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Cultura, arquitectura y diseño. _Amos Rapoport


Meche Alvariño

El papel de la cultura en el diseño arquitectónico

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Arquitectura y urbanismo

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ARQ UITEC TO N IC S 
M IND, LAND & SOC IETY 

5
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CULTURA,
ARQUITECTURA
 Y DISEÑO
A M O S RA PO PO RT  

 
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Directores de la colecc ión:


 J osep Muntañola Thornberg
Luis Ángel Domínguez

Primera edición: febrero de 2003

Dibujo de la portada: Amos Rapoport


Gráficos interiores: Amos Rapoport

Diseño gráfico: Luis Ángel Dominguez


Maquetación: Wilson Mogro Miranda
Diseño y fotografía de la portada: Wilson Mogro Miranda

© AmosRapoport

© Edic ions UPC


Edicions de la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Sl
 J ordi Girona Salgado, 31. 08034 Barcelona
 Tel. 934 016 883 Fax934 015 885
Edicions Virtuals: www.edicionsupc.es
E-mail: edicions-upc@upc.es
Producción: Copisteria Miracle S.A.
Rector Ubach 6-10, 08021 Barcelona

Depósito lega l: B-4105-2003


ISBN: 84-8301-680-X
Quedan rigurosamente prohibidas, sin la autorización escrita de los titulares del copyrigth, bajo las sanciones establecidas en las leyes,
la reproduc ción total o parcial de esta obra por cualquier medio o procedimiento, comprendidos la reprografía y el tratamiento
informático, y la distribución de ejemplares de ella mediante alquiler o préstamo públicos.
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Introducción

Introduction
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A R Q U I T E C T O N I C S  5

Introducción

The underlying premise of this book is La p rem isa en la que se ba sa este libro es q ue la arqui-
that architecture is not a ‘free,’ artistic
tectura no e s una libre a ctividad artística, sino una profe-
activity, but a science-based profes-
 sion which is concerned with problem sión ba sada en la ciencia y encam inada a la solución de
 so lv in g. Mo reov er, th es e prob le ms problemas. Estos problemas, además, han de ser des-
need to be discovered and identified, cubiertos e identificados, y no «definidos» o inventados
not ‘defined’ by designers, i.e. not in-
por diseñadores. De aq uí la conclusión d e q ue la arqui-
vented. It, therefore, follows that ar-
chitecture and related design fields tectura y los relacionados ám bitos de l diseño (com o d i-
 such as urban design, landscape archi- seño urbano, arquitectura paisajística, diseño de interio-
tecture, interior design and, up to a res y, hasta c ierto p unto, tam bién e l diseño industrial) for-
 point, even product design, toge ther 
man en su conjunto un campo de diseño del entorno.
comprise the field of environmental 
design. This is the term I will use Es el térm ino qu e utilizaré a lo largo d el libro.
throughout.
El ob jetivo d el diseño d el entorno no c onsiste en dar a los
Th f i t l d i
The purpose of environmental design
que lo practican la oportunidad de expresarse «artística-
is not for its practitioners to express
 Download  Bookmark  Share m ente». Llevando esta postura a su expresión m ás «ex-
themselves ‘artistically.’ An ‘extreme’ 
 formulation of the consequences of this trem a», se po dría afirm ar que la satisfacc ión profesional
 position
 sho is that
uld com designers’
e fro m pro ble satisfaction
m ide nti fi- de un diseñador ha de provenir de la identificación y so-
cation and solving. Designers might 
lución de problemas. Así los diseñadores que trabajan
thus need to produced environments para determinados usuarios podrían llegar a crear en-
which they themselves may detest, if  tornos detestables para ellos mismos. Entonces, el obje-
they work for the users concerned. The tivo del diseño sería crear entornos y componentes que
 purpose of desig n is then to create
environ-ments, and their constituents
se ajustasen a las nece sidade s de los usuarios, es dec ir,
 parts, that suit users, i.e. settings and  crear los am bientes y su «relleno» para qu e presten ap o-
their ‘furnishings’ that are supportive yo a los usuarios, sus deseos, actividades, etc. De este
 for these users, their wants, activities m odo, yo considero que e l diseño es algo orientado ha-
and so on. I thus take design to be
user oriented, designers being surrog-
cia el usuario, y los diseñadores actúan como agentes
ates for users. This means that the de los usuarios.
 pr od uc ts of su ch de si gn (b ui ld in gs diseño (edificios yEso significa
o tros que
e ntornos los productos
físicos) deb en bade tal
sarse
and other physical environments) en la comprensión de las cualidades humanas, ajustar-
must be based on an understanding 
of human cha-racteristics, must fit,
se a las mismas y prestarles apoyo [to be supportive].
and be supportive, of those. This will  Esta afirm ación se d esarrollará m ás ad elante, pero lo
be elaborated later, but in the case of  que más nos interesa en este libro es que los diseños
this book, designs need to respond to correspondan a una «cultura» o, lo que es lo mismo,
‘culture,’ i.e. be culture-specific.
que sean culturalmente específicos.
 It then follows that design must be
based on knowledge of how people Entonces, el diseño deb e basarse en el conoc imiento de
and environments interact, i.e. on re- las form as de interacción d e las personas y los entornos,
 search (basic and applied) on environ-
ment-behavior relations (EBR)—de-
es decir, en el estudio (tanto básico como aplicado) de
 sig n bec ome s the app lic ati on of re- las relaciones entre el entorno y el comportamiento hu-
 search -based knowle dge. Such know- m ano [environm ent-b ehaviour relations, o EBR], y así el

A R Q U I T E C T O N I C S  7

 © Los autores, 2003; © Edicions UPC, 2003.

cultura, arquitec tura y diseño

ledge need not, nor can it ever be, diseño se convierte en una aplicación del conocimiento
 perfect (it will change with advances
ba sad o en la investiga ción c ientífica . Este cono cim iento
in research), but it must be based on
the best available knowledge at any no nec esita ser exacto, ni tam poc o p uede serlo (se trans-
 given time, i.e. to be at ‘the state of  formará conforme avanza la investigación), pero debe
h ’ Thi k i d
the art.’upThis
keeping with means knowing
the literature, so and 
that  basarse en el me jor saber disponible en el m om ento da-
do o, lo qu e es lo m ism o, estar «al día». Esto significa
 Download
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be based on  Share
up-to-date
research, not on designers’ personal  cono-cer y seguir la literatura especializada para poder
 pr ef er en ce s, in tuit io n an d th e like , ba sar los diseños en los últim os avanc es de la investiga -
although sometimes these latter can ción científica, y no en las preferencias personales del
lead to hypotheses (and are essential 
diseña-dor, su intuición y cosas por el estilo, aunque al-
in research and science generally)
which need to be tested rather than gunas ve-ces estas últimas puedan ayudar a formar hi-
accepted on the basis of wishful think- pótesis (y son esenciales para el estudio y la ciencia en
ing. general) que necesitan ser d em ostradas, antes que ac ep-
tadas a fuerza de ser deseadas.
Such research is needed not only in
design but in the full sequence of essen-
tial activities, those that should pre- Esta investigación científica debe estar presente no úni-
cede it, such as problem analysis and  cam ente en el propio proceso del diseño, sino en toda la
 programming (what should be design-
ed and why) and lead to hypotheses,
secuencia de actividades esenciales que deben prece-
which can then be researched, and  derlo (como el análisis del problema o la programación
those which should follow design—  (lo que ha de ser diseñado y por qué), y debe cond ucir a
 post-occupancy evaluation. This is im- la form ación de hipótesis que pued en, a su vez, ser es-
 portant if the design fields are to learn
both from failures and successes, rath-
tudiadas) o suced erlo (com o la evaluación po sterior a la
er than repeat mistakes and not know ocup ación de l entorno). Esto adq uiere una espec ial im -
why success has occurred. In order  portancia, teniendo en c uenta que los ám bitos d el dise-
even to know what success is, two things ño de ben a prender tanto de los fallos com o de los éxitos,
are necessary: First, what the design en vez de repetir los mismos errores e ignorar las cau-
needs to do to solve the problem(s),
 so that one can judge if it does—post  sas de los éxitos. Incluso p ara sab er lo que es e l éxito, es
occupancy evaluation (not ‘architec- preciso encontrar respuesta a d os preg untas:
tural criticism’ which represents mer-
ely the personal references of the critic,
and is thus of no interest or value).
Primera cuestión: ¿Qué debe hacer el diseño para solu-
This is essential, because any design cionar su(s) prob lem a(s)? Es nece sario saberlo para p o-
can be seen as a hypothesis of the der juzgar si los problemas están realmente soluciona-
 form: If so and so is done, such and  dos o, lo que es lo m ism o, efectuar una evaluación pos-
 such will happen. This must then be
tested. Only in this way will one be
terior a la ocupación del entorno [post-occupancy 
able to repeat successes reliably and  evaluation]  en lug ar de hac er «crítica arquitectónica», que
 predictably. Only in this way can de- únicamente representa las preferencias personales del
 sign itself become a form of research crítico, careciendo así de todo interés o valor. Esto es
which, at the moment it cannot be,
despite occasional claims to the con-
esencial, ya que todo diseño puede considerarse una
trary. hipótesis de la form a: «si se hac e esto y lo otro, ocurrirá
esto y aqu ello». Pero luego hac e falta d em ostrarlo. Sólo

8 A R Q U I T E C T O N I C S 

 © Los autores, 2003; © Edicions UPC, 2003.


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