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# COMPUTER AIDED

DESIGN AND
MANUFACTURING
( M –S CHE ME )

## N. IYANARAPPAN, M.E., M.I.S.T.E.

Principal
Sri Renugambal Polytechnic College,
Polur – 606 907.
KAL PATHIPPAGAM– 99446 50380, 96266 26747

Unit – I
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN
1. Define CAD.
Computer Aided Design (CAD) may be defined as the use of
computer system to help in the creation, modification,
analysis, and optimization of a design.
2. List out the steps involved in Shiley’s design process.
1) Recognition of need 2) Definition of problem
3) Synthesis 4) Analysis and optimization
5) Evaluation 6) Presentation
3. List out the various activities of CAD.
1) Geometric modelling 2) Engineering analysis
3) Design review and evaluation 4) Automated drafting
4. What are the benefits of CAD?
1) Productivity improvement in design.
2) Shorter lead time.
3) More flexibility in design.
4) Fever design errors.
5) Improved design analysis.
6) Standardization of design, drafting and documentation.
7) Easier creation and modification of design.
8) Easier visualization of drawings
5. Mention the important CAD software packages.
AutoCAD, Pro/E, IDEAS, UniGrpahics, CADian, SolidWorks,
CADKey, CATIA, ArchiCAD, Autodesk Inventor, etc.
6. What is transformation?
In computer graphics, the drawings can be modified by
performing some mathematical operations on the coordinates
of geometric elements. These operations are called
transformations. Translation, scaling, and rotation are the
basic transformations.

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7. Define translation.
Translation involves moving the geometric elements from one
location to another. In matrix notation, it can be represented as
(x', y') = (x, y) + T
Where, x', y' = Coordinates of the translated points
x, y = Coordinates of the original point
m, n = Movement in the X and Y direction respectively.
T = Translation matrix = (m, n)
8. What is scaling?
Enlarging or reducing the size of a graphic element is known
as scaling. The points of an element can be scaled by the
scaling matrix as follows:
(x', y') = (x, y) S
m 0
Where, S = Scaling matrix = q r
0 n
9. What is rotation?
It involves the rotation of an object about its origin by an angle 
The object is moved while rotating. In matrix notations, the
procedure will be as follows:
(x', y') = (x, y) R
cos sin
Where, R = Rotation matrix = q r
–sin cos
10. Write down the rotation matrix for rotating an object
about X-axis.
The rotation about X-axis by an angle  in three-dimensional
space is represented in matrix notation as follows:
(x', y', z') = (x, y, z) Rx
cos 0 sin
Where, Rx = Rotation matrix about X axis = q 0 1 0 r
–sin 0 cos

## 11. Define concatenation.

Concatenation is the process of combining the single
transformations as a sequence of transformations. The
combined transformations are called concatenated

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## transformations. Concatenated transformations are generally

performed during the editing process in a graphic model.
12. What are the techniques of geometric modelling?
1) Wireframe modelling
2) Surface modelling
3) Solid modelling
13. List out advantages of wireframe modelling.
1) It is easy to construct.
2) It needs less memory space.
3) It takes less manipulation time.
4) It is best suitable for manipulations as orthographic,
isometric and perspective views.
14. List out various types of surfaces.
1) Ruled surface 2) Surface of revolution
3) Tabulated cylinder 4) Bezier surface
5) B–spline surface 6) NURBS
7) Coons surfaces 8) Swept surface
9) Fillet surface 10) Offset surface
15. List out the applications of surface modelling.
1) Checking for interference between mating parts.
2) Generating cross sectional views.
3) Generating finite element meshes.
4) Generating NC tool paths for continuous path machining.
16. List out the schemes available for solid modelling.
1) Constructive solid geometry (CSG)
2) Boundary representation (B–rep)
3) Pure primitive instancing
4) Generalized sweep
5) Cellular decomposition
6) Hybrid scheme
17. List out the various solid modelling entities.
1) Block 2) Cylinder 3) Cone
4) Sphere 5) Wedge 6) Torus

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## 18. What is the basic difference between CSG and B-rep?

 In CSG, solid model is built from solid graphic primitives.
 In B-rep, solid model is obtained by creating the outline or
boundary of the object.
19. What is hybrid scheme?
Hybrid scheme is the combination of both constructive solid
geometry and boundary representation approach. It makes
use of the relative benefits of both approaches overcoming
their relative weaknesses.
20. List out the applications of solid modelling.
1) Creating hidden line drawings, sections, and shaded images.
2) Calculating mass properties such as total surface area, volume,
centre of gravity, moments of inertia, radius of gyration, etc.
3) Kinematics analysis of solid assemblies.
4) Dynamics interference analysis.
5) Process planning for manufacture.
6) CNC tool path simulation and program verification
21. What is graphic standard?
The standards used in CAD for exchanging data are called
graphics standards.
22. What are the needs for graphics standard?
1) Application program portability
2) Picture data portability
3) Text portability
4) Object database portability
23. List out the common graphics standards.
1) GKS (Graphical Kernel System)
2) OpenGL (Open Graphics Library)
3) IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification)
4) DXF (Drawing Exchange Format)
5) VDI (Virtual Device Interface)
6) VDM (Virtual Device Metafile)
7) WMF (Windows Meta File)

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## 24. What is GKS? State its objectives.

 Graphical Kernel System is a set of procedures that can
be called by user programs for carrying out certain
generalized functions.
 Objectives of GKS :
1) To provide the complete range of graphical facilities.
2) To control all the graphic and display devices.
3) To be small enough for a variety of programs.
25. What is OpenGL?
Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) is an application programming
interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics. The API
is used to interact with a graphics processing unit (GPU) to
achieve hardware-accelerated rendering.
26. State the features in OpenGL.
1) Language independent 2) Platform independent
3) Open architecture 4) Vertex and fragment shaders
5) Multi texturing 6) Instanced rendering
7) Viewport array 8) Flush Control
27. What are the applications of OpenGL?
1) Computer Aided Design 2) Virtual reality
3) Scientific visualization 4) Information visualization
5) Flight simulation 6) Video games.
28. List out the subsection in IGES format.
1) Start section 2) Global section 3) Directory entry section
4) Parameter data section 5) Terminate section
29. What are the advantages of DXF?
1) The DXF file format is the most compatible vector file type.
2) DXF files are used to exchange data between different CAD
programs.
3) It can be viewed and edited in any CAD/CAM software.
4) It is easy to process DXF files and divide it into small
components.
5) The DXF file specification is freely available in public.

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## 30. Define FEA?

Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computer simulation
technique used in engineering analysis to determine the
behaviour of structures and components under a variety of
conditions.
31. Mention the basic steps in FEA.
1) Pre-processing
2) Analysis (Computation of solution)
3) Post processing (Visualization)
32. List out the applications of FEA.
 Determination of stresses and displacements.
 Heat transfer
 Solid state diffusion
 Reactions with moving boundaries
 Fluid dynamics
 Electromagnetism
33. What are the advantages of FEA?
 Increased accuracy
 Enhanced design
 Better insight into critical design parameters
 Virtual prototyping
 Fewer hardware prototypes
 Faster and less expensive design cycle
 Increased productivity
 Increased revenue

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Unit – II
COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING
1. Define CAM.
Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) may be defined as the
effective use of computer technology in manufacturing,
planning, and control.
2. List out the functions of CAM in manufacturing planning.
 Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)
 Computer assisted NC part programming
 Computerized machinability data system
 Development of work standard
 Cost estimating
 Production and inventory planning
 Computer aided line balancing
3. List out the functions of CAM in manufacturing control.
 Process monitoring and control
 Quality control
 Shop floor control
 Inventory control
4. List out the benefits of CAM.
1) Greater flexibility in design
2) Increased productivity
3) Greater flexibility in operations
4) Shorter lead time
5) Improved reliability
6) Reduced maintenance
7) Reduced scrap and rework
8) Better management control
5. What is Group Technology (GT)?
Group Technology (GT) is a manufacturing philosophy that can
be used to group parts based on similarities in design or
manufacturing process so as to reduce the overall production
cost.
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## 6. What is part family?

A part family is a group of parts, which are similar either due
to their geometric shape and size, or due to similar processing
steps needed in their manufacture.
7. List out the design attributes used in GT.
1) Basic external shape 2) Basic internal shape
3) Material type 4) Part functions
5) Major dimensions 6) Minor dimensions
7) Tolerances 8) Surface finish
8. List out the manufacturing attributes used in GT.
1) Major processes 2) Minor operations
3) Operation sequence 4) Major dimension
5) Surface finish 6) Machine tool
7) Fixture required 8) Cutting tools
9. What are the applications of parts classification and
coding?
1) Design retrieval 2)Machine cell design
3) Automated process planning
10. What are the coding structures used in GT?
1) Hierarchical structure or Monocode structure
2) Chain type structure or Polycode structure
3) Hybrid structure or Mixed mode structure
11. List out the parts classifications and coding systems.
1) Opitz system 2)MICLASS system
3)The CODE system 4) DCLASS system
5)COFORM system 6) The KK–3 system
12. List out the benefits of Group Technology.
1) Retrieval of existing design from the database is easy.
2) It helps in design standardization.
3) The production rate is increased.
4) The inventory and work–in–process can be reduced.
5) The material handling and movement is reduced.
6) The scrap is reduced.
7) The machine utilization is increased.
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## 8) Manufacturing lead-time is reduced.

9) The overall plant efficiency is increased.
13. What is process planning?
Process planning involves determining the most appropriate
manufacturing and assembly processes and the sequence in
which they should be done to produce a product as per the
specifications.
14. What are the requirements for process planning?
1) Annual demand of the product or batch size.
2) The list of parts in the product.
3) Available stock sizes.
4) Details of available equipments.
5) Tools, dies, moulds, fixtures and gauges requirements.
6) Accuracy and surface finish requirements.
15. What is CAPP?
Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) is a means to
automatically develop the process plan with the help of
computer programs.
16. What is the difference between variant approach and
generative approach of CAPP?
 Variant approach uses a Group Technology (GT) code to
select appropriate process plan from the existing master
process plans developed for each part family and edits to
suit the requirement of the part.
 In generative approach, a process plan is created from
scratch for each part without human intervention.
17. List out the benefits of CAPP.
1) More logical and optimal process plans.
2) Lower manufacturing costs and higher product quality.
3) The productivity of process planners is increased.
4) The lead-time for process planning is reduced.
5) Computer prepared route sheets are neat and easy to read.

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## 18. What are the objectives of PPC?

1) Ensure safe and economical production process
2) Effectively utilize the resources
3) Ensure proper delivery of products
4) Ensure optimum inventory
5) Reduce the production time
6) Improve the quality of product
7) Control the wastage of raw material
8) Reduce the production cost
19. What is master production schedule?
Master production schedule is a very specific schedule of
individual products in the aggregate plan. It is a list of products
to be manufactured, when they should be completed and
delivered and in what quantities.
20. What are the objectives of MPS?
1) To make the best use of the resources such as equipment,
material and labour.
2) To maintain the inventory as low as possible.
3) To maintain the proper delivery of finished products.
21. What is capacity planning?
Capacity planning is concerned with determining the labour
and equipment resources needed to meet the current master
production schedule as well as the long–term future
production requirements of a company.
22. What is MRP?
A material requirement planning (MRP) is a computational
method that converts the master production schedule into a
detailed schedule for the raw material and components used
in the end products.
23. List out the benefits of MRP.
1) Reduction in inventory.
2) Quicker response to changes in demand.
3) Improved customer service.

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## 4) Reduced setup and product changeover costs.

5) Better machine utilization.
24. What is MRP-II?
Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP-II) is a computer
based system for planning, scheduling and controlling the
materials, resources and supporting activities needed to meet
the master production schedule.
25. What is shop floor control?
Shop floor control is concerned with the release of production
orders, monitoring and controlling the progress of the orders,
and collecting current information on the status of the orders.
26. Define JIT.
Just-In-Time (JIT) is a philosophy of manufacturing based on
planned elimination of all wastes and continuous improvement
of productivity.
27. What is ERP?
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is one of the MRP-II
softwares used for developing an optimum manufacturing
solution.

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Unit – III
CNC PROGRAMMING AND
RAPID PROTOTYPING
1. What is CNC part program?
CNC part program is a detailed list of instructions that need to
be executed by the machine control unit (MCU) to achieve the
final component shape.
2. List out the data required for part programming.
1) Specification of coordinate system
2) Specification of axes
3) Specification of machines
4) Specification of reference points
5) Specification of tools
6) Method of holding work pieces
7) Data tables and books
8) Sequence of operation
3. How axes are specified in NC system?
 Z-axis : The Z-axis motion is along the spindle axis or
parallel to the spindle axis.
 X-axis : The principal motion direction of cutting tool or the
work piece is designated as X–axis.
 Y-axis : It is perpendicular to both X and Y-axes, and the
direction is identified by the right hand Cartesian
coordinate system.

## 4. Define zero point.

The origin of the coordinate system is considered as zero
point.
5. Differentiate : Fixed zero point and floating zero point.
 Fixed zero point may be located at a fixed place and cannot
be changed.

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##  Floating zero point may be established by moving the slides

so that the cutting tool is placed in the desired position.

## 6. What is machine zero point or machine datum?

It is a fixed point on a machine specified by the manufacturer.
This point is the zero point for the coordinate system of the
machine controller.
7. What is workpiece zero point?
Workpiece zero point determines the work piece coordinate
system in relation to the machine zero point. This point is
chosen by the part programmer and input to the machine
controller.
8. What is tool zero point?
The reference point in the tool turret is known as tool zero
point.
9. What is machine reference point or home position?
It is the point used for calibrating and controlling the
measuring system of the slides and tool movements. It is
determined by the manufacturers.
10. Mention the two types of NC dimensioning.
 Absolute dimensioning: In absolute dimensioning, the
coordinates of a point in a work piece are always defined
with respect to the origin.
 Incremental dimensioning: In incremental dimensioning, the
coordinates of a point in a work piece are always defined
relative to the previous point.

## 11. List out the formats used in NC part programming.

1) Fixed sequential format
2) Fixed sequential format with tab ignored
3) Tab sequential format
4) Word address format
5) Word address format with TAB separation and variable
word order

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## 12. Mention the latest format used in NC part programming.

 Word address format with TAB separation and variable
word order is the latest format used in NC part program.
 The words are separated by TAB, and the words in the
block can be listed in any order.
13. What are G-codes(preparatory functions)?
G-codes are preset function associated with the movement of
machine axes and the associated geometry. It prepares the
machine control unit for the instruction and data contained in
the block.
14. What are modal and non-modal G-codes?
 Modal G-codes behave as settings to the control. Once
given they remain operational till cancelled by another G-
codes from the same group.
 Non-modal G-codes remain operational in the block in
which they are programmed.
15. What are miscellaneous functions?
Miscellaneous functions operate some controls on the machine
tool and thus affect the running of the machine.
16. Write the functions of the G-codes G21, G28, G71, G76.
G21 – Metric Input system; G28 – Return to Zero (Home)
G71 – Multiple turning cycle; G76 – Multiple thread cutting cycle
17. Give the functions of the M-codes M06, M30, M70, M98.
M06 – Tool change ; M30 – Program end and rewind;
M70 – X axis mirror ON; M98 – Subprogram Call
18. What is diameter programming?
Diameter programming is a programming method used in
turning centres in which all the movements of the tool along
X–axis is doubled to represent the diametral movement rather
than radial movement.
19. Define tool offset.
The difference between the tool tip position and the turret
datum is termed as tool offset.

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## 20. Give the syntax for tool (T-word) function.

The T word has the format Tmmnn. The first two digits (mm)
specify the turret station and the last two digits (nn) specify
the location of the tool offsets.
21. What are the methods of specifying spindle feed in NC
programming?
1) G97 – Constant surface speed 2) G98 – Constant RPM
Example:
G96 S200 (Spindle speed is set at 200 m/min)
G97 S2500 (Spindle speed is set at 2500 rpm)
22. How feed is specified in NC programming?
Feed rate can be specified in two formats
1) G98 – Feed in mm/min 2) G99 – Feed in mm/rev.
Example:
G98 F2.5 (2.5 mm / minute)
G99 F1 (0.01 mm / revolution)
G99 F1.0 (1.00 mm / revolution)
G99 F100 (1.00 mm / revolution)
23. What is the difference between G00 and G01?
 G00 is used for rapid positioning simultaneously in all the axes.
 G01 is used for linear interpolation at a given feed rate.
24. List out the various interpolation methods in NC.
 Linear interpolation
 Circular interpolation
 Helical interpolation
 Parabolic interpolation
 Cubic interpolation
25. What is linear interpolation?
Linear interpolation is used for creating straight-line path. G01
is used for linear interpolation at a given feed rate.
26. What is circular interpolation? Give its syntax.
Circular interpolation is used for generating circular arc.
Syntax: G02 X_ Z_ R_ F_ (or) G03 X_ Z_ R_ F_
G02 – Circular Interpolation (Clockwise)

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## G03 – Circular Interpolation (Counter-clockwise)

X, Z – Coordinate values; F – Feed rate; R-Radius
27. What is canned cycle?
Canned cycle or fixed cycle may be defined as a set of
instructions, inbuilt or stored in the system memory, to
perform a fixed sequence of tool movements. Canned cycles
are used for repetitive and commonly used machining
operations.
28. Mention the syntax for threading cycle.
Syntax : G92 X_ Z_ F_
G92 – Thread cutting canned cycle
X, Z – Coordinate values; F – Feed rate (pitch of the thread)
29. Give the syntax for stock removal cycle.
Syntax : G71 U_ R_
G71 P_ Q_ U_ W_ F_
G71 – Stock removal cycle (or) Multiple turning canned cycle
U = Depth of cut of each pass
R = Distance by which the tool will be withdrawn.
P = The sequence number of the first block.
Q = The sequence number of the last block.
U = Finishing allowance in X direction.
W = Finishing allowance in Y direction.
F = Feed rate
30. Mention the syntax for multiple threading cycle.
Syntax : G76 X_ Z_ A_ I_ K_ D_ F_
G76 – Multiple thread cutting canned cycle
X = Core diameter of the thread
Z = Length of the thread
A = Angle of the thread
I = Thread taper (usually zero)
K = Total depth of the thread in microns
D = Depth of first cut in microns
F = Feed rate (pitch)

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## 31. What is peck drilling?

The G74 code is used for peck drilling in Fanuc controller
system. We simply position the drill to a safe starting point
and then call the drilling cycle. The drill then drills to each
incremental peck depth and then retracts to clear the chips.
32. Give the syntax for peck drilling cycle.
Syntax : G74 X_ Z_ K_ F_
G74 – Peck drilling canned cycle
X = Finish diameter
Z = Finish Z – depth
K = Peck depth
F = Feed
33. What is tool length compensation?
The tools are measured in the assembled state using a tool
presetter. The difference in length of the tool from a fixed
datum is called tool length compensation.
34. What is subprogram?
Subprogram is an independent program with all the features
of a usual part program. The fixed sequence or frequently used
procedures are stored as subprograms under separate
program number.
35. What is the difference between subroutines and macros?
 Subroutines are subprograms that are temporary in
nature and will be specific to a particular main program.
 Macros are subprograms that are permanent in nature and
stored permanently in the controller memory. Therefore
macros can be called by any program.
36. Give the syntax for subroutine calling.
Syntax : M98 Prrrnnnn
M98 – Subroutine calling
rrr - number of times the subroutine is to be repeated.
nnnn - identification number of the subroutine.

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## 37. How macros are called in NC program?

Syntax : G65 P4322 A_ B_ C_ . . . . . .
P4322 specifies the subprogram number to be called
A, B, C, etc. are word addresses used for assigning arguments.
38. What is mirror imaging?
In the part program for symmetric geometries, the blocks in
the program are repeated with small changes. The program
can be simplified by using the mirror imaging facility which
changes the sign of the dimensions of the particular axis
whose mirroring is specified.
39. Define pocketing.
Pocketing or pocket milling is the process of removing the
material inside a closed boundary on a flat surface of a work
piece to a specified depth.
40. What is Rapid Prototyping (RP)?
Rapid prototyping is the automatic construction of physical
objects using subtractive or additive manufacturing
technology.
41. What is subtractive manufacturing?
It is a process by which 3D objects are constructed by
successively cutting material away from a solid block of
material.
42. What is additive manufacturing?
It is a process by which 3D objects are constructed by
successively adding layers of liquid, powder, or sheet
material and joining them together to create the final shape.
43. List out the various prototyping technologies.
 Selective laser sintering (SLS)
 Fused deposition modelling (FDM)
 Stereolithography (SLA)
 Laminated object manufacturing (LOM)
 Electron beam melting (EBM)
 3D printing (3DP)
 Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)
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## 44. List out the materials used in rapid prototyping.

Metal powders, Thermoplastics, Photopolymer, Paper,
Titanium alloys, etc.
45. List out the applications of rapid prototyping.
 Rapid manufacturing  Visualization
 Metal casting  Architecture
 Education  Geospatial
 Healthcare  Entertainment
 Retail  Biotechnology
 Jewelry  Footwear
 Industrial design  Automotive
 Aerospace  Archaeology
 Dental and medical industries
46. List out the advantages of rapid prototyping.
1) Easier to find the design errors.
2) Design changes can be made easily.
3) Gives the fair idea about the final product.
4) Development time and cost are reduced.
5) Product quality is improved.
6) Better communication between user and designer.
47. List out the advantages of Stereolithography.
 Greatest accuracy
 Best surface finish
 Cost of equipment is comparatively less.
 Simple process
 Products are strong enough to be machined
 Products can be used as master patterns.
48. List out the advantages of FDM.
 Simple and quiet process
 Fast process
 The product has greater strength
 Various types of materials can be used
 The production cost is comparatively less

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## 49. Give the advantages of SLS.

 Simple process
 No supports are required
 No final curing is required
 Various types of powder materials can be used
 Complex geometries can be easily produced
50. List out the advantages of 3D printing.
 Parts with several materials can be built.
 Complicated three dimensional shapes can be built.
 Printing of full colour prototypes.
 Fastest method.
 Equipment cost is less.
 Easier to use.
51. Define rapid tooling.
Rapid Tooling (RT) is a process of producing moulds quickly
using rapid prototyping techniques and conventional tooling
methods.
52. List out the advantages of rapid tooling.
 Shorter tooling time.
 Low cost
 Functional test of tool on design stage
 Design errors can be rectified easily.
 Complex shapes can be produced.

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Unit – IV
COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING,
FLEXIBILE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS,
AUTOMATIC GUIDED VEHICLE AND ROBOT
1. W
Define CIM.
Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) includes all of the
engineering functions of CAD/CAM and business functions that
are related to manufacturing.
2. W
What is the concept of CIM?
The CIM concept is that all of the firm’s operations related to
manufacturing are incorporated in an integrated computer
system to assist, improve and automate the operations.
3. W
What is CIM wheel?
CIM wheel shows the components of a CIM system.
4. W
List out the benefits of CIM.
1) Increased machine utilization
2) Reduced direct and indirect labour.
3) Reduced manufacturing lead-time.
4) Lower in-process inventory.
5) Greater scheduling flexibility.
6) Reduced scrap and rework.
7) Increased factory capacity.
8) Safer working environment.
5. W
What is integrated CAD/CAM?
The product design and manufacturing functions are
integrated by using CAD/CAM technology. This is termed as
integrated CAD/CAM.
6. W
What is FMS?
Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is a highly automated
GT machine cell. It consists of a group of machine tools,
interconnected by automated material handling and storage
system, and controlled by a central computer.

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## 7. List out the components of FMS.

1) Processing stations or work stations
2) Material handling and storage system
3) Computer control system
4) Human labour
8. List out the various FMS layout configurations.
1) Inline layout 2) Loop layout 3) Ladder layout
4) Open field layout 5) Robot centered layout
9. State the difference between inline layout and loop layout?
 In inline layout, the machines and handling system are
arranged in a straight line.
 In loop layout, the workstations are arranged in a loop that
is served by a part transport system in the same shape.
10. How FMS is classified?
1) Flexible turning cell (FTC)
2) Flexible Manufacturing Cell (FMC)
3) Flexible Transfer Line (FTL)
4) Flexible Machining System (FMS)
11. What is flexible turning cell?
Flexible turning cell consists of one CNC turning centre
combined with a parts storage system.

## 12. What is flexible manufacturing cell?

Flexible manufacturing cell consists of two or three CNC
machine tools interfaced with automated material handling
and automatic tool changers.

## 13. What are the applications of FMS?

1) Machining operations such as milling, turning, drilling, etc.
2) Assembly of parts 3) Sheet metal press working
4) Forging & Welding 5) Inspection and testing
14. List out the benefits of FMS.
1) Increased machine utilization
2) Fewer machines are required
3) Reduced human intervention

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## 4) Reduced work-in-process inventory

5) Reduced manufacturing lead time
6) Improved quality and reduced scrap rate
7) Reduction in factory floor space requirements
15. What is intelligent manufacturing?
Intelligent manufacturing system is one in which computer
based Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques are used for
manufacturing products.
16. Define Artificial Intelligence (AI)?
Artificial Intelligence is the ability of a device to perform
functions that are normally associated with human
intelligence. These functions include reasoning, planning and
problem solving.
17. What is an expert system?
An expert system can be defined as an interactive computer
program with an expert-like performance in a particular
problem-solving area.
18. Define AGV.
An automated guided vehicle (AGV) is a material handling
equipment, which can be independently operated and guided
along defined pathways in the factory floor.
19. List out the components in AGV.
1) Vehicle guidance system 2) Vehicle routing system
3) Traffic control system
20. Mention the technologies used for guidance in AGV.
 Guide wire method
 Paint strip method
 Self guided vehicles
21. List out the types of AGV.
1) Towing vehicles 2) Unit load carriers
3) Pallet trucks 4) Fork trucks
5) Light load vehicles 6) Assembly line vehicles

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## 22. List out the applications of AGV.

1) Driverless train operations 2) Storage and distribution
3) Assembly line application 4) Flexible manufacturing system
5) Office mail delivery 6) Hospital material transport
23. List out the benefits of AGV.
1) Better resource utilization
2) Increased control over material flow and movement
3) Reduced product damage
4) Less material movement noise
5) Flexibility in routing
6) Reduction in floor space
7) Reduced work-in-process inventory
8) Reduction in direct labour requirements
24. Define robot.
Robot is a programmed multi-function manipulator designed to
move material, parts, tools or special devices for the
performance of variety of tasks.
25. What are the basic elements in robot?
1) Base 2) Manipulator 3) End effectors
4) Actuators 5) Transmission elements 6) Control system
7) Sensors 8) Interfaces
26. What are end effectors?
End effector is a device attached with the robot’s wrist to
perform specific task. The end effectors may be a gripper or a
tool.
27. List out the various robot configurations.
 Polar coordinate configuration
 Cylindrical coordinate configuration
 Cartesian coordinate configuration
 Jointed arm configuration
 SCARA (Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm) configuration
28. Mention the various robot motions.
1) Vertical traverse 2) Radial traverse 3) Rotational traverse
4) Wrist swivel 5) Wrist bend 6) Wrist yaw
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## 29. Mention the methods of robot programming.

1) Manual method 2) Walkthrough method
3) Leadthrough method 4) Off-line programming
30. List out the advantages of off-line programming.
 Production time is not lost due to delays in teaching the robot.
 Programming can be done while the robot is still in operation.
 Higher utilization of the robot and the equipment.
31. List out the various robot sensors.
1) Vision sensors 2) Tactile sensors
3) proximity sensors 4) Voice sensors
32. What are the uses of vision sensors?
 Retrieve parts which are randomly oriented.
 Recognize parts which are intermixed with other objects
 Perform visual inspection tasks
 Perform assembly operations which require alignment
33. What are the uses of tactile and proximity sensors?
 Tactile sensors are useful in assembly and inspection
operations.
 Proximity sensors are used to sense when one object is
close to another object.
34. What are the types of grippers used as end effectors?
1) Mechanical grippers 2) Vacuum grippers
3) Magnetic grippers 4) Expanding grippers
5) Adhesive gripper 6) Hook gripper
35. List out the tools used as end effectors in robot.
Spot welding gun, arc welding tool, spray painting gun,
rotating spindle for drilling, grinding, and similar operations,
assembly tool, heating torch, ladle, water jet cutting tool, etc.

## 36. List out the characteristics of robot applications.

 Hazardous work
 Repetitive work cycle
 Difficult handling
 Multishift work
 Infrequent changeovers

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## 37. List out the industrial applications of robot.

1) Material transfer 2) Machine loading 3) Welding
4) Spray coating 6) Assembly 6) Inspection

Unit – V
CONCURRENT ENGINEERING,
QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT,
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CYCLE,
AND AUGMENTED REALITY
1. W
Define sequential engineering.
Sequential engineering is a traditional method of product
development in which product design, development of
manufacturing process, quality and testing activities are
carried out one after another.

2. W
Define concurrent engineering.
Concurrent engineering is a method by which several teams
within an organization work simultaneously to develop new
products.
3. W
What is the need of concurrent engineering?
 Increasing global competitive pressure.
 Need for rapid response to fast-changing consumer
demand.
 Shorter product life cycle.
 New and innovative technologies developing at a very high
rate.
4. W
List out the benefits of concurrent engineering.
1) Optimized design can be obtained
2) Design errors can be detected and rectified easily
3) Reduced product development time
4) Reduced production cost
5) Increased productivity
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## 6) Improved quality of product

7) Increased reliability
8) Improved customer-supplier relations
5. W
Define Quality Function Deployment (QFD) ?
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a systematic approach to
translate the customers needs into product characteristics for
each stage of product development.
6. W
What are the phases in QFD?
1) Product planning 2) Product design
3) Process design 4) Process control
7. What is House of Quality (HOQ) ?
House of Quality is a diagram used for defining the relationship
between customer needs and the product capabilities. It looks
like a house.
8. List out the advantages of QFD.
 Improves customer-supplier relations
 Decreases midstream design change.
 Reduces the development cost
 Reduces the cycle time for new products
 Improves team work
 Creates data for proper documentation
 improves quality of product
 Reduces rejection and rework
 Increases the sales revenue
9. What is Failure Modes and Effects Analysis?
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is methodology
used to identify potential failure modes, determine their effect
on the operation of the product, and identify actions to reduce
the failures.
10. When to use FMEA?
 During the development of a new product
 Before changes are made to the product
 After identifying an error in the product.
 When new regulations are introduced.
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##  When receiving number of complaints from customers.

 When sales support cost is unusually high.
11. What is RPN?
RPN stands for Risk Priority Number which is used FMEA to
rank the failure modes.
RPN = (Severity) x (Probability) x (Detection).

## 12. List out the benefits of FMEA.

 Improves product reliability and quality
 Increases customer satisfaction
 Improves team work
 Reduces product development time and cost
 Minimizes late changes and associated cost
 Reduces failure and warranty costs
 Maximizes profit.
13. Define value engineering.
Value engineering (VE) is a process of improving the value of
a product during its design stage by using an organized
creative approach.
14. Define value.
Value is defined as the ratio of function to cost. Value can be
increased by either improving the function or reducing the
cost.
15. List out the types of values?
1) Cost value 2) Use value 3) Esteem value
4) Exchange value 5) Time value 6) Place value

## 16. Mention any two techniques used for identification of

poor value areas.
1) Value tests 2) Function – cost matrix approach
17. List out the benefits of value engineering.
1) Reduced unit cost.
2) Improved operational performance
3) Improved product quality
4) Reduced manufacturing costs

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5) Elimination of wastage
6) Encourages team spirit and morale
7) Improved customer-supplier relations
8) Reduced number of parts in a product
18. Define DFMA.
Design for Manufacture and Assembly is a methodology used
to simplify a product design and manufacturing process to
achieve cost savings.
19. List out the benefits of DFMA.
1) Reduced number of parts in a product
2) Improved product quality
3) Reduced manufacturing costs and time
4) Elimination of wastage
5) Encourages team spirit and morale
20. Mention the activities in product development cycle?
1) Developing product concept 2) Designing the product
3) Planning 4) Manufacturing the part
5) Marketing 6) Servicing
21. List out the stages in product life cycle.
1) Introduction 2) Growth 3) Maturity 4) Decline
22. List out the stages in new product development
process.
1) Idea generation 2) Idea screening
3) Concept testing 4) Business analysis
5) Product development 6) Test marketing
7) Commercialization
23. What is Augmented Reality?
Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that superimposes
a computer-generated input on a user's real world. Graphics,
sounds, and touch feedback are added into natural world.
24. List out the display devices used in AR.
Head-mounted display, eyeglasses, Google Glass, HoloLens,
Contact lenses, Virtual retinal display.

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## 25. What are the software used in AR?

Augmented Reality Markup Language (ARML) is a data
standard used to describe the location and appearance of
virtual objects in the scene. A few Software development kits
such as CloudRidAR, ARToolKit, Mobinett AR, Wikitude, and
Meta are used.
26. List out the important fields of application of AR.
1) Architecture 2) Visual art 3) Education
4) Video games 5) Industrial design 6) Medical
7) Military 8) Broadcast

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