four quadrants
𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋
enables the evaluation of angles , , and in the trigonometric functions.
4 4 4 4

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Example 1.3.6
Find the values of the six trigonometric functions corresponding to the points (1, 1), (-1, 1), (-1, -1)
and (1, -1) in the xy-plane. Refer to Figures 1.3.10 and 1.3.11.

Figure 1.3.11 for example 1.3.6

𝜋𝜋
a) For coordinates (1, 1) or  = :
4

1 1 √2 √2 √2
sin(𝜃𝜃) = = ∙ = csc(𝜃𝜃) = = √2
√2 √2 √2 2 1

1 1 √2 √2 √2
cos(𝜃𝜃) = = ∙ = sec(𝜃𝜃) = = √2
√2 √2 √2 2 1
1
tan(𝜃𝜃) = = 1 cot(𝜃𝜃) = 1
1

Note that any of these values could have also been obtained using the cofunction identities.

𝜋𝜋 √2 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
sin ( ) = = cos ( − ) = cos ( )
4 2 2 4 4
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
csc ( ) = √2 = sec ( − ) = sec ( )
4 2 4 4
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
tan ( ) = 1 = cot ( − ) = cot ( )
4 2 4 4

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b) For coordinates (-1, 1) or  = :
4

1 1 √2 √2 √2
sin(𝜃𝜃) = = ∙ = csc(𝜃𝜃) = = √2
√2 √2 √2 2 1

1 1 √2 √2 √2
cos(𝜃𝜃) = − =− ∙ = − sec(𝜃𝜃) = − = −√2
√2 √2 √2 2 1

−1
tan(𝜃𝜃) = = −1 cot(𝜃𝜃) = −1
1

5𝜋𝜋
c) For coordinates (-1, -1) or  = :
4

−1 1 √2 √2 √2
sin(𝜃𝜃) = =− ∙ = − csc(𝜃𝜃) = − = −√2
√2 √2 √2 2 1

1 1 √2 √2 √2
cos(𝜃𝜃) = − =− ∙ = − sec(𝜃𝜃) = − = −√2
√2 √2 √2 2 1

1
𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡(𝜃𝜃) = = 1 cot(𝜃𝜃) = 1
1

7𝜋𝜋
d) For coordinates (1, -1) or  = :
4

−1 1 √2 √2 √2
sin(𝜃𝜃) = =− ∙ = − csc(𝜃𝜃) = − = −√2
√2 √2 √2 2 1

1
cos(𝜃𝜃) =
√2
= √12 ∙ √√22 = √2
2
sec(𝜃𝜃) =
√2
1
= √2

−1
tan(𝜃𝜃) = = −1 cot(𝜃𝜃) = −1
1

All of the information derived thus far is summarized in Table 1.3.1 and in Figures 1.3.12 and
1.3.13.

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Function  = /6  = /4  = /3

1 √2 √3
Sine
2 2 2

√3 √2 1
Cosine
2 2 2

Tangent √3 1 √3
3

2√3
Cosecant 2 √2
3

2√3
Secant √2 2
3

Cotangent 1 √3
√3
3

Table 1.3.1 Values of the six trigonometric functions at the reference angles

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Figure 1.3.12 Coordinates and associated angles on the circumference of a circle of radius r

Figure 1.3.13 Reference triangles

The trigonometric functions are defined as ratios of the lengths of the sides of any right triangle. The
previous discussion illustrates how the coordinates on the circumference of a circle centered at the
origin may also be used to define these functions.

Figure 1.3.12 has 4 additional points: (r, 0), (0, r), (-r, 0) and (0, -r). These points are associated with
𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋
the angles, 0, ,  and , respectively. These angles are known as the quadrantal angles. They
2 2
define the four quadrants of the xy-plane. With coordinates at each of the four quadrantal angles, it is
possible to find exact values of the trigonometric functions at each of these angles.

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Definition 1.3.4 Quadrantal angle

A quadrantal angle is an angle in standard position with a terminating ray coincident with an axis.

Example 1.3.7
𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋
Find the exact values of the six trigonometric functions at 0, , 𝜋𝜋 and radians.
2 2

0
sin(0) = =0 csc(0) does not exist (dne)
𝑟𝑟
𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟
cos(0) = =1 sec(0) = =1
𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟
0
tan(0) = = 0 cot(0) dne
𝑟𝑟

𝜋𝜋 𝑟𝑟 𝜋𝜋
sin ( ) = = 1 csc ( ) = 1
2 𝑟𝑟 2
𝜋𝜋 0 𝜋𝜋
cos ( ) = = 0 sec ( ) 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
2 𝑟𝑟 2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 0
tan ( ) 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 cot ( ) = = 0
2 2 𝑟𝑟

0
sin(π) = =0 csc(π) dne
𝑟𝑟
−𝑟𝑟
cos(𝜋𝜋) = = −1 sec(𝜋𝜋) = −1
𝑟𝑟
0
tan(𝜋𝜋) = =0 cot(π) dne
𝑟𝑟

3𝜋𝜋 −𝑟𝑟 3𝜋𝜋


sin ( ) = = −1 csc ( ) = −1
2 𝑟𝑟 2
3𝜋𝜋 0 3π
cos ( )= =0 sec ( ) dne
2 𝑟𝑟 2
3π 3𝜋𝜋 0
tan ( ) dne cot ( ) = = 0
2 2 𝑟𝑟

The coordinates on the circumference of a circle define the trigonometric functions. Any point on
the circumference of a circle may be used to find the values (if they exist) of the six trigonometric
functions. The position of the point determines the value of the trigonometric function. If two angles
in standard position terminate at the same point and are evaluated inside a trigonometric function,
their values will be the same.

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There are infinite angles in standard position with terminal rays that coincide with the same point on
π 1 𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋 1
a circle. Therefore, if sin ( ) = , then so does sin ( + 2𝜋𝜋) = and sin ( + 4𝜋𝜋) = 2 and
6 2 6 2 6
𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋 1
sin ( + 6𝜋𝜋) = and sin ( − 2𝜋𝜋) = , et cetera. In other words, the trigonometric functions are
6 2 6 2
periodic. After a certain period, the values in the range of each function repeat. This is reasonable
based upon the symmetry of a circle.

For angle values greater than or equal to 0 but less than 2, a trigonometric function cycles through
all its range values at least once. For angles greater than 2 or angles less than 0, there will be
repetition of these range values since the positions on the circumference of the circle are revisited.

Definition 1.3.5 Period of a trigonometric function

The period of a trigonometric function is the shortest interval of its domain that will correspond to
one complete cycle through its range.

A complete cycle through the range of a trigonometric function is represented by a continuous set of
points along the circumference of a circle. The length of this cycle will depend upon the specific
function. For example, the set of range values for the sine function is governed by the y-coordinates
of these points along the circumference. Each value in the range of the sine function is the ratio of a
y-coordinate to the radius of the circle.

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The values of the y-coordinates on a circle of radius r vary from –r to r (Figure 1.3.12). Example
𝜋𝜋 −𝑟𝑟 𝜋𝜋 𝑟𝑟
1.3.7 shows the sin (− ) = = −1 and sin ( ) = = 1. This means that the range of the sine
2 𝑟𝑟 2 𝑟𝑟
function is [-1, 1]. In order to be guaranteed to cover the entire range of the sine function starting at
any point in the sine’s domain, a complete revolution around the circle or 2 radians is necessary.
Therefore, the period of the sine function is 2.

𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬(𝜽𝜽 + 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐) = 𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬(𝜽𝜽) , where k is an integer.

In other words, if an angle is increased or decreased by any multiple of 2, its value in the sine
function remains constant. The range value of a trigonometric function is determined by the position
of coordinates on a circle. Please note that 𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 ≠ 𝜃𝜃, unless k is zero.

A similar argument demonstrates that the range of the cosine is [-1, 1] and its period is also 2.

𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜(𝜽𝜽 + 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐) = 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜(𝜽𝜽) , where k is an integer.

The range of the tangent function is not as easily determined. The range of the tangent function is
defined to be the ratio of the y-coordinate to the x-coordinate on the circumference of a circle. Please
refer back to Figure 1.3.12. With a variable in the denominator, there are angles outside of the
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
domain for a tangent function. For instance, at 𝜃𝜃 = the x-coordinate is zero, and as such, 𝜃𝜃 = is
2 2
not in the domain of the tangent function since division by zero is not defined. The tangent function
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
is undefined at 𝜃𝜃 = . Likewise, the tangent function is undefined at 𝜃𝜃 = − . The x-coordinate is
2 2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
non-zero for all other values of  between − 2 and . That is to say, the tangent function is defined
2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
on the open interval (− , ). This is an interval of the tangent function’s domain. Refer to Chapter
2 2
2, Section 2.1 for more on the domain of a trigonometric function.

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
If ratios of the x and y-coordinates are considered over the interval (− 2 , 2), the range of the tangent
𝑦𝑦 0
function is infinite. For example, at 𝜃𝜃 = 0, the ratio of the coordinates, = = 0. Zero is in the
𝑥𝑥 𝑟𝑟
𝜋𝜋
range of the tangent function. As  increases from 0 toward , the values of the y-coordinates
2
increase while the values of the x-coordinates simultaneously decrease. Under these conditions, the
entire ratio or quotient increases without bound. A much simpler example may help illustrate this
phenomenon.

Example 1.3.8
Determine the behavior of the quotients when 10 is divided by successively smaller values.

10 10
= 10 = 100,000
1 0.0001
10 10
= 100 = 1,000,000
0.1 0.00001
10 10
= 1000 = 10,000,000
0.01 0.000001
10 10
= 10,000 = 100,000,000
0.001 0.0000001

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This pattern may, of course, be continued infinitely. The quotient values tend toward infinity. This
illustration is much simpler than tangent function range values since the numerator of these ratios is
held constant. If the numerator were to increase simultaneously, the ratios would increase more
rapidly.
𝜋𝜋
If this same analysis is applied to the angle values ranging from 0 toward − , the ratios increase in
2
magnitude but in the negative direction or toward -∞. Therefore, the range of the tangent function is
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
(-∞, ∞). It is clear that a distance in the domain of  radians, that is − to radians, corresponds to
2 2
the entire set of reals or (-∞, ∞). The period of the tangent function is  radians.

𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭(𝜽𝜽 + 𝒌𝒌𝒌𝒌) = 𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭(𝜽𝜽) , where k is an integer.

Similar arguments show the period of the cotangent function to be  radians, and the periods of the
secant and the cosecant functions to be 2 radians.

𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜(𝜽𝜽 + 𝒌𝒌𝒌𝒌) = 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜(𝜽𝜽) , where k is an integer;

𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬(𝜽𝜽 + 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐) = 𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬(𝜽𝜽) , where k is an integer;

𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜(𝜽𝜽 + 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐) = 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜(𝜽𝜽) , where k is an integer.

Table 1.3.2 summarizes the periods of the trigonometric functions.

Function Period

Sine 2

Cosine 2

Tangent 

Cosecant 2

Secant 2

Cotangent 

Table 1.3.2 Periods of the six trigonometric functions

The periodic identities may be used to find exact values of the trigonometric functions at particular
reflex angles.

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Example 1.3.9
Determine the exact values of the following trigonometric functions:

7𝜋𝜋 11𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋


a) sin(405) b) cos(-240) c) tan( ) d) csc( ) e) cot(− ) f) sec(840) .
6 3 4

Solutions:
√2
𝑎𝑎) sin(405°) = sin(45° + 360°) = sin(45°) = (𝑘𝑘 = 1)
2
1
𝑏𝑏) cos(−240°) = cos(120° − 360°) = cos(120°) = −cos(60°) = − (𝑘𝑘 = −1)
2

7𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 √3
𝑐𝑐) tan ( ) = tan ( + 𝜋𝜋) = tan ( ) = (𝑘𝑘 = 1)
6 6 6 3

11𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 2 2√3


𝑑𝑑) csc ( ) = csc ( + 2𝜋𝜋) = csc ( ) = −csc ( ) = − =− (𝑘𝑘 = 1)
3 3 3 3 √3 3

3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 1
𝑒𝑒) cot (− ) = cot ( − 𝜋𝜋) = cot ( ) = = 1 (𝑘𝑘 = −1)
4 4 4 1
2
𝑓𝑓) sec(840°) = sec(120° + 720°) = sec(120°) = −sec(60°) = − = −2 (𝑘𝑘 = 2)
1

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In the previous examples, the periodic identity was used. Also, consideration was given to the
quadrant where the angle terminated. For example in part b), the angle of -240 terminates in
quadrant II where the range values of the cosine function are negative. After applying the periodic
identity, the angle of 120 terminates in quadrant II as well. The cosine of 120 is equal to the
negative cosine of 60 due to the quadrant of angle termination. Therefore, the reference angle of
60 was used to determine the absolute value and a negative sign was appended due to the quadrant
of termination. Please note that -240 ≠ 120 ≠ 60. However, cos(−240°) = cos(120°) =
−cos(60°).

Example 1.3.10
Determine the exact values of the six trigonometric functions of an angle in standard position
terminating at the point (-2, 5).

The angle is not one of the three reference angles, nor is it a quadrantal angle. It is not necessary to
determine the angle. Find the radius of the circle passing through the point using the Pythagorean
theorem.
x2 + y 2 = r 2

(2)2 + (5)2 = r2

29 = r2

√29 = 𝑟𝑟

5 √29 5√29 √29


sin(𝜃𝜃) = ∙ = csc(𝜃𝜃) =
√29 √29 29 5

−2 √29 −2√29 √29


cos(𝜃𝜃) = ∙ = sec(𝜃𝜃) = −
√29 √29 29 2

5 5 −2 2
tan(𝜃𝜃) = =− cot(𝜃𝜃) = = −
−2 2 5 5

Example 1.3.11
Determine the exact values of the six trigonometric functions of an angle in standard position
terminating at the point (-2, -√2 ).

It is not necessary to determine the angle in order to evaluate the trigonometric functions.

Find the radius of the circle passing through (-2, -√2).

x2 + y2 = r 2

(2)2 + (√2 )2 = r2

6 = r2

√6 = 𝑟𝑟

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−√2 √6 √12 2√3 √3


sin(𝜃𝜃) = ∙ =− =− =−
√6 √6 6 6 3
√6 √2 √12 2√3
csc(𝜃𝜃) = ∙ = − = − = −√3
−√2 √2 2 2

−2 √6 −2√6 √6 √6
cos(𝜃𝜃) = ∙ = =− sec(𝜃𝜃) = −
√6 √6 6 3 2

−√2 √2 −2 2 √2 2√2
tan(𝜃𝜃) = = cot(𝜃𝜃) = = ∙ = = √2
−2 2 −√2 √2 √2 2

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Section 1.4 Fundamental Trigonometric Identities


A mathematical identity is always true or equal for all values in its domain.

Definition 1.4.1 Trigonometric Identity

A trigonometric identity is an equation involving one or more trigonometric functions that is always
true for all values in the domain of said function(s).

The fundamental trigonometric identities are the building blocks for the establishment of other
useful identities. These fundamental identities follow easily from the definitions of the trigonometric
functions and the Pythagorean theorem.

Quotient Identities

𝑟𝑟 1 1
csc(𝜃𝜃) = = 𝑦𝑦 = (𝑦𝑦 ≠ 0) (1)
𝑦𝑦 sin(𝜃𝜃)
𝑟𝑟
Likewise,
1
sin(𝜃𝜃) = (2)
csc(𝜃𝜃)

Similar identity relationships hold for the cosine and secant functions and for the tangent and
cotangent functions.
1
cos(𝜃𝜃) = (3)
sec(𝜃𝜃)

1
sec(𝜃𝜃) = (4)
cos(𝜃𝜃)

1
tan(𝜃𝜃) = (5)
cot(𝜃𝜃)

1
cot(𝜃𝜃) = (6)
tan(𝜃𝜃)

1 𝑦𝑦
𝑦𝑦 𝑦𝑦 𝑟𝑟 sin(𝜃𝜃)
tan(𝜃𝜃) = = ∙ = 𝑥𝑥𝑟𝑟 = (𝑥𝑥 ≠ 0) (7)
𝑥𝑥 𝑥𝑥 1 cos(𝜃𝜃)
𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟

Similarly,

cos(𝜃𝜃)
cot(𝜃𝜃) = (8)
sin(𝜃𝜃)

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Pythagorean Identities

𝑦𝑦
sin(𝜃𝜃) = → 𝑟𝑟sin(𝜃𝜃) = 𝑦𝑦
𝑟𝑟
𝑥𝑥
cos(𝜃𝜃) = → 𝑟𝑟cos(𝜃𝜃) = 𝑥𝑥
𝑟𝑟

𝑥𝑥 2 + 𝑦𝑦 2 = 𝑟𝑟 2

Substituting into the Pythagorean theorem,

(𝑟𝑟cos(𝜃𝜃))2 + (𝑟𝑟sin(𝜃𝜃))2 = 𝑟𝑟 2

𝑟𝑟 2 cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) + 𝑟𝑟 2 sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 𝑟𝑟 2

𝑟𝑟 2 cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) 𝑟𝑟 2 sin2 (𝜃𝜃) 𝑟𝑟 2


+ = 2
𝑟𝑟 2 𝑟𝑟 2 𝑟𝑟

cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) + sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1 (9)

To obtain another relationship, divide by the square of the cosine,

cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) sin2 (𝜃𝜃) 1


+ =
cos (𝜃𝜃) cos (𝜃𝜃) cos2 (𝜃𝜃)
2 2

sin(𝜃𝜃) 2 1 2
1 + ( ) = ( )
cos(𝜃𝜃) cos(𝜃𝜃)

1 + tan2 (𝜃𝜃) = sec 2 (𝜃𝜃) (10)

Dividing by the square of the sine yields another Pythagorean identity involving the cotangent and
cosecant functions,

cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) + sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1

cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) sin2 (𝜃𝜃) 1


2
+ 2 = 2
sin (𝜃𝜃) sin (𝜃𝜃) sin (𝜃𝜃)

cos(𝜃𝜃) 2 1 2
( ) + 1 =( )
sin(𝜃𝜃) sin(𝜃𝜃)

cot 2 (𝜃𝜃) + 1 = csc 2 (𝜃𝜃) (11)

Please note the notation, sin2 (𝜃𝜃) means (sin(𝜃𝜃))2 . This applies to all six trigonometric functions.

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Cofunction Identities

The cofunction identities were established in Section 1.3. If an angle,  is evaluated within any of
𝜋𝜋
the trigonometric functions, the same result is obtained if the complement of said angle, ( − 𝜃𝜃), is
2
evaluated within the cofunction. This is a direct result of the trigonometric definitions. There are
three pairs of trigonometric cofunctions: the sine and the cosine; the secant and the cosecant; and the
tangent and the cotangent.
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
sin(𝜃𝜃) = cos ( − 𝜃𝜃) cos(𝜃𝜃) = sin ( − 𝜃𝜃) (12)
2 2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
sec(𝜃𝜃) = csc ( − 𝜃𝜃) csc(𝜃𝜃) = sec ( − 𝜃𝜃) (13)
2 2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
tan(𝜃𝜃) = cot ( − 𝜃𝜃) cot(𝜃𝜃) = tan ( − 𝜃𝜃) (14)
2 2

Let y be the length of the side of a right triangle opposite angle . Let x be the length of the side of a
π
right triangle adjacent to angle . Then side x is opposite angle − 𝜃𝜃 and side y is adjacent to angle
2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
− 𝜃𝜃 (see Figure 1.3.3). Angle − 𝜃𝜃 is the complement of angle .
2 2
𝑜𝑜 𝑦𝑦 𝑎𝑎 𝜋𝜋
sin(𝜃𝜃) = = = = cos ( − 𝜃𝜃)
ℎ 𝑟𝑟 ℎ 2

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Periodic Identities

The periodic identities were established in Section 1.3. k is an integer value.

sin(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = sin(𝜃𝜃) (15)

cos(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = cos(𝜃𝜃) (16)

tan(𝜃𝜃 + 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = tan(𝜃𝜃) (17)

csc(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = csc(𝜃𝜃) (18)

sec(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = sec(𝜃𝜃) (19)

cot(𝜃𝜃 + 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = cot(𝜃𝜃) (20)

Odd/even Identities

Definition 1.4.1 Odd/even functions

A function is even if it satisfies the condition: 𝑓𝑓(−𝑥𝑥) = 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥), for all 𝑥𝑥 in the domain of 𝑓𝑓.

A function is odd if it satisfies the condition: 𝑓𝑓(−𝑥𝑥) = −𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥), for all 𝑥𝑥 in the domain of 𝑓𝑓.

Even functions are symmetric with respect to the y-axis or the vertical, dependent axis. Odd
functions are symmetric with respect to the origin. Two of the trigonometric functions are even:
cosine and its reciprocal, the secant function. The other four are odd.
𝑥𝑥
cos(−𝜃𝜃) = = cos(𝜃𝜃) Cosine is even. (21)
𝑟𝑟

Refer to Figure 1.4.1. The x-coordinate remains constant under a reflection of  over the x-axis.
Therefore, the cosine is an even function. A reflection of  over the x-axis, however, negates the
value of the y-coordinate on the point defining the terminal ray of -. The sine function is odd.
−𝑦𝑦 𝑦𝑦
sin(−𝜃𝜃) = = − = −sin(𝜃𝜃) Sine is odd. (22)
𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟

Figure 1.4.1 Odd/even identities

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sin(−𝜃𝜃) −sin(𝜃𝜃)
tan(−𝜃𝜃) = = = −tan(𝜃𝜃) (23)
cos(−𝜃𝜃) cos(𝜃𝜃)

Based upon the previous results, the tangent function is odd. The corresponding reciprocal functions
of sine, cosine and tangent bear the same odd/even properties, respectively.

csc(−𝜃𝜃) = −csc(𝜃𝜃) odd (24)

sec(−𝜃𝜃) = sec(𝜃𝜃) even (25)

cot(−𝜃𝜃) = −cot(𝜃𝜃) odd (26)

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Summary

Fundamental Trigonometric Identities

1 1
sin(𝜃𝜃) = csc(𝜃𝜃) =
csc(𝜃𝜃) sin(𝜃𝜃)

1 1
cos(𝜃𝜃) = sec(𝜃𝜃) =
sec(𝜃𝜃) cos(𝜃𝜃)
Quotient Identities
1 1
tan(𝜃𝜃) = cot(𝜃𝜃) =
cot(𝜃𝜃) tan(𝜃𝜃)

sin(𝜃𝜃) cos(𝜃𝜃)
tan(𝜃𝜃) = cot(𝜃𝜃) =
cos(𝜃𝜃) sin(𝜃𝜃)

cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) + sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1

Pythagorean Identities 1 + tan2 (𝜃𝜃) = sec 2 (𝜃𝜃)

cot 2 (𝜃𝜃) + 1 = csc 2 (𝜃𝜃)

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
sin(𝜃𝜃) = cos ( − 𝜃𝜃) cos(𝜃𝜃) = sin ( − 𝜃𝜃)
2 2
Cofunction Identities 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
sec(𝜃𝜃) = csc ( − 𝜃𝜃) csc(𝜃𝜃) = sec ( − 𝜃𝜃)
2 2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
tan(𝜃𝜃) = cot ( − 𝜃𝜃) cot(𝜃𝜃) = tan ( − 𝜃𝜃)
2 2

sin(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = sin(𝜃𝜃) csc(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘)


= csc(𝜃𝜃)

cos(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = cos(𝜃𝜃) sec(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘)


Periodic Identities
= sec(𝜃𝜃)

tan(𝜃𝜃 + 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = tan(𝜃𝜃) cot(𝜃𝜃 + 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘)


= cot(𝜃𝜃)

cos(−𝜃𝜃) = 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐(𝜃𝜃) sec(−𝜃𝜃) = sec(𝜃𝜃)

Odd/even Identities sin(−𝜃𝜃) = −sin(𝜃𝜃) csc(−𝜃𝜃) = −csc(𝜃𝜃)

tan(−𝜃𝜃) = −tan(𝜃𝜃) cot(−𝜃𝜃) = −cot(𝜃𝜃)

Table 1.4.1 Fundamental Trigonometric Identities

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Example 1.4.1
Establish the identity:
sec(𝜃𝜃) 1
=
csc(𝜃𝜃) cot(𝜃𝜃)

Solution:

Work one side of the identity and arrive at the other side. Make sequential substitutions using equal
functions or expressions derived from the list of fundamental identities until the other side of the
identity is achieved.

sec(𝜃𝜃) sec(𝜃𝜃) 1 sec(𝜃𝜃) 1 sin(𝜃𝜃) 1


= ∙ = ∙ sin(𝜃𝜃) = ∙ sin(𝜃𝜃) = = tan(𝜃𝜃) =
csc(𝜃𝜃) 1 csc(𝜃𝜃) 1 cos(𝜃𝜃) cos(𝜃𝜃) cot(𝜃𝜃)

It may be helpful to keep in mind the goal, that is, the other side of the identity while making
progressive substitutions.

Example 1.4.2
Establish the identity:
sec 2 (𝜃𝜃) − tan2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1

Solution:

Consider using a Pythagorean identity when proving identities involving trigonometric functions
raised to powers, especially if the power is two.

sec 2 (𝜃𝜃) − tan2 (𝜃𝜃) = tan2 (𝜃𝜃) + 1 − tan2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1

Example 1.4.3
Establish the identity:
csc(𝜃𝜃)sin(𝜃𝜃)
= cos(𝜃𝜃)
sec(4𝜋𝜋 − 𝜃𝜃)

Solution:
1
csc(𝜃𝜃)sin(𝜃𝜃) sin(𝜃𝜃) ∙ sin(𝜃𝜃) 1
= = = cos(4𝜋𝜋 − 𝜃𝜃) = cos(𝜃𝜃 − 4𝜋𝜋) = cos(𝜃𝜃)
sec(4𝜋𝜋 − 𝜃𝜃) sec(4𝜋𝜋 − 𝜃𝜃) sec(4𝜋𝜋 − 𝜃𝜃)

This example utilized the even identity of the cosine function and the periodic identity of the cosine
function with k = -2.

Example 1.4.4
Establish the identity:
1
csc(𝜃𝜃) − cot(𝜃𝜃) =
csc(𝜃𝜃) + cot(𝜃𝜃)

Solution:

1 1 csc(𝜃𝜃) − cot(𝜃𝜃) csc(𝜃𝜃) − cot(𝜃𝜃)


= ∙ = = csc(𝜃𝜃) − cot(𝜃𝜃)
csc(𝜃𝜃) + cot(𝜃𝜃) csc(𝜃𝜃) + cot(𝜃𝜃) csc(𝜃𝜃) − cot(𝜃𝜃) csc 2 (𝜃𝜃) − cot 2 (𝜃𝜃)

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It is perfectly acceptable to work the right side of the identity and arrive at the left side. The
conjugate binomial of the denominator, csc(𝜃𝜃) − cot(𝜃𝜃), is used here to simplify the fraction. Note
that using
csc(𝜃𝜃) − cot(𝜃𝜃)
=1
csc(𝜃𝜃) − cot(𝜃𝜃)

is an application of the multiplicative identity. In addition, csc 2 (𝜃𝜃) − cot 2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1 from the
Pythagorean identity.

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Chapter 2
Graphs of Trigonometric Functions
Learning Objectives:
 Understand domain and range of trigonometric functions
 Review the graphs of standard trigonometric functions
 Review concepts of amplitude, period and frequency with respect to trigonometric graphs
 Review transformations in the plane
 Understand transformations of trigonometric function graphs, in particular, phase shift
 Review inverse functions in general
 Introduce inverse trigonometric functions

Section 2.1 The Domain and Range of a Trigonometric Function


The domain of the sine function is the entire set of reals. This results from its definition as the ratio
of a real number, y, to a non-zero constant, r. Likewise, the domain of the cosine function is the set
of real numbers, that is, (-∞, ∞). The range of the sine and the cosine functions is the set of real
numbers from -1 to 1 inclusive or the closed interval [-1, 1]. A discussion of the rationale that was
presented in section 1.3 is reiterated here: the set of range values for the sine function is governed by
𝑦𝑦
the y-coordinates of the points along the circumference of a circle(sin 𝜃𝜃 = ). Each value in the
𝑟𝑟
range of the sine function is the ratio of a y-coordinate to the radius of the circle. The values of the
y-coordinates on a circle of radius r vary from –r to r (Figure 2.1.1, formerly Figure 1.3.12). So
π −𝑟𝑟 𝜋𝜋 𝑟𝑟
sin (− ) = = −1 is the minimum value in the range and sin ( ) = = 1 is the maximum
2 𝑟𝑟 2 𝑟𝑟
value. This logic applies to the range of the cosine function as well.

The other four trigonometric functions have discontinuities in their domains by definition. The range
of the tangent function is defined to be the ratio of the y-coordinate to the x-coordinate on the
𝑦𝑦
circumference of a circle (tan 𝜃𝜃 = ). With a variable in the denominator, there are values outside
𝑥𝑥
𝜋𝜋
of the domain for the tangent function. For instance, at 𝜃𝜃 = 2, the x-coordinate is zero, and as such,
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
𝜃𝜃 = is not in the domain of the tangent function. The tangent function is undefined at 𝜃𝜃 = .
2 2
𝜋𝜋
Likewise, the tangent function is undefined at 𝜃𝜃 = − . The x-coordinate is non-zero for all other
2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
values of  between − and . That is to say, the tangent function is defined on the open interval
2 2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
(− , ). This is one interval of the tangent function’s domain. The tangent is undefined at all odd
2 2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
multiples of or 𝜃𝜃 = (2𝑘𝑘 + 1) , where k is an integer. If these values are removed from the set of
2 2
reals, the domain of the tangent function is found to be

5𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋


⋯ ∪ (− , − ) ∪ (− , − ) ∪ (− , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ⋯
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
If ratios of the y to x-coordinates are considered over the interval (− 2 , 2), the range is infinite. For
𝑦𝑦 0
example, at 𝜃𝜃 = 0 (the point (r, 0) on a circle of radius r), the ratio = = 0. Zero is in the range
𝑥𝑥 𝑟𝑟
𝜋𝜋
of the tangent function. As  increases from 0 toward , the values of the y-coordinates increase
2
while the values of the x-coordinates simultaneously decrease. Under these conditions, the entire

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ratio or quotient increases without bound. The quotient values tend toward infinity. Refer back to
Example 1.3.8 for a more simplified example of this phenomenon. On the following page, a link is
provided to a video illustrating the range of the tangent function.

Figure 2.1.1 (formerly Figure 1.3.12) Coordinates and associated angles on the circumference of a circle

𝜋𝜋
If this same analysis is applied to the angle values ranging from 0 toward − , the ratios increase in
2
magnitude but in the negative direction, that is, toward -∞. Therefore, the range of the tangent
function is
(-∞, ∞). Similar arguments show the domain of the cotangent function to be all real numbers except
integer multiples of π or 𝜃𝜃 = 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘, where k is an integer. The domain of the cotangent function is

⋯ ∪ (−3𝜋𝜋, −2𝜋𝜋) ∪ (−2𝜋𝜋, −𝜋𝜋) ∪ (−𝜋𝜋, 0) ∪ (0, 𝜋𝜋) ∪ (𝜋𝜋, 2𝜋𝜋) ∪ (2𝜋𝜋, 3𝜋𝜋) ∪ (3𝜋𝜋, 4𝜋𝜋) ∪ ⋯

And like its reciprocal cofunction, the tangent function, the range of the cotangent is the set of reals
or
(-∞, ∞).

The secant function is undefined at any values of  that solve the equation, cos(𝜃𝜃) = 0. That is, the
secant is undefined wherever the cosine function is equal to zero. Zeros of the cosine function are
not in the domain of the secant function. Recall the quotient identity, sec(𝜃𝜃) = 1⁄cos(𝜃𝜃). The zeros
of the cosine function are odd multiples of π/2, so the secant function is undefined at 𝜃𝜃 = (2𝑘𝑘 +
𝜋𝜋
1) , where k is an integer. If these values are removed from the set of reals, the domain of the
2
secant function is

5𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋


⋯ ∪ (− , − ) ∪ (− , − ) ∪ (− , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ⋯
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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Please note that the secant and the tangent functions have the same domain.

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
If the range values of the secant function are analyzed over the domain interval (− , ), the ratio
2 2
𝑟𝑟
r/x (sec 𝜃𝜃 = ) varies from infinitely large positive values as  approaches –π/2 (x-coordinate
𝑥𝑥
approaches 0) to the value of 1 when  = 0 (x = r). The maximum value of x is r when  = 0. This
corresponds to a minimum value of 1 in the range of the secant function. As  increases toward π/2,
x decreases toward zero again and the ratio r/x increases toward ∞. Therefore, an interval of the
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
secant’s range is [1, ∞). This is not the entire range since (− , ) is only half of this function’s
2 2
period. Recall the period of the secant is 2π.

𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋
If the range values of the secant function are analyzed over the domain interval ( , ), the ratio r/x
2 2
varies from infinitely large negative values as  decreases toward π/2 (x-coordinates are negative as
they approach 0) to the value of -1 when  = π (x = -r). The minimum value of x is -r when  = π.
This corresponds to a maximum value of -1 in the range of the secant function. As  increases
toward 3π/2, x decreases toward zero again. The x-coordinates are negative and become
progressively smaller. Therefore, the ratios of r to x increase toward -∞. The other interval of the
secant’s range is (-∞, 1]. The full range of the secant function is (-∞, -1][1, ∞).

Similar to the secant function, the cosecant function is undefined for angles that terminate at points
on a circle with zero y-coordinates. In other words, the cosecant function is undefined at multiples of
π or 𝜃𝜃 = 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘, where k is an integer. The domain of the cosecant function is

⋯ ∪ (−3𝜋𝜋, −2𝜋𝜋) ∪ (−2𝜋𝜋, −𝜋𝜋) ∪ (−𝜋𝜋, 0) ∪ (0, 𝜋𝜋) ∪ (𝜋𝜋, 2𝜋𝜋) ∪ (2𝜋𝜋, 3𝜋𝜋) ∪ (3𝜋𝜋, 4𝜋𝜋) ∪ ⋯

Please note that the cosecant has the same domain as the cotangent. The range of the cosecant
function is the same as the range of the secant function, that is, (-∞, -1][1, ∞).

The following video should be helpful in understanding range and domain of trigonometric
functions. Understanding minimizes, even eliminates, memorization. It is recommended that the
video, ‘Tangent Line Definitions’ from Chapter 1, Section 1.3 on defining trigonometric functions
by the tangent line be reviewed prior to the following video.

A video illustrating the range and domain of the trigonometric functions.

Any point on a circle of radius r defines the values of the six trigonometric functions. Any point, (x,
y), in the plane is a point on the circumference of circle centered at the origin of some radius.
Therefore, any point in the plane may define the trigonometric functions.

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Trigonometric function Domain Range

Sine (-∞, ∞) [-1, 1]

Cosine (-∞, ∞) [-1, 1]

3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋


Tangent ⋯ ∪ (− , − ) ∪ (− , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ⋯ (-∞, ∞)
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Cosecant ⋯ ∪ (−2𝜋𝜋, −𝜋𝜋) ∪ (−𝜋𝜋, 0) ∪ (0, 𝜋𝜋) ∪ (𝜋𝜋, 2𝜋𝜋) ∪ (2𝜋𝜋, 3𝜋𝜋) ∪ ⋯ (-∞, -1][1, ∞)

3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋


Secant ⋯ ∪ (− , − ) ∪ (− , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ⋯ (-∞, -1][1, ∞)
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Cotangent ⋯ ∪ (−2𝜋𝜋, −𝜋𝜋) ∪ (−𝜋𝜋, 0) ∪ (0, 𝜋𝜋) ∪ (𝜋𝜋, 2𝜋𝜋) ∪ (2𝜋𝜋, 3𝜋𝜋) ∪ ⋯ (-∞, ∞)

Table 2.1.1 Summary of domain and range

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Section 2.2 Graphs of Sinusoidal Functions

Definition 2.2.1 Sinusoidal function

A sinusoidal function is a smooth, wave function that oscillates symmetrically between a crest and a
trough in a repetitive fashion. It is named after the sine function.

Consider graphing the trigonometric functions in the xy-plane. The independent variable will be x
and the dependent variable, y. In the xy-plane, x and y are real variables. If we define the sine to be a
function of x, then it mandates that the angle x be measured in radians. Recall, radians are real
numbers. Imagine the infinite angles of a circle linearized onto a horizontal axis (the abscissa or
domain axis). It is reasonable, but not necessary, to scale this axis in terms of . The ordinate axis
(range axis) represents the ratios that define the trigonometric functions. Defined in this way, the
trigonometric functions become real-valued functions and may be represented graphically in the real
plane. The sine and the cosine are examples of sinusoidal functions. They are smooth, continuous
functions over the set of real numbers. The domain of the sine and the cosine function is (-∞, ∞).

Example 2.2.1
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = sin(𝑥𝑥) over 2 periods of its domain.

One quarter of the period or π/2 is a useful scale for the x-axis. Extreme values and zeros of the
sine curve are easily identified and plotted using this scale. These values correspond to quadrantal
angles
(0, π/2, π, 3π/2, etc.). The sine function takes on the values of -1, 0, or 1 at these multiples of π/2.

Figure 2.2.1 Sine curve

The graph in Figure 2.2.1 uses a scale of π/4. This scale still allows easy location of the quadrantal
angles and, as such, simplifies the location and plotting of both extrema and zeros (x-intercepts). In

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this graph, maxima are located at (π/2, 1) and (-3π/2, 1). Minima are located at (-π/2, -1) and (3π/2, -
1). Zeros are located at multiples of π. The graph has one intercept, the origin.
It should be noted that every point on the curve corresponds to a point on the circumference of a
circle centered at the origin. This causes the graphs of the trigonometric functions to have symmetry
and periodicity. One period of the sine function is indicated on the interval (0, 2π). The period of a
standard sine curve is any distance of 2π in the domain. For example, the interval (-π/2, 3π/2) is also
one period of the sine. Likewise, (-π, π) represents one period of the sine function. The curve is
symmetric with respect to the origin. Recall that the sine is an odd function. The range is clearly
[-1, 1].

Example 2.2.2
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = cos(𝑥𝑥) over 2 periods of it’s domain.

The cosine is the cofunction of the sine, that is, cos(π/2 – x) = sin(x) and sin(π/2 – x) = cos(x). The
graph of the cosine function is a horizontal translation or shift of the sine curve π/2 radians in the
negative direction.

Figure 2.2.2 Cosine curve

In this graph, maxima are located at (-2π, 1), (0, 1) and (2π, 1). Minima are located at (-π, -1) and (π,
-1). At each of these points, the sine curve has zeros. Refer back to Figure 2.2.1. Zeros of the cosine
function are located at odd multiples of π/2. At these points, the sine function has extrema (maxima
or minima). The y-intercept of the cosine graph is located at (0, 1). An example of one period of the
cosine is indicated from 0 to 2π in the graph. This corresponds to one revolution of 2π radians in a
circle. The cosine curve has y-axis symmetry and is an even function. The range is [-1, 1].

The graphs of sine and cosine should be closely compared. Figure 2.2.3 enables this comparison.
The horizontal shift of π/2 radians is clear in this figure.

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Figure 2.2.3 Sine curve with cosine comparison

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Every point on either curve above corresponds to a point on the circumference of a circle centered at
the origin. The graphs of the trigonometric functions have symmetry and periodicity. One period of
both functions is indicated on the interval (0, 2π). The period of a standard sinusoidal trigonometric
function is any distance of 2π in the domain.

Sinusoidal functions are wave functions. They have crests or peaks at maximum values and
minimum values at the bottom of each trough or valley. In this area, mathematical terminology
coincides with that of physics and telecommunications.

Definition 2.2.2 Amplitude

Amplitude is the vertical distance between any peak or valley of a wave and its point of equilibrium.
It is the height or depth of the wave.

For the sine and cosine curves graphed in Figures 2.2.1 and 2.2.2, the amplitude is 1 (see Figure
2.2.4).

Figure 2.2.4 Amplitude of a sine curve

Definition 2.2.3 Frequency

The frequency of a wave curve is the number of times the curve repeats during its standard period.

The frequency for the standard sine or cosine curve is 1. One complete crest and trough occurs over
one period of a sinusoidal curve when the frequency is equal to 1. In other words, one complete
revolution of the circle occurs over one period of a sinusoidal curve. This concept, along with

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amplitude, will be further clarified in Section 2.4, Transformations of the Graphs of Trigonometric
Functions.

The following summarizes the general form of a sinusoidal function.

Definition 2.2.4 General Sinusoidal Function in Standard Position

𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴 sin(𝜔𝜔𝜔𝜔) and 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴 cos(𝜔𝜔𝜔𝜔)

where |A| is the amplitude and |𝜔𝜔| is the frequency.

For each graph in this section, |A| = 1 and 𝜔𝜔 = 1.

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Section 2.3 Graphs of Tangent, Cotangent, Secant and Cosecant


The graphs of the remaining four trigonometric functions have vertical asymptotes corresponding to
the undefined values in their domains.

Example 2.3.1
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = tan(𝑥𝑥) over 4 periods of it’s domain.

Recall the domain of the tangent function:

5𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋


⋯ ∪ (− , − ) ∪ (− , − ) ∪ (− , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ⋯
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

The tangent curve has vertical asymptotes at points not included in the domain (odd multiples of
π/2). The period of the tangent function is a distance of π radians in the domain as indicated in
Figure 2.3.1. The tangent function cycles through its entire range from -∞ to ∞, over one period. The
curve has no extrema. Zeros occur at multiples of π. The graph has origin symmetry. Recall the
tangent is an odd function. The scale is π/4. Observe the periodicity of the graph. For example, tan(-
3π/4) = tan(π/4) = tan(5π/4) = 1. The distance between -3π/4 and π/4 is π radians or 1 period of the
tangent function.

Figure 2.3.1 Tangent curve

The graph of the tangent’s cofunction, the cotangent, is a horizontal translation of π/2 radians in the
plane. See Figure 2.3.2. Since the tangent and cotangent are also reciprocal functions, a reflection in
the graph is observed in addition to the translation (see Figure 2.3.3).

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Example 2.3.2
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = cot(𝑥𝑥) over 4 periods of it’s domain.

Recall the domain of the cotangent function:

⋯ ∪ (−2𝜋𝜋, −𝜋𝜋) ∪ (−𝜋𝜋, 0) ∪ (0, 𝜋𝜋) ∪ (𝜋𝜋, 2𝜋𝜋) ∪ (2𝜋𝜋, 3𝜋𝜋) ∪ ⋯

The discontinuities in the domain determine the locations of vertical asymptotes in the graph. Like
the tangent, the cotangent curve has no extrema, is symmetric to the origin and is an odd function.
Likewise, its period is π radians and its range is (-∞, ∞). In contrast to the tangent function, the
cotangent function has zeros at odd multiples of π/2 (locations of the asymptotes of the tangent
curve). Note that the cotangent curve has a vertical asymptote at the y-axis or the line x = 0.

Figure 2.3.2 Cotangent curve

It is helpful to view the graphs of trigonometric cofunctions together. In Figure 2.3.3, the tangent is
graphed with the cotangent. The similarities between the curves may be easily observed along with
the defining horizontal shift between cofunctions.

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Figure 2.3.3 Tangent with cotangent comparison

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Example 2.3.3
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = csc(𝑥𝑥) over 2 periods of it’s domain.

Recall the domain of the cosecant function:

⋯ ∪ (−2𝜋𝜋, −𝜋𝜋) ∪ (−𝜋𝜋, 0) ∪ (0, 𝜋𝜋) ∪ (𝜋𝜋, 2𝜋𝜋) ∪ (2𝜋𝜋, 3𝜋𝜋) ∪ ⋯

It determines the location of the vertical asymptotes on the graph. Please note that the definition of
the cosecant function also reveals the location of asymptotes. Since csc(x) = r/y, the y-coordinate is
zero at the quadrantal angles of 0, π, 2π, -π, etc., that is, at any multiple of π. These are the locations
of the vertical asymptotes on the cosecant curve.

The cosecant has minima (-3π/2, 1) and (π/2, 1) in Figure 2.3.4. Please note that the horizontal
distance between these points is 2π, the period of the cosecant. It has relative maxima at the points (-
π/2, -1) and (3π/2, -1). Other maxima may be found by adding multiples of 2π to the x-coordinates
of these points. The cosecant has no zeros. In fact, it has no intercepts at all. It is an odd function
with origin symmetry.

Figure 2.3.4 Cosecant curve

It is useful to compare the cosecant with its cofunction, the secant. The reader may wish to graph
these functions together on the same set of axes to visualize the horizontal shift of π/2 radians.
Another useful comparison is to graph a trigonometric function with its reciprocal function.

The reciprocal function of the cosecant is the sine. Recall the identity:

1 1
csc(𝑥𝑥) = or sin(𝑥𝑥) = .
sin(𝑥𝑥) csc(𝑥𝑥)

It is revealing to graph the sine curve coincidentally with the cosecant curve. See Figure 2.3.5. The
sine function shares extreme values with the cosecant. Maxima of the sine are minima of the
cosecant. Maxima of the cosecant are minima of the sine. Zeros of the sine curve coincide with

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vertical asymptotes of the cosecant curve. The range of the cosecant function, along with its periodic
nature is evident in its graph. Recall the range of the cosecant to be:

(-∞, -1][1, ∞)

Understanding the relationship between the graphs of the sine and cosecant functions, simplifies the
task of graphing a cosecant curve.

Figure 2.3.5 Cosecant with sine comparison

Example 2.3.4
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = sec(𝑥𝑥) over 2 periods of it’s domain.

Recall the domain of the secant function:

3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋


⋯ ∪ (− , − ) ∪ (− , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ⋯
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Like the tangent function, the graph of the secant function has vertical asymptotes at odd multiples
of π/2 (Figure 2.3.6). The secant function is not defined at these values. If these values are
approached in the domain, the range values of the secant increase without bound toward ∞ or -∞.
Asymptotic behavior is seen in the secant’s graph near odd multiples of π/2.

Please note the locations of extrema. These are offset or shifted horizontally from the positions on
the secant’s cofunction, the cosecant. The secant has no zeros or intercepts. It is an even function
with y-axis symmetry.

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Figure 2.3.6 Secant curve

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As with the cosecant, it is useful to compare the secant with its with its reciprocal function, the
cosine. Refer to Figure 2.3.7.

Recall the identity:


1 1
sec(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 cos(𝑥𝑥) = .
cos(𝑥𝑥) sec(𝑥𝑥)

The secant curve shares points with the cosine in the same way that the cosecant curve shares points
with the sine. Naturally, the same relationship exists between the zeros of the cosine and asymptotes
on the graph of the secant, as it did between the sine and cosecant curves. Graphing a cosine curve
may facilitate the graphing of a secant curve.

Figure 2.3.7 Secant with cosine comparison

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Section 2.4 Transformations of the Graphs of Trigonometric


Functions

Definition 2.4.1 Transformation of the plane

A transformation of the plane is a function that maps one set of points in the plane (perhaps a
geometric shape or the graph of a relation) to another set of points in the plane.

Some examples of transformations include translations, rotations, dilations or scales, reflections,


shears, projections, etc. Transformations have applications in kinematics and robotics, computer
graphics, optics, signal processing, engineering and, of course, mathematics and physics. The focus
of this discussion is on the 3 transformations summarized in Tables 2.4.1 and 2.4.2 below:

Type Operator Colloquial

1. Translation Addition Shift; move point for point

2. Dilation (scale) Multiplication Magnify/compress

3. Reflection Negation Flip or rotate about an axis or line


Table 2.4.1 Types of transformations and associated operators

Transformation occurs to the: Direction Affect is:

Independent variable (usually x) Horizontal Counter-intuitive (not expected)

Dependent variable (usually y) Vertical Intuitive


Table 2.4.2 Affect of transformations

A translation or a shift moves the entire graph, point for point, a fixed distance. A horizontal
translation moves the curve left or right and a vertical translation moves it up or down. A shift of the
curve in any other direction may be achieved by a combination of horizontal and vertical
translations.

Example 2.4.1
Find the new function that results after the graph of 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 2𝑥𝑥 2 − 5𝑥𝑥 is shifted

a) 3 units up b) 2 units down c) 4 units left

Solution:

a) Translating a function vertically affects only the y-coordinates. In other words, translating
vertically affects the dependent variable of a function. Since 𝑦𝑦 = 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥), shifting any function up 3
units means 𝑦𝑦 + 𝟑𝟑 = 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) + 𝟑𝟑. In this example, 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) + 𝟑𝟑 = 2𝑥𝑥 2 − 5𝑥𝑥 + 𝟑𝟑. The operation
associated with translation is addition.

Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) and 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) + 3 to visualize the translation. Observe the shifting of key points such as the

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extrema and the intercepts. The y-intercept of 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) is (0, 0). After the transformation, the y-intercept
of 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) + 3 is (0, 3).

b) 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) − 𝟐𝟐 = 2𝑥𝑥 2 − 5𝑥𝑥 − 𝟐𝟐. Graph the original function along with the transformed function and
compare.

c) Translating a function horizontally affects only the x-coordinates. Translating horizontally affects
the independent variable of a function. Horizontal transformations are counter-intuitive, that is, to
move the curve left, add; to move the curve right, subtract. To shift 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) left 4 units, add 4 to the
independent variable.

𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥 + 𝟒𝟒) = 2(𝑥𝑥 + 𝟒𝟒) 2 − 5(𝑥𝑥 + 𝟒𝟒). Graph and compare.

𝑓𝑓(0) = 0 or (0, 0) is a point on 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥). This point becomes (-4, 0) after translating 4 units left. That
is,
𝑓𝑓(−4) = 0. Evaluating the transformed function at -4:

𝑓𝑓(−4 + 𝟒𝟒) = 2(−4 + 𝟒𝟒) 2 − 5(−4 + 𝟒𝟒) = 2(0) 2 − 5(0) = 0.

The result is zero. (-4, 0) is a point on the graph of 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥 + 𝟒𝟒). Recall that only the x-coordinate is
affected.

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𝑓𝑓(1) = −3 or (1, -3) is a point on 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥). After translating 4 units to the left, (1, -3) becomes (-3, -3).
Evaluating the transformed function at x = -3:

𝑓𝑓(−3 + 𝟒𝟒) = 2(−3 + 𝟒𝟒) 2 − 5(−3 + 𝟒𝟒) = 2(1) 2 − 5(1) = 2 − 5 = −3.

(-3, -3) is a point on the graph of 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥 + 𝟒𝟒).

A dilation or scaling stretches or compresses the entire graph by a certain factor.

Example 2.4.2
Find the new function that results after the graph of 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥 is stretched three times

a) vertically b) horizontally.

Solutions:

a) Dilating a function vertically affects the y-coordinates or the dependent variable. Since 𝑦𝑦 = 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥),
dilating any function 3 times vertically means 𝟑𝟑𝑦𝑦 = 𝟑𝟑𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥). In this example, 𝟑𝟑𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝟑𝟑(𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥) =
𝟑𝟑𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝟑𝟑𝑥𝑥. The operation associated with dilation is multiplication.

Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) and 3𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) to visualize the dilation. Observe the stretching of key points. An x-intercept
on the graph of 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) is (0, 0). After the transformation, this intercept is still (0, 0). This does not
illustrate the dilation. But it should be noted that x-intercepts of a function remain unaffected by a
vertical dilation.
(2, 2) is another point on the graph of 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥). After dilating 3 times vertically, this point becomes (2,
6) (only the y-coordinate is affected).
2
1 1 1 1
b) 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = ( 𝑥𝑥) − ( 𝑥𝑥) = 𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥.
3 3 9 3

The horizontal dilation is counter-intuitive (similar to the previous horizontal translation). Tripling
the independent variable results in a horizontal compression of the curve by a factor of 3. This
example requires the stretching of the function 3 times in the horizontal direction. In order to
achieve this, 3 must divide the value of the independent variable in the function. The point (1, 0) is
transformed into the point (3, 0). The point (3, 6) is transformed into the point (9, 6). Verify this.

A reflection or a flip rotates the entire graph about a line. A reflection about the x-axis is a vertical
reflection and, as such, affects the dependent variable. A reflection about the y-axis is a horizontal
reflection and affects the independent variable. The operation associated with reflection is negation.

Example 2.4.3
Find the new function that results after the graph of 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑒𝑒 𝑥𝑥 is reflected

a) over the x-axis b) over the y-axis.

Solutions:

a) – 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = −𝑒𝑒 𝑥𝑥

This transformation will affect all dependent coordinates (y values) of the graph. It is a vertical

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reflection. The point (1, e) is transformed into the point (1, -e). The point (0, 1) is transformed into
the point (0, -1).

b) 𝑓𝑓(−𝑥𝑥) = 𝑒𝑒 −𝑥𝑥

This transformation will affect all independent coordinates (x values) of the graph (a horizontal
affect). The y-intercept is not affected by this reflection. The point (0, 1) remains (0, 1). The point
(2, e2) is transformed into the point (-2, e2).

It is often of interest and very useful, in the study of transformations, to understand which properties
of the set (graph) are invariant under the specific transformation. For example, distances between
points are preserved or invariant under a translation or a reflection. The distances do not change. On
the contrary, the distance between points is not preserved under a dilation of the set. The distance
between points is not invariant under dilation.

Recall the general form of the sinusoidal function:

𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴 sin(𝜔𝜔𝜔𝜔) and 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴 cos(𝜔𝜔𝜔𝜔).

A change in amplitude (|A|) causes a vertical dilation of the curve while a change in frequency (|𝜔𝜔|)
results in a horizontal dilation.

Example 2.4.4
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 3sin(𝑥𝑥).

The transformation occurs outside or to the dependent variable. Therefore the affect is vertical and
intuitive. The operation is multiplication, so this is a dilation. The standard sine curve is vertically
stretched by a factor of 3. This affects the amplitude and extrema. The amplitude is now 3. The
zeros remain unchanged. The period is not affected by this transformation.

Figure 2.4.1 𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑(𝒙𝒙)

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Example 2.4.5
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = cos(3𝑥𝑥).

The independent variable is being multiplied, so this is a horizontal dilation. The affect of a
horizontal transformation is counter-intuitive. Multiplication by 3 compresses the standard cosine
curve 3 times. This affects zeros, extrema and the period of the function. The period of the standard
cosine is 2π. The graph of the cos(3x) in Figure 2.4.2 shows 3 periods over this same distance. This
illustrates the idea of frequency. The new cosine curve is 3 times as frequent as the original cosine.
This means that the period of the standard cosine curve, 2π, is divided by 3. The period of the new
transformed cosine is 2π/3. This illustrates a general formula for the period of a sinusoidal function:

2𝜋𝜋
𝑇𝑇 =
|𝜔𝜔|

where T is the period and 𝜔𝜔 is the frequency.

Note that when |𝜔𝜔| = 1, as it is in the standard cosine curve, the period is 2π.

It should also be noted that the dilation in this example did not affect the amplitude (|A| = 1) nor did
it affect the y-intercept.

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Figure 2.4.2 𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜(𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑)

Example 2.4.6
1
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = cos ( 𝑥𝑥).
3

The dilation in this example is still horizontal, yet the factor of 1/3 has the affect of stretching the
standard cosine 3 times. This has no affect upon the amplitude or the y-intercept. It does stretch the
period 3 times making it 6π. If the formula from Example 2.4.5 is used

2𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋
𝑇𝑇 = = = 3(2𝜋𝜋) = 6𝜋𝜋
|𝜔𝜔| 1
3
the same result is obtained.

In addition to the period, each x-coordinate of the original cosine’s zeros and extrema has been
tripled by this transformation. Refer back to Figure 2.2.2.

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𝟏𝟏
Figure 2.4.3 𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜 ( 𝒙𝒙)
𝟑𝟑

Example 2.4.7
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = sin(𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋).

This is another example of a horizontal dilation compressing the standard sine curve by a factor of π.
The frequency of the new curve is π. Applying the period formula,

2𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋
𝑇𝑇 = = =2
|𝜔𝜔| 𝜋𝜋

the transformed period is found to be 2. It is not necessary that the period have a factor of π or be
irrational. As mentioned previously, a good x-axis scale is one quarter the period or smaller. In
figure 2.4.4, an x-axis scale of ¼ is used. A scale of ½ would have sufficed. It is desirable to be able
to plot the characteristic or defining points of a curve. For trigonometric functions, these points are
the intercepts, extrema and asymptotes (if any). These occur at period quarters (formerly quadrantal
angles).

Please note in Figure 2.4.4 that the extrema and zeros have been divided by a factor of π when
compared to those of the standard sine curve in Figure 2.2.1.

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Figure 2.4.4 𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = 𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬(𝝅𝝅𝝅𝝅)

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Example 2.4.8
1
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = −2 cos ( 𝑥𝑥) .
2

Multiple transformations are applied to the same function in this example. The leading negative sign
reflects the cosine in the vertical direction (the negative is outside), that is, over the x-axis. The
amplitude is |-2| or 2. The factor of -2 causes two different transformations. The negative reflects
and the 2 dilates. There is also a horizontal stretch 2 times. When considering a function with
multiple transformations, it is advisable to separate them.

2𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋
The amplitude is doubled along with the period: 𝑇𝑇 = |𝜔𝜔|
= 1 = 4𝜋𝜋. The x-coordinates of the
2
extrema and zeros have been doubled. The y-intercept is affected in this example, both by the
doubling of amplitude and by the reflection over the x-axis. See Figure 2.4.5.

𝟏𝟏
Figure 2.4.5 𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = −𝟐𝟐 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜 ( 𝒙𝒙)
𝟐𝟐

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Definition 2.4.2 Phase Shift

The displacement of a sinusoidal curve from its standard position is called a phase shift or a phase
offset. It is typically measured in time units or radians.

When two waveforms are in phase they coincide in time or space. By definition, the standard sine
and cosine curves are out of phase a horizontal distance of π/2 radians. In Figure 2.4.6, the
horizontal distance between pairs of corresponding points on these curves is π/2. For example, the
maximum point (0, 1) on the cosine is translated π/2 radians from the maximum point (π/2, 1) on the
sine. The cofunction identity reveals this fact.
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
sin(𝑥𝑥) = cos ( − 𝑥𝑥) cos(𝑥𝑥) = sin ( − 𝑥𝑥)
2 2

If brought into phase, these two functions would coincide. Using this identity, it is possible to
translate any cosine function into a sine function and vice versa.

Figure 2.4.6 (formerly Figure 2.2.4) Phase shift between a sine and a cosine curve

Example 2.4.9
Rewrite 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 2cos(4𝑥𝑥) as a sine function.
𝜋𝜋
𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 2cos(4𝑥𝑥) = 2 sin ( − 4𝑥𝑥) .
2

Another physical example of phase shifts are the distribution of time zones across the globe. A
manmade construct, they do a good job of modeling the natural variation of daylight hours as our
planet rotates its course about the sun. The current time in New York City, USA is out phase with
that of Copenhagen, Denmark by 6 hours.

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Example 2.4.10
1
Rewrite 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = sin (− 𝑥𝑥) as a cosine function.
2

Solution:
1 𝜋𝜋 1
𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = sin (− 𝑥𝑥) = cos ( + 𝑥𝑥).
2 2 2

For purpose of this text, a horizontal translation of a sinusoidal curve is a phase shift. Sinusoidal
curves are simple waveforms. In comparison, music is a good example of a complex waveform.

The symbol 𝜑𝜑 will be used to designate phase shift. The general sinusoidal formulas become

𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴 sin(𝜔𝜔(𝑥𝑥 + 𝜑𝜑)) + 𝐷𝐷 and 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴 cos(𝜔𝜔(𝑥𝑥 + 𝜑𝜑)) +𝐷𝐷

where |A| is the amplitude, |𝜔𝜔| is the frequency, −𝜑𝜑 is the phase shift and D is the vertical
translation. 𝜑𝜑 is negative due to the counter-intuitive nature of the horizontal transformation. When
−𝜑𝜑 > 0 (𝜑𝜑 < 0), the shift is in the positive direction. When −𝜑𝜑 < 0, it shifts in the negative
direction. Please note that when
A = 𝜔𝜔 = 1 and 𝜑𝜑 = D = 0, the above become the equations of the standard sinusoidal curves.

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Example 2.4.11
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = cos(2𝑥𝑥 − 𝜋𝜋).

It is advisable to separate the two transformations, that is, factor the horizontal dilation of 2 from the
phase shift (horizontal translation) of +π/2. The equation becomes

𝜋𝜋
𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = cos(2𝑥𝑥 − 𝜋𝜋) = cos (2 (𝑥𝑥 − )) .
2

The amplitude is 1, the frequency is 2 and the period is π. A good scale is π/4. The phase shift
should also be considered when choosing scale. The standard cosine is shifted π/2 radians in the
positive direction, that is, the phase shift is +π/2. - 𝜑𝜑 = - π/2, therefore, 𝜑𝜑 = π/2. Since this is a
multiple of π/4, π/4 is a good choice. The extrema and zeros will coincide with a scale of this size.

Figure 2.4.7 𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜(𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐 − 𝝅𝝅)

Looking at the graph, it is readily apparent that this graph may also be expressed as a compressed
and shifted sine function of the form:

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = sin (2 (𝑥𝑥 − )) = sin (2𝑥𝑥 − ).
4 2

Example 2.4.12
1
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = sin(3𝑥𝑥 + 2𝜋𝜋).
3

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The amplitude is 1/3, the frequency is 3, the period is 2/3π and the phase shift is -2π/3 (factor). The
negative sign indicates the direction of the shift. Recall that horizontal translations are counter-
intuitive.

𝟏𝟏
Figure 2.4.8 𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = 𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬(𝟑𝟑𝒙𝒙 + 𝟐𝟐𝝅𝝅)
𝟑𝟑

Upon inspection, it is clear that it would have been simpler to express this function as 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) =
1
sin(3𝑥𝑥). The extrema and range were changed by these transformations. The range has become [-
3
1/3, 1/3].

Example 2.4.13
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = sin(−𝑥𝑥 + 2) + 1 = sin(2 − 𝑥𝑥) + 1.

The amplitude is 1, the frequency is 1 and the period is 2π. Still, this is a tricky one to scale. One
quarter the period is π/2, however, the phase shift is +2 (factor the minus) so this should be added to
π/2 to locate significant quadrantal points, that is, extrema and zeros.

The graph is also vertically shifted up 1 unit. This affects all characteristic points and the range of
the sine function. The range is now [0, 2]. The quadrantal points or extrema are labeled in the graph.
In order to obtain exact values for these points, start with 2 + π/2 ≈ 3.571. Locate this minimum.
Since the period is 2π, the x-coordinate of the previous maximum is π less than this value or 2 + π/2
– π = 2 – π/2 ≈ 0.429. The y-intercept may be obtained by solving the equation 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 0. Solving
trigonometric equations is a topic of Chapter 3.

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360°
thinking
Figure 2.4.9 f(x) = sin(-x + 2) + 1 .

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thinking . 360°
thinking .
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Transformations may be applied to the tangent, cotangent, secant and cosecant functions. These are
not sinusoidal functions, so terminology such as amplitude, frequency and phase shift do not apply
to these curves. The coefficient of the independent variable still divides the period of the standard
function.

Example 2.4.14
1 𝜋𝜋
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = tan ( 𝑥𝑥 + ).
2 3

Since the period of the standard tangent function is π, the formula for period of the tangent function
𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
(and the cotangent) is 𝑇𝑇 = |𝜔𝜔|
. The period of 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = tan ( 𝑥𝑥 + ) is 𝑇𝑇 = = 1 = 2𝜋𝜋. The
2 3 |𝜔𝜔|
2
horizontal shift is -2/3π (counter-intuitive). A good scale is then |π/2 – 2π/3| = |-π/6| = π/6. The scale
in Figure 2.4.10 is actually π/12. Zeros and asymptotes will fall on multiples of π/6. The tangent
curve has also been stretched 2 times in the horizontal direction. The shift combined with the stretch
affects vertical asymptotes and domain. The vertical asymptotes fall on certain odd multiples of π/3
and are separated by a distance of 2π (the period). Two are shown of Figure 2.4.10. The domain of
this tangent curve is:

11𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 13𝜋𝜋


⋯ ∪ (− , − ) ∪ (− , ) ∪ ( , ) ∪ ( , )∪⋯
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

𝟏𝟏 𝝅𝝅
Figure 2.4.10 𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = 𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭𝐭 ( 𝒙𝒙 + )
𝟐𝟐 𝟑𝟑

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Example 2.4.15
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = csc(3𝑥𝑥 − 𝜋𝜋) − 2.

The period is 2π/3. The formula for the period of the cosecant (and secant) function is the same as
the formula for the sine and cosine. See Table 2.4.3 at the end of this section. The horizontal shift is
π/3. π/6 should make a good scale. Note that all asymptotes are shifted along with the curve itself.

The cosecant is shifted down 2 units affecting range, zeros and extrema. Examples of extrema are
labeled in Figure 2.4.11. The range is easily identified as (-∞, -3]∪[-1, ∞). Please note the affect on
domain (position of asymptotes) due to the horizontal compression. Compare the domain in Figure
2.4.11 to the domain of the standard cosecant curve.

Figure 2.4.11 𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜(𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑 − 𝝅𝝅)

Example 2.4.16
1 𝜋𝜋
Graph 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = − cot (𝑥𝑥 + ) .
2 4

The period is π (unchanged). The horizontal shift is –π/4. π/4 should make a good scale. The
cotangent is also vertically reflected and compressed. This reflection makes it appear more like a
1 𝜋𝜋
tangent curve. It may readily be expressed as 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = tan (𝑥𝑥 − ).
2 4

It is a good idea to verify coordinates of the graph by evaluating them in the function. For example,
the point (3π/4, ½) on the graph in Figure 2.4.12 can be verified as follows:

3𝜋𝜋 1 3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋 1 1
𝑓𝑓 ( ) = − 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 ( − ) = − 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 ( ) = − (−1) =
4 2 4 4 2 2 2 2

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𝟏𝟏 𝝅𝝅
Figure 2.4.12 𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = − 𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜𝐜 (𝒙𝒙 + )
𝟐𝟐 𝟒𝟒

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General Sinusoidal Equations Variables Period

|A| = amplitude
|𝜔𝜔| = frequency 2𝜋𝜋
f(x) = Asin(𝜔𝜔(x + 𝜑𝜑)) + D 𝑇𝑇 =
- 𝜑𝜑 = phase shift |𝜔𝜔|
D = vertical translation

|A| = amplitude
|𝜔𝜔| = frequency 2𝜋𝜋
f(x) = Acos(𝜔𝜔(x + 𝜑𝜑)) + D 𝑇𝑇 =
- 𝜑𝜑 = phase shift |𝜔𝜔|
D = vertical translation

Non-Sinusoidal Equations Variables Period

|A| = vertical dilation


|𝜔𝜔| = horizontal dilation 𝜋𝜋
f(x) = Atan(𝜔𝜔(x + 𝜑𝜑)) + D 𝑇𝑇 =
𝜑𝜑 = horizontal translation |𝜔𝜔|
D = vertical translation

|A| = vertical dilation


|𝜔𝜔| = horizontal dilation 𝜋𝜋
f(x) = Acot(𝜔𝜔(x + 𝜑𝜑)) + D 𝑇𝑇 =
𝜑𝜑 = horizontal translation |𝜔𝜔|
D = vertical translation

|A| = vertical dilation


|𝜔𝜔| = horizontal dilation 2𝜋𝜋
f(x) = Asec(𝜔𝜔(x + 𝜑𝜑)) + D 𝑇𝑇 =
𝜑𝜑 = horizontal translation |𝜔𝜔|
D = vertical translation

|A| = vertical dilation


|𝜔𝜔| = horizontal dilation 2𝜋𝜋
f(x) = Acsc(𝜔𝜔(x + 𝜑𝜑)) + D 𝑇𝑇 =
𝜑𝜑 = horizontal translation |𝜔𝜔|
D = vertical translation

Table 2.4.3 Summary of formulas

Example 2.4.17
Find a sinusoidal function for the curve in Figure 2.4.13.

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Figure 2.4.13 Unidentified sinusoidal curve

Solution:

A cosine function is chosen based upon the look of the graph (the y-intercept is not at zero). Either
sine or cosine could be used to define a sinusoidal curve with an equation. The general cosine
function from Table 2.4.3 is

𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴 cos(𝜔𝜔(𝑥𝑥 + 𝜑𝜑)) + 𝐷𝐷.

The amplitude is clearly 3/2. A = -3/2, however, as the graph could have been reflected about the x-
axis. A phase shift could also be used to achieve the desired affect, however, phase shifts can be
more difficult to express. If A is allowed to be negative, a phase shift is unnecessary, that is, 𝜑𝜑 = 0.
D is also zero (no vertical shift). In order to determine 𝜔𝜔, the period must be found. Peak to peak,
the period is observed to be 2π/3. The period may also be determined by examining zeros on the
graph.

2𝜋𝜋
𝑇𝑇 =
|𝜔𝜔|

2𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋
= → |𝜔𝜔| = 3
3 |𝜔𝜔|

Since no apparent horizontal reflection exists, 𝜔𝜔 = 3 as well. The equation becomes

3 3
𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = − cos(3(𝑥𝑥 + 0)) + 0 → 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = − cos(3𝑥𝑥) .
2 2

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Example 2.4.18
Find a sinusoidal function for the curve in Figure 2.4.14.

Figure 2.4.14 Unidentified sinusoidal curve

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Solution:

A sine function is chosen based upon the look of the graph. It has clearly been shifted up 1 unit, so
D = 1. Without this shift, the y-intercept would have been at the origin. The general sine function
from Table 2.4.3 is
𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴 sin(𝜔𝜔(𝑥𝑥 + 𝜑𝜑)) + 𝐷𝐷.

Clearly the amplitude is 1. This means that 𝐴𝐴 = ±1 in the equation. A = -1 means the standard sine
curve was reflected about the x-axis. Since sine is an odd function, a reflection about the x-axis is
indistinguishable from a reflection about the y-axis. So either A or 𝜔𝜔 may be negative. In order to
determine 𝜔𝜔, the period must be found. Peak to peak, the period is observed to be 4π.

2𝜋𝜋
𝑇𝑇 =
|𝜔𝜔|

2𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋 1
4𝜋𝜋 = → |𝜔𝜔| = =
|𝜔𝜔| 4𝜋𝜋 2
1 1
One solution is 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = −sin ( 𝑥𝑥) + 1. Another possible solution is 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = sin (− 𝑥𝑥) + 1.
2 2
Instead of a reflection, a phase shift could be used to achieve the desired affect. Phase shifts are
generally more complicated, especially if 𝜔𝜔 ≠ 1. Another possible solution is,

1 1
𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = sin ( (𝑥𝑥 + 2𝜋𝜋)) + 1 = sin ( 𝑥𝑥 + 𝜋𝜋) + 1.
2 2

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Example 2.4.19
Find a sinusoidal function for the curve in Figure 2.4.15.

Figure 2.4.15 Unidentified sinusoidal curve

Solution:

A sine function is chosen based upon the look of the graph. It appears to be a sine curve shifted π/8
𝜋𝜋
radians to the right. 𝜑𝜑 = − . The general sine function is
8

𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴 sin(𝜔𝜔(𝑥𝑥 + 𝜑𝜑)) + 𝐷𝐷.

The amplitude is observed to be 3. There are no apparent reflections and no vertical shift, D = 0.
Peak to peak, the period is observed to be π.
2𝜋𝜋
𝑇𝑇 =
|𝜔𝜔|

2𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋
𝜋𝜋 = → |𝜔𝜔| = = 2
|𝜔𝜔| 𝜋𝜋

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
A solution is 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 3sin (2 (𝑥𝑥 − )) = 3sin (2𝑥𝑥 − ). There are other natural solutions including
8 4
many involving the cosine function.

Sinusoidal motion is also referred to as simple harmonic motion.

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Definition 2.4.3 Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple harmonic or sinusoidal motion is a type of smooth, periodic motion where the restorative
force is proportional to the displacement in accordance with Hooke’s Law given by

F = -kx

where F is the restoring force, k is a constant and x is the distance displaced.

A good physical example of simple harmonic motion is a mass on a spring that is displaced from its
equilibrium state or pulled and released. k is called the spring constant, a measure of its stiffness.
The force F, working to bring the mass back to its equilibrium state, is proportional to the distance it
was pushed or pulled. If this system does not lose energy, as would happen in reality, the oscillation
of the mass would trace out a sinusoidal curve as illustrated in the following video:

Simple Harmonic Motion

The circle in the video is called a phase portrait. The vertical axis represents velocity and the
horizontal axis represents position. Position and velocity are out of phase, shifted π/2 radians like
the sinusoidal curves (Figure 2.4.16). The curve tracing out in the video represents the position of
the mass. At its highest point (peak) or at its lowest point, the velocity of the mass is zero (y-
coordinate is zero), for an instant, as it changes direction. The x-intercepts of the position curve
represent the maximum velocity of the object before the spring begins to decelerate it back again to
a zero velocity followed by a change in direction.

Figure 2.4.16 Time series showing phase shift between velocity and position of an oscillating spring

Example 2.4.20

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Develop a model for the motion of a mass oscillating on a spring. The time of oscillation is 5
seconds after the mass is pulled down 3 inches from its resting position.

Solution:

The time of oscillation represents the period of the curve. So the frequency is

2𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋
5= → |𝜔𝜔| = .
|𝜔𝜔| 5

Since time ‘begins’ after the mass is pulled downward, its position is negative 3 inches from
equilibrium. So it is a good idea to use a cosine function.

𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝐴𝐴cos(𝜔𝜔(𝑥𝑥 + 𝜑𝜑)) + 𝐷𝐷

2𝜋𝜋
𝑃𝑃(𝑡𝑡) = 𝐴𝐴cos ( (𝑡𝑡 + 𝜑𝜑)) + 𝐷𝐷
5

The independent variable used is t, suggestive of what it represents, time. P(t) is position. There is
no phase shift and no vertical shift.

2𝜋𝜋
𝑃𝑃(𝑡𝑡) = 𝐴𝐴cos ( 𝑡𝑡)
5

The displacement of the mass represents the amplitude or |A| = 3. Since time begins when the spring
is pulled downward, a reflection about the x-axis is required.

2𝜋𝜋
𝑃𝑃(𝑡𝑡) = −3cos ( 𝑡𝑡)
5

At t = 0, 𝑃𝑃(0) = −3cos(0) = −3 and after 5 seconds, 𝑃𝑃(5) = −3cos(2𝜋𝜋) = −3, the position of
the object is at its initial position once again (its time of oscillation is 5 seconds). Figure 2.4.17
shows the model.

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Example 2.4.18
Find a sinusoidal function for the curve in Figure 2.4.14.

Figure 2.4.14 Unidentified sinusoidal curve

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
WITH APPLICATIONS Graphs of Trigonometric Functions

Section 2.5 Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Definition 2.5.1 Inverse Function

A function g is called the inverse of a function f, if y = f(x) implies x = g(y) and x = g(y) implies y =
f(x).

The inverse of a function reverses that function’s process. If f brings the value x from its domain to
the value y in its range, then its inverse or anti-function, g, must bring the value y back from f’s
range to the value x in f’s domain. The functions f and g are said to be inverses of each other.

Figure 2.5.1 Conceptual diagram of a function and its inverse

The inverse of a function f is denoted f -1. Using this notation, Definition 2.5.1 could be restated:

Definition 2.5.2 Inverse Function (restated)

If f -1 is the inverse of a function f, then 𝑓𝑓(𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑥𝑥)) = 𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥)) = 𝑥𝑥

for all 𝑥𝑥 in the domain of 𝑓𝑓 and its inverse, 𝑓𝑓 −1 .

Replace g with f -1 in definition 2.5.1. x = g(y) becomes x = f -1(y). Substitute y = f(x) into x = f -1(y):

𝑥𝑥 = 𝑔𝑔(𝑦𝑦) = 𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑦𝑦) = 𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥)).

This is the case where composition is commutative,

(𝑓𝑓°𝑓𝑓 −1 )(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑓𝑓(𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑥𝑥)) = 𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥)) = (𝑓𝑓 −1 °𝑓𝑓)(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑥𝑥.

Please note in Figure 2.5.1 that the range of f -1 is the domain of f. Likewise, the domain of f -1 is the
range of f. The domain and range of a function and its inverse are essentially swapped. This is

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necessary for the inverse to perform its intended function. This definition leads to a symmetric
relationship between the graph of a function and its inverse. The swapping of range and domain
causes a reflection about the line y = x between the graph of a function and its inverse.

Example 2.5.1
Graph f(x) = ex and f -1(x) = ln(x) on the same set of axes.

Figure 2.5.2 Symmetry between f(x) = ex and f-1(x) = ln(x)

f(x) = ex and f -1(x) = ln(x) are two well-known inverse functions. Notice the symmetry about the line
y = x. The definition of inverse holds, that is,

𝑓𝑓(𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑥𝑥)) = 𝑒𝑒 ln(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑥𝑥 = ln(𝑒𝑒 𝑥𝑥 ) = 𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥)).

This symmetry enables the inverse to be obtained graphically.

The inverse of a function need not exist. Or, it might exist under certain conditions such as a
restriction on the domain.

Example 2.5.2
Find the inverse of f(x) = x2 graphically.

First graph f. Then reflect it over the line y = x.

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Figure 2.5.3 Finding the inverse of f(x) = x2

The dark green reflection is not a function. It fails the vertical line test, which means it does not
satisfy the definition of a function.

Definition 2.5.3 Function

A function is a relation that uniquely associates each value from its domain with exactly one value
in its range.

The dark green relation does not uniquely associate 1 with a value in its range. 1 is mapped to 1 and
to -1 (both (1, 1) and (1, -1) lie on the reflected dark green curve). That is not a unique mapping. If
the dark green curve were a function and it had function notation, such as g(x), then g(0) = 0, but
g(1) = ? Does it equal 1 or -1? A function must have a unique range output for each domain input.

In order for a function to be inverted, it must be one-to-one (1:1). A 1:1 function passes a horizontal
line test: no horizontal line drawn through its graph intersects the curve more than once. The quality
of being 1:1 enables the reflection about y = x to result in a curve that represents a function. A
horizontal line reflected about y = x becomes vertical. If a curve passes a horizontal line test, it will
pass a vertical line test upon reflection over the line y = x. The function x2 is not 1:1 (see Figure
2.5.3). So it has no inverse. But it is known that √𝑥𝑥 is the inverse of x2. The square root function is
used to solve quadratics and the square function is used to solve equations involving square roots.
This seems to be a contradiction. It is not.

The fact is that the inverse of x2 exists when its domain is restricted to non-negative values (see
Figure 2.5.4). In this way, its reflection is a function, the inverse function 𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑥𝑥) = √𝑥𝑥.

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Figure 2.5.4 𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = 𝒙𝒙𝟐𝟐 and its inverse, 𝒇𝒇−𝟏𝟏 (𝒙𝒙) = √𝒙𝒙

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None of the trigonometric functions are 1:1. Their domains must be restricted in order to define their
inverses.

Recall the graph of y = sin(x) (Figure 2.2.1). There are infinite ways to slice this curve or to restrict
its domain in order to obtain a 1:1 graph. When restricting domain, it is important that the entire set
of range values be preserved. And it is desirable to retain the domain values corresponding to the
first quadrant, that is, to retain the domain interval (0, π/2). On this interval, all six trigonometric
functions are positive. This is more of a preference, but it simplifies the function. When these
criteria are adhered to, there is only one way to slice each trigonometric function.

Reiterating this criteria:

1) The entire range is preserved


2) The domain interval (0, π/2) is retained (give or take a few points) and
3) The curve slice is 1:1

In this way, each trigonometric inverse is unique.

Example 2.5.3
Find the inverse of f(x) = sin(x).

Figure 2.5.5 shows the 1:1 slice of the sine curve. See that the previous check list is satisfied.

Figure 2.5.5 1:1 Slice of the sine curve

Figure 2.5.6 shows the reflection of this slice over the line y = x. The reflected curve defines the
inverse sine curve or f(x) = sin-1(x). The -1 in this notation is not an exponent. It is notation to denote
inverse.

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Figure 2.5.6 1:1 Slice of the sine curve with its inverse

Please note sin-1(x) ≠ csc(x).

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The restricted domain of the sine function, [-π/2, π/2] (endpoints included), becomes the range of the
inverse sine. The domain of the inverse sine is [-1, 1]. Please note how the domain and range swap
between the sine and its inverse.

Function Domain Range


f(x) = sin(x) [-π/2, π/2] (restricted) [-1, 1]

f -1(x) = sin-1(x) [-1, 1] [-π/2, π/2]


Table 2.5.1 Domain and range of sine and inverse sine

Example 2.5.4
Find the inverse of f(x) = cos(x).

Figure 2.5.7 shows the 1:1 slice of the cosine curve following the domain restriction criteria. The
domain has been restricted to [0, π]. The cosine is then reflected about the line y = x to obtain the
graph of the inverse cosine.

Figure 2.5.7 1:1 Slice of the cosine curve with its inverse

Note the swapping of range and domain between the function and its inverse. Also note the
swapping of x and y coordinates between corresponding reflected points. For example, the point (π, -
1) on the cosine is reflected to the position, (-1, π) on the graph of the arccosine (inverse cosine).
The y-intercept of f(x) = cos-1(x) must be the point (0, π/2). Why?

Function Domain Range


f(x) = cos(x) [0, π] (restricted) [-1, 1]
f -1(x) = cos-1(x) [-1, 1] [0, π]
Table 2.5.2 Domain and range of cosine and inverse cosine

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The remaining four inverses will have horizontal asymptotes since all the non-sinusoidal
trigonometric function graphs have vertical asymptotes.

Example 2.5.5
Find the inverse of f(x) = tan(x).

It makes sense to take a slice of the curve between asymptotes (if possible). Following the
established criteria, the restricted domain becomes (-π/2, π/2). Figure 2.5.8 shows the tangent slice
with its inverse.

Figure 2.5.8 1:1 Slice of the tangent curve with its inverse

A vertical line reflected over y = x becomes horizontal. For example, the vertical asymptote x = π/2
on the tangent curve becomes the horizontal asymptote y = π/2 on its inverse.

Example 2.5.6
Find the inverse of f(x) = cot(x).

As with the tangent, it is possible to take a 1:1 slice of the cotangent curve between vertical
asymptotes. The restricted domain is (0, π). This interval, (0, π), is the range of the inverse
cotangent. Note that the x-axis is a horizontal asymptote of the inverse and the y-axis is a vertical
asymptote of the cotangent. Notice the asymptote reflections and the coordinate reflections of
selected points.

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Figure 2.5.9 1:1 Slice of the cotangent curve with its inverse

Figure 2.5.10 and 2.5.11 show the secant and cosecant slices with their respect inverses. Due to the
nature of the secant and cosecant curves, it is necessary to slice each of these curves to include a
vertical asymptote. No curve slice between asymptotes is 1:1 for these two functions, if it retains the
entire range.
Take note of asymptote and coordinate reflections in these figures.

Similar to the cotangent, in Figure 2.5.11, it is somewhat difficult to see the asymptotes of the
cosecant and its inverse as they coincide with the x and y-axes.

Table 2.5.3 summarizes the domain and range of each trigonometric function and its inverse.

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Figure 2.5.10 1:1 Slice of the secant curve with its inverse

Figure 2.5.10 1:1 Slice of the cosecant curve with its inverse

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Function Domain Range

f(x) = sin(x) [-π/2, π/2] (restricted) [-1, 1]

f -1(x) = sin-1(x) [-1, 1] [-π/2, π/2]

f(x) = cos(x) [0, π] (restricted) [-1, 1]

f -1(x) = cos-1(x) [-1, 1] [0, π]

f(x) = tan(x) (-π/2, π/2) (restricted) (-∞, ∞)

f -1(x) = tan-1(x) (-∞, ∞) (-π/2, π/2)

f(x) = cot(x) (0, π) (restricted) (-∞, ∞)

f -1(x) = cot-1(x) (-∞, ∞) (0, π)

f(x) = sec(x) [0, π/2) U (π/2, π] (restricted) (-∞ -1] U [1, ∞)

f -1(x) = sec-1(x) (-∞ -1] U [1, ∞) [0, π/2) U (π/2, π]

f(x) = csc(x) [-π/2, 0) U (0, π/2] (restricted) (-∞ -1] U [1, ∞)

f -1(x) = csc-1(x) (-∞ -1] U [1, ∞) [-π/2, 0) U (0, π/2]

Table 2.5.3 Domain and range of inverse trigonometric functions

Understanding how and why the trigonometric functions are sliced to create inverse functions
eliminates the need to memorize. By inspecting the standard trigonometric curve, it is possible to
determine the 1:1 slice. This determines the restricted domain that becomes the range of the inverse.
It is necessary to understand the range and domain of functions when evaluating them.

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Example 2.5.7
√2
Find sin−1 ( ).
2

Solution:

The range of the arcsine (inverse sine) is [-π/2, π/2]. The answer must lie on this interval. Since the
𝜋𝜋 √2 √2 𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 √2
sin ( ) = , sin−1 ( ) = . Please note that sin ( ) = , as well. However, 3π/4 cannot be
4 2 2 4 4 2
the solution since it does not lie on the interval [-π/2, π/2] (the range of the arcsine). Recall the
whole point of slicing the trigonometric curves was to obtain functions, with each input having
exactly one output.

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Example 2.5.8
Find sin-1(-1).

Solution:

The range of the arcsine (inverse sine) is [-π/2, π/2]. The answer must lie on this interval. Since the
sin(-π/2) = -1, sin-1(-1) = -π/2. It is also true that sin(3π/2) = -1, however, 3π/2 cannot be the solution
since it does not lie on the interval [-π/2, π/2] (the range of the arcsine).

Example 2.5.9
Find tan-1(-1).

Solution:

The range of the arctangent is (-π/2, π/2). Since the tan(-π/4) = -1, tan-1(-1) = -π/4. This is the only
solution since the arctangent is a function.

Example 2.5.10
Find csc-1(1/2).

Solution:

The domain of the inverse cosecant is (-∞ -1] U [1, ∞). Since ½ does not lie on this interval, that is,
½ is not in the domain of the inverse cosecant, there is no solution to this example.

Example 2.5.11
Find sec-1(2).

Solution:

The range of the inverse secant is [0, π/2) U (π/2, π]. Since the sec(π/3) = 2, sec-1(2) = π/3.

Example 2.5.12

Find sec(sec-1(2)).

Solution:

From the previous example, sec-1(2) = π/3. Then sec(sec-1(2)) = sec(π/3) = 2.

Example 2.5.13
Find cos(cos-1(-1)).

Solution:

The range of the arccosine is [0, π]. The cos(π) = -1, so cos-1(-1) = π. It then follows that
cos(cos-1(-1)) = cos(π) = -1.

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Do not assume that 𝑓𝑓(𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑥𝑥)) = 𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥)) = 𝑥𝑥 will always hold when dealing with functions
that are not one-to-one. The domain and range should always be considered.

Example 2.5.13
Find cos-1(cos(3π/2)).

Solution:

cos(3π/2) = 0. But 3π/2 is not in the restricted domain of the cosine. In other words, 3π/2 is not in
the range of the arccosine. So, cos-1(cos(3π/2)) = cos-1(0) = π/2 not 3π/2. In this example,
𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥)) ≠ 𝑥𝑥.

Example 2.5.14
Find cot-1(cot(-π/6)).

Solution:

𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋
-π/6 is not in the restricted domain of the cotangent. cot −1 (cot (− )) = cot −1(−√3) = ≠
6 6
𝜋𝜋
− 6 . The output of an inverse trigonometric function represents an angle in the restricted domain.

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Example 2.5.15
Find cos-1(sin(5π/6)).

Solution:
5𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋
cos−1 (sin ( )) = cos −1 ( ) = .
6 2 3

Example 2.5.16
√3
Find sin (cos−1 (− 2 )).

Solution:
√3 5𝜋𝜋 1
sin (cos −1 (− )) = sin ( ) = .
2 6 2

√3 √3
Hint: Let cos −1 (− ) = 𝜃𝜃 → cos(𝜃𝜃) = − 2 .
2

While there are many solutions to this equation, only 5π/6 lies on [0, π].

Example 2.5.17
Find tan(cot −1 (√3)).

Solution:
𝜋𝜋 1 √3
tan(cot −1(√3)) = tan ( ) = = .
6 √3 3

Example 2.5.18
4𝜋𝜋
Find tan−1 (cot ( )).
3

Solution:
4𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋
tan−1 (cot ( )) = tan−1 ( ) = .
3 √3 6

Example 2.5.19
3𝜋𝜋
Find sec −1 (sin (− )).
4

Solution:
3𝜋𝜋 √2
sec −1 (sin (− )) = sec −1 (− ) .
4 2
√2

2
is not in the domain of the inverse secant. This problem has no solution.

Evaluating inverse sine, inverse cosine and inverse tangent on a typical scientific calculator or
graphing utility is straightforward as these functions are built into most calculators. The other
inverse trigonometric functions are typically not built in.

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Example 2.5.20
Find sec −1(−√2).

Solution:

Define a variable for the solution. 𝜃𝜃 is a good choice as it represents the range of an inverse
trigonometric function.
sec −1 (−√2) = 𝜃𝜃

Rewrite this as a secant function, that is, invert the equation.

sec(𝜃𝜃) = −√2

Rewrite the secant as a cosine since this function is built into the calculator.

1
= −√2
cos(𝜃𝜃)
1
cos(𝜃𝜃) = −
√2
Invert equation one more time,
1
cos −1 (− ) = 𝜃𝜃 .
√2

𝜃𝜃 is the variable representing the answer.

1
sec −1 (−√2) = cos−1 (− ) ≈ 2.36.
√2

This provides insight into evaluating inverse trigonometric functions that are not built into the
calculator. Simply take the reciprocal of the argument.

Example 2.5.21
Find cot −1 (5).

Solution:
1
cot −1(5) = tan−1 ( ) ≈ 0.1974 .
5

Example 2.5.22
Find an algebraic expression for sin(cos−1 𝑥𝑥), -1 < x < 1.

Assign a variable to the inverse function such as cos−1 𝑥𝑥 = 𝜃𝜃. Invert this equation, cos𝜃𝜃 = 𝑥𝑥. Draw
𝑥𝑥
a triangle using the definition of the cosine function (cos(𝜃𝜃) = ), to illustrate this relationship:
𝑟𝑟

1
y

𝜃𝜃
x

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Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the length of the side opposite 𝜃𝜃, 𝑦𝑦 = √1 − 𝑥𝑥 2 .

sin(cos −1 𝑥𝑥) = sin(𝜃𝜃) = √1 − 𝑥𝑥 2


𝑦𝑦
substituting cos−1 𝑥𝑥 = 𝜃𝜃 and applying the definition of sine to the triangle, that is, sin(𝜃𝜃) = . The
𝑟𝑟
algebraic expression, √1 − 𝑥𝑥 2 , is the solution. Cleary, -1 < x < 1 is the domain of this expression.

Example 2.5.23
Find an algebraic expression for cos(tan−1 𝑥𝑥).

Let tan−1 𝑥𝑥 = 𝜃𝜃. Invert this equation, tan𝜃𝜃 = 𝑥𝑥. Draw the triangle: r
x
𝑥𝑥
Note tan𝜃𝜃 = in the triangle. 𝜃𝜃
1
1

The Pythagorean theorem gives the length of the hypotenuse, 𝑟𝑟 = √𝑥𝑥 2 + 1

1
cos(tan−1 𝑥𝑥) = cos(𝜃𝜃) = .
√𝑥𝑥 2 + 1

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
WITH APPLICATIONS Trigonometric Identities and Equations

Chapter 3
Trigonometric Identities and Equations
Learning Objectives:
 Review fundamental trigonometric identities
 Learn techniques for proving identities
 Derive new and useful identities from the fundamental identities
 Solve trigonometric equations

Section 3.1 Review of Fundamental Trigonometric Identities


A mathematical identity is a statement that is always true or equal for all values in the domain of its
variable(s).

Definition 3.1.1 (formerly 1.4.1) Trigonometric Identity

A trigonometric identity is an equation involving one or more trigonometric functions that is always
true for all values in the domain of said function(s).

The above definition is repeated from Chapter 1, Section 1.4, Fundamental Trigonometric Identities.
The summary of fundamental identities from Chapter 1 is also repeated in Table 3.1.1. Use this as a
reference. These identities are used to establish new identities. Some strategies for proving identities
are as follows:

1. Apply the multiplicative identity – multiply by a ratio equal to 1


2. Apply the additive identity – add zero, that is add and subtract equal amounts on one side
3. Substitute with an established identity
4. Factor
5. Multiply by the conjugate binomial in conjunction with the multiplicative identity
6. Distribute
7. Combine rational expressions

These strategies will be illustrated by example. It is important to begin at one side of the identity and
arrive at the other side.

Note: In proving identities, the equality is in question. The proof is attempting to show the two sides
are equal. Therefore, use of any properties of equality is invalid. In order to add equal amounts to
both sides of an equation or multiply both sides by equal amounts, equality must first be established.
It is illogical to use properties of equality when trying to prove equality. It is circular reasoning.
Equality cannot be used to show equality.

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Fundamental Trigonometric Identities

1 1
sin(𝜃𝜃) = csc(𝜃𝜃) =
csc(𝜃𝜃) sin(𝜃𝜃)

1 1
cos(𝜃𝜃) = sec(𝜃𝜃) =
sec(𝜃𝜃) cos(𝜃𝜃)
Quotient Identities
1 1
tan(𝜃𝜃) = cot(𝜃𝜃) =
cot(𝜃𝜃) tan(𝜃𝜃)

sin(𝜃𝜃) cos(𝜃𝜃)
tan(𝜃𝜃) = cot(𝜃𝜃) =
cos(𝜃𝜃) sin(𝜃𝜃)

cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) + sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1

Pythagorean Identities 1 + tan2 (𝜃𝜃) = sec 2 (𝜃𝜃)

cot 2 (𝜃𝜃) + 1 = csc 2 (𝜃𝜃)

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
sin(𝜃𝜃) = cos ( − 𝜃𝜃) cos(𝜃𝜃) = sin ( − 𝜃𝜃)
2 2
Cofunction Identities 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
sec(𝜃𝜃) = csc ( − 𝜃𝜃) csc(𝜃𝜃) = sec ( − 𝜃𝜃)
2 2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
tan(𝜃𝜃) = cot ( − 𝜃𝜃) cot(𝜃𝜃) = tan ( − 𝜃𝜃)
2 2

sin(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = sin(𝜃𝜃) csc(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘)


= csc(𝜃𝜃)

cos(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = cos(𝜃𝜃) sec(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘)


Periodic Identities
= sec(𝜃𝜃)

tan(𝜃𝜃 + 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = tan(𝜃𝜃) cot(𝜃𝜃 + 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘)


= cot(𝜃𝜃)

cos(−𝜃𝜃) = cos(𝜃𝜃) sec(−𝜃𝜃) = sec(𝜃𝜃)

Odd/even Identities sin(−𝜃𝜃) = −sin(𝜃𝜃) csc(−𝜃𝜃) = −csc(𝜃𝜃)

tan(−𝜃𝜃) = −tan(𝜃𝜃) cot(−𝜃𝜃) = −cot(𝜃𝜃)

Table 3.1.1 (formerly Table 1.4.1) Fundamental Trigonometric Identities

Example 3.1.1
Prove the identity: sec𝜃𝜃sin𝜃𝜃 = tan𝜃𝜃 .

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Solution:

1
sec𝜃𝜃sin𝜃𝜃 = sin𝜃𝜃 1
cos𝜃𝜃 Substitute the identity sec(𝜃𝜃) =
cos(𝜃𝜃)
sin𝜃𝜃
= Multiply
cos𝜃𝜃

= tan𝜃𝜃 sin(𝜃𝜃)
Substitute the identity tan(𝜃𝜃) = cos(𝜃𝜃)

Example 3.1.2
Prove the identity: (1 − sin𝜃𝜃)(1 + sin𝜃𝜃) = cos 2 𝜃𝜃 .

Solution:

(1 − sin𝜃𝜃)(1 + sin𝜃𝜃) = 1 − sin2 𝜃𝜃


Distribute

= cos2 (𝜃𝜃) Substitute cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) + sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1


→ cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1 − sin2 (𝜃𝜃)

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Sometimes it is necessary to rearrange an identity before making a substitution.

Example 3.1.3
Prove the identity: cot 4 𝜃𝜃 − cot 2 𝜃𝜃csc 2 𝜃𝜃 = −cot 2 𝜃𝜃 .

Solution:

cot 4 𝜃𝜃 − cot 2 𝜃𝜃csc 2 𝜃𝜃 = cot 2 𝜃𝜃(cot 2 𝜃𝜃 − csc 2 𝜃𝜃)


Factor

Substitute the identity


= cot 2 𝜃𝜃(cot 2 𝜃𝜃 − (cot 2 (𝜃𝜃) + 1))
cot 2 (𝜃𝜃) + 1 = csc 2 (𝜃𝜃)

= cot 2 𝜃𝜃(cot 2 𝜃𝜃 − cot 2 (𝜃𝜃) − 1) Distribute the minus

= cot 2 𝜃𝜃(−1) Subtract

= −cot 2 𝜃𝜃 Multiply

Example 3.1.4
csc𝜃𝜃 − 1 1−sin𝜃𝜃
Prove the identity: = .
csc𝜃𝜃+ 1 1+sin𝜃𝜃
Solution:

1
− 1
csc𝜃𝜃 − 1 sin(𝜃𝜃)
= 1
csc𝜃𝜃 + 1 1 Substitute csc(𝜃𝜃) =
+ 1 sin(𝜃𝜃)
sin(𝜃𝜃)

1 − sin(𝜃𝜃)
sin(𝜃𝜃)
= Combine rational expressions
1 + sin(𝜃𝜃)
sin(𝜃𝜃)

1 − sin(𝜃𝜃) sin(𝜃𝜃) Invert and multiply


= ∙
sin(𝜃𝜃) 1 + sin(𝜃𝜃)

1 − sin(𝜃𝜃) Reduce the ratio


=
1 + sin(𝜃𝜃)

It is important to keep in mind the expression trying to be obtained. This can give insight into a
strategy. In Example 3.1.4, the identity contained only sine and cosecant functions. Thus the
1
quotient identity, csc(𝜃𝜃) =
sin(𝜃𝜃)
, is a good candidate for substitution.

Note: ‘cross-multiplication’ is only applicable to a proportion. Two equal ratios constitute a


proportion. Equality has not yet been established, so ‘cross-multiplication’ is not valid. The exercise
is to prove equality. This is why it is important to work one side, and only one side, of the identity.
It does not matter which side is selected to begin the proof. Work left to right or right to left. It is
often simpler to begin with the more complicated expression, regardless of which side it is on.

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Example 3.1.5
cos𝜃𝜃
Prove the identity: sec𝜃𝜃 = tan𝜃𝜃 + .
1 + sin𝜃𝜃

Solution:

cos𝜃𝜃 cos𝜃𝜃 1 − sin𝜃𝜃 Apply the multiplicative identity in


tan𝜃𝜃 + = tan𝜃𝜃 + ∙ conjunction with the conjugate of
1 + sin𝜃𝜃 1 + sin𝜃𝜃 1 − sin𝜃𝜃
the denominator

cos𝜃𝜃(1 − sin𝜃𝜃)
= tan𝜃𝜃 + Multiply only the denominators
1 − sin2 𝜃𝜃

cos𝜃𝜃(1 − sin𝜃𝜃)
= tan𝜃𝜃 + Substitute cos2 (𝜃𝜃) + sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1
cos 2 𝜃𝜃
1 − sin𝜃𝜃
= tan𝜃𝜃 + Reduce the ratio
cos𝜃𝜃

sin𝜃𝜃 1 − sin𝜃𝜃 sin(𝜃𝜃)


= + Substitute tan(𝜃𝜃) =
cos𝜃𝜃 cos𝜃𝜃 cos(𝜃𝜃)

1
= Combine rational expressions
cos𝜃𝜃
1
= sec𝜃𝜃 Substitute sec(𝜃𝜃) = cos(𝜃𝜃)

In the above example, only the denominators were multiplied in the second step. It can be a good
strategy to make one change at a time and take a look at what happened before making another
change. Multiplying both the numerator and denominator could cloud the next steps.

cos𝜃𝜃(1 − sin𝜃𝜃) cos𝜃𝜃 − cos𝜃𝜃sin𝜃𝜃


tan𝜃𝜃 + = tan𝜃𝜃 +
1 − sin2 𝜃𝜃 cos 2 𝜃𝜃

In this example, it might not throw off the direction of the proof, but it certainly adds an additional
unnecessary step.

This example illustrates another important idea related to keeping the goal in mind or keeping in
mind the expression trying to be obtained. The sec𝜃𝜃, a single-term expression, was the goal. The
expression begun with was two-termed. When this is the case, it should be understood that these two
terms must be combined in order to arrive at a single term, the sec𝜃𝜃. An alternative approach to the
last example is:

cos𝜃𝜃 sin𝜃𝜃 cos𝜃𝜃 sin(𝜃𝜃)


tan𝜃𝜃 + = + Substitute tan(𝜃𝜃) =
1 + sin𝜃𝜃 cos𝜃𝜃 1 + sin𝜃𝜃 cos(𝜃𝜃)

sin𝜃𝜃(1 + sin𝜃𝜃) cos 2 𝜃𝜃


= + Obtain a common
cos𝜃𝜃(1 + sin𝜃𝜃) cos𝜃𝜃(1 + sin𝜃𝜃) denominator

sin𝜃𝜃(1 + sin𝜃𝜃) + cos2 𝜃𝜃 Combine the rational


= expressions
cos𝜃𝜃(1 + sin𝜃𝜃)

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sin𝜃𝜃 + sin2 𝜃𝜃 + cos2 𝜃𝜃 Simplify the numerator


=
cos𝜃𝜃(1 + sin𝜃𝜃)

sin𝜃𝜃 + 1 Substitute
=
cos𝜃𝜃(1 + sin𝜃𝜃) cos2 (𝜃𝜃) + sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1

1
= Reduce the ratio
cos𝜃𝜃
1
= sec𝜃𝜃 Substitute sec(𝜃𝜃) = cos(𝜃𝜃)

There is more than one way to prove an identity. The better way is the one that is understood.

Proving identities can be challenging. Knowledge and practice will help. Patience and tenacity are
essential. Creativity is a plus.

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Example 3.1.6
tan𝜃𝜃−cot𝜃𝜃
Prove the identity: 1 = 2cos 2 𝜃𝜃 + tan𝜃𝜃 + cot𝜃𝜃 .

Solution:
sin𝜃𝜃 cos𝜃𝜃 sin(𝜃𝜃)
− sin𝜃𝜃 Substitute tan(𝜃𝜃) = cos(𝜃𝜃)
tan𝜃𝜃 − cot𝜃𝜃 2 cos𝜃𝜃
2cos2 𝜃𝜃 + = 2cos 𝜃𝜃 +
sin𝜃𝜃 cos𝜃𝜃
tan𝜃𝜃 + cot𝜃𝜃 cos(𝜃𝜃)
and cot(𝜃𝜃) = sin(𝜃𝜃) .
cos𝜃𝜃 + sin𝜃𝜃

sin2 𝜃𝜃 − cos 2 𝜃𝜃
= 2cos2 𝜃𝜃 + sin𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃
sin2 𝜃𝜃 + cos 2 𝜃𝜃 Combine rational expressions
sin𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃

sin2 𝜃𝜃 − cos 2 𝜃𝜃
= 2cos2 𝜃𝜃 + Invert and multiply
sin2 𝜃𝜃 + cos 2 𝜃𝜃

Substitute
= 2cos2 𝜃𝜃 + sin2 𝜃𝜃 − cos 2 𝜃𝜃
cos2 (𝜃𝜃) + sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1

= cos2 𝜃𝜃 + sin2 𝜃𝜃 Combine like terms

=1 Substitute
cos2 (𝜃𝜃) + sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1

It is inadvisable to automatically convert all terms in an identity to sine and cosine functions. While
this is always possible, it can overly complicate expressions and cause unnecessary confusion.

There are also times when it is a good strategy to retreat. If the expressions do not appear to be
heading in the right direction, perhaps becoming burdensome or unwieldy, it may helpful to start
over, perhaps even set the proof aside to try again at another time. As a novice, it is possible to get
‘lost’ in the proof. Take breaks, but do not quit altogether.

Example 3.1.7
1 1
Prove the identity: + = 2𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠2 𝜃𝜃.
1−sin𝜃𝜃 1+sin𝜃𝜃

Solution:
1 1 1 + sin𝜃𝜃 1 − sin𝜃𝜃 Get common
+ = +
1 − sin𝜃𝜃 1 + sin𝜃𝜃 (1 − sin𝜃𝜃)(1 + sin𝜃𝜃) (1 − sin𝜃𝜃)(1 + sin𝜃𝜃) denominators

2 Combine rational
=
(1 − sin𝜃𝜃)(1 + sin𝜃𝜃) expressions
2
=
1 − sin2 𝜃𝜃 Multiply

2
= Substitute cos2 (𝜃𝜃) + sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1
cos2 𝜃𝜃
1
= 2sec 2 𝜃𝜃 Substitute sec(𝜃𝜃) = cos(𝜃𝜃)

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
2
𝜃𝜃 Substitute sec(𝜃𝜃) = cos(𝜃𝜃)
WITH APPLICATIONS Trigonometric Identities and Equations

Example 3.1.8
(2cos2 𝜃𝜃−1)2
Prove the identity: = 1 − 2𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠2 𝜃𝜃.
cos4 𝜃𝜃−sin4 𝜃𝜃

Solution:

2
(2cos2 𝜃𝜃 − 1)2 (2cos2 𝜃𝜃 − 1)
=
cos4 𝜃𝜃 − sin4 𝜃𝜃 (cos2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃)(cos2 𝜃𝜃 + sin2 𝜃𝜃) Factor

(2cos2 𝜃𝜃 − 1)2
= Substitute cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) + sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1
cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃

(2cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − 1)2
= Substitute sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1 − cos2 (𝜃𝜃)
cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − 1 + cos 2 𝜃𝜃

(2cos2 𝜃𝜃 − 1)2
= Combine like terms
2cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − 1

= 2cos2 𝜃𝜃 − 1 Reduce

= 2(1 − sin2 𝜃𝜃) − 1 Substitute cos 2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1 − sin2 (𝜃𝜃)

= 1 − 2sin2 𝜃𝜃 Distribute and combine like terms

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Section 3.2 Sum and Difference Identities


The fundamental trigonometric identities may be used to derive an infinite number of trigonometric
identities, many having practical applications.

𝜋𝜋
If the exact value of cos ( ) were needed, reference angles would be insufficient.
12
𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
cos ( ) ≠ cos ( ). π/12 is a difference of reference angles, that is, π/3 – π/4 and cos ( ) =
12 2 6 12
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
cos ( − ). But cos ( − ) ≠ cos ( ) − 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 ( ). A new identity is required.
3 4 3 4 3 4

cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

The following video illustrates a geometric derivation of this identity. In the video, the angles are
positive and in standard position although the identity holds for all angles.

Proof of the cosine difference of angles identity

Once the difference of angles identity for cosine is established, the sum of angles identity easily
follows by negating the angle beta and applying the odd/even identities for sine and cosine.

cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽


cos(𝛼𝛼 − (−𝛽𝛽)) = cos𝛼𝛼cos(−𝛽𝛽) + sin𝛼𝛼sin(−𝛽𝛽)

cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

Example 3.2.1
𝜋𝜋
Find the exact value of cos ( ).
12

Solution:
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
cos ( ) = cos ( − ) = cos ( ) cos ( ) + sin ( ) sin ( )
12 3 4 3 4 3 4

1 √2 √3 √2 √2 √6 √2 + √6
= 2∙ 2 + 2 ∙ 2 = 4 + 4 = .
4

Example 3.2.2
7𝜋𝜋
Find the exact value of cos ( ).
12

Solution:
7𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
cos ( ) = cos ( + ) = cos ( ) cos ( ) − sin ( ) sin ( )
12 3 4 3 4 3 4

1 √2 √3 √2 √2 √6 √2 − √6
= ∙ − ∙
2 2 2 2
=
4

4
=
4
.

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Example 3.2.3
𝜋𝜋
Prove the identity sin(𝜃𝜃) = cos ( − 𝜃𝜃).
2

Solution:
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
cos ( − 𝜃𝜃) = cos ( ) cos(𝜃𝜃) + sin ( ) 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠(𝜃𝜃)
2 2 2

= 0 ∙ cos(𝜃𝜃) + 1 ∙ sin(𝜃𝜃) = sin(𝜃𝜃).

There are sum and difference of angles identities for each trigonometric function.

𝜋𝜋
sin(𝜃𝜃) = cos ( − 𝜃𝜃)
2
𝜋𝜋
sin(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = cos (2 − (𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽))
𝜋𝜋
= cos (2 − 𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽)
𝜋𝜋
= cos ((2 − 𝛼𝛼) + 𝛽𝛽)
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
= cos ( − 𝛼𝛼) cos𝛽𝛽 − sin ( − 𝛼𝛼) sin𝛽𝛽
2 2
= sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

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The sine difference of angles identity is

sin(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽.

The sine sum of angles identity follows directly by negating the angle beta and applying the
odd/even identities for sine and cosine.

sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽.

A visual proof lies in the diagram of Figure 3.2.1. Although the angles are acute in the diagram, the
identities hold for all angles alpha and beta.

Figure 3.2.1 Geometric proof Sum of Angles Identities for sine and cosine
- Trigonography.com

Example 3.2.4
7𝜋𝜋
Find the exact value of sin ( ).
12
Solution:
7𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
sin ( ) = sin ( + ) = sin ( ) cos ( ) + cos ( ) sin ( )
12 3 4 3 4 3 4

√3 √2 1 √2 √6 √2 √6 + √2
= 2 ∙ 2 + ∙ 2 = 4 + 4 =
2 4
.

Example 3.2.5
5𝜋𝜋
Find the exact value of sin (12).

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Solution:
5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
sin ( ) = sin ( − ) = sin ( ) cos ( ) − cos ( ) sin ( )
12 12 12 12 6 12 6

√6 + √ 2 √3 √2 − √6 1
= ∙ − ∙
4 2 4 2

√18 + √6 √2 − √6
= −
8 8

3√2 + 2√6−√2
= 8

2√ 2 + 2 √ 6 √ 2 + √ 6
=
8
= 4
.

An alternative solution:

5𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋


sin ( ) = sin ( + ) = sin ( ) cos ( ) + cos ( ) sin ( )
12 12 12 4 6 4 6

√2 √3 √2 1
= 2 ∙ 2 + 2 ∙
2

√6 √2 √6 + √2
=
4
+
4
=
4
.

This solution is obviously simpler.

5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
Note that sin ( ) = sin ( ) = cos ( ). Why?
12 12 12

11𝜋𝜋
Hint: Sketch these angles in a circle. What is the cos (
12
) equal to?

The tangent function has sum and difference identities.

sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽


tan(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = =
cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽 sec𝛽𝛽 sin𝛼𝛼 + cos𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽


= ∙ =
cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽 sec𝛽𝛽 cos𝛼𝛼 − sin𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽

sin𝛽𝛽 1
( cos𝛽𝛽sec𝛽𝛽 = 1 and sin𝛽𝛽sec𝛽𝛽 = 1
∙ cos𝛽𝛽 = tan𝛽𝛽 )

sin𝛼𝛼 + cos𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽 sec𝛼𝛼 tan𝛼𝛼 + tan𝛽𝛽


= cos𝛼𝛼 − sin𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽 ∙ sec𝛼𝛼 = 1 − tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽

tan𝛼𝛼 + tan𝛽𝛽
tan(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = .
1 − tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽

the Tangent Sum of Angles identity.

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The Tangent Difference of Angles identity is derived using the fact that the tangent is an odd
function, that is, using the odd identity for tangent:

tan𝛼𝛼 − tan𝛽𝛽
tan(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = .
1 + tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽

The Sum and Difference of Angles identities for all six trigonometric functions are summarized in
Table 3.2.1. The derivations of the last three identities are left as an exercise for the reader. It should
be noted that the Sum and Difference of Angles Identities for the cotangent, secant and cosecant
have narrow application but are included for interest and derivation practice. The Sum and
Difference of Angles identities for sine and cosine are also referred to as Ptolemy’s Identities as they
result from his theorem. Ptolemy’s Theorem may be used to prove the Sum and Difference of
Angles Identities for the sine and cosine functions.

Theorem 3.2.1 Ptolemy’s Theorem

If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle, the product of its diagonal lengths equals the sum of the
products of the opposite sides. If the vertices of the quadrilateral are labeled ABCD, then Ptolemy’s
theorem becomes the equation AC BD = AB CD + AD BC.

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Figure 3.2.1 Cyclic quadrilateral illustrating Ptolemy’s theorem

Example 3.2.6
11𝜋𝜋
Find the exact value of tan ( ).
12

Solution:
11𝜋𝜋 9𝜋𝜋 2𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
tan ( ) = tan ( + ) = tan ( + )
12 12 12 4 6
3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
tan ( ) + tan ( )
4 6
=
3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
1 − tan ( ) tan ( )
4 6

√3 √3
−1 + −1 +
= 3 = 3
√3 √3
1 − (−1) ∙ 1+
3 3

√3
−1 +
= 3 ∙ 3 = −3 + √3
√3 3 3 + √3
1+
3

−3 + √3 3 − √3
= ∙
3 + √3 3 − √3

−9 + 6√3 − 3 −12 + 6√3


= = = −2 + √3
9−3 6

11𝜋𝜋
The periodic property of the trigonometric functions makes evaluating tan ( ) much simpler.
12

11𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 4𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋


tan ( ) = tan (− ) = tan ( − ) = tan ( − )
12 12 12 12 4 3
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
tan (4 ) − tan (3 )
= 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
1 + tan ( ) tan ( )
4 3

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1 − √3 1 − √3
= =
1 + (1)(√3) 1 + √3

1 − √3 1 − √3 1 − 2√3 + 3
= ∙ =
1 + √3 1 − √3 1−3

4 − 2√3
= = −2 + √3
−2

Example 3.2.7
23𝜋𝜋
Find the exact value of tan ( ).
12

Solution:

23𝜋𝜋 11𝜋𝜋 12𝜋𝜋 11𝜋𝜋


tan ( ) = tan ( + ) = tan ( + 𝜋𝜋)
12 12 12 12

11𝜋𝜋
tan ( ) + tan(𝜋𝜋)
= 12
11𝜋𝜋
1 − tan (
12 ) tan(𝜋𝜋)

−2 + √3 + 0
= = −2 + √3 .
1 − 0
23𝜋𝜋 11𝜋𝜋
The tan ( ) = tan ( ). (Why?)
12 12

Another application of identities is the discovery or creation of new identities.

Example 3.2.8
Show sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) + sin(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = 2sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 .

Solution:

sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) + sin(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽 + sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽 = 2sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽.

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Function Sum of Angles Identity Difference of Angles Identity

Sine sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽 sin(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

Cosine cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽 cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = cos𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼 + sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

tan𝛼𝛼 + tan𝛽𝛽 tan𝛼𝛼 − tan𝛽𝛽


Tangent tan(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = tan(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) =
1 − tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽 1 + tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽

cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽 − 1 cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽 + 1
Cotangent cot(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = cot(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) =
cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼 cot𝛽𝛽 − cot𝛼𝛼

csc𝛼𝛼csc𝛽𝛽 sec𝛼𝛼 sec𝛽𝛽


Secant sec(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = sec(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) =
cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽 − 1 1 + tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽

csc𝛼𝛼csc𝛽𝛽 sec𝛼𝛼sec𝛽𝛽
Cosecant csc(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = csc(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) =
cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼 tan𝛼𝛼 − tan𝛽𝛽

Table 3.2.1 Summary of Sum/Difference of Angles Identities

Of course, identities apply only to values (𝛼𝛼 or 𝛽𝛽 here) in each function’s respective domain.

Example 3.2.9
cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽−sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽 cot𝛼𝛼 cot𝛽𝛽−1
Prove = .
sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽+cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽 cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼

Solution:
cot𝛼𝛼 cot𝛽𝛽 − 1
= cot(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽)
cot𝛽𝛽 + 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽)
=
sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽)

cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽
= .
sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

Example 3.2.10

tan𝛼𝛼 + tan𝛽𝛽 cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼


Prove = .
1 − tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽 cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽−1

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Solution:
1 1
tan𝛼𝛼 + tan𝛽𝛽 cot𝛼𝛼 + cot𝛽𝛽 1
= 1 1
Substitute tan(𝜃𝜃) = cot(𝜃𝜃) .
1 − tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽 1−
cot𝛼𝛼 ∙ cot𝛽𝛽

cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼
cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽 Add the rational expressions.
=
cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽 − 1
cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽

cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼 cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽 Invert & multiply.


= ∙
cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽 cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽 − 1

cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼 Reduce.


=
cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽 − 1

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Example 3.2.11
sec𝛼𝛼 sec𝛽𝛽
Show tan(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽)csc(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = .
1+ tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽

Solution:
sin(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) 1
tan(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽)csc(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = ∙
cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) sin(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽)

1 sec𝛼𝛼 sec𝛽𝛽
= = sec(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = .
cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) 1 + tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽

Example 3.2.12
cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽−1 csc𝛼𝛼csc𝛽𝛽
Show = .
cot(𝛼𝛼+𝛽𝛽) csc(𝛼𝛼+𝛽𝛽)

Solution:

cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽−1 cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽−1 Substitute


= cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽−1 cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽−1
cot(𝛼𝛼+𝛽𝛽)
cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼
cot(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) =
cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼
.
cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽 − 1 cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼 Invert & multiply.
= ∙
1 cot𝛼𝛼cot𝛽𝛽 − 1

= cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼 Reduce.

csc𝛼𝛼csc𝛽𝛽 Substitute after rearrangement of


= .
csc(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽)
csc𝛼𝛼csc𝛽𝛽
csc(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) =
cot𝛽𝛽 + cot𝛼𝛼

Example 3.2.13
sin(𝑥𝑥+ℎ) − sin𝑥𝑥
Simplify the difference quotient .

Solution:

sin(𝑥𝑥 + ℎ) − sin𝑥𝑥 sin𝑥𝑥cosℎ + cos𝑥𝑥sinℎ − sin𝑥𝑥 Substitute


=
ℎ ℎ sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽.

sin𝑥𝑥cosℎ − sin𝑥𝑥 + cos𝑥𝑥sinℎ


= Commute.

sin𝑥𝑥(cosℎ − 1) + cos𝑥𝑥sinℎ
= Factor.

sin𝑥𝑥(cosℎ − 1) cos𝑥𝑥sinℎ
= + Split ratios (decompose the fractions).
ℎ ℎ

cosℎ − 1 sinℎ Factor.


= sin𝑥𝑥 ( ) + cos𝑥𝑥 ( )
ℎ ℎ

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Understanding this example, and Example 3.2.14 that follows, will be helpful in an introductory
Calculus course.

Example 3.2.14
cos(𝑥𝑥+ℎ)−cos𝑥𝑥
Simplify the difference quotient .

Solution:

cos(𝑥𝑥 + ℎ)−cos𝑥𝑥 cos𝑥𝑥cosℎ − sin𝑥𝑥sinℎ − cos𝑥𝑥 Substitute


=
ℎ ℎ cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽.

cos𝑥𝑥cosℎ − cos𝑥𝑥 − sin𝑥𝑥sinℎ


= Commute.

𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐(𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐ℎ − 1) + 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠ℎ
= Factor.

cos𝑥𝑥(cosℎ − 1) sin𝑥𝑥sinℎ
= + Split ratios.
ℎ ℎ

cosℎ − 1 sinℎ Factor.


= cos𝑥𝑥 ( ) + sin𝑥𝑥 ( ).
ℎ ℎ

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Section 3.3 Double- and Half-Angle Identities

Recall the Sum of Angles identity for sine:

sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

If 𝛼𝛼 = 𝛽𝛽, this simplifies to:


sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛼𝛼) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛼𝛼 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛼𝛼

sin(2𝛼𝛼) = 2sin𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼
or
sin(2𝜃𝜃) = 2sin𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃.

the double-angle identity for sine.

Similarly,
cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

cos(𝜃𝜃 + 𝜃𝜃) = 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃 − sin𝜃𝜃sin𝜃𝜃

cos(2𝜃𝜃) = cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃.

the double-angle identity for cosine. Due to the ease of Pythagorean identity substitution, the
double-angle cosine identity is typically presented in 3 ways:

cos(2𝜃𝜃) = cos2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃

= 1 − 2sin2 𝜃𝜃 Substitute cos2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1 − sin2 (𝜃𝜃)

= 2cos2 𝜃𝜃 − 1. Substitute sin2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1 − cos2 (𝜃𝜃)

The first identity contains both sinusoidal functions, while the second is expressed in just sine and
the last in just cosine. It can be helpful to have these options.

Example 3.3.1
15 8
If sin𝜃𝜃 = and cos𝜃𝜃 = , find the exact values of
17 17

a) sin(2𝜃𝜃) b) cos(2𝜃𝜃) c) tan(2𝜃𝜃).

Solution:

15 8 240
a) sin(2𝜃𝜃) = 2sin𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃 = 2 ( )( ) = .
17 17 289

8 2 128 289 161


b) cos(2𝜃𝜃) = 2cos2 𝜃𝜃 − 1 = 2 ( ) −1= − =− .
17 289 289 289

240
sin(2𝜃𝜃) 240
c) tan(2𝜃𝜃) = cos 2𝜃𝜃 = 289
161 = − 161 .
( ) − 289

𝜋𝜋
The signs of the answers indicate that < 2𝜃𝜃 < 𝜋𝜋.
2

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The tangent function has its own double-angle identity,

tan𝜃𝜃 + tan𝜃𝜃 2tan𝜃𝜃


tan(2𝜃𝜃) = = .
1 − tan𝜃𝜃tan𝜃𝜃 1 − tan2 𝜃𝜃

c) alternatively:
15 15
2tan𝜃𝜃 2( 8 )
tan(2𝜃𝜃) = = 4 = − 240 .
1 − tan2 𝜃𝜃 2 = 161 161
15 − 64
1 − (8)

Table 3.3.1 summarizes the double-angle identities for circular/trigonometric functions.

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Double-Angle Identities

Sine sin(2𝜃𝜃) = 2sin𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃

cos(2𝜃𝜃) = cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃


Cosine = 1 − 2sin2 𝜃𝜃
= 2cos2 𝜃𝜃 − 1

2tan𝜃𝜃
Tangent tan(2𝜃𝜃) =
1 − tan2 𝜃𝜃

cot 2 𝜃𝜃 − 1
Cotangent cot(2𝜃𝜃) =
2cot𝜃𝜃

csc 2 𝜃𝜃
Secant sec(2𝜃𝜃) =
cot 2 𝜃𝜃 − 1

csc 2 𝜃𝜃 1
Cosecant csc(2𝜃𝜃) = =
2cot𝜃𝜃 sin(2𝜃𝜃)

Table 3.3.1 Double-Angle Identities

Every double-angle identity provides a half-angle identity.

cos(2𝜃𝜃) = 1 − 2sin2 𝜃𝜃

𝜃𝜃 𝜃𝜃
cos(𝜃𝜃) = 1 − 2sin2 ( ) Replace 𝜃𝜃 with .
2 2

𝜃𝜃 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃) 𝜃𝜃
sin2 ( ) = Solve for sin2 (2).
2 2

𝜃𝜃 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃) Apply inverse square root function.


sin ( ) = ±√ .
2 2

The double signs (±) indicate that there are two Half-Angle Sine identities: a positive and a
𝜃𝜃
negative. The value of the angle combined with the range of the sine function determines the sign
2
used in the identity.

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Example 3.3.2
𝜋𝜋
Find the exact value of sin ( ).
12

Solution:
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜃𝜃
is half of . The angle terminates in the first quadrant so the sin ( ) is positive.
12 6 12 2

𝜋𝜋 √3 √3
𝜋𝜋 1 − cos ( ) √1 − √1 − 2 2 √2 − √3 √2 − √3
sin ( ) = √ 6 = 2 = ∙ = = .
12 2 2 2 2 4 2

Example 3.3.3
𝜋𝜋
Find the exact value of cos (12).

Solution: This may be found using the half-angle cosine identity or by using of the cosine difference
of angles identity (Example 3.2.1). Find the half-angle identity for cosine:

cos(2𝜃𝜃) = 2cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − 1

𝜃𝜃
cos(𝜃𝜃) = 2cos 2 ( ) − 1
2

𝜃𝜃 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃)
cos2 ( ) =
2 2

𝜃𝜃 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃)
cos ( ) = ±√
2 2

𝜋𝜋 √3 √3
𝜋𝜋 1 + cos (6 ) √1 + √1 + 2 2 2 + √3 √2 + √3
cos ( ) = √ = 2 = ∙ = √ = .
12 2 2 2 2 4 2

𝜋𝜋 √2 + √ 6
In example 3.2.1, the cos ( ) was found to be . Verify that these two answers represent the
12 4
same irrational number.

The half-angle tangent identity may be derived applying the half-angle identities for sine and cosine
along with the quotient identity for tangent.

𝜃𝜃 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃)
𝜃𝜃 sin2 (2 ) 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃)
tan2 ( ) = = 2 =
2 𝜃𝜃 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃) 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃)
cos 2 (2 )
2

𝜃𝜃 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃)
tan ( ) = ±√
2 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃)

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Example 3.3.4
11𝜋𝜋
Find the exact value of tan ( ).
12

1 − cos(11𝜋𝜋
√3
1 − 23 2

11𝜋𝜋 6
) 1− 2 = −√ 2 − √3
Solution: tan ( 12 ) = −√ 11𝜋𝜋 = −√ ∙ = −√ .
1 + cos( 6 ) √3 √3 2 2 + √3
1+ 2
1 + 2

11𝜋𝜋
Note the leading negative before the radical sign. The angle terminates in the second quadrant
12
11𝜋𝜋
so the value of the tangent function should be negative. Also, in Example 3.2.6, the tan (
12
) was
−3+√3
found to be . Show that both expressions represent the same irrational number. Table 3.3.2
3+√3
summarizes the identities of this section.

Double-Angle Identities Half-Angle Identities

𝜃𝜃 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃) 𝜃𝜃 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃)
sin(2𝜃𝜃) = 2sin𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃 sin2 ( ) = sin ( ) = ±√
2 2 2 2

cos(2𝜃𝜃) = cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃


𝜃𝜃 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃) 𝜃𝜃 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃)
= 1 − 2sin2 𝜃𝜃 cos2 ( ) = cos ( ) = ±√
2 2 2 2
= 2cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − 1

2tan𝜃𝜃 𝜃𝜃 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃) 𝜃𝜃 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃)


tan(2𝜃𝜃) = tan2 ( ) = tan ( ) = ±√
1 − tan2 𝜃𝜃 2 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃) 2 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃)

cot 2 𝜃𝜃 − 1 𝜃𝜃 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃) 𝜃𝜃 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃)


cot(2𝜃𝜃) = cot 2 ( ) = cot ( ) = ±√
2cot𝜃𝜃 2 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃) 2 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃)

csc 2 𝜃𝜃 𝜃𝜃 2 𝜃𝜃 2
sec(2𝜃𝜃) = sec 2 ( ) = sec ( ) = ±√
cot 2 𝜃𝜃 − 1 2 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃) 2 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃)

csc 2 𝜃𝜃 1 𝜃𝜃 2 𝜃𝜃 2
csc(2𝜃𝜃) = = csc 2 ( ) = csc ( ) = ±√
2cot𝜃𝜃 sin(2𝜃𝜃) 2 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃) 2 1 − cos(𝜃𝜃)

Table 3.3.2 Summary of double- and half-angle identities

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Example 3.3.5
sin(2𝜃𝜃)
Show tan(2𝜃𝜃) = .
cos(2𝜃𝜃)

Solution:
sin(2𝜃𝜃) 2sin𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃
= Substitute respective double-angle identities.
cos(2𝜃𝜃) cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃

2sin𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃 sec 2 𝜃𝜃
= ∙ Multiplicative identity.
cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃 sec 2 𝜃𝜃
1
2sin𝜃𝜃 ( )
= cos𝜃𝜃 Multiply and reduce.
1
1 − sin2 𝜃𝜃 ( 2 )
cos 𝜃𝜃

2tan𝜃𝜃 sin(𝜃𝜃)
= Substitute tan(𝜃𝜃) = .
1 − tan2 𝜃𝜃 cos(𝜃𝜃)

= tan(2𝜃𝜃) Substitute tangent double-angle identity.

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Example 3.3.6
1 − tan2 𝜃𝜃
Prove cos(2𝜃𝜃) = .
1+ tan2 𝜃𝜃

Solution:

1 − tan2 𝜃𝜃 1 − tan2 𝜃𝜃
= Substitute 1 + tan2 (𝜃𝜃) = sec 2 (𝜃𝜃).
1 + tan2 𝜃𝜃 sec 2 (𝜃𝜃)

1 − tan2 𝜃𝜃 cos2 𝜃𝜃 Invert and multiply.


= ∙
1 1

= cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃 Multiply and reduce.

= cos(2𝜃𝜃) Substitute cos(2𝜃𝜃) = cos2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃.

Example 3.3.7
𝜃𝜃 sin(𝜃𝜃)
Show tan ( ) =
2 1+ cos(𝜃𝜃)
.

Solution:

sin(2𝜃𝜃) 2sin𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃
= Substitute double-angle identities.
1 + cos(2𝜃𝜃) 1 + 2cos2 𝜃𝜃 − 1

sin𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃 Simplify and reduce.


=
cos2 𝜃𝜃

sin𝜃𝜃 Reduce.
=
cos𝜃𝜃

= tan(𝜃𝜃) sin(𝜃𝜃)
Substitute tan(𝜃𝜃) = cos(𝜃𝜃).

sin(𝜃𝜃) 𝜃𝜃
= tan ( ). Substitute half-angle identity for tangent.
1 + cos(𝜃𝜃) 2

Example 3.3.8
Show sin(3𝜃𝜃) = −4sin3 𝜃𝜃 + 3sin𝜃𝜃 .

Solution:

sin(3𝜃𝜃) = sin(2𝜃𝜃 + 𝜃𝜃) = sin(2𝜃𝜃)cos𝜃𝜃 + cos(2𝜃𝜃)sin𝜃𝜃 Sine sum of angles identity

= 2sin𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃 + (1 − 2sin2 𝜃𝜃)sin𝜃𝜃 Substitute respective


double-angle identities.

= 2sin𝜃𝜃cos2 𝜃𝜃 + sin𝜃𝜃 − 2𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠3 𝜃𝜃 Multiply.

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= 2sin𝜃𝜃(1 − sin2 (𝜃𝜃)) + sin𝜃𝜃 − 2sin3 𝜃𝜃 Substitute


cos2 (𝜃𝜃) = 1 − sin2 (𝜃𝜃).

= −4sin3 𝜃𝜃 + 3sin𝜃𝜃. Multiply and combine.

Example 3.3.9
A projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 400 m/s at an angle of elevation of 3π/8.
Assuming gravity is 9.81 m/s2, how far would the unimpeded projectile travel?

Solution:

The range of a projectile is given by the equation

𝑣𝑣0 2 sin(2𝜃𝜃)
𝑅𝑅 =
𝑔𝑔

where R is the horizontal range of the projectile, v0 is the initial velocity and g is the gravitational
constant.
3𝜋𝜋 m2 √2
2
(400 m/s) sin ( ) (160000 )( 2 )
4 s2
𝑅𝑅 = = ≈ 11,533 meters.
9.81 m/s 2 9.81 m/s2

Example 3.3.10
The fuselage of an airplane undergoes various stresses, that is, forces acting upon it. Normal stresses
act upon the surface in a perpendicular direction. Shear stress acts upon the surface in a parallel
direction. These stresses need to be understood by designers for proper function and safety. By
examining an infinitesimally small square of the fuselage, these stresses may be determined. Figure
3.3.1 illustrates this section of the fuselage with its associated normal and shear stresses. 𝜏𝜏
represents shear stress acting across the surface and 𝜎𝜎 represents normal stresses that may stretch or
compress the surface. Along with these principal stresses, additional stresses may act at other
angles. In order to calculate these stresses, stress transformation equations are required.

Figure 3.3.1 Stress diagram of infinitesimally small section of the fuselage

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Stress Transformation Equations

𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 + 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 − 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦


𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥′ = ( )+( ) cos(2𝜃𝜃) + 𝜏𝜏 sin(2𝜃𝜃)
2 2
𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 + 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 − 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦
𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦′ = ( )−( ) cos(2𝜃𝜃) − 𝜏𝜏 sin(2𝜃𝜃)
2 2
𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 − 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦
𝜏𝜏 ′ = − ( ) sin(2𝜃𝜃) + 𝜏𝜏 cos(2𝜃𝜃)
2

If the normal stress in the horizontal direction is 65 megaPascals (mPA) and 85 mPa in the vertical
direction with 30 mPA of shear stress, what are the stresses at an angle of 40°?

65 + 85 65 − 85
𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥′ = ( )+( ) cos(80°) + 30 sin(80°) = 75 − 10(0.174) + 30(0.985)
2 2
≈ 102 mPa.

65 + 85 65 − 85
𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦′ = ( )−( ) cos(80°) − 30 sin(80°) = 75 + 10(0.174) − 30(0.985)
2 2
≈ 47 mPa.

65 − 85
𝜏𝜏 ′ = − ( ) sin(80°) + 30 cos(80°) = 10(0.985) + 30(0.174) ≈ 15 mPa.
2

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
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Section 3.4 Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product Identities


Like the other identities established in this chapter, the Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product
identities are for convenience and simplification. It may be desirable to switch from a sum to a
product, or vice versa, in order to simply a formula or solve an equation.

sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽


+
sin(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) + sin(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = 2sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽

sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽



𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) − sin(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = 2cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

These manipulations of the Sine Sum/Difference of Angles identities give two Product-to-Sum
identities for combinations of sine and cosine. One is sufficient for converting products of both sine
and cosine, so the first one is typically used. Likewise,

cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽


+
cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) + cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = 2cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽

cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) = cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽



cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 − sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) − cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = 2sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

yield a Product-to-Sum identity for cosine and one for sine. A ratio of these two identities reveals a
Product-to-Sum identity for the tangent function:

2sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽 cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) − cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽)


tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽 = = .
2cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) + cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽)

Example 3.4.1
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
Find the exact value of sin ( ) cos ( ).
8 8

Solution:
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 1 𝜋𝜋 1 1 √2 √2
sin ( ) cos ( ) = sin ( + ) + sin ( − ) = sin ( ) + sin(0) = ∙ = .
8 8 2 8 8 2 8 8 2 4 2 2 2 4

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Example 3.4.2
Prove sin𝜃𝜃(sin𝜃𝜃 + sin(3𝜃𝜃)) = 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠2 (2𝜃𝜃).

Solution:

sin𝜃𝜃(sin𝜃𝜃 + sin(3𝜃𝜃)) = sin2 𝜃𝜃 + sin𝜃𝜃 sin(3𝜃𝜃) Multiply.

1 1 Use product-to-sum identity


= sin2 𝜃𝜃 + cos(−2𝜃𝜃) − cos(4𝜃𝜃)
2 2 for sine:
2sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽 =
cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) − cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽)
1 1
= sin2 𝜃𝜃 + cos(2𝜃𝜃) − cos(4𝜃𝜃)
2 2 Even identity for cosine

1 1 Double-angle
= sin2 𝜃𝜃 + 2 (1 − 2sin2 𝜃𝜃) − 2 (1 − 2sin2 (2𝜃𝜃))
identity for
cosine
= sin2 (2𝜃𝜃). Multiply and combine

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Example 3.4.3
5𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
Find the exact value of tan ( ) tan ( ).
12 12

Solution:
5𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 1
cos (12 − 12) − cos (12 + 12) cos (3 ) − cos (2 )
5𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
tan ( ) tan ( ) = = = 2−0=1.
12 12 5𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 1
cos ( + ) + cos ( − ) cos (2 ) + cos (3 ) 0 + 2
12 12 12 12

Example 3.4.4
cos(𝛾𝛾 + 𝜃𝜃) + cos(𝛾𝛾 − 𝜃𝜃)
Show cot(𝜃𝜃) = sin 𝛾𝛾 + 𝜃𝜃 − sin 𝛾𝛾 − 𝜃𝜃 .
( ) ( )

Solution:

cos(𝛾𝛾 + 𝜃𝜃) + cos(𝛾𝛾 − 𝜃𝜃) 2cos𝛾𝛾cos𝜃𝜃 Substitute respective product-to-sum


= identities for sine and cosine
sin(𝛾𝛾 + 𝜃𝜃) − sin(𝛾𝛾 − 𝜃𝜃) 2cos𝛾𝛾sin𝜃𝜃

cos𝜃𝜃
= Reduce
sin𝜃𝜃

= cot(𝜃𝜃) cos𝜃𝜃
Substitute cot(𝜃𝜃) = sin𝜃𝜃

It can be helpful at times to convert sums into products. One application of this is in solving
trigonometric equations (see section 3.5).

Let 𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽 = 𝜃𝜃 and 𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽 = 𝛾𝛾 in the Product-to-Sum identity for sine:

Product-to-Sum identity: cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) − cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) = 2sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽

𝜃𝜃 + 𝛾𝛾 𝛾𝛾 − 𝜃𝜃
Substituting: cos(𝜃𝜃) − cos(𝛾𝛾) = 2sin ( ) sin ( )
2 2

𝜃𝜃 + 𝛾𝛾 𝛾𝛾 − 𝜃𝜃
𝛼𝛼 =
2
𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝛽𝛽 = after solving the system of equations 𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽 = 𝜃𝜃 and 𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽 = 𝛾𝛾:
2

𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽 = 𝜃𝜃
+ 𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽 = 𝛾𝛾
𝜃𝜃 + 𝛾𝛾
2𝛼𝛼 = 𝜃𝜃 + 𝛾𝛾 → 𝛼𝛼 =
2
.
The derivation of 𝛽𝛽 is similar.

Substituting 𝜃𝜃 = 𝛼𝛼 and 𝛾𝛾 = 𝛽𝛽 for consistency in the identity form,

𝜃𝜃 + 𝛾𝛾 𝛾𝛾 − 𝜃𝜃
cos(𝜃𝜃) − cos(𝛾𝛾) = 2sin ( ) sin ( )
2 2

𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽 𝛽𝛽 − 𝛼𝛼
cos(𝛼𝛼) − cos(𝛽𝛽) = 2sin ( ) sin ( )
2 2
the Sum-to-Product identity for cosine. Or

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𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽 𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽
cos(𝛼𝛼) − cos(𝛽𝛽) = −2sin ( ) sin ( )
2 2
after applying the Odd identity for sine. The Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product identities for the
sine, cosine and tangent functions are summarized in Table 3.4.1.

Example 3.4.5
sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽)
Show tan𝛼𝛼 + tan𝛽𝛽 = .
cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽

Solution:
sin𝛼𝛼 sin𝛽𝛽
tan𝛼𝛼 + tan𝛽𝛽 = + Substitute.
cos𝛼𝛼 cos𝛽𝛽

sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 + cos𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽
= Add the rational expressions.
cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽

sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽)
= . Sine sum of angles identity.
cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽

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Example 3.4.6
Prove sin𝜃𝜃(cos(𝜃𝜃) + cos(3𝜃𝜃)) = sin(2𝜃𝜃) cos(2𝜃𝜃).

Solution:
4𝜃𝜃 −2𝜃𝜃
sin𝜃𝜃(cos(𝜃𝜃) + cos(3𝜃𝜃)) = sin𝜃𝜃 (2cos ( ) cos ( )) Sum-to-product identity.
2 2

= 2sin𝜃𝜃cos(𝜃𝜃)cos(2𝜃𝜃) Simplify, commute and apply the


cosine even identity.

= sin(2𝜃𝜃)cos(2𝜃𝜃) Sine double-angle identity.

Product-to-Sum Identities Sum-to-Product Identities

𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽 𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽
sin(𝛼𝛼) + sin(𝛽𝛽) = 2sin ( ) cos ( )
2 2
2sin𝛼𝛼sin𝛽𝛽 = cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) − cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽)
𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽 𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽
sin(𝛼𝛼) − sin(𝛽𝛽) = 2sin ( ) cos ( )
2 2

𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽 𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽
cos(𝛼𝛼) + cos(𝛽𝛽) = 2cos ( ) cos ( )
2 2
2cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 = cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) + cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽)
𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽 𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽
cos(𝛼𝛼) − cos(𝛽𝛽) = −2sin ( ) sin ( )
2 2

2sin𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽 = sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) + sin(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽)

cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) − cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) sin(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽)


tan𝛼𝛼tan𝛽𝛽 = tan𝛼𝛼 + tan𝛽𝛽 =
cos(𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽) + cos(𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽) cos𝛼𝛼cos𝛽𝛽

Table 3.4.1 Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product Identities

Example 3.4.7
In acoustics, the interference pattern between two sounds can be modeled and understood using a
Sum-to-Product identity.
𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽 𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽
cos(𝛼𝛼) + cos(𝛽𝛽) = 2cos ( ) cos ( )
2 2

𝑓𝑓1 + 𝑓𝑓2 𝑓𝑓1 − 𝑓𝑓2


cos(2𝜋𝜋𝑓𝑓1 𝑡𝑡) + cos(2𝜋𝜋𝑓𝑓2 𝑡𝑡) = 2cos (2𝜋𝜋 𝑡𝑡) cos (2𝜋𝜋 𝑡𝑡)
2 2

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where f1 is the frequency of one sound in Hertz (Hz), f2 is the frequency of the other sound and t is
𝑓𝑓1 + 𝑓𝑓2
time in seconds. , the average of the two frequencies, is called the modulation frequency. If
2
𝑓𝑓1 − 𝑓𝑓2
the frequencies are close, is small and is perceived by the human ear as an amplitude
2
𝑓𝑓1 − 𝑓𝑓2
modulation or a change in amplitude. The cos (2𝜋𝜋 2
𝑡𝑡) term acts as an envelop for the
𝑓𝑓1 + 𝑓𝑓2 𝑓𝑓1 − 𝑓𝑓2
cos (2𝜋𝜋 𝑡𝑡) term and controls the interference. When cos (2𝜋𝜋 𝑡𝑡) = 1, the sound
2 2
𝑓𝑓1 − 𝑓𝑓2
waves are in phase and interference is constructive. When cos (2𝜋𝜋 2
𝑡𝑡) = 0, the sound waves
are in antiphase (off by π radians) and the interference is destructive.

The distinctive warbling sound of the Lakota Flute exemplifies this phenomenon. To the unaided,
human ear the warbling sounds like a changing pitch. It is actually different harmonics coming in
and out of phase. “The natural overtone series of harmonics in music is the basis for our scales and
foundations of music theory.” according to Robert Barta, Professor of Computer Science and music
aficionado at Suffolk County Community College.

If f1 = 20 Hz at t = 1 second in a sustained note blown from a Lakota Flute, find f2 such that the
harmonics are in phase.

Solution:

𝑓𝑓1 − 𝑓𝑓2
cos (2𝜋𝜋 𝑡𝑡) = 1 for the waves to be in phase.
2

20 − 𝑓𝑓2
cos (2𝜋𝜋 (1)) = 1
2

20 − 𝑓𝑓2
This means that may be to equal zero since cos(0) = 1. So f2 should also be 20 Hz. It
2
20 − 𝑓𝑓2
should be noted that cos(2𝜋𝜋) = 1 as well, so = 1 or f2 = 18 Hz is also a solution.
2

This is typically the case when solving trigonometric equations. Due to the periodic nature of these
functions, equations involving them have infinite solutions. That is, of course, if the domain is not
intentionally restricted or naturally restricted by the constraints of the problem. In the previous
example, the domain for f2 is naturally restricted to [0, ∞). The upper limit of this domain is not
technically infinite. Theoretically, it should be limited to the Debye constant (Hill, T, 1986). So the
actual solution set to Exercise 3.4.7 should be finite. The following section explores trigonometric
equations in greater detail.

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Section 3.5 Solving Trigonometric Equations


Equations involving trigonometric functions may have infinite solutions due to the periodic nature
of these functions. If the domain is restricted intentionally or naturally by the constraints of the
problem, then the solution set may be finite. Regardless, all solutions must exist within the domain
of the function(s).

Example 3.5.1
Solve cos𝜃𝜃 = 1 .

Solution:

Refer back to Example 3.4.7 of Section 3.4, Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product identities. This
actual equation was solved within the context of the Lakota Flute problem. It is much simpler here
and has no restriction on the domain imposed by some context. The equation has infinite solutions.
Any value of 𝜃𝜃 for which the cosine is equal to 1 is a solution.

cos(0) = 1

cos(2𝜋𝜋) = 1

cos(4𝜋𝜋) = 1

cos(6𝜋𝜋) = 1

cos(−2𝜋𝜋) = 1

cos(−4𝜋𝜋) = 1

et cetera, ad infinitum. The periodic identity of the cosine is relevant here.

cos(𝜃𝜃 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = cos(𝜃𝜃)

Any integer multiple of 2π when added to a solution yields yet another solution.

cos(0 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = cos(0) = 1

cos(0 + 2(0)𝜋𝜋) = cos(0) = 1

cos(0 + 2(1)𝜋𝜋) = cos(2𝜋𝜋) = 1

cos(0 + 2(2)𝜋𝜋) = cos(4𝜋𝜋) = 1

cos(0 + 2(3)𝜋𝜋) = cos(6𝜋𝜋) = 1

cos(0 + 2(−1)𝜋𝜋) = cos(−2𝜋𝜋) = 1

cos(0 + 2(−2)𝜋𝜋) = cos(−4𝜋𝜋) = 1

A concise way to represent all solutions is 𝜃𝜃 = 0 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘, that is, 𝜃𝜃 = 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘, where k is an integer.
This is the solution set. Figure 3.5.1 illustrates this concept.

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Figure 3.5.1 cos(x) = 1

The cosine graph intersects the line y = 1 at infinite points. These points are 𝜃𝜃 = 0 + 2𝑘𝑘π, where k
is an integer.

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Example 3.5.2
Solve cos 2 𝜃𝜃 = 1.

Solution: This quadratic form may be separated into two distinct equations using the square root
property:
cos𝜃𝜃 = 1 and cos𝜃𝜃 = −1.

cos𝜃𝜃 = 1 has already been solved in the previous example. cos𝜃𝜃 = −1 has solutions at odd
multiples of π (refer back to Figure 3.5.1).
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 = −1

𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐3𝜋𝜋 = −1

𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐5𝜋𝜋 = −1

et cetera. Therefore, the general solution for both equations (the solution to the original equation) is
then any integer multiple of π or
{ 𝜃𝜃 = 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 | 𝑘𝑘 is an integer}.

Example 3.5.3
Solve 4cos 2 𝜃𝜃 = 3 .

Solution: Solve for the cosine function,


3
cos2 𝜃𝜃 = .
4

Apply the Square Root property in order to find two linear trigonometric equations:

√3
cos𝜃𝜃 = ± .
2

Find all solutions on the domain interval [0, 2π). Figure 3.5.2 assists this process.

= √3

Figure 3.5.2 (formerly Figure 1.3.8) Reference triangle

𝜋𝜋 √3
cos ( ) = from the reference triangle. This is a first quadrant solution. The cosine is also
6 2
positive in quadrant IV. If the reference angle is placed in quadrant IV, the resulting angle is 11π/6,
11𝜋𝜋 √3
that is, cos ( 6 ) = 2 . Rotating the reference triangle into quadrants II and III the solutions to the

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√3 5𝜋𝜋 √3 7𝜋𝜋 √3
linear equation cos𝜃𝜃 = − 2 are found: cos ( ) = − 2 and cos ( ) = − . Thus the solutions
6 6 2
𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 11𝜋𝜋
on [0, 2π) are { ,
6 6
, , }.
6 6

Figure 3.5.3 (formerly Figure 1.3.9) Reference angle placed in each quadrant

𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
Now generalize the solution. The angles and are π radians apart (antiphase). So plus any
6 6 6
5𝜋𝜋 11𝜋𝜋
integer multiple of π is also a solution. The same is true for and . The general solution is:
6 6
𝜋𝜋
𝜃𝜃 = + 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
6
{ 5𝜋𝜋 } where 𝑘𝑘 is an integer .
= + 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
6

Example 3.5.4
Solve cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃 = 0.

Solution:

Factoring yields (cos𝜃𝜃 – sin𝜃𝜃)(cos𝜃𝜃 + sin𝜃𝜃) = 0, so cos𝜃𝜃 – sin𝜃𝜃 = 0 and cos𝜃𝜃 + sin𝜃𝜃 = 0. While
it can be solved this way, it may be simpler to substitute 2cos2 𝜃𝜃 − 1 for cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃 .

cos2 𝜃𝜃 − sin2 𝜃𝜃 = 0

2cos 2 𝜃𝜃 − 1 = 0

1
cos 2 𝜃𝜃 =
2

1 √2
cos𝜃𝜃 = ± =± .
√2 2

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𝜋𝜋
The reference angle here is . If it is rotated into each of the 4 quadrants, the solutions on [0, 2π)
4
𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
are { , , , } . The general solution is any odd integer multiple of or
4 4 4 4 4

𝜋𝜋
{𝜃𝜃 = (2𝑘𝑘 + 1) | 𝑘𝑘 is an integer}.
4

The original equation could have been written cos(2𝜃𝜃) = 0 . The effect of the 2 factor on theta is a
horizontal compression of 2 times on the standard cosine curve. The equation cos(𝜃𝜃) = 0 has 2
solutions on [0, 2π) whereas cos(2𝜃𝜃) = 0 has 4 solutions.

Example 3.5.5
Solve sin(2𝜃𝜃) = 0.

Solution: Substitute the double-angle identity: 2sin(𝜃𝜃) cos(𝜃𝜃) = 0 and separate using the zero
factor property:
sin(𝜃𝜃) = 0 and cos(𝜃𝜃) = 0

360°
.
On the interval [0, 2π), sin(𝜃𝜃) = 0 has solutions 0 and π and cos(𝜃𝜃) = 0 has solutions π/2 and 3π/2.
All solutions are separated by π/2 radians beginning with zero. In other words,

𝜋𝜋
thinking
{𝜃𝜃 = 𝑘𝑘 2 }, where k is an integer, is the general solution.

360°
thinking . 360°
thinking .
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As with the first example, a graph can be useful in verifying solutions. For instance, graphing
f(x) = sin(2x) and the horizontal line y = 0 reveals a solution at each intersection of the two graphs.
Since y = 0 is actually the x-axis, it is not necessary to graph this line since discerning the x-
intercepts of the curve f(x) = sin(2x) would suffice. Setting a proper scale based upon the solution(s)
found on [0, 2π) is helpful. In the above example, a scale of π/2 or a smaller multiple of π/2 makes
the solutions evident.

Example 3.5.6
Solve sin(2𝜃𝜃) + 2cos𝜃𝜃 − sin𝜃𝜃 = 1.

Solution:

It is useful to separate the different trigonometric functions into factors. Then the zero factor
property may be applied and 2 separate linear equations may be solved. First, substitute the Double-
Angle identity for sine:
2sin 𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃 + 2cos𝜃𝜃 − sin𝜃𝜃 = 1

Subtract 1 from both sides and factor by grouping:

2sin 𝜃𝜃cos𝜃𝜃 + 2cos𝜃𝜃 − sin𝜃𝜃 − 1 = 0

2cos𝜃𝜃(sin 𝜃𝜃 + 1) − 1(sin𝜃𝜃 + 1) = 0

(2cos𝜃𝜃 − 1)(sin 𝜃𝜃 + 1) = 0

Separate into linear equations:


2cos𝜃𝜃 − 1 = 0 and sin 𝜃𝜃 + 1 = 0

Solve individually for each trigonometric function:

1
cos𝜃𝜃 = and sin 𝜃𝜃 = −1.
2
1 𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋
Solutions for cos𝜃𝜃 =
2
on [0, 2π) are {3 , 3 } . The reference angle is π/3 and the cosine function’s
range is positive for angles corresponding to quadrants I and IV.

Only the quadrantal angle, 3π/2, is a solution for sin𝜃𝜃 = −1 on [0, 2π). The solution set for
sin(2𝜃𝜃) + 2𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 − sin𝜃𝜃 = 1 on [0, 2π) is

𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋
{ , , }.
3 3 2

The general solution is each of these base solutions plus any multiple of 2π or

𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋
{ + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘, + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘, + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 } .
3 3 2

It is possible to express this more concisely by combining the first two expressions, but some clarity
is lost.

The solutions to this example are shown visually in the following two figures: Figure 3.5.4 and
3.5.5.

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Figure 3.5.4 Terminating angle positions for solutions to Example 3.5.6

Figure 3.5.5 Intersecting curves illustrating solutions to Example 3.5.6

In Figure 3.5.5, it is difficult to discern the 2 two solutions at 3π/2 and 5π/3. Zooming in on this
region reveals that the only two intersections here are indeed at 3π/2 and 5π/3. The graph partially
confirms solutions and aids in determining if any were missed. True confirmation, however, comes
from inputting any found solutions into the original equation.

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5𝜋𝜋
Check 𝜃𝜃 = ∶
3
5𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋
sin (2 ( )) + 2cos ( ) − sin ( ) ? 1
3 3 3

10𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋


sin ( ) + 2cos ( ) − sin ( ) ? 1
3 3 3
4𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋
sin ( + 2𝜋𝜋) + 2cos ( ) − sin ( ) ? 1
3 3 3

4𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋


sin ( ) + 2cos ( ) − sin ( ) ? 1
3 3 3

√3 1 √3
− + 2 ( ) − (− ) ? 1
2 2 2

1=1✓

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Example 3.5.7
𝜃𝜃 √3
Solve tan ( ) = −
2 3
.

Solution:
𝜃𝜃 1− cos(𝜃𝜃) √3
Substitute the Half-Angle identity for tangent: tan ( ) = −√ = − . The negative sign
2 1+ cos(𝜃𝜃) 3
𝜃𝜃 √3 𝜃𝜃
is used because it is given that tan (2) is negative. It equals − 3 . Since tan (2) is negative, the
𝜃𝜃
angle must terminate in quadrant II or IV.
2
1 − cos(𝜃𝜃) √3
√ =
1 + cos(𝜃𝜃) 3

1 − cos(𝜃𝜃) 3 1
= =
1 + cos(𝜃𝜃) 9 3

3(1 − cos(𝜃𝜃)) = 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃)

3 − 3cos(𝜃𝜃) = 1 + cos(𝜃𝜃)

2 = 4cos(𝜃𝜃)

1
= cos(𝜃𝜃).
2
𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋
On [0, 2π), solutions to the last equation are 𝜃𝜃 = {3 , 3 }. One of these is an extraneous solution.
When the square function is applied (inverse of the square root function), the solution set was
expanded. The radical equation has fewer solutions than the squared equation due to restrictions on
the domain (see Section 2.5, Inverse Trigonometric Functions). It should be evident that π/3 is the
𝜃𝜃
extraneous solution. Recall that tan ( ) is negative so theta cannot be an angle terminating in the
2
first quadrant. If this is not readily evident, check each solution in the original equation. And graph
f(x) = tan(x/2) and the line
√3
y=− to examine the intersections.
3

5𝜋𝜋
The general solution set is {𝜃𝜃 = 3 + 2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘} where k is an integer.

Example 3.5.8
Solve csc 2 𝜃𝜃 = cot𝜃𝜃 + 1 .

Solution: With two different trigonometric functions in one equation, several strategies are
appropriate.

1. Make a substitution(s) to eliminate one more functions creating a single function equation.
2. Factor the equation, hopefully separating the trigonometric functions into different factors.
3. Some combination of 1 & 2 (this approach was applied in Example 3.5.7).

The first strategy is appropriate for this example.

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csc 2 𝜃𝜃 = cot𝜃𝜃 + 1

cot 2 𝜃𝜃 + 1 = cot𝜃𝜃 + 1

cot 2 𝜃𝜃 − cot𝜃𝜃 = 0

This is a quadratic form in the cotangent function. It is analogous to x2 – x = 0.

cot𝜃𝜃(cot𝜃𝜃 − 1) = 0

cot𝜃𝜃 = 0 and cot𝜃𝜃 − 1 = 0


𝜋𝜋
𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 𝜃𝜃 = + 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
The solutions on [0, 2π) are { , , , }. The general solution is { 2
2 2 4 4 𝜋𝜋 }. A sketch of the
𝜃𝜃 = 4 + 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
angles in a circle may help clarify the general solution. A graph of 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = csc 2 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) =
cot𝜃𝜃 + 1 illustrates these solutions.

Example 3.5.9
Solve sin(𝜃𝜃) + sin(7𝜃𝜃) = 0. Find all solutions on [0, 2𝜋𝜋).

Solution:

Use the Sum-to-Product identity:


𝛼𝛼 + 𝛽𝛽 𝛼𝛼 − 𝛽𝛽
sin(𝛼𝛼) + sin(𝛽𝛽) = 2sin ( ) cos ( )
2 2
𝜃𝜃 + 7𝜃𝜃 𝜃𝜃 − 7𝜃𝜃
sin(𝜃𝜃) + sin(7𝜃𝜃) = 2sin ( ) cos ( )=0
2 2

2sin(4𝜃𝜃)cos(−3𝜃𝜃) = 0.

Using the zero factor property and the even identity for cosine, the equation becomes 2 simpler
equations:
sin(4𝜃𝜃) = 0 and cos(3𝜃𝜃) = 0.

It is known that sin(0) = sin(𝜋𝜋) = sin(2𝜋𝜋) = sin(3𝜋𝜋) = ⋯ = sin(𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘) = 0 where k is an integer so

4𝜃𝜃 = 0, 4𝜃𝜃 = 𝜋𝜋, 4𝜃𝜃 = 2𝜋𝜋, 4𝜃𝜃 = 3𝜋𝜋, 4𝜃𝜃 = 4𝜋𝜋, 4𝜃𝜃 = 5𝜋𝜋, 4𝜃𝜃 = 6𝜋𝜋, 4𝜃𝜃 = 7𝜋𝜋, 4𝜃𝜃 = 8𝜋𝜋, ⋯

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋


𝜃𝜃 = 0, 𝜃𝜃 = , 𝜃𝜃 = , 𝜃𝜃 = , 𝜃𝜃 = 𝜋𝜋, 𝜃𝜃 = , 𝜃𝜃 = , 𝜃𝜃 = , 𝜃𝜃
4 2 4 4 2 4
= 2𝜋𝜋, ⋯
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋
But 2π is not on the interval [0, 2π). So the solutions so far are {0, 4 , 2 , 4 , 𝜋𝜋, 4 , 2 , 4 }.

𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 9𝜋𝜋 (2𝑘𝑘+1)𝜋𝜋


Also, cos ( ) = cos ( ) = cos ( ) = cos ( ) = cos ( ) = ⋯ = cos ( ) = 0 making
2 2 2 2 2 2

𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 9𝜋𝜋 11𝜋𝜋


3𝜃𝜃 = , 3𝜃𝜃 = , 3𝜃𝜃 = , 3𝜃𝜃 = , 3𝜃𝜃 = , 3𝜃𝜃 = ,⋯
2 2 2 2 2 2
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 11𝜋𝜋
𝜃𝜃 = , 𝜃𝜃 = , 𝜃𝜃 = , 𝜃𝜃 = , 𝜃𝜃 = , 𝜃𝜃 = ,⋯ .
6 2 6 6 2 6

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This reveals four new solutions to the equation. The solution set becomes

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 5𝜋𝜋 3𝜋𝜋 7𝜋𝜋 11𝜋𝜋


{0, 6 , 4 , 2 , 6 , 6 , 4 , 𝜋𝜋, 4 , 2 , 4 , 6 }.

These values should all be checked. A graph expedites this. A scale of π/12 (common denominator)
will show all 12 solutions.

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Chapter 4
Applications of Trigonometry
Learning Objectives:
 Solve right and oblique triangles
 Apply the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to practical problems
 Find areas of triangles using alternative formulas

Section 4.1 Right Triangle Trigonometry


Trigonometry may be used to solve triangles, that is, to find lengths of sides or measures of angles
given certain information. For instance, if the measure of angle A and the length of side b are known
in the right triangle in Figure 4.1.1, then the measure of the other angle and the length of the
remaining two sides may be determined.

Example 4.1.1

B
c
a

A= 40°

b = 100
Figure 4.1.1

Angles A and B are complimentary so B = 90° – A = 50°. The length of side a may be found using
the tangent function and side c using the cosine function.
𝑎𝑎
tan(40°) = → 𝑎𝑎 = 100tan(40°) ≈ 84
100
100 100
cos(40°) = → 𝑐𝑐 = ≈ 131
𝑐𝑐 cos(40°)

Of course, the sine function could be used to find c after a has been determined.

84 84
sin(40°) = → 𝑐𝑐 = ≈ 131
𝑐𝑐 sin(40°)

Or, the Pythagorean theorem could have been used to determine c from a and b.

842 + 1002 = 17056 = 𝑐𝑐 2 → 𝑐𝑐 = √17056 ≈ 131

When possible, it is good practice to choose methods that only use given values. Any error in a
calculated value will be propagated in further calculations. The tangent and the cosine functions
were chosen because they did not require the use of any calculated values.

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Perhaps the triangle in Example 4.1.1 represented a tree in a yard that needed to be cut down.
Instead of risking bodily injury climbing up the tree to determine its height or underestimating its
height and subsequently having to settle an insurance claim with a neighbor, a little mathematics
may be used to find the tree’s height.

Figure 4.1.2

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Example 4.1.2
Solve right the triangle in Figure 4.1.3 if B = 62° and c = 45 meters.

c
a

A
b
Figure 4.1.3

A = 90° – 62° = 28°.


𝑏𝑏
sin(62°) = → 𝑏𝑏 = 45 sin(62°) ≈ 40 meters.
45
𝑎𝑎
cos(62°) = → 𝑎𝑎 = 45 cos(62°) ≈ 21 meters.
45

It is a good crosscheck to verify that the longest side is opposite the largest angle and the shortest
side is opposite the smallest angle. If the Pythagorean theorem is used to check the lengths, expect
rounding errors to influence the calculation, causing it to be somewhat off.

Example 4.1.3
Solve right the triangle in Figure 4.1.4, if a = 12 and b = 5.

c
a

A
b
Figure 4.1.4

c = 13 since 5, 12, 13 is a Pythagorean triple. The Pythagorean theorem could also be used to find
the length of side c.

12
tan(𝐴𝐴) = = 2.4 → 𝐴𝐴 = 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡−1 (2.4) ≈ 67°
5

B = 90° – 67° = 23°.

Example 4.1.4
Jack and Jill went up the stairwell with a flat screen TV and got stuck. Jack did not listen to Jill
when she suggested that they use a little measurement and trigonometry before starting up the stairs.
The television was too long to clear the turns in the stairwell. See Figure 4.1.5.

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45°

Figure 4.1.5 ‘Flat screen television’ stuck in a stairwell

Assuming the walls on either side of each step of the stairway are parallel, the width of the hall is
3/4 meter and the angle between the television and the wall at the top of the stairs is 45°, how long is
the television?

Solution:

The large, right triangle in Figure 4.1.5, whose hypotenuse represents the length of the television set,
can be divided into a square and two smaller right triangles as in Figure 4.1.6.

45°

Figure 4.1.6

The triangle in the top right involves the given angle of 45° and the known hallway width. The
hypotenuse of this triangle makes up half the length of the television and may be determined using
the sine function:
0.75 meters 0.75
sin 45° = → 𝑙𝑙 = ≈ 2.1 meters
0.5𝑙𝑙 0.5sin45°

where l represents the length of television. The hypotenuse is half l because the triangle in the top
right is congruent to the triangle in the bottom left of Figure 4.1.6. Why?

Assumptions of congruence or equality should never be made based upon appearance. Mathematical
justification should always be found and verified. The real question is, why are Jack and Jill trying
to move such an expensive television?

Example 4.1.5
A land surveyor places a total station theodolite at point A in Figure 4.1.7. A rodman holds a mirror
at point B and the distance AB is found to be 128 meters. The angle of declination, 𝜃𝜃, is also

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measured and found to be 31.2°. What is the distance from A to C that approximates the undulating
slope?

Figure 4.1.7 Land survey

128 128
cos(31.2°) = → 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = ≈ 150 meters
𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 cos(31.2°)

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Section 4.2 The Law of Sines


Some triangles are just not right. They are oblique. The Pythagorean theorem does not apply to
oblique triangles. The definitions of the trigonometric functions are based upon right triangles, not
oblique triangles.

Definition 4.2.1 Oblique Triangle

An oblique triangle is not right. It has no right angle.

Oblique triangles may have all acute, non-right angles or two acute, non-right angles and one obtuse
angle.

B
c
a

A C

b
Figure 4.2.1 Random oblique triangle

Throughout this chapter, angles will be represented using capital letters and side lengths will be
represented using lower case. Angles and their opposing sides will be designated with the same
variable, different case as in Figure 4.2.1.

Example 4.2.1
A mariner is trying to determine her distance from land by taking two different sightings of a nearby
lighthouse (Figure 4.2.2). At the first sighting, the angle of elevation, 𝜃𝜃, is found to be 27° 48'. After
traveling for a certain time, the navigator knows her travelled distance is 50 km. At this point she
takes another sighting and the angle of elevation, 𝛼𝛼, is measured as 34° 55'. How far is she from the
lighthouse over water?

Figure 4.2.2 Lighthouse sightings

Without knowledge of the height of the lighthouse or perhaps another component, this problem
cannot readily be solved using right triangles. Fortunately, another strategy exists, using the Law of
Sines. One side and two angle measures are known for the oblique triangle in Figure 4.2.2. This
triangle is isolated for clarity in Figure 4.2.3.

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
° − 𝛼𝛼 Lighthouse


    

50 km x km

Figure 4.2.3

Theorem 4.2.1 The Law of Sines Identity

In a triangle, the ratio of the sine of an interior angle to the length of its opposite side is proportional
to the ratio of the sine of any other interior angle to the length of its opposite side and is equal to the
diameter of the circumscribed circle (2r) or its reciprocal.

That is to say,
𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐
= = = 2r
sin𝐴𝐴 sin𝐵𝐵 sin𝐶𝐶
or
sin𝐴𝐴 sin𝐵𝐵 sin𝐶𝐶 1
= = =
𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐 2𝑟𝑟

where a, b and c are the sides of the triangle and A, B and C are the respective angles opposite those
sides.

Solution:
𝜃𝜃 = 27° 48′ = 27.8° and 𝛼𝛼 = 34° 55′ ≈ 34.9°

180° − 𝛼𝛼 = 145.1°

𝛽𝛽 = 180° − 145.1° − 27.8° = 7.1°

since the interior angles of a triangle sum to 180°. The Law of Sines gives:

50 km ℎ
=
sin(7.1°) sin(27.8°)

where h is the hypotenuse of the right triangle (Figure 4.2.3) involving 𝛼𝛼 and the height of the
lighthouse (assuming it is perpendicular to the horizon).

50(sin(27.8°))
ℎ= ≈ 189 km
sin(7.1°)
Now using right triangle trigonometry:

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𝑥𝑥 = ℎsin𝛼𝛼 = (189 km) sin(34.9°) ≈ 108 km from land.

Before the advent of hand-held computers (calculators and/or cell phones) and Global Positioning
Systems, navigators carried five-figure tables of trigonometric values much like those found in the
indices of mid-to-late 20th century mathematics and engineering texts.

Proof of the Law of Sines Identity:

Figure 4.2.4 shows two random oblique triangles and their respective heights.

B B

c a
h c h
a
A C
b A C
b
Figure 4.2.4 Oblique triangles

Figure 4.2.4 illustrates:

ℎ ℎ
sin𝐴𝐴 = → ℎ = 𝑐𝑐sin𝐴𝐴 and sin𝐶𝐶 = → ℎ = 𝑎𝑎sin𝐶𝐶.
𝑐𝑐 𝑎𝑎

The above relationships are true for either triangle in Figure 4.2.4 since sin𝐶𝐶 = sin(𝜋𝜋 − 𝐶𝐶). The
sine of angle C and its supplement may be shown to be equal using the Difference of Angles identity
for sine:
sin(𝜋𝜋 − 𝐶𝐶) = sin𝜋𝜋cos𝐶𝐶 − cos𝜋𝜋sin𝐶𝐶 = sin𝐶𝐶.

It follows that
𝑐𝑐 𝑎𝑎
ℎ = 𝑐𝑐sin𝐴𝐴 = 𝑎𝑎sin𝐶𝐶 → = .
sin𝐶𝐶 sin𝐴𝐴
𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎
To show the other proportion, = , draw an altitude from angle C and proceed in a
sin𝐵𝐵 sin𝐴𝐴
similar fashion. All three proportions are equal by the transitive property of equality.

Figure 4.2.5 shows the circumscribed circle of a random oblique triangle ABC. Triangle ADC is
inscribed in the same circle such that it shares side b with triangle ABC and side AD is a diameter of
the circle. Thales’ theorem states that under these conditions, angle C of triangle ADC must be right.
It follows from the definition of sine

𝑏𝑏 𝑏𝑏 𝑏𝑏
sin𝐷𝐷 = = → 2𝑟𝑟 = .
𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 2𝑟𝑟 sin𝐷𝐷

Angle B and angle D must be congruent since they subtend the same chord, b, and the same arc AC
(Figure 4.2.5). So sinD = sinB and
𝑏𝑏 𝑏𝑏
2𝑟𝑟 = = .
sin𝐷𝐷 sin𝐵𝐵

Finally,

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𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐 𝑎𝑎
2𝑟𝑟 = = = .
sin𝐵𝐵 sin𝐶𝐶 sin𝐴𝐴

Figure 4.2.5 Circumscribed circle of an oblique triangle ABC

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Example 4.2.
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Example 4.2.

Solve the triangle: 84°


161

4 a

29° C
b

The measure of angle C = 180° − 84° − 29° = 67°. The Law of Sines gives:

4 𝑎𝑎 4sin(29°)
= → 𝑎𝑎 = ≈ 2.1
sin(67°) sin(29°) sin(67°)

4 𝑏𝑏 4 sin(84°)
= → 𝑏𝑏 = ≈ 4.3.
sin(67°) sin(84°) sin(67°)

The Law of Sines is used in a technique called triangulation. Triangulation is the process forming
triangles to locate something. NASA uses a form of triangulation in conjunction with radio waves to
locate spacecraft. Geologists use it to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. Surveyors use it for
property boundary surveys.

Example 4.2.3
A land surveyor needs to accurately locate a position some distance off from his current position.
See Figure 4.2.6. In order to find the distance from point A to point C, the surveyor first measures a
small distance to point B. The distance to point B is made small for accuracy. With a Theodolite
(survey instrument), accurate angle measures from both points, A and B, may be made.

A
Figure 4.2.6 Triangulation

Length AB is measured to be 12 kilometers. Angle A is measured to be 84.3° and angle B is found to


be 72.6°. Angle 𝐶𝐶 = 180° − 84.3° − 72.6° = 23.1°. Now the Law of Sines may be used to find the
distance AC.

12 km 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 12sin(72.6°)
= → 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = ≈ 29.2 km.
sin(23.1°) sin(72.6°) sin(23.1°)

Example 4.2.4
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162
12 km 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 12sin(72.6°)
= → 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = ≈ 29.2 km.
sin(23.1°) sin(72.6°)
ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY sin(23.1°)
WITH APPLICATIONS Applications of Trigonometry

Example 4.2.4

Solve the triangle: B


162
c=5 a=3
h

A = 41° C
b

The Law of Sines gives:

sin(41°) sin𝐶𝐶 5sin(41°) 5sin(41°)


= → sin𝐶𝐶 = → 𝐶𝐶 = sin−1 ( ) ≈ sin−1(1.09).
3 5 3 3

If an attempt to evaluate the arcsine of 1.09 is continued, a calculator should give an error message,
perhaps, ‘Domain Error’. Recall the domain of the inverse sine function is [-1, 1] (range of the sine
function). sin−1 (1.09) has no solution since 1.09 is not in its domain. Furthermore, this problem has
no solution and illustrates an important aspect of applying the Law of Sines. The following video
explains in detail.
The Law of Sines Ambiguous Case

Example 4.2.4 was an example of the ‘no triangle possible’ case. Based upon the given information,
the height of the triangle is ℎ = 5sin(41°) ≈ 3.3 and, as such, side a is not long enough to reach the
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Example 4.2.4 was an example of the ‘no triangle possible’ case. Based upon the given information,
the height of the triangle is ℎ = 5sin(41°) ≈ 3.3 and, as such, side a is not long enough to reach the
base and form a triangle. Table 4.2.1 summarizes the possible cases when two sides of an oblique
triangle are known and an angle not interior to those sides is also known.

Law of Sines Case: Angle Side Side a b


h

Case: Determination:

No triangle possible b < h = asin(B)

Right triangle b = h = asin(B)

Ambiguous:
h = asin(B) < b < a
2 oblique triangles possible

1 oblique triangle b>a

Table 4.2.1 Summary for Law of Sines SSA case

Example 4.2.5
Solve the triangle: B

c=5 a = 2.5
h

A = 30° C
b

Since this is the SSA case and the length of side a is less than side c, the height should be
determined.

ℎ = 5sin(30°) = 2.5

Since a = h, triangle ABC must be a right triangle. Solve by the methods of section 4.1, that is, use
right triangle trigonometry. Law of Sines will work, but it will take longer. Angle B is the
complement of angle A, so B = 60°. b = √52 − (2.5)2 = √18.75 ≈ 4.3 by the Pythagorean
theorem.

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Example 4.2.6
Solve the triangle: B

c=6 a=4
h

A = 30° C
b

Solution:

Since this is the SSA case and the length of side a is less than side c, determine the height.

ℎ = 6sin(30°) = 3

Since h = 3 < a = 4 < c = 6, this is the ambiguous case. Apply the Law of Sines.

Triangle #1:

4
Using the given ratio, that is, ,
sin(30°)

sin(30°) sin(𝐶𝐶1 ) 6sin(30°) 3 3


= → sin(𝐶𝐶1 ) = = → 𝐶𝐶1 = sin−1 ≈ 48.6°.
4 6 4 4 4

Angle 𝐵𝐵1 = 180° − 48.6° − 30° = 101.4°.

4 𝑏𝑏1 4sin(101.4°)
= → 𝑏𝑏1 = ≈ 7.8.
sin(30°) sin(101.4°) sin(30°)

B1 = 101.4°

c=6 a=4
h=3

A = 30° C1 = 48.6°
b1 = 7.8

Triangle #2:

Angle C2 is the supplement of C1, that is, C2 = 180° – C1 = 180° – 48.6° = 131.4°. Angle 𝐵𝐵2 =
180° − 131.4° − 30° = 18.6°.
4
Using the given ratio, that is, ,
sin(30°)

4 𝑏𝑏2 4sin(18.6°)
= → 𝑏𝑏2 = ≈ 2.6.
sin(30°) sin(18.6°) sin(30°)

B2 = 18.6°

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c=6
h=3
a=4
A = 30°
C2 = 131.4°
b2 = 2.6

Example 4.2.7
Solve the triangle: B

c=6 a
h

A = 30° C
b = 7.8
𝑎𝑎
This is not the SSA case. In addition, there is no known ratio of the form . The opposing side
sin(𝐴𝐴)
to the only known angle, A, is unknown. Therefore the Law of Sines does not apply to this case. We
need a new approach. The following section, Section 4.3, introduces the Law of Cosines.

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Section 4.3 The Law of Cosines


B

c a
h

A C

ccosA acosC

Figure 4.3.1 Law of Cosines

By definition, an altitude or height of a triangle forms a right angle with its base. In Figure 4.3.1, the
height of the triangle apportions the base, b, into two segments equal to ccosA and acosC. This is
according to the definition of cosine. The sum of these two lengths is the length of side b, that is,

𝑏𝑏 = 𝑐𝑐cos𝐴𝐴 + 𝑎𝑎cos𝐶𝐶.

Multiplying by b
𝑏𝑏 2 = 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏cos𝐴𝐴 + 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐶𝐶.

Dropping an altitude from angle A gives

𝑎𝑎 = 𝑐𝑐cos𝐵𝐵 + 𝑏𝑏cos𝐶𝐶.
Multiplying by a
𝑎𝑎2 = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐵𝐵 + 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐶𝐶.

Repeating for angle C

𝑐𝑐 2 = 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏cos𝐴𝐴 + 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐵𝐵.

Adding the first two equations and subtracting the last gives:

𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 𝑐𝑐 2 = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐵𝐵 + 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐶𝐶 + 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏cos𝐴𝐴 + 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐶𝐶 − 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏cos𝐴𝐴 − 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐵𝐵

𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 𝑐𝑐 2 = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐶𝐶 + 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐶𝐶

𝑐𝑐 2 = 𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐶𝐶

and the Law of Cosines is obtained. Please note that the Law of Cosines is the Pythagorean theorem
when angle C = π/2. In addition, it is important to note that the side opposite the angle in the cosine
function is the isolated square.

𝑐𝑐 2 = 𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐶𝐶

This side is opposite this angle in the Law of Cosines.

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Theorem 4.3.1 The Law of Cosines Identity

𝑐𝑐 2 = 𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cosC

relates the sides of a triangle denoted a, b and c where angle C is opposite side c.

Example 4.3.1 (formerly 4.2.7)


Solve the triangle:
B

c=6 a

A = 30° C
b = 7.8

Applying the Law of Cosines:

𝑎𝑎2 = 62 + (7.8)2 − 2(6)(7.8)cos(30°) ≈ 15.78

and following order of operations. So 𝑎𝑎 ≈ √15.78 ≈ 4.0. At this point, it is possible to use the Law
of Sines. But it also possible to have an ambiguous case result using this strategy. Continuing with
the Law of Cosines:

62 = 42 + (7.8)2 − 2(4)(7.8)cos𝐶𝐶

36 = 76.84 − 62.4cos𝐶𝐶

−40.84 = −62.4cos𝐶𝐶

40.84
cos𝐶𝐶 = ≈ 0.6545 → 𝐶𝐶 = cos−1 0.6545 ≈ 49.9°
62.4

Angle 𝐵𝐵 = 180° − 30° − 49.9° = 100.1°.

Example 4.3.2
Solve the triangle:
B

c=6 a=7

A C
b=8

Applying the Law of Cosines:

72 = 62 + 82 − 2(6)(8)cos𝐴𝐴

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49 = 100 − 96cos𝐴𝐴

−51 = −96cos𝐴𝐴

−51
cos𝐴𝐴 = = 0.53125 → 𝐴𝐴 = cos −1 (0.53125) ≈ 57.8°.
−96

Applying the Law of Cosines again:

82 = 62 + 72 − 2(6)(7)cos𝐵𝐵

64 = 85 − 84cos𝐵𝐵

−21 = −84cos𝐵𝐵

−21
cos𝐵𝐵 = = 0.25 → 𝐵𝐵 = cos−1 0.25 ≈ 75.5°.
−84

Angle 𝐶𝐶 = 180° − 57.8° − 75.5° = 46.7°.

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Example 4.3.3
The Law of Cosines is applicable to mechanics. Please view and/or interact with the following
GeoGebra manipulative:

Piston simulation by Ken Schwartz

A spark in the piston of a cylinder in a car’s engine fires and moves a 9 cm connecting rod that
rotates a crankshaft with 4 cm pins in the counter-clockwise direction. The crankshaft, in turn,
moves the piston back down into the cylinder, creating another combustion event and continuing the
cycle. A spark is produced only when the piston is fully extended into the cylinder, that is, at
position 0 + 2πk radians during the crankshaft’s rotation, where k is an integer (see section 3.5,
Solving Trigonometric Equations). What is the length of the piston stroke, d, when , the rotation
angle of the crankshaft, equals π/3?

Solution:

Let d = the distance from the center of the crankshaft to the top of piston (piston stroke). Let 𝜃𝜃 = the
angle of the crankshaft’s rotation. According to the Law of Cosines:

𝑐𝑐 2 = 𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐶𝐶
𝜋𝜋
92 = 42 + 𝑑𝑑2 − 2(4)(𝑑𝑑)cos ( )
3
1
81 = 16 + 𝑑𝑑 2 − 8𝑑𝑑 ( )
2

65 = 𝑑𝑑2 − 4𝑑𝑑

a quadratic equation. Completing the square:

69 = 𝑑𝑑 2 − 4𝑑𝑑 + 4

69 = (𝑑𝑑 − 2) 2

𝑑𝑑 = 2 ± √69

𝑑𝑑 ≈ 10.3 cm.

Obviously, only the positive solution is applicable due to the natural restriction imposed on the
domain by the context of the problem. The length of the piston stroke, d, is dependent upon the
length of the connecting rod and pins.

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Section 4.4 The Area of a Triangle


The commonly used formula for the area of a triangle is half the length of the base times the height
or A = 1/2bh. If the height is not available or difficult to measure, it can be useful to have formulas
involving angles.

c c
h h

𝜃𝜃 𝜃𝜃
b b
Figure 4.4.1

1 1
In Figure 4.4.1, ℎ = 𝑐𝑐sin𝜃𝜃. The area formula becomes 𝐴𝐴 = 2 𝑏𝑏ℎ = 2 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏sin𝜃𝜃. In other words, the area
of a triangle may be found if two sides and the angle between them are known.

Example 4.4.1
Find the area of the triangle:

7 mm

π/6
9 mm

1 𝜋𝜋 63
𝐴𝐴 = (9 mm)(7 mm)sin ( ) = mm2 = 15.75 mm2 .
2 6 4

This modified area formula motivates an alternative proof of the Law of Sines:

c a

A b C
Figure 4.4.2

Refer to Figure 4.4.2. The area of this triangle may be expressed in several different ways depending
on which altitude is used.

1 1 1
𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏sin𝐴𝐴 = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎sin𝐵𝐵 = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎sin𝐶𝐶.
2 2 2

Multiplying by 1:
2 1 1 1
(𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏sin𝐴𝐴 = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎sin𝐵𝐵 = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎sin𝐶𝐶)
𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 2 2 2

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2𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 sin𝐴𝐴 sin𝐵𝐵 sin𝐶𝐶


= = = .
𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐

Another formula for the area of triangle involves only the lengths of the sides of the triangle. It is
called Heron’s Formula.

Theorem 4.4.1 Heron’s Formula

The area of a triangle, A, is related to its semiperimeter, s, by

𝐴𝐴 = √𝑠𝑠(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑎𝑎)(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑏𝑏)(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑐𝑐)

𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐
where a, b and c are the lengths of the sides of the triangle and 𝑠𝑠 =
2
.

Proof of Heron’s Formula:

The Law of Cosines states:

𝑐𝑐 2 = 𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎cos𝐶𝐶.
Rearranging:
𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 𝑐𝑐 2
cos𝐶𝐶 = .
2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

Applying the square property:


2
2
𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 𝑐𝑐 2 (𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 𝑐𝑐 2 )2
cos 𝐶𝐶 = ( ) =( ).
2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 4𝑎𝑎2 𝑏𝑏 2

A Pythagorean Identity states:

sin𝐶𝐶 = √1 − cos2 𝐶𝐶

(𝑎𝑎 2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 𝑐𝑐 2 )2
sin𝐶𝐶 = √1 −
4𝑎𝑎2 𝑏𝑏 2

4𝑎𝑎2 𝑏𝑏 2 − (𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 𝑐𝑐 2 )2
sin𝐶𝐶 = √ .
4𝑎𝑎2 𝑏𝑏 2

Factoring and simplifying:

√(2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 − (𝑎𝑎 2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 𝑐𝑐 2 ))(2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 + 𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 𝑐𝑐 2 )


sin𝐶𝐶 = .
2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

Rearranging:
√(𝑐𝑐 2 − (𝑎𝑎2 − 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 2 ))(𝑎𝑎2 + 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 𝑐𝑐 2 )
sin𝐶𝐶 = .
2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎
Factoring again:

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√(𝑐𝑐 2 − (𝑎𝑎 − 𝑏𝑏)2 )((𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏)2 − 𝑐𝑐 2 )


sin𝐶𝐶 = .
2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

And factoring once more:

√(𝑐𝑐 − (𝑎𝑎 − 𝑏𝑏))(𝑐𝑐 + (𝑎𝑎 − 𝑏𝑏))((𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) − 𝑐𝑐)((𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) + 𝑐𝑐)


sin𝐶𝐶 = .
2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

Recall the area of the triangle may be given by:

1
𝐴𝐴 = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎sin𝐶𝐶
2

1 √(𝑐𝑐 − (𝑎𝑎 − 𝑏𝑏))(𝑐𝑐 + (𝑎𝑎 − 𝑏𝑏))((𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) − 𝑐𝑐)((𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) + 𝑐𝑐)


𝐴𝐴 = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎
2 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎
1
𝐴𝐴 = √(𝑐𝑐 − (𝑎𝑎 − 𝑏𝑏))(𝑐𝑐 + (𝑎𝑎 − 𝑏𝑏))((𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) − 𝑐𝑐)((𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) + 𝑐𝑐)
4

𝑐𝑐 − (𝑎𝑎 − 𝑏𝑏) 𝑐𝑐 + (𝑎𝑎 − 𝑏𝑏) (𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) − 𝑐𝑐 (𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) + 𝑐𝑐


𝐴𝐴 = √( )( )( )( ).
2 2 2 2

𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐
Substituting 𝑠𝑠 =
2
,

𝐴𝐴 = √(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑎𝑎)(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑏𝑏)(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑐𝑐)𝑠𝑠 = √𝑠𝑠(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑎𝑎)(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑏𝑏)(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑐𝑐).

Example 4.4.2
Find the area of the triangle:

4.5 km 5.6 km

8.9 km

𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐 19
𝑠𝑠 = = = 9.5
2 2

𝐴𝐴 = √𝑠𝑠(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑎𝑎)(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑏𝑏)(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑐𝑐) = √9.5(5)(0.6)(3.9) = √111.15 ≈ 10.5 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘2 .

Example 4.4.3
Why can’t a triangle be constructed using lengths 1, 2 and 3 for its sides?

Solution:

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Apply Heron’s formula. The semiperimeter is

𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐 1 + 2 + 3
𝑠𝑠 = = = 3.
2 2

When substituting into the area formula

𝐴𝐴 = √𝑠𝑠(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑎𝑎)(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑏𝑏)(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑐𝑐) = √3(3 − 1)(3 − 2)(3 − 3) = √3(2)(1)(0) = √0 = 0.

A triangle with zero area is known as a degenerate triangle. It is not really a triangle as its vertices
are collinear. The only way that sides of length 1 and length 2 can meet at three vertices with a side
of length 3 is if they coincide with the side of length 3.

1 2

1 2

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The area of the second figure, the degenerate triangle, is zero. A non-degenerate triangle cannot be
constructed using any random set of side lengths. The lengths of the sides of a non-degenerate
triangle must satisfy the strict case of the triangle inequality.

Theorem 4.4.2 The Triangle Inequality

In any triangle, the sum of the lengths of any two sides must be greater than or equal to the length of
the remaining side. If a, b and c represent the lengths of the sides of a triangle, then

a + b > c, a + c > b and b + c > a.

For the degenerate triangle in example 4.4.3, 1 + 3 > 2 and 2 + 3 > 1, but 1 + 2 = 3. This makes it
degenerate.

The Triangle Inequality is important in Analysis and Topology. It is a consequence of the Law of
Cosines.

Proof of the Triangle Inequality:

The Law of Cosines states


𝑐𝑐 2 = 𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 cos 𝐶𝐶.

The cos 𝐶𝐶 ≥ −1 due to its range. Therefore, − cos 𝐶𝐶 ≤ 1 and

𝑐𝑐 2 = 𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 − 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 cos 𝐶𝐶 ≤ 𝑎𝑎2 + 𝑏𝑏 2 + 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 = (𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏)2 .


If
𝑐𝑐 2 ≤ (𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏)2
then
𝑐𝑐 ≤ 𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏.

The sense of the inequality is preserved since c and a + b are positive (Sarkar).

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
WITH APPLICATIONS Endnotes

Endnotes
1. George Johnston Allman (1889). Greek Geometry from Thales to Euclid (Reprinted by Kessinger
Publishing LLC 2005 ed.). Hodges, Figgis, & Co. p. 26. ISBN 1-4326-0662-X. "The discovery of
the law of three squares, commonly called the "theorem of Pythagoras" is attributed to him by –
amongst others – Vitruvius, Diogenes Laertius, Proclus, and Plutarch ..."

2. Heath, Sir Thomas (1921). "The 'Theorem of Pythagoras'". A History of Greek Mathematics (2
Vols.) (Dover Publications, Inc. (1981) ed.). Clarendon Press, Oxford. p. 144 ff. ISBN 0-486-24073-
8.

3. Euclid's Elements: web page version using Java applets from Euclid's Elements by Prof. David E.
Joyce, Clark University.

4. Maor, Eli. The Pythagorean Theorem: A 4,000-year History, p. 61 (Princeton University Press,
2007).

5. Gardner, M. "The Pythagorean Theorem." Ch. 16 in The Sixth Book of Mathematical Games from
Scientific American. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 152-162, 1984.

6. "cofunctions." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 11 Oct. 2014. <Dictionary.com


http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cofunctions>.

7. The Trigonographer (28 September 2015). "Angle Sum and Difference for Sine and Cosine".
Trigonography.com. Retrieved 28 May 2017.

8. Krishnavedala. Illustration of how a phase portrait would be constructed for the motion of a
simple pendulum. November 2014.

9. Beer.F.P. , Johnston.E.R. (1992). Mechanics of Materials , 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill

10. Winckel, Fritz (1967). Music, Sound and Sensation: A Modern Exposition, p.134. Courier.

11. Clint Goss; Barry Higgins (2013). "The Warble". Flutopedia. Retrieved 2013-03-06.

12. J. W. Coltman (October 2006). "Jet Offset, Harmonic Content, and Warble in the Flute". Journal
of the Acoustic Society of America. 120 (4): 2312–2319. PMID 17069326. doi:10.1121/1.2266562.

13. Hill, T. L. An Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics. New York: Dover, 1986.

14. Weisstein, Eric W. "Triangle Inequality." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/TriangleInequality.html

15. Coxeter, H. S. M. and Greitzer, S. L. Geometry Revisited. Washington, DC: Math. Assoc.
Amer., pp. 1–3, 1967

16. Livio, Mario (2002). The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, The World's Most Astonishing
Number. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN 0-7679-0815-5.

17. Yates, R. C.: A Handbook on Curves and Their Properties, J. W. Edwards (1952), "Evolutes." p.
206

18. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logarithmic_spiral

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19. Weisstein, Eric W. "Logarithmic Spiral." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/LogarithmicSpiral.html

20. Conway, J. H. and Guy, R. K. "Euler's Wonderful Relation." The Book of Numbers. New York:
Springer-Verlag, pp. 254-256, 1996.

21. Conway, John Horton, and Guy, Richard (1996). The Book of Numbers (Springer, 1996).
ISBN 978-0-387-97993-9.

22. Sandifer, C. Edward. Euler's Greatest Hits (Mathematical Association of America, 2007).
ISBN 978-0-88385-563-8

23. Weisstein, Eric W. "Phasor." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.


http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Phasor.html

24. Woo, Eddie. Parametrics Part I

25. B. L. van der Waerden, A History of Algebra, Springer Verlag, NY 1985.

26. Barret, G., Bartkovich, K., Compton, H., Davis, S., Doyle, D., Goebel, J. and Gould, L.
Contemporary Precalculus Through Applications: Functions, Data Analysis, and Matrices, Janson
Publications 1991.

27. Famous Curves Index. http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Curves/Curves.html

28. M. E. Baron. The Origins of the Infinitesimal Calculus, Pergamon Press, 1969.

29. W. Dunham. Journey Through Genius, Wiley, 1990.

30. V. J. Katz. A History of Mathematics: An Introduction, 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley, 1998.

31. J. J. O’Connor and E.F. Robertson, Charles de Bouvelles;


http://www.history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Mathematicians/Bouvelles.html
http://www.history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Mathematicians/Torricelli.html
http://www.history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistoryTopics/Brachistochrone.html

32. Guo, James C.Y. Theoretical Fluid Mechanics: Laminar Flow Velocity Profile. University of
Colorado, Denver

33. Daugherty, Robert L., Franzini, Joseph B. and Finnemore, E. John. Fluid Mechanics with
Engineering Applications, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill, 1985.

34. Kalman, Dan. Ellipse, Mathematical Association of America (MAA), Journal of Online
Mathematics and its Applications (JOMA), Volume 8 (2008).

35. hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kepler.html (©C.R. Nave, 2017).

36. Lunin, Stephen V. Globoid Gear Technology, www.zakgear.com/Wormoid.html (2007).

37. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Introductio_in_analysin_infinitorum

38. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complex_plane

39. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argument_(complex_analysis)

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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
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40. Needham, Tristan. Visual Complex Analysis. Oxford University Press, 1997.

41. Azad, Kalid. https://betterexplained.com/articles/intuitive-understanding-of-eulers-formula

42. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperbolic_navigation

43. math.sci.ccny.cuny.edu/document/show/2685

44. Libii, Josué Njock. The Use of Conic Sections in Basic Mechanics Courses: Some Examples.
Purdue University Fort Wayne.

45. Althoen, S. and Mclaughlin, R. Gauss-Jordan Reduction: A Brief History. February 1987.

http://macs.citadel.edu/chenm/240.dir/12fal.dir/history4.pdf

46. Whitford, D. E. and Klamkin, M. S. “On an Elementary Derivation of Cramer's Rule”, American
Mathematical Monthly, vol. 60, pp.186–7, 1953.

47. Strang, Gilbert. Linear Algebra and its Applications. 3rd Edition, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,
1988.

48. Campbell, David K. (25 November 2004). "Nonlinear physics: Fresh breather". Nature. 432
(7016): 455–456. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..455C. doi:10.1038/432455a. ISSN 0028-0836.

49. Sullivan, Michael and Sullivan, Michael, III. Precalculus Enhanced with Graphing Utilities. 6th
Edition. Pearson, 2013.

50. Kennedy, John. Some Polynomial Theorems.

51. Hahn, Harry K. "The Ordered Distribution of Natural Numbers on the Square Root Spiral".
arXiv:0712.2184

52. Nahin, Paul J. (1998), An Imaginary Tale: The Story of [the Square Root of Minus One],
Princeton University Press, p. 33, ISBN 0-691-02795-1

53. Adamchik, Victor. Mathematical Induction. https://www.cs.cmu.edu/~adamchik/21-


127/lectures/induction_1_print.pdf

54. Wilder, Raymond L. Introduction to the Foundations of Mathematics. 2nd Edition. Courier
Corporation, p. 120.

55. Wolfe, John H., Mueller, William F. and Mullikin, Seibert, D. Industrial Algebra and
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179
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ANALYTICAL TRIGONOMETRY
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56. Pedoe, Dan. Geometry: A Comprehensive Course. Dover Publications, 1970.

57. Van Brummelen, Glen. Heavenly Mathematics. Princeton University Press, 2013.

58. Downs, J. W. Practical Conic Sections. Dover Publications, 1993.

59. Powers, Gary. Trigonometry for Engineering Technology. Industrial Press, Inc., 2013.

60. Wolfram MathWorld – http://mathworld.wolfram.com/TriangleInequality.html

61. Pratyush Sarkar (https://math.stackexchange.com/users/64618/pratyush-sarkar), Use the law of


cosines to derive the triangle inequality, URL (version: 2013-10-06):
https://math.stackexchange.com/q/516676

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Index
A
abscissa, 52
acoustics, 139
algebraic expression, 104, 105
alpha, 117
ambiguous case, 163, 165, 168
amplitude, 48, 55, 56, 67, 68, 69, 72, 74, 75, 76, 78, 81, 82, 84, 85, 87, 140
angle, I, 2, 4, 41, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 136, 139, 145, 146, 149, 160, 162, 164, 165, 168, 169, 177
angle bisector, 22
angle of declination, 156
angle of elevation, 133, 158
arc length, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8
arccosine, 95, 101, 102
arctangent, 101
area of a sector, 8
argument, 14, 22, 104
asymptote, 58, 96, 97

B
beta, 115, 117
binomial, 46, 107

C
chord, 17, 160
circle, ii, 1, 4, 7, 8, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 24, 27, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55, 86, 118, 119, 150, 159, 160, 161
circular reasoning, 107
circumference, ii, 4, 17, 31, 32, 33, 34, 48, 49, 50, 53, 55
circumscribed, 159, 160
cofunction, 15, 25, 28, 41, 44, 49, 53, 57, 60, 61, 73, 108
common denominators, 113
commutative, 89
complement, 15, 41, 164
completing the square, 170
complimentary, 153
composition, 89
congruent, 156, 160
conjugate, 46, 107, 111
continuous, 33, 52
contradiction, 91
coordinate, 33, 34, 42, 48, 50, 60, 65, 66, 69, 76, 86, 96, 97
cosecant, 14, 15, 20, 35, 40, 41, 50, 60, 61, 63, 78, 79, 97, 98, 101, 110, 119
cosine, 14, 15, 21, 34, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 63, 68, 69, 72, 73, 74, 75, 79, 82, 85, 87, 95, 102,
103, 104, 113, 115, 117, 119, 126, 129, 135, 136, 137, 138, 141, 142, 143, 145, 146, 150, 153, 167
cotangent, 14, 15, 21, 35, 39, 40, 41, 49, 50, 57, 58, 59, 78, 79, 96, 97, 102, 119, 150
counter-intuitive, 65, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78

D
Debye constant, 140
decimal degrees, 2, 5
degenerate, 174, 175
degree, 2
Degrees Minutes Seconds, 2
denominator, 34, 46, 48, 111, 151
dependent variable, 52
diagonal, 26, 119
diameter, 159, 160
difference quotient, 124, 125
dilation, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 75, 81

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discontinuities, 48, 58
distance formula, 13
domain, 16, 17, 22, 24, 33, 34, 35, 39, 42, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 57, 58, 60, 61, 78, 79, 89, 90, 91, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99,
101, 102, 103, 105, 107, 122, 140, 141, 143, 149, 163, 170
Domain Error, 163

E
epicenter of an earthquake, 162
equilateral triangle, 22
equilibrium state, 86
even function, 42, 53, 61
extraneous solution, 149
extrema, 52, 53, 57, 58, 61, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 75, 76, 79

F
frequency, 48, 55, 56, 67, 68, 70, 74, 75, 76, 78, 81, 87, 140
fundamental trigonometric identities, 1, 39, 107, 115
fuselage, 133

G
GeoGebra, 170
Global Positioning Systems, 160
graph, 52, 53, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 75, 76, 79, 82, 84, 85, 90, 91, 93, 95, 142, 146, 147, 149, 150,
151
graphing utility, 103

H
harmonics, 140
Heron’s Formula, 172
Hertz, 140
horizontal line test, 91
hypotenuse, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 27, 105, 156, 159

I
identity, 19, 37, 39, 40, 45, 46, 49, 60, 63, 73, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 119, 126, 128, 129,
131, 136, 137, 138, 139, 141, 150
independent variable, 65, 66
infinite, 1, 33, 34, 48, 52, 93, 115, 140, 141, 142
infinity, 35, 49
inscribed, 11, 119, 160
integer multiples, 49
intercepts, 52, 60, 61, 65, 66, 70, 86, 146
interval, 33, 34, 48, 50, 53, 55, 93, 96, 100, 101, 143, 145, 150
invariant, 67
inverse, 48, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 128, 149, 163
irrational, 19, 70, 129, 130

L
Lakota Flute, 140, 141
land surveyor, 156, 162
Law of Cosines, I, 153, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 175
Law of Sines, I, ii, 153, 158, 159, 160, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 171

M
maxima, 53, 60
maximum, 48, 50, 55, 73, 76, 86
mechanics, 170
megaPascals, 134

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minima, 53
minimum, 48, 50, 55, 76
modulation, 140
music theory, 140

N
navigator, 158
normal stress, 134
numerator, 35, 111, 112

O
oblique, 153, 158, 160, 161, 164
odd function, 53, 57, 58, 60, 84, 119
odd/even properties, 43
one-to-one, 91, 102
ordinate axis, 52
oscillation, 86, 87
overtone, 140

P
parallel, 133, 156
period, 17, 33, 34, 35, 48, 50, 52, 53, 55, 57, 58, 60, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 75, 76, 78, 79, 82, 84, 85, 87
period of a trigonometric function, 33
periodicity, 53, 55, 57
perpendicular, 133, 159
phase portrait, 86, 177
phase shift, 48, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 81, 82, 84, 86, 87
point of equilibrium, 55
projectile, 133
properties of equality, 107
proportion, 110, 160
Ptolemy’s theorem, 119
Pythagorean theorem, 1, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 19, 22, 27, 37, 39, 105, 153, 155, 158, 164, 167
Pythagorean triple, 11, 155

Q
quadrant, 20, 37, 93, 129, 130, 143, 144, 149
quadrantal angle, 32, 37, 146
quadrantal angles, 31, 52, 60, 70
quadratic form, 143, 150
quadrilateral, 119, 120

R
radians, 3, 4, 5
radius, ii, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17, 19, 20, 24, 31, 33, 37, 48, 50
range, 17, 20, 33, 34, 35, 37, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 57, 58, 61, 76, 79, 89, 91, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104,
128, 133, 146, 163, 175
rational expressions, 107, 110, 111, 113, 123, 138
reciprocal, 5, 20, 42, 43, 49, 57, 60, 63, 104, 159
reference angle, 22, 24, 27, 37, 143, 145, 146
reference triangle, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 143
reflection, 42, 57, 66, 67, 72, 79, 82, 84, 87, 90, 91, 93
restricted domain, 102
right triangle, 1, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 22, 31, 41, 153, 156, 159, 164
rounding errors, 155

S
scale, 52, 57, 64, 70, 75, 76, 78, 79, 146, 151
secant, 14, 15, 21, 35, 39, 41, 42, 49, 50, 60, 61, 63, 78, 79, 97, 98, 101, 103, 104, 119

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semiperimeter, 172, 174


set of reals, 35, 48, 49
shear stress, 133
simple harmonic motion, 86
sine, 14, 15, 17, 20, 33, 34, 40, 41, 42, 43, 48, 52, 53, 55, 60, 61, 63, 67, 70, 73, 75, 76, 79, 82, 84, 85, 93, 94, 95, 100,
101, 103, 105, 110, 113, 115, 117, 119, 126, 128, 129, 135, 137, 138, 146, 153, 156, 159, 160, 163
sinusoidal, 52, 55, 56, 67, 68, 73, 74, 78, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 96, 126
spring constant, 86
square root property, 143
standard position, 1, 2, 17, 22, 32, 33, 37, 73, 115
stress transformation equations, 133
subtend, 160
supplement, 160, 165
symmetric, 42, 53, 58, 90
symmetry, 19, 33, 53, 55, 57, 60, 61, 90

T
tangent, 14, 15, 17, 21, 34, 35, 39, 41, 43, 48, 49, 50, 57, 58, 61, 78, 79, 96, 103, 118, 119, 127, 129, 130, 135, 138,
149, 153
Thales’ theorem, 160
theodolite, 162
theta, 145, 149
total station theodolite, 156
transformation of the plane, 64
transformations, 48, 64, 65, 67, 72, 75, 76
transitive property of equality, 160
translation, 53, 57, 64, 66, 67, 74, 75, 81
triangle inequality, 175, 180
triangulation, 162
trigonometric equations, 76, 107, 137, 140, 143
trigonometric functions, ii, 14, 17
trigonometry, I, 14, 153, 179, 180

U
undefined, 34, 48, 49, 50, 57

V
variable, 14, 34, 48, 52, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 78, 87, 104, 107, 158
velocity, 86, 133
vertical, 42, 55, 57, 58, 60, 61, 64, 66, 67, 72, 74, 78, 81, 82, 85, 86, 87, 91, 96, 97, 134
vertical line test, 91

X
x-axis, 1, 16, 42, 52, 66, 70, 72, 82, 84, 87, 96, 146

Y
y-axis, 42, 53, 58, 61, 66, 84, 96

Z
zero, 1, 2, 34, 48, 49, 50, 60, 65, 82, 86, 107, 140, 145, 146, 150, 174, 175
zero factor property, 145, 146, 150

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