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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD)

International Open Access Journal | www.ijtsrd.com

ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | Volume - 3 | Issue – 1 | Nov – Dec 2018

Interfacing and Interconnection ooff Microgrid Systems: A Review

Ajaz Ul Haq
M.Tech Scholar, Electrical Engineering Department
YIET, Gadhauli
Gadhauli, Yamunanagar, Haryana, India

A microgrid is mostly a portion of the power central generation reserve requirements. DGs provide
distribution system that includes distributed local voltage support and microgrid as a whole
generation, energy storage and loads. To be increases the overall system reliability [1], [2], [3],
accomplished of working in parallel to the grid, as an [4], [5], [6].
independent power island and in transition modes,
microgrids must be vigorous in governing the local This paper reviews the current c status of the
voltage and frequency, and shielding the network and development of microgrids. This will cover a brief
equipment connected to the microgrid. It also description on components of a microgrid and a
necessities to ease demand side management and literature review on existing microgrid test systems
resynchronization. This paper presents a review of that have been implemented and simulated. The paper
existing microgrid test networks
tworks around the world and contributes as a particularly focused
fo resource, which
some significantly different microgrid simulation consolidates existing microgrid research experiences
networks present in the literature. Paper is focused on in an organized structure. It guides the reader to
the test systems and available microgrid control visualize the present big picture of the microgrid and
options. A summary table comparing and contrasting allows understanding the potential developments.
the existing test systems
ems is presented. The paper is Furthermore, the comparison n of microgrids in several
concluded highlighting the worthy findings and continents provides useful information for the design
possible areas of research that would enhance and choosing the right features for a particular
practical use of microgrid facilities. microgrid application. It is also envisaged that the
information summarized in the paper contributes to
I. INTRODUCTION open research beyond the
he existing trends.
Microgrids are emerging as an integral feature of the
future power systems shaped by the various smartsmart- II. The Picture of a Microgrid
grid initiatives. A microgrid is formed by integrating A microgrid is encompassed of variety of distributed
loads, distributed generators (DG) and energy storage generators (DG), distributed storages (DS) and variety
devices. Microgrids can operate in parallel with the of customer loads. It is particularly a portion of an
rid, as an autonomous power island or in transition electric power distribution system located
between grid-connected
connected mode and islanded mode of downstream of the distribution substation. Thus, the
operation. microgrid point-of-common-coupling
coupling (PCC) lies at
the vicinity of the low voltage side of the substation
A microgrid could be an attractive option to harness transformer.
the benefits offered by distributed generation,
eliminating the constraints on high penetr
penetration. Thus, 2.1. Distributed Generators
substantial environmental benefits may be gained Generation technologies applicable for a microgrid
through the utilization of energy efficient generation may include emerging technologies (Combined heat
resources and the integration of renewable energy and power (CHP), fuel
uel cells, mini wind turbines, PV,
resources. Moreover, microgrids could reduce the micro-turbines)
turbines) and some well established generation
network losses, defer the high investmen
investment costs technologies (single-phase
phase and three-phase
three induction
required for network upgrades and also reduce the generators, synchronous generators driven by IC

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
engines or small hydro). These generation Among the available energy storage
technologies are well known [1], [2] and thus, it is not technologies [8], [9], batteries, fly-wheels
fly and super-
discussed in detail in this paper.
per. Nevertheless, it is capacitors are more applicable for microgrid type of
important to note that CHP (also known as setup [10]. In the use of a flywheel, it can be used as a
cogeneration, which produce electricity and heat central storage system for the whole microgrid. In the
simultaneously) and wind power generation has use of batteries, either storage can be mounted on the
shown considerable growth in technology and usage dc bus of each micro-source
source or can be used as a
gaining strong points to be used in microgri
microgrids. central storage system. m. Batteries provide extra
function being able to reserve energy for future
Almost all large integrated power systems in the demand. Super capacitors would be an expensive
world have been relying on centralized electricity choice compared to both batteries and flywheels [8].
generation such as large-scale
scale hydro, coal, natural gas Another option is to have a large traditional
and nuclear power plants. Long-distance,
distance, high
high-voltage generation having considerable inertia
ine along with the
transmission carried the power to the cuscustomers from micro-sources.
centralized sources. However, the growth of demand
for clean, reliable and affordable electricity generation 2.3. Interfacing Distributed Energy Resources
is changing this existing scenario. On the other hand, (DER)
the aging centralized energy infrastructure, which can Distributed energy resources (DER) refer to both DG
be more vulnerable with the he increasing power and energy storage technologies. Most of the
demand, requires innovative and economical solutions emerging DER technologies require an inverter
as the construction of new transmission facilities is interface in order to convert
nvert the energy into grid-
highly constrained by the environmental compatible ac power. This interfacing may either
considerations. Many governments in the world have consist of both converter and inverter or only an
responded to these demands with suitab suitable policy inverter. The power electronic interface will be
adjustments that encourage distributed and renewable accommodated with filters and necessary protection
energy generation. As a result, the share of renewable systems. With the converter's capability of voltage
and efficient DGs is rapidly increasing. For and frequency control, these DER units support the
example [7] reports that in Canada, as of 2005, 25% microgrid operation. Table 1 summarizes the
of new electricity generation installed has come from interfacing and power flow control options of
distributed resources, compared to only 13% in 2002. common DER

2.2. Energy Storage Devices 2.4. Microgrid Loads

Energy storage devices are one of the main critical A microgrid could serve variety of customers:
components to rely on for successful operation of a residential, commercial and industrial. In general,
microgrid. The main function of the energy storage commercial and industrial users are defined as
devices in a microgrid application is to be the care critical/sensitive loads, which demand high degree of
taker in balancing the power and energy demand w with power quality and reliability. This classification of
generation. Energy storage devices take this loads is important in the microgrid setup to achieve
responsibility in three necessary scenarios. the expectedted operating strategy:
1. Insure the power balance in a microgrid despite 1. Facilitate load/generation shedding within the
load fluctuations and transients as DGs with their microgrid to meet the net import/export power in
lower inertia lack the capability in fast responding grid connected mode.
to these disturbances. 2. Facilitate load/generation shedding to stabilize the
2. Provides ride-through
through capability when there are voltage and frequency in the autonomous
dynamic variations in intermittent energy sources operation.
and allows the DGs to operate as dispatchable 3. Improve the power quality and reliability of
units. critical and sensitive loads.
3. Provides the initial energy requirement for a 4. Reduces the peak load to optimize the ratings of
seamless transition between grid grid-connected DER.
to/from islanded operation of microgrids. Part of the non-sensitive
sensitive loads can be used as
controllable loads to achieve the above operating
strategies in a microgrid [11], [13].

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
Table 1. Typical Interfaces Used With DER
Primary energy
Typical interface Power flow control Primary energy source type
source type
DG CHP Synchronous generator AVR and Governor (+P, ±Q)
Fixed speed wind Stall or pitch control of turbine (+P,
Induction generator
turbine −Q)
Variable speed Power electronic converter Turbine speed and DC link voltage
wind turbine (AC–DC–AC) controls (+P, ±Q)
Power electronic converter
Power electronic converter Maximum power point tracking and
Photovoltaic (PV)
(DC–DC–AC) DC link voltage controls (+P, ±Q)
Power electronic converter
Fuel cell
Power electronic converter State of charge and output
Energy storage Battery
(DC–DC–AC) voltage/frequency control (±P, ±Q)
Power electronic converter
Fly-wheel Fly-wheel
Power electronic converter
Super capacitor State of charge (±P, ±Q)

2.5. Interconnection of Microgrids

Microgrids get connected to the power system at the The present
esent research in microgrids adopts control
distribution level. Also, energy handling capability of approaches that could be imbedded as autonomous
microgrids is limited with the use of renewable energy parts of each distributed generator, use a central
resources and waste heat. Thus, maximum capacity of controller or based on agents. Autonomous control
a microgrid is normally restricted to 10MVA [2]. allows placing additional DGs without reengineering
the system, and using it in the peer-to-peer
peer model
icrogrid is connected to the utility system via an (using (N + 1) DERs in the system) eliminates the
interconnection switch. If the microgrid consists of requirement of a complex central controller and
sensitive loads such as semiconductor associated telecommunication facilities. The agent
manufacturing, it requires separation times of less based system facilitates both centralized co-ordination
than 50 ms [2]. However, the existing protective and local control
ontrol as it operates in different levels as a
ment and circuit breakers are not capable to act hierarchy. This approach allows utilization of the
that fast to isolate and change the mode of control in strengths of both central and decentralized control
the microgrid. In such a condition it is required to systems and this is a possible candidate for future
maintain the voltage above 50% of the rating at any smart grid approaches.
time of operation [2].
Communication can be one of the th most vital elements
Consequently, the recent research has applied static in a microgrid, particularly for power control and
switches with fast response or Digital Signal protection. The basic communication methods used so
Processor (DSP) based switches that consolidate both far include: radio communication, leased telephone
power switching and relaying, as the interconnection lines, power-line
line carrier, internet and Global System
method [14], [15]. for Mobile (GSM) Communications.
Communica The present
microgrid experiments have used different
2.6. Control and nd Communication Strategies Used communication protocols, but establishment of some
he main advantage expected from a microgrid is that standard communication protocol could help reduce
it should allow to be treated as a controlled costs and accelerate the deployment of microgrids.
aggregated load within the power system. Also, being
in the vicinity of smart grid systems, microgrids
should facilitate adaptive control approaches.

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
3. Experimental Microgrids and nd Microgri
Microgrid Test- 3. Automatic voltage regulation (AVR) control is
Beds used to regulate voltages at the Point of Common
Microgrid is a subject that has been studying and Coupling (PCC).
testing around the world in the recent past. The 4. Two sets of over current protection set-points
set for
thriving interest on microgrids is reflected by the the grid-connected
connected and the islanding operating
forthcoming IEEE Std P1547.4 on Guide for Design, modes.
Operation, and Integration of Distributed RResource 5. To supply high faultlt current during a feeder fault,
Island Systems with Electric Power [[16] which is the excitation system control is made with positive
specifically developed to address the missing voltage field forcing for output current boost.
information in IEEE Std 1547-2008 [17] regarding 6. When the island happens substation breaker open
intentional islands. position is telemetered via leased telephone line
between the generator(s) remote control site and
There is no particularly accepted benchmark test the utility Area Control Centre.
system for microgrids. The research ch works on 7. Black start capability is provided via an on-site
on 55
microgrids are based on either test test-beds or kW diesel generator if the generator(s) fail to
simulations using different microgrid topologies. sustain the island.
There are some typical microgrid configurations also 8. Remote auto-synchronization
synchronization capability is added
reported. In this section, it is attempted to summarize at the substation level to synchronize
sy and re-
the microgrid test systems reported in ththe literature. connect the island area to the 69 kV feeders
without causing load interruption.
III. Intentional Islanding and nd Microgrid
Experience around the World
3.1.1. Boston Bar – BC Hydro, Canada
The BC Hydro Boston Bar is a microgrid that is
interconnected to 69 kV feeders through a 69/25 kV
substation comprising of three radial feeders. It was
built as a solution to the frequent experiencing power
outages between 12 and 20 h periods that happens due
to permanent outages on the 69 kV line connecting
the substation to the BC Hydro grid.

Fig. 1 presents the single-line

line diagram of the Boston
Bar system [10], [18]. The microgrid comprises of
two 4.32 MVA run-of-riverriver hydro power generators
connected to one feeder. The peak load of the
microgrid is 3 MW and depending on the demademand and
water level, it supplies power to one or more feeders
by sectionalizing loads accordingly.

The system is not equipped with a storage unit, but

the inertia of the generators has increased purposely. Fig. 1. Single-line
line diagram of the BC Hydro Boston
A leased telephone line is used for communication. Bar system
The controlling options include:
1. Generators operate in isochronous mode in single 3.1.2. Boralex planned islanding – Hydro Quebec
generator operation and governor speed speed-droop (HQ), Canada
control is used in parallel operation. The substation named Senneterre in Quebec feeds
2. Transient response is improved by engineering three distribution lines, serving 3000 customers. The
mass of generators and hydro turbines, thus substation is supplied at 120 kV by a 40 km long
increasing inertia. transmission line which had required an urgent
replacement. The Boralex thermal power plant is
connected through the Senneterre substation
substati to the
HQ Network. Thus, the restoration of the transmission

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
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