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Eni S.p.A.

Exploration & Production Division

COMPANY STANDARD

CORROSION INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT

20602.VAR.COR.SDS

November 2009

ENGINEERING COMPANY STANDARD

Documento riservato di proprietà di Eni S.p.A. Divisione Agip. Esso non sarà mostrato a Terzi né utilizzato per scopi diversi da quelli per i quali è stato inviato.
This document is property of Eni S.p.A. Divisione Agip. It shall neither be shown to Third Parties not used for purposes other than those for which it has been sent.
Eni S.p.A. 20602.VAR.COR.SDS
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Exploration & Production Division
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PREMISE

Rev. 0 November 2009


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CORROSION INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT


1. GENERAL
1.1 Scope
1.2 References
1.2.1 ENI Company Standards
1.2.2 ENI E&P Company Documents
1.3 Acronyms and abbreviations
1.4 Glossary and definitions
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Asset integrity
2.2 Corrosion
2.3 Corrosion prevention and control
3. CORROSION INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT
3.1 Definition and targets
3.2 Tasks
3.3 Tasks and the project lifecycle
3.4 Tasks activities
3.4.1 Corrosion control philosophy
3.4.2 Materials and corrosion control design
3.4.3 Corrosion monitoring and inspection design
3.4.4 Laboratory and field testing
3.4.5 Data management
3.4.6 Corrosion management
3.4.7 Corrosion risk assessment
3.4.8 Risk-based Inspections
3.4.9 Corrosion monitoring and inspections
3.4.10 Asset integrity review
3.5 Main deliverables. Base requirements
3.5.1 Corrosion evaluation studies
3.5.2 Material Selection Reports
3.5.3 Cathodic Protection Specifications and Drawings
3.5.4 Corrosion Monitoring Design Specifications
3.5.5 Corrosion risk assessment studies
3.6 The Corrosion Integrity Workflow
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1. GENERAL

1.1 Scope
This document deals with Corrosion Integrity Management, intended as the general framework
adopted by Eni E&P Division for managing and controlling the corrosion integrity of the assets.

The aims of the document are:


− to illustrate the workflow for the Corrosion Integrity Management during the project lifecycle;
− to identify the tasks through which the goals of the Corrosion Integrity Management System are
pursued;
− to position the Corrosion Integrity Management tasks with respect to the development and
operation project phases, from design through commissioning, start-up, operations, upsets and
inactivity, life extension, if any, up to abandonment;
− for each task, to identify the typical contents, input data and reference documents, output and
deliverables;
− for each task, to identify the applicable Company standards and other supports.

The document does not cover the correlated activities not directly active within the project, as for
instance: the management of Company standard; the personnel training and certification; the
research and development activities.

1.2 References
1.2.1 ENI Company Standards
Ref. /1/ 27605.DOC.GEN.SDS Technical documentation required during the project
development phase.
Ref. /2/ 06215.DOC.GEN.SDS Facility functional units.
Ref. /3/ 20189.COO.GEN.SDS Technical document identification and title blocks.
Ref. /4/ 20198.COO.GEN.SDS Item numbering.
Ref. /5/ 20203.COO.GEN.SDS Handover of plant components data and key documents for
DPIMP.
Ref. /6/ 02555.VAR.COR.PRG Internal corrosion. Corrosion parameters and classification of
the fluid.
Ref. /7/ 20603.MAT.COR.PRG Material selection and corrosion control for oil and gas process
equipment. (This standard cancels and replaces the previous
ENI norms: 03588.MAT.COR.PRG, Internal corrosion.
Material and material selection criteria; and
08053.MAT.COR.PRG, Materials and corrosion control
methods in gathering and treatment oil and gas plants).
Ref. /8/ 20019.MAT.COR.PRG Material selection for seawater handling systems.
Ref. /9/ 20312.VAR.COR.PRG Guidelines for chemical treatments of pipelines.
Ref. /10/ 20000.VAR.PAI.FUN Protective coating and hot dip galvanising.
Ref. /11/ 27591.VAR.PAI.SDS Paint system approved.
Ref. /12/ 20550.PIP.COR.FUN External coatings for corrosion protection of steel pipes and
components.
Ref. /13/ 20551.PIP.COR.FUN Internal coatings for corrosion protection of steel pipes and
components.
Ref. /14/ 20554.PIP.COR.FUN Internal coatings for corrosion protection.
Ref. /15/ 20552.VAR.PAI.FUN Maintenance of coated surfaces.
Ref. /16/ 20555.VAR.COR.PRG Internal corrosion monitoring.
Ref. /17/ 20556.VAR.COR.FUN Internal corrosion monitoring specification. functional
requirements.
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Ref. /18/ 27589.VAR.COR.PRG Guidelines for design and construction of cathodic protection
systems.
Ref. /19/ 02977.VAR.COR.SPC Cathodic protection planning of maintenance operations on
cathodic protection plant components.
Ref. /20/ 20045.MAT.COR.FUN Offshore platforms. Cathodic protection monitoring system.
Ref. /21/ 20309.VAR.COR.PRG Cathodic protection of buried structures in plant facilities.
Ref. /22/ 20310.VAR.COR.PRG Design and installation of systems to prevent alternating
current induced corrosion.
Ref. /23/ 20557.VAR.COR.SDS Corrosion risk assessment methodology.
Ref. /24/ 14039.VAR.COR.PRG Corrosion survey guidelines.
Ref. /25/ 14059.PLI.COR.PRG Inspections with intelligent pigs.
Ref. /26/ 20384.PLI.MEC.SPC Pipeline hydraulic testing.
Ref. /27/ 20558.VAR.COR.SDS Workflow specification corrosion integrity management.
Ref. /28/ 20600. VAR.COR.PRG Guidelines on corrosion and material selection normative.
Ref. /29/ 14040.VAR.COR.PRG Corrosion control of vessels and pipelines during hydraulic
tests, inactivity, shutdowns and cleaning operations.
Ref. /30/ 20311.VAR.COR.SDS Cathodic protection underwater inspection.
Ref. /31/ 20415.SLI.OFF.SDS Guideline for sealine and riser inspection and maintenance
program.
Ref. /32/ 07669.GPF.OFF.SPC Criteri di programmazione delle ispezioni periodiche su
piattaforma offshore.
Ref. /33/ 20181.STR.OFF.FUN Piattaforme offshore - Esecuzione delle Ispezioni.
Ref. /34/ 11558.VAR.COR.SPC Protezione catodica. Misure e metodi di indagine per la
verifica del grado di protezione di strutture interrate protette
catodicamente.

1.2.2 ENI E&P Company Documents


Ref. /35/ ENI E&P Doc N° 1.3.0.08 General Requirements for HSE Asset Integrity Management,
Rev. 00, dated September 2009.
Ref. /36/ SVI.TMS.MA.0001 TMS. Technology Management System Facilities Engineering
Handbook. Rev- A02, 29/10/2004.
Ref. /37/ SVI.DMS.GL.0003.000 DMS. Development Management System. Workflow Maps.
Rev- A01, 22/02/2004.
Ref. /38/ SVI.OMS.POS. MA.0001 Opportunity and Production Operation System Handbook.
Rev- A02, 29/06/2005.
Ref. /39/ 22010.MAN.GEN.SDS Operation & Maintenance Engineering. Guidelines for RCM
Implementation. Rev. A01, 15/07/08.
Ref. /40/ SVI.OMS.PMS.BP.0002.000 Operation Management System (OMS). Production
Management System (PMS). Best Practice: Asset Integrity
Review.

1.3 Acronyms and abbreviations

AIA Asset Integrity Assurance


ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practicable
BEDD Basic Engineering Design Data
CMM Corrosion Management Manual
CP Cathodic Protection
CRA Corrosion Resistant Alloy or Corrosion Risk Assessment
DMS Development Management System
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EPC Engineering, Procurement & Construction


FEED Front End Engineering
Gp OPOS Gate
HAZOP Hazard and Operability Study
HSE Health, Safety, Environment
IMP Inspection and Maintenance Plan
KPI Key Performance Indicator
LCC Life Cycle Cost
MSFD Material Selection Flow Diagram
NDT Non Destructive Testing
O&M Operation and Maintenance
OPDS Opportunity and Project Development System
OPOS Opportunity and Production Operation System
P&ID Process Instrumentation Diagram
PED Pressure Equipment Directive
PFD Process Flow Diagram
RBI Risk Based Inspection
TMS Technology Management System

1.4 Glossary and definitions

ALARP (As Low A concept of minimization that postulates that attributes (such as risk) can only be
As Reasonably reduced to a certain minimum under current technology and with reasonable cost
Practical) (Ref. API RP 580 Risk-Based Inspection).

Asset All physical facilities required for operations (Ref. /35/).


Audit Systematic and independent control made to establish whether activities and
results are consistent with planned activities and whether these are effectively
carried out and suitable for reaching the goal (Ref. /38/).
Availability The ability of an item to be in a state to eprform its function under given conditions
at a given instant of time or over a given time interval, assuming that the required
externalresources are provided. In other words the probability of fucntioning of a
system or item at a given time; it also expresses the percentage of hours spent in
the good status versus the ststem/item expected functioning (sum of the hours
spent in good and failed status). Failed status considers both the no functioning
due to failures and due to preventive maintenance. It is often defined as A(t) (Ref.
/39/).
Availability Prediction of the facility performance in terms of production availability. This takes
Analysis into account both the facility reliability parameters and the maintainability
parameters as result of the maintainability analysis.
Basic Design The outline design providing the minimum necessary project specification to
perform tender activities. The level of definition of the development concept
achieved with Basic Design, can be further refined by carrying out FEED (Ref.
/36/).
Consequence of The consequence of failure through the unintentional release of stored energy and
failure hazardous material is the potential for harm. Duty Holders have a responsibility to
assess the potential harm to the Health and Safety of employees and/or the public,
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and to the environment from pollution and other damage. They may also
legitimately consider the consequences of failure on their business, such as the
costs of lost production, repair and replacement of equipment and the damage to
of the company reputation.
Deliverable Tangible, real output from an activity or process used in attaining the final goal of
the project. Includes documents, data, plans, schedule, drawings, etc. (Ref. /36/).
Design Premises The Design Premises is a document establishing the company’s requirements in
the detail necessary to enable the Engineering Team and/or an engineering
contractor/consultant to prepare the project specification. It contains the
constraints, in terms of available information, laws, codes, and the essential
minimum standards and policies, which circumscribe the project and which would
normally form part of the contract for preparation of a major project specifications. It
is subject to update as further information is obtained (Ref. /36/).
Failure Termination of the ability of a system, structure, or component to perform its
required function of containment of fluid (i.e. loss of containment). Failure may be
unannounced and undetectable until the next inspection (unannounced failure), or
may be announced and detected by any number of methods at the instance of
occurrence (announced failure) (Ref. API RP 580 Risk-Based Inspection).
HAZOP (Hazard Qualitative methodology that identifies possible deviations from the correct
and Operability functioning of the process and of the plant services, analysing moreover the
Analysis) consequences of such anomalies and the actions to be taken to limit them to the
smallest possible area (Ref. /38/).
Inspection Activities performed to verify that materials, fabrication, erection, examinations,
testing, repairs, etc. conform to applicable Code, engineering, and/or owners
written procedure requirements (Ref. API RP 581 Risk-Based Inspection
Technology).
Risk The combination of the probability of an event and its consequences. In some
situations risk is the deviation from the expected. Risk is defined as the product of
probability and consequences when probability and consequence are expressed
numerically (Ref. API RP 581 Risk-Based Inspection Technology).
Risk Analysis Use of all available information to identify the danger and evaluate the risk. The
analysis can be both qualitative and quantitative (Ref. /38/).
Risk The systematic process of identifying, analysing and responding to risk. It includes
Management maximizing the probability and consequence of positive events and minimizing the
probability and consequences of events adverse to planned objectives (Ref. /38/).
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2. INTRODUCTION

2.1 Asset integrity


Asset Integrity is defined as the Prevention of major accidents (Ref. /35/). A major accident is an
unplanned event with escalation potential for multiple fatalities, serious damage to the environment
or the asset, possibly beyond the asset itself, and/or to the reputation of the Company’ (Ref. /35/).

A wider concept of asset Integrity is that defined in the “Operation Management System” (Ref. /38/,
Section C.2.1.), where asset Integrity is defined as “an unimpaired state of fitness of an asset to
operate for its specified, validated and verified designed purpose”. Asset Integrity Assurance (AIA)
process encourages a value based management of the asset, so that production targets can be
achieved without taking decision which may result in a long term loss of value. Hence a structured
approach to Asset Integrity Assurance represents a necessary condition for ensuring the
achievement of full value realization during production operations.

Integrity of an oil and gas asset is the result of a multi-disciplinary approach, that necessitates giving
due consideration to the performance of materials in the specific environments, the economics of the
oil industry and local operations, the tolerable level of risk and the viable technological resources that
may be deployed to reduce integrity-risk to acceptable levels. This requires an appropriate
understanding of management, technical, operational and safety issues.

During the lifecycle of an oil and gas asset, activities shall be carried out to ensure integrity be
maintained from first evaluation through to decommissioning. For the success of integrity activities it
is necessary that the integrity management system is designed, made-up and continuously revised
and optimised during the full service life. Key integrity processes are required from the early design
phase and have to be continued with endeavour for each of the stage of the asset lifecycle.

Root causes for loss of asset integrity leading to failure of pressure containing systems and structural
items may include:
− inadequate design and/or material for the loading and operating environment;
− incorrect and/or defective manufacture;
− unanticipated in-service deterioration such as corrosion;
− system errors in operation or maintenance or over-pressure protection;
− malfunction of instrumentation, control systems or feed and utility supplies;
− human factors;
− external events such as fire, impacts, earthquakes or storms.

An integrity management strategy consists of measures to prevent, address and mitigate the
possibility of root causes of failure. Design reviews, quality assurance, training, and systems
analyses are examples of such measures. In-service inspection and monitoring are methods for
failure prevention when a root cause has led to deterioration from the design intent or the as-
manufactured condition.

With the term deterioration or degradation it is herein intended the onset or growth of damage or
defects which can be:
− macroscopic damage such as dents or gouges, bulging, deformation;
− general or localised wall thinning and pitting;
− material flaws, cracks, and welding defects;
− degradation of material properties due to changes in the material microstructure.

Deterioration can result from discrete events (e.g. welding flaws, impact damage) and the equipment
may remain in that condition without further change. It commonly relates to age and service, initiating
or becoming worse with time.

To guarantee effectiveness, the periodical inspection must be sufficiently frequent in relation to the
time between the deterioration becoming detectable and the onset of failure. Inspection techniques
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must be selected which are capable to detect the deterioration of concern with sufficient reliability at
a sufficient early stage.

2.2 Corrosion
Corrosion of metallic materials, in particular of carbon and low alloy steels which still are the main
construction material, represents the main issue for the integrity of the oil and gas production assets.

Production facilities are exposed to external environment, as marine and industrial atmosphere,
seawater or soil and are in contact with produced hydrocarbons. These are not corrosive by
themselves, but corrosivity can be greatly enhanced by contaminants like carbon dioxide (CO2),
hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and salty water. Actually, several corrosion mechanisms exist which can
significantly affect the integrity and the durability of metallic materials.

2.3 Corrosion prevention and control


To face all corrosion mechanisms, the available consolidated knowledge shall be applied along the
project life at the right time, at the right place and at the lowest costs.

Knowledge for corrosion prevention and control is incorporated into a number of approaches,
techniques and materials which, if correctly selected, designed and applied, allow to mitigate and
control the corrosion mechanisms and thus guarantee the integrity of the components. The main
techniques are:
− corrosion allowance for carbon steel items;
− use of corrosion resistant metallic materials;
− use of plastics;
− fluid treatment with chemicals, including: corrosion inhibitors, glycols, biocides, oxygen
scavengers, H2S scavengers;
− process intervention, including: phase separation, filtration, dehydration, deaeration, sweetening,
stabilization;
− cathodic protection;
− organic coatings and linings;
− metallic coatings (cladding or weld overlay).
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3. CORROSION INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT

3.1 Definition and targets


The Corrosion Integrity Management System is the general framework adopted by Eni E&P Division
for managing and controlling the corrosion integrity of the assets.

The primary purpose of the Corrosion Integrity Management System is to ensure that people
involved in corrosion control in all phases of the project lifecycle have a clear understanding of what
they are required to do, how they should do it and when they have to do it.

The final targets of the Corrosion Integrity Management System are:


− to assure the operability of the assets;
− to guarantee the safety requirements of the assets;
− to prevent any environmental issue.

The activities to be performed within the Corrosion Integrity Management System make reference to
OPDS (Opportunity and Project Development System) for the engineering phases and to the OPOS
(Opportunity and Production Operation System) for the production phases.

3.2 Tasks
The Corrosion Integrity Management System consists and includes a number of main activities,
hereinafter reported as tasks, through which the goals of the Corrosion Integrity Management
System are pursued.

The main tasks considered in this document are:


− corrosion and corrosion prevention/control philosophies;
− materials selection and corrosion prevention/control design;
− corrosion monitoring and inspection design;
− laboratory and field testing for qualification of materials and chemical treatments;
− data management system;
− corrosion management;
− corrosion risk assessment;
− risk-based inspections;
− corrosion monitoring and inspections;
− asset integrity review.

3.3 Tasks and the project lifecycle


The Corrosion Integrity Management System, through its own tools, is effective along all the lifecycle
of the project, from Development to Operation. In this Document, reference is made to the following
project phases (Ref. /37/, Ref. /38/):

Development (OPDS):
− evaluation;
− concept selection;
− concept definition;
− execution;
− commissioning, start-up and tests.

Operation (OPOS):
− handover to operation;
− first period production;
− running production and improvement;
− running production and preparation to decommissioning.
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Figure 3.1 illustrates the positioning of the tasks of the Corrosion Integrity Management System with
respect to the project phases.
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PROJECT PHASES
Evaluation Concept Selection Commissioning,
TASKS G1 G2
Concept Definition Execution
Start-up, tests
Handover to First Period Running Product. Preparation to
Operation Production & Improvement Decommissioning
GP 1 GP 2
1 Corrosion control philosophies

2 Materials and corrosion control design

3 Corrosion monitoring and inspection design

4 Laboratory and field testing

5 Data management

6 Corrosion management

7 Corrosion risk assessment

8 Risk-based inspections

9 Monitoring and Inspections

10 Asset Integrity review

Mandatory Optional (or extensions)

Figure 3.1 – Corrosion Integrity Management tasks and project phases.


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3.4 Tasks activities


In this paragraph the main Corrosion Integrity Management tasks are reviewed and for each task the
minimum requirements are provided for:
− task content;
− input data and reference documents;
− output and deliverables;
− Company reference normative and supports.

The following documents apply for document identification, facility codification and item numbering:
− 27605.DOC.GEN.SDS Technical documentation required during the project development
phase.
− 20189.COO.GEN.SDS Technical document identification and title blocks.
− 06215.DOC.GEN.SDS Facility functional units.
− 20198.COO.GEN.SDS Item numbering.
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3.4.1 Corrosion control philosophy


This task is located in the very early stage of the project development. The aims are:
− to identify the exposure conditions of the production facilities and to assess the severity of
corrosion;
− to provide viable options for corrosion mitigation.

The task is mandatory for major projects and for new oil and gas fields located in harsh environments
or in presence of high contents of contaminants, in particular H2S and CO2.

The analysis shall include both external corrosion, affected by the natural environment, and internal
corrosion, dominated by composition of the reservoir fluids. Typical issues for this analysis are:
− review of atmospheric and soil corrosion conditions;
− review of marine conditions (in case of offshore developments), including: meteo-marine data;
sea water salinity;
− main exposure conditions of the production facilities: atmospheric, submerged, splash zone, ice,
etc.;
− review of corrosive agents in the reservoir fluids, including: CO2, H2S, salts, mercury, elemental
sulphur, etc.;
− identification of the expected corrosion and degradation mechanisms;
− categorization of the exposure conditions from corrosion viewpoint.

Typical deliverables in this phase are:


− Corrosion control and material philosophy.

Depending on the project size, a unique study can be issued or more studies can be planned each
covering homogeneous facilities, e.g. wells, pipelines, process units. This deliverable is intended as
input for the definition of the corrosion control design task.

Support normative includes the following ENI standards:


− 02555.VAR.COR.PRG Design criteria. Internal corrosion. Corrosion parameters and
classification of the fluid.
− Any other applicable Company standard listed at Par. 1.2.1.

Input data, output data, supports and contents of the task are illustrated in Figure 3.2.

Supports
− Company standard
− International standard
− Software tools
− Corrosion data from fields in same
geographical area
− Corrosion studies from similar fields

Input & Reference Doc’s Corrosion Control Philosophy Output & Deliverables
− Environmental conditions − Identification of exposure conditions − Corrosion Control and Material
(atmosphere, soil, marine) − Expected external and internal Philosophy
− Design premises (if available) corrosion mechanisms
− Facilities Studies − Produced fluid corrosivity preliminary
− Reservoir data assessment
− PVT studies − Selection of corrosion control
techniques

Figure 3.2 – Corrosion control philosophy. Task description.


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3.4.2 Materials and corrosion control design


“Materials and corrosion control design” is the key task of the Corrosion Integrity Management
System in the project development phase. If the activities from previous task have been performed
(case of major projects), the relevant deliverables (Corrosion control and material philosophy studies)
are adopted as input document; alternatively, the activities of the previous task are incorporated.

The aims of this task are:


− to assess the corrosion mechanisms and calculate the relevant corrosion rates, where
applicable;
− to select the most appropriate and cost effective materials;
− to finalize the most appropriate and cost effective corrosion control techniques.

Material selection is based on corrosion analysis and it covers the following main items:
− metallic materials for well completion, pipelines, pipework, vessels, equipment and structures;
− external coatings;
− plastics, elastomers, linings.

Material selection is strictly integrated with other corrosion prevention/control methods, namely:
− corrosion allowance (for carbon and low alloy steels only);
− fluid treatments with chemicals;
− metallic cladding or weld overlay;
− cathodic protection, including requirements for monitoring;
− painting;
− piping and pipeline external coatings;
− process treatments.

Typical deliverables are:


− Corrosion Evaluation Studies;
− Material Selection Reports and Material Selection Flow Diagrams (MSFD);
− Fluid Treatment Reports;
− Cathodic Protection Specifications and Drawings;
− Painting Specifications;
− Coating and Lining Specifications;
− Documents covering special issues (if any).

Support normative includes the following ENI standards:


− 02555.VAR.COR.PRG Internal corrosion. Corrosion parameters and classification of the fluid.
− 20603.MAT.COR.PRG Material selection and corrosion control for oil and gas process
equipment.
− 20019.MAT.COR.PRG Material selection for seawater handling systems.
− 20312.VAR.COR.PRG Guidelines for chemical treatments of pipelines.
− 20000.VAR.PAI.FUN Protective coating and hot dip galvanising.
− 27591.VAR.PAI.SDS Paint system approved.
− 20550.PIP.COR.FUN External coatings for corrosion protection of steel pipes and
components.
− 20551.PIP.COR.FUN Internal coatings for corrosion protection of steel pipes and components.
− 20554.PIP.COR.FUN Internal coatings for corrosion protection.
− 20552.VAR.PAI.FUN Maintenance of coated surfaces.
− 27589.VAR.COR.PRG Guidelines for design and construction of cathodic protection systems.
− 02977.VAR.COR.SPC Cathodic protection planning of maintenance operations on cathodic
protection plant components.
− 20045.MAT.COR.FUN Offshore platforms. Cathodic protection monitoring system.
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− 20311.VAR.COR.SDS Cathodic protection underwater inspection.


− 20309.VAR.COR.PRG Cathodic protection of buried structures in plant facilities.
− 20310.VAR.COR.PRG Design and installation of systems to prevent alternating current induced
corrosion.
− 11558.VAR.COR.SPC Protezione catodica. Misure e metodi di indagine per la verifica del
grado di protezione di strutture interrate protette catodicamente.
− 20384.PLI.MEC.SPC Pipeline hydraulic testing.
− 08053.MAT.COR.PRG Materials and corrosion control methods in gathering and treatment oil
and gas plants.

Input data, output data, supports and contents of the task are illustrated in Figure 3.3.

Supports
− Company standard
− International standard
− Software tools
− Technical literature

Input & Reference Doc’s Materials and Corrosion Control Output & Deliverables
− Corrosion Control and Material − Corrosion mechanisms identification − Corrosion Evaluation Studies
Philosophy and corrosion rate assessment − Material Selection Reports
− Design Premises − Material selection − Material Select. Flow Diagrams
− Facilities Studies − Selection of corrosion control − Fluid Treatment Reports
− P&ID and PFD techniques (CP, coatings, etc.)
− Cathodic Protection Spec.
− − Cost comparisons and value
Material Balance
engineering
− Painting Spec.
− Flow Dynamic Studies − Coating and Lining Spec.
− Specification for corrosion control
− Process Studies techniques − Special Issues

Figure 3.3 – Materials and corrosion control design. Task description.


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3.4.3 Corrosion monitoring and inspection design


This task is strictly integrated with the previous task ‘Materials and corrosion control design’ (Par.
3.4.2) and is intended to cover the aspects related to monitoring of internal corrosion, specifically of
carbon and low alloy steel facilities. Design and planning of inspection activities, including intelligent
pig inspections, aimed to assess the corrosion status, are also within the scope of the task.

Design requirements for monitoring of cathodic protection systems, onshore and offshore, are usually
part of the cathodic protection design package and are part of the previous task ‘Materials and
corrosion control design’.

Monitoring of internal corrosion is usually performed by means of permanent probes (Ref. /16/), but
related requirements extend also to periodical chemical analysis, including residual concentration of
corrosion inhibitor, bacteria counts, etc., as well as to inspections by NDT. The following main issues
are part of the task activities:
− safety aspects;
− definition of corrosion monitoring and inspection philosophy;
− selection of monitoring and inspection techniques and probes;
− design of corrosion monitoring test points;
− data acquisition concept (hard-wiring or manual);
− procedures for probe retrieval or data collection;
− criteria for data storing, analysis and integration with process data;
− hardware and software requirements;
− chemical analysis requirements.

Typical deliverables of this task are:


− Corrosion Monitoring Design Specifications;
− Inspection Design Specifications;
− Intelligent Pig Inspection Specifications.

Support normative includes the following ENI standards:


− 20555.VAR.COR.PRG Internal corrosion monitoring.
− 20556.VAR.COR.FUN Internal corrosion monitoring specification. Functional requirements.
− 14059.PLI.COR.PRG Inspections with intelligent pigs.

Input data, output data, supports and contents of the task are illustrated in Figure 3.4.
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Supports
− Company standard
− International standard

Input & Reference Doc’s Corr. Monit. & Inspec. Design Output & Deliverables
− Corrosion Studies − Monitoring and inspection philosophy − Corrosion Monitoring and
− Material Selection Report − Selection of techniques, probes and Inspection Design Specifications
− Fluid Treatment Reports locations − Intelligent Pig Inspection
− Chemical analysis requirements Specifications
− Hazard and operability studies
(HAZOP) − Safety related aspects

Figure 3.4 – Corrosion monitoring design. Task description.


Eni S.p.A. 20602.VAR.COR.SDS
November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
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3.4.4 Laboratory and field testing


Laboratory tests can be needed for:
− qualification of candidate materials for service at specific exposure conditions;
− selection and qualification of chemicals at conditions simulating the field ones.

The first task is typically performed in case of materials, typically corrosion resistant alloys, whose
performance at expected field exposure conditions needs confirmation.

The second task is integral part of the procedure for the selection of chemicals, in particular corrosion
inhibitors, where their use is going to be adopted.

In both cases, reference is made as much as possible to existing international standards or


protocols; however, specific test conditions shall often be considered. Laboratory test specifications
are issued covering the requirements for test execution.

Field tests should be also planned, in particular as final step in corrosion inhibitor selection among
the products positively tested in laboratory.

Typical deliverables of this task are:


− Laboratory or Field Test Procedures Specifications;
− Laboratory or Field Test Result Reports.

Support normative includes the following ENI standard:


− 20312.VAR.COR.PRG Guidelines for chemical treatments of pipelines.

Several applicable standard are also available from the international normative.

Input data, output data, supports and contents of the task are illustrated in Figure 3.5.

Supports
− Company standard
− International standard

Input & Reference Doc’s Laboratory and Field Tests Output & Deliverables
− Corrosion Studies − Laboratory tests of materials (metallic; − Test Specifications
− Material Selection Report elastomers; plastics) to confirm − Test Results Reports
− Fluid Treatment Reports corrosion performance at field
conditions
− Product Datasheets
− Laboratory tests for the screening of
corrosion inhibitors
− Field tests for the assessment of
corrosion inhibitors efficiency
performance

Figure 3.5 – Laboratory and field testing. Task description.


Eni S.p.A. 20602.VAR.COR.SDS
November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
Page 20 of 32

3.4.5 Data management


The aim of the task is to gather, using convenient software tools, all information of significance for
material performance and corrosion prevention and control.

Activities of this task are initiated in the project development phase and are extended all over the
project life through constant updating of the stored data. The aim is to give easy access to all
information useful for corrosion management and asset integrity verification, in particular for
performing corrosion risk assessment studies.

Input data, output data, supports and contents of the task are illustrated in Figure 3.6.

Supports
− Database and Software Programs
(Inspection Manager)

Input & Reference Doc’s Data Management Output & Deliverables


− P&ID and PFD, including as built − On line access to loaded data
− MFD − Software design and update − Data Reports
− Item datasheets − Data Loading − PED Analysis Report
− Operating data and KPI’s
− NDT campaign results
− Corrosion monitoring results
− Fluid treatment data
− CP survey results

Figure 3.6 – Data management. Task description.


Eni S.p.A. 20602.VAR.COR.SDS
November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
Page 21 of 32

3.4.6 Corrosion management


Corrosion management activities are typically gathered into the Corrosion Management Manual,
which has to be issued in the development phase of a project and then maintained and updated
during the operational phases. The Corrosion Management Manual is the document which identifies
the key activities for corrosion control and the framework to mitigate and monitor corrosion
mechanisms which may occur; it provides a reference document for field corrosion personnel,
including all the necessary information to ensure an appropriate understanding and implementation
of the corrosion management policy during the different phases of the project, and particularly
operation.

The Corrosion Management Manual outlines how the corrosion management process should be
operated. It details roles and responsibilities, key performance indicators to help the corrosion
management organization to define and measure progress toward goals, communication
requirements and data acquisition and storage, in addition detailing with the corrosion threats and
mitigation measures for each asset.

Its objectives are:


− to provide guidance to the operators regarding the corrosion threats affecting facilities;
− to identify the consequences of inadequate control of corrosion to the integrity of facilities in order
to recognise the importance of corrosion control methods;
− to be a reference document for materials and corrosion engineers, responsible for the above
issues, as a support to enforce adequate corrosion control and to demonstrate this task is
accomplished;
− to demonstrate to third parties that the potential risk of corrosion has been recognised and
assessed, that adequate countermeasures have been enforced to cope with it, either in the
design phase or during operations;
− to provide background information for the development of an inspection programme, this includes
routine and special inspections, corrosion coupon retrieving and data logging, chemical sampling
for analyses etc.

Input data, output data, supports and contents of the task are illustrated in Figure 3.7.

Supports
− Company standard
− International standard
− Software Programs

Input & Reference Doc’s Corrosion Management Output & Deliverables


− Reservoir data − Material and corrosion documents − Corrosion Management
− Fluid composition data review Manual
− Material and Corrosion Design − Corrosion threats identification
Documents − Corrosion management strategy
− P&ID; PFD; MFD − Organization and personnel
− NDT campaign results − Inspection strategy
− Corrosion monitoring results − KPI definition

Figure 3.7 – Corrosion management. Task description.


Eni S.p.A. 20602.VAR.COR.SDS
November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
Page 22 of 32

3.4.7 Corrosion risk assessment


Corrosion risk assessment is the key activity of corrosion integrity management. The task is aimed to
identify, for given assets, the corrosion risk level of each item of the asset.

The risk of a corrosion failure combines the probability of the failure to occur with a measure of the
consequences of the failure. This definition envisages the main activities of the risk assessment
studies, which are:
− the assessment of the probability of a corrosion failure based on the identification of the
corrosion damage mechanisms, the rate of progression of the damage and the tolerance of the
item to damage, and
− the assessment of the consequences in case of failure, including safety, environment and
operability aspects.

Different procedures can be adopted using different level of the analysis (qualitative, semi-
quantitative and quantitative). In all cases, for each item the probability of corrosion and the entity of
the consequences are combined to give a corrosion risk ranking; the corrosion risk matrix represents
the most used and effective tool. If the probability/consequence combination (risk) is high enough to
be unacceptable, then a mitigation action for preventing the event is required.

The following types of equipment and associated components are typically covered in corrosion risk
assessment studies:
− pressure vessels - all pressure containing components;
− process piping - pipe and piping components;
− storage tanks - atmospheric and pressurized;
− boilers and heaters - pressurized components;
− heat exchangers (shells, heads, channels and bundles);
− pressure containing components of machinery (pumps, compressors).

The corrosion risk assessment studies can be issued in the development phase of a project, as
integral part of the corrosion management strategy, to verify the solutions adopted for corrosion
mitigation. In the first period of the operational phase, when actual operating data become available a
CRA (corrosion risk assessment) study is recommended. Then, the CRA study has to be periodical
reviewed and updated using the most recent operating data and, when available, corrosion
monitoring and inspection results.

Support normative includes the following ENI standard:


− 20557.VAR.COR.SDS Corrosion risk assessment methodology.

Input data, output data, supports and contents of the task are illustrated in Figure 3.8.
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November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
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Supports
− International standard
− Company standard
− National regulations
− Software Programs

Input & Reference Doc’s Corrosion Risk Assessment Output & Deliverables
− Reservoir data − Assessment of the probability of − Corrosion risk assessment
− Fluid composition data corrosion failure events studies
− Material and Corrosion Design − Assessment of the entity of the
Documents consequences
− P&ID; PFD; MFD − Corrosion risk matrixes
− Operating data;
− Production profiles;
− NDT campaign results
− Corrosion monitoring results

Figure 3.8 – Corrosion Risk Assessment. Task description.


Eni S.p.A. 20602.VAR.COR.SDS
November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
Page 24 of 32

3.4.8 Risk-based Inspections


Risk Based Inspection (RBI) is a method for using risk as a basis for prioritising inspection efforts; it
is strictly related to the corrosion risk assessment task, focussing on the risks associated with the
failure of equipment due to degradation that could be detected before failure.

Utilization of RBI provides a vehicle for continuously optimizing the inspection of facilities and
systematically reducing the risk associated with pressure boundary failures.

As new data (operating, inspection results, corrosion monitoring results, etc.) become available or
when changes occur, a corrosion (re)assessment is needed and a revision of the RBI program shall
be made appropriately.

RBI offers the added advantage of identifying gaps or shortcomings in the effectiveness of
commercially available inspection technologies and applications. In cases where technology cannot
adequately and/or cost-effectively mitigate risks, other risk mitigation approaches can be
implemented. RBI should serve to guide the direction of inspection technology development, and
hopefully promote a faster and broader deployment of emerging inspection technologies as well as
proven inspection technologies that may be available but are underutilized.

Support normative includes the following ENI standard:


− 20557.VAR.COR.SDS Corrosion risk assessment methodology.

Input data, output data, supports and contents of the task are illustrated in Figure 3.9.

Supports
− International standard
− Software Programs

Input & Reference Doc’s Risk Based Inspections Output & Deliverables
− Corrosion risk matrixes − Review of CRA results − Inspection Plans
− Corrosion risk assessment − Review of available NDT techniques
studies − Review of NDT and monitoring results
− NDT specifications − Inspection plan definition
− NDT campaign results
− Corrosion monitoring results

Figure 3.9 –Risk Based Inspections. Task description.


Eni S.p.A. 20602.VAR.COR.SDS
November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
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3.4.9 Corrosion monitoring and inspections


This task includes:
− all activities performed to monitor internal corrosion, directly or indirectly;
− NDT inspections;
− cathodic protection surveys, onshore and offshore;
− site surveys;
− failure analysis: performed in case of unexpected corrosion events occurrence.

A number of inspections are planned in the ‘handover to operation’ phase, or at the very beginning of
the operational period, with the aim to get an inspection baseline of items to be periodically inspected
during operations. A typical example is the intelligent pig inspection of pipelines, run to obtain a
picture of possible damages developed during the constructional phase and in the mean time to have
a record to be used as reference for future inspections.

Corrosion monitoring includes periodical measurements, probe retrieval, chemical analysis, etc.,
performed by a Company team of corrosion engineers or by service companies (typically the service
company in charge for chemical treatments).

Inspection activities are planned based on the results of Risk Assessment activities (Risk Based
Inspections – see previous task), and they are managed in co-operation with the Maintenance
Department.

Typical deliverables for the corrosion monitoring and inspections task are:
− Corrosion Monitoring Periodical Reports;
− Chemical Analysis Bulletins;
− Inspection Reports;
− Cathodic Protection Reports.

Support normative includes the following ENI standard:


− 14059.PLI.COR.PRG Inspections with intelligent pigs.
− 14039.VAR.COR.PRG Corrosion survey guidelines.
− 02977.VAR.COR.SPC Cathodic protection planning of maintenance operations on cathodic
protection plant components.
− 20311.VAR.COR.SDS Cathodic protection underwater inspection.
− 20415.SLI.OFF.SDS Guideline for sealine and riser inspection and maintenance program.
− 07669.GPF.OFF.SPC Criteri di programmazione delle ispezioni periodiche su piattaforma
offshore.
− 20181.STR.OFF.FUN Piattaforme offshore - Esecuzione delle Ispezioni.
− 11558.VAR.COR.SPC Protezione catodica. Misure e metodi di indagine per la verifica del
grado di protezione di strutture interrate protette catodicamente.

Input data, output data, supports and contents of the task are illustrated in Figure 3.10.
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November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
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Supports
− International standard
− Software Programs

Input & Reference Doc’s Corr. Monitoring and Inspections Output & Deliverables
− Corrosion monitoring design − Corrosion monitoring measurements − Corrosion monitoring reports
documents − Chemical analysis − Chemical analysis bulletins
− Corrosion management manual − Cathodic protection surveys (onshore − Cathodic protection survey
− Inspection plans and offshore) reports
− NDT campaigns − NDT inspection reports
− Intelligent pig inspections
− Failure analysis

Figure 3.10 – Corrosion monitoring and inspections. Task description.


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November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
Page 27 of 32

3.4.10 Asset integrity review


This task covers non-routine activities performed to assess the integrity status of oil and gas
production facilities at given moments of the operational phase. Examples of situations which require
asset integrity reviews are:
− significant changes of the operations with respect to the original plans;
− extension of the life of the asset;
− acquisition of a new field and relevant assets.

Detailed scope of work for asset integrity review shall be issued case by case depending on the
specific needs of the task. Typically, it can include:
− data acquisition and review;
− verification of material compliance to normative;
− execution of site surveys;
− execution of corrosion studies;
− identification of weak points and asset criticalities;
− preparation of a Asset Integrity Improvement Plans (see also Ref. /40/).

Asset integrity reviews can also be planned with aim to verify, for given assets, the performance of
the adopted materials and corrosion control solutions and to generate ‘lessons learned’.

Task deliverables are identified case by case, as well as input and reference documents.

Input data, output data, supports and contents of the task are illustrated in Figure 3.11.

Supports
− International standard
− Software Programs

Input & Reference Doc’s Asset Integrity Review Output & Deliverables
− Material and corrosion control − Past life data review − Asset integrity reports
design package − Site surveys − Corrosion studies and material
− Corrosion management manual − Material review and compliance verification reports
− Corrosion risk assessment verification − Special issues studies
studies and inspection plans − Lesson learned documents
− Inspection reports − Feedbacks to Company
Standards

Figure 3.11 – Asset integrity review. Task description.


Eni S.p.A. 20602.VAR.COR.SDS
November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
Page 28 of 32

3.5 Main deliverables. Base requirements


The aim of this paragraph is to provide minimum requirements for the contents of the main
deliverables issued as part of the Corrosion Integrity Management process.

3.5.1 Corrosion evaluation studies


The aim of this Document is to predict the expected mechanism of internal corrosion and to assess
the relevant rates, when possible. The study shall be extended to all the main assets, including
utilities.

The following issues shall be covered:


− reference normative;
− all design data utilised for corrosion evaluation, including: fluid compositions; design and
operating data; process description; materials under evaluation;
− expected corrosion mechanisms;
− assessment of sour service conditions (for fluids containing H2S only);
− predicted corrosion rate intervals for weight loss corrosion mechanisms;
− recommended corrosion prevention and control options;
− cost comparisons (optional).

3.5.2 Material Selection Reports


The aim of this Document is to select convenient materials for the assets under study.

The following issues shall be covered:


− reference normative;
− all design data utilised for material selection, including: project design life; fluid compositions;
design and operating data; process description; materials under evaluation;
− material selection philosophy;
− recommended materials, including specific requirements: heat treatments; sour service
requirements; surface treatments (internal); welding; internal cathodic protection; etc.;
− corrosion allowance thickness (where applicable);
− cost comparisons (optional).

Material Selection Flow Diagrams (MSFD) are preferentially attached to the Material Selection
Report; MSFD shall include: selected materials for main piping, vessels and equipment; corrosion
allowance; chemicals injection points (if any); corrosion monitoring test points.

3.5.3 Cathodic Protection Specifications and Drawings


These documents shall cover the requirements for the cathodic protection of the assets under
evaluation.

The following issues shall be covered:


− reference normative;
− all design data utilised for CP system design, including: project design life; environmental
conditions; structures drawings; structures materials; coating types and extent;
− selection of CP type, if by galvanic anodes or by impressed current;
− calculation notes;
− monitoring systems;
− minimum requirement for CP system components;
− commissioning and operating procedure;
− drawings (layouts; installation; details).
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November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
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3.5.4 Corrosion Monitoring Design Specifications


These documents shall cover the requirements for monitoring of internal corrosion in gathering
networks, process facilities and export pipelines. Minimum requirements for issue to be covered
include:
− HSE requirements;
− corrosion monitoring philosophy;
− applicable techniques;
− permanent probes;
− corrosion monitoring test points (to be shown on P&ID and MSFD);
− data acquisition concept and requirements for instrumentation.

3.5.5 Corrosion risk assessment studies


Corrosion risk assessment (CRA) studies can cover all main type of assets, including:
− Wells - production; water injection; gas injection;
− gathering networks - piping in the wellhead area; flowlines; trunklines;
− onshore treatment plants and storage tanks;
− offshore topside facilities;
− transfer pipelines, onshore or offshore;
− offshore structures like: platform jackets; subsea wellheads; etc.

The following issues shall be covered, as minimum requirements, by CRA studies (see also Ref.
/23/):
− reference normative;
− facilities and item identification;
− data collection and review;
− corrosion analysis;
− consequence analysis;
− risk matrix;
− results and recommendations.
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November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
Page 30 of 32

3.6 The Corrosion Integrity Workflow


The tasks of the Corrosion Integrity Management are strongly interrelated, with the output of some
tasks representing the input of other ones. This generates a workflow all along the project life cycle.

The contents of each task and their complex relationships with the other tasks are obviously
dependent on the project requirements and can vary case by case. However, some typical flows
amongst the tasks can be identified.

In particular, the tasks can be represented with respect to the main project parts, i.e. development
and operation.

In Figure 3.12 the workflow of the Corrosion Integrity Management tasks in the development phase
of a project, from evaluation to start up, is illustrated.

Figure 3.13 illustrates the task workflow in the operation period.


Eni S.p.A. 20602.VAR.COR.SDS
November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
Page 31 of 32

OPDS PHASES
TASKS Evaluation Concept Selection Concept Definition Execution Commissioning, Start-up
G1 G2 G3 & Performance Tests
Hand
over

1 Corrosion control
Exposure Cond.
philosophies Assessment Preliminary Corr.
Report

Corrosion Prev.
Philosophy

2 Material and corrosion


Design premises Corrosion Analysis Material Material Material
control design Selection Selection Report Flow Diagrams

Reservoir data
Fluid Fluid Treatment
Treatments Report

PFD and P&ID

Corrosion Control Coating and


Techniques Painting Spc’s
Process
Documents

Cathodic
Material balances Protection Spc’s

3 Laboratory and field


Lab. Test Design Laboratory Tests Lab Test Field Tests
testing Evaluation Report

4 Corrosion monitoring
Corr. Monitoring Corr. Monitoring
design HAZOP
Design Spc’s

5 Data management
Data Management Asset Data
Reports The task continues in
the operation phase

P&ID as-built

Monitoring data

Inspection data

Figure 3.12 – Corrosion integrity workflow. Development.


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November 2009
Exploration & Production Division
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TASKS Execution Concept Selection


Commissioning, Start-up
& Performance Tests

Handover to First Period Running Production Running Production &


Operations Production GP1 and Improvement GP2 Prep. to Decommissioning

6 Corrosion Management
Material and Corrosion
doc’s review
Design Package Personnel and Corrosion
(from development) Organization Management to be updated
Corr. Management Manual (if needed)
strategy

from Data Management task


Corrosion Risk
Assessment
7 Assessment of
Corrosion probabilities
Data and Risk Matrixes CRA Study
Information to be periodically
Assessment of the updated
consequences

8 Risk Based Inspections


CRA results review

NDT tecnical Inspection Plans


datasheets & spc’s to be periodically
NDT & monitoring updated
results report review
feedback to Data
Management task

9 Corrosion monitoring
Intelligent pig Corrosion monitoring NDT Cathodic protection Failure analysis Reports
and Inspections inspections (permanent probes) survey & inspections

Chemical analysis

to be periodically repeated

Asset integrity review from Data Management


10 task Data and
Information
Asset integrity review Asset Integrty Feedback to Company
from Material and Corrosion Reports Standard
Control Design task Design Package

Figure 3.13 – Corrosion integrity workflow. Operation.