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# Experiment #1: Report by: Student Name Islamuddin ilsevar

## Title of Experiment: Oscilloscops: Section #6:

Experiment #1
Title of Experiment
Oscilloscopes
Objectives:
1- To study the function and operation of the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
(CRO) and to use it for the measurement of voltage, frequency,time
period and phase difference.
2- To study blockwise construction of analog oscilloscope and function
generator.
Theory:
CRO The oscilloscope is a very valuable device for making many
measurements for voltage signals. It can show a scaled picture of one or more
voltages applied to it. The picture (also called display) provides the following
information:

## ⨀ Peak and instantaneous value.

⨀ Frequency.
⨀ Period.
⨀ Phase angle between voltages.
Only steady or repetive voltages can be measured with ordinary
oscilloscope.
The scope can show two vertical inputs at the same time by connecting
them alternately to the same set of vertical plates. The switching between
them is done automatically based on the mode selected, i. e. chopped or
alternate. It can also give algebratic sum or difference of two vertical
inputs. Voltage can also be applied to the horizontal channel (normally
used for time-sweep) so as to see it against the vertical voltage. This is
called XY mode.
Pre-lab Question:
1. Briefly discuss each of the following oscilloscope controls: intensity,
focus, position, volts/div, time/dive, and trigger level.
Ans:
a) Intensity: controls the brightness.
b) Focus: controls the sharpness.
c) Position: x position controls the horizontal position and Y position
controls the vertical position of the Trace.
d) Volts/dive: for sensitivity selection of CH1 AND CH2 .
e) Time/dive: Rotary switch for T B speed control.
f) Trigger level: controls the trigger level from positive peak to negative
peak.

## Prepared by: Dr. Yasr ismail, Feb 2019. Page 1

Experiment #1: Report by: Student Name Islamuddin ilsevar
Title of Experiment: Oscilloscops: Section #6:

Equipment Required:

⨀ Oscilloscope.
⨀ RC probe.
⨀ Function Generator.
⨀ Phase shift network ( Resistor and capacitor)

Procedure:
Locate the following switches and knobs on the oscilloscope and find out
their functions:
a. Power on/ off switch,
b. Focus controls knob,
c. Beam find press button,
d. Intensity control knob,
e. Vertical shift control for each channel,
f. Channel –display switch (ch1/both/ch2),
g. Display-mode control switches (AC/GND/DC) for each channel,
h. Vertical sensitivity control (volts/cm) for each channel,
i. Vertical input ports for each channel,
j. CH2-invert press button,
k. Display-mode control switch (AC/ALT/CHOP),
l. Horizontal –shift control knob,
m. Sweep rate control (time/cm) and XY-mode switch,
n. External synchronizing (sync) input socket,
o. Internal-Trigger switch,
p. Trigger source switch,
q. Trigger slope press button,
r. Trigger level control knob.

2. Switch on the oscilloscope and the sweep mode to free-run. Adjust focus and
intensity to get a sharp but modestly bright trace.
3. With the input coupling switch set to DC apply a DC voltage of few volts in CH1.
Set the sweep rate and sensitivity to a suitable sec/cm and volts/cm, setting to
give a calibrated deflection of at least 4cms from the ground refence. Calculate
the voltage values as follows.

## Vertical deflection: y= 2.5v

Vertical scale: s= 2v
Voltage : v=y.s =5v
4. Set the coupling to AC . con you measure this way? Way?
Ans: NO, DC input coupling DC.
5. Calculate the peak to peak voltage as follows: V= 8v.
(peak to peak vertical deflection, y)*(vertical seneitivit,S)

## Prepared by: Dr. Yasr ismail, Feb 2019. Page 2

Experiment #1: Report by: Student Name Islamuddin ilsevar
Title of Experiment: Oscilloscops: Section #6:

6. Adjust the sweep rate to get just over one complete cycle of calibrated display of
the waveform.
7. Measure the horizontal distance between any two points forming a complete
cycle. Z= 5 ans
8. Calculate the period and the frequency as follows:
a. Period, T=(length of on cycle,L)×(horizontal seneitivity, Z)

## T= 4×5 = 20ms. Ans

𝟏
b. Frequency, F = 1/T. = 𝟐𝟎𝒎𝒔 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟓𝒌𝑯𝒛 = 𝟓𝟎𝑯𝒛 ans

## 9. Record the result in table 1 below:

Table 1
Waveform Y S V peak L Z T F
And Freq Peak to (v/cm) to (cm) (ms/cm) (ms) (Hz)
peak(cm) peak(volts)

4cm 2 8 4 5 20 50
50Hz

1KHz

## 6.2cm 1 6.2 4 50µs 200µs 5kHz

5kHz

2cm 1 2 4 5 20 50
50Hz

1kHz

5kHz

## 10. Repeat for 1kHz and 5KHz frequencyies.

11. Repeat for triangukar wave at 50 Hz, 1KHz and 5kHz frequencies.
12. Wrire the circuit shown in figure 1 below.

## Prepared by: Dr. Yasr ismail, Feb 2019. Page 3

Experiment #1: Report by: Student Name Islamuddin ilsevar
Title of Experiment: Oscilloscops: Section #6:

13. Center the two traces, measure the distance between the zero crossing of the two
traces to calculate the phase difference as follows:

## 𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒃𝒆𝒕𝒘𝒆𝒆𝒏 𝒛𝒆𝒓𝒐 𝒄𝒓𝒐𝒔𝒔𝒊𝒏𝒈,𝑫

Phase difference, ∅ = ( ) × 𝟑𝟔𝟎°
𝑳𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒉𝒕𝒏 𝒐𝒇 𝒐𝒏𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒆𝒕𝒆 𝒄𝒚𝒄𝒍𝒆,𝑳

𝟎. 𝟗𝒄𝒎
∅= × 𝟑𝟔𝟎° = 𝟔𝟖°
𝟒. 𝟖𝒄𝒎

## 14. Turn the sweep rate control knob to XY position.

15. Adjust the volts/cm setting on CH1 to control the size of the horizontal deflection
and on CH2 for vertical deflection.
16. Center the display and measure the phase ∅ as follows:

𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆,𝑩,𝒃𝒆𝒕𝒘𝒆𝒆𝒏 𝒀−𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒄𝒆𝒑𝒕𝒔
∅ = 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 (𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆,𝑨,𝑶𝑭 𝑳𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆𝒔𝒕 𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒕𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒅𝒆𝒇𝒍𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏)

𝟐.𝟑
∅ = 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 ( 𝟐.𝟓) = 𝟔𝟔. 𝟗°

Table 2

F D L ∅ A B ∅
(Hz) (cm) (cm) Sweeptime (cm) (cm) XY- % 𝑬𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓
mode mode
1k 0.9 4.8 𝟔𝟖° 2.3 2.3 𝟔𝟕° 1.4
5k 0.9 3.4 𝟗𝟓. 𝟑° 1.8 1.8 𝟗𝟎° 5.5
200 0.4 5 𝟐𝟖. 𝟖° 1.9 0.9 𝟐𝟖. 𝟑° 1.73

Review Questions:
1. Briefly explain the volts/div and time/div selector
switches.
Ans:
Voits/div: for sensitivity selection of CH1 AND CH2 .
And
Time /div: Time/dive: Rotary switch for T B speed control.
2. Explain what is lissajous figure.
Ans:

## Prepared by: Dr. Yasr ismail, Feb 2019. Page 4

Experiment #1: Report by: Student Name Islamuddin ilsevar
Title of Experiment: Oscilloscops: Section #6:

## 3. Define ‘’deflection factor’’and ‘’deflection sensitivity’’ for an

oscilloscope.
Ans:
Deflection Factor: Is the voltage required to produce one division (one cm) of
deflection at the screen (V/cm).

## Deflection Sensitivity: Is the deflection produced by 1 Volt (cm/V).

Conclusion:
a. I understood the oscilloscope.
b. The CRO use two inputs, one horizontal another is vertical
input.
c. CRO operate on voltages but it is possible to analysis
curren,strain, acceleration, pressuer and other physical
quantities into voltages.

## Prepared by: Dr. Yasr ismail, Feb 2019. Page 5

Experiment #1: Report by: Student Name Islamuddin ilsevar
Title of Experiment: Oscilloscops: Section #6:

## Prepared by: Dr. Yasr ismail, Feb 2019. Page 6

Experiment #1: Report by: Student Name Islamuddin ilsevar
Title of Experiment: Oscilloscops: Section #6:

## Prepared by: Dr. Yasr ismail, Feb 2019. Page 7

Experiment #1: Report by: Student Name Islamuddin ilsevar
Title of Experiment: Oscilloscops: Section #6:

## Prepared by: Dr. Yasr ismail, Feb 2019. Page 8

Experiment #1: Report by: Student Name Islamuddin ilsevar
Title of Experiment: Oscilloscops: Section #6: