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GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

REVISION DATE REASON(S) FOR REVISION


0 4/1/2017 Initial release
NOMENCLATURE FOR GPSA ENGINEERING DATA BOOK, 12th ED.
SECTION 9, HEAT EXCHANGERS

GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

FIG. 9-1
Nomenclature
CALCULATION SPREADSHEET FOR GPSA ENGINEERING DATA BOOK 13th ED.
EXAMPLE 9-1

GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Application 9-1. This is an evaluation of a heat exchanger performance given fixed parameters, not a sizing design. Changes to variables may not be carried through to the results. Use this
Example 9-1. Lean Oil to Rich Oil Exchanger. Evaluate the indicated performance of this design. Note: Changes in variables may not be carried through to the final results.
spreadsheet to follow the calculations on how the performance is evaluated. r2 ΔP2
Given values: Shell Tube Shell Tube
Surface area, sq.ft. 4,525 Operating Conditions and Design Turbulent Streamline Turbulent Streamline Turbulent Streamline Turbulent Streamline
Fluid Allocation Shell side Tube side Step 1. CHECK HEAT BALANCE Viscosity 0.8786477 0.55821674 0.93064915 0.78029089 0.289256198
Name Lean oil Rich oil Surface Area A = 4525 ft 2 Viscosity Bulk to wall Correction #VALUE!
Fluid Quantity, lb/hr 475,723 650,860 QH = 25,010,661 btuh Shell Side Mass Flow mH = 475723 lb/hr Thermal Conducitivty 0.99302697 1.015602543 1.00686022 1.006860218
Vapor (in/out) QC = 24,993,024 btuh Shell Side Heat Capacity CpH = 0.542 Btu/lb-°F Sp. Heat Capacity 1.00904945 1.00904945 0.94160811 0.941608107
Liquid Shell Side Temperature In TH1 = 197 °F Mass Velocity 1.05363925 1.51583099 1.187185129 0.85120307 0.39222542 0.594547451
Steam QH/QC = 1.000705677 Shell Side Temperature Out TH2 = 100 °F Density 1.13592233 1.13592233 1.22454308 1.224543081
Water Shell Side Density ρH = 41.2 lb/ft 3 Tube Diameter 1.07565376 1.04606169 1.077133522 0.97302234 0.76323137 0.637421956
Noncondensible Step 2. CALCULATE LMTD Shell Side Viscosity μH = 0.34 cP Tube Length
Temp, degF (in/out) 197 100 60 124 LMTD = 54.9 degF Shell Side Wall Viscosity μHC = N/A cP Tube Passes 1 1
Density (#/cf) avg. 41.2 38.3 Shell Side Thermal Conductivity kH = 0.077 Btu-ft/hr-ft2-°F No. Baffle Spaces 19
Viscosity, liquid cP 0.34 0.21 Step 3. CHECK REQUIRED HEAT TRANSFER COEFF Shell Side Fouling Resistance rfo = 0.002 (hr-ft2-°F)/Btu No. Tube Rows Crossed 2.3
Viscosity, lbm/ft-sec 0.000228 0.000141 Shell Side Fluid Fluid Type = HC Oil f 0.99782116 1.024793188 0.83917069 #VALUE! 38.2623863 1.13592233 0.28603722 0.134236396
U = 100.8 btu/hr-sqft-degF
Tube Side Mass Flow mC = 650860 lb/hr Fluid Select Tube Side
Cp, btu/lb-degF 0.542 0.6 Step 4. CALCULATE TUBE SIDE PRESSURE DROP AND RESISTANCE TO HEAT TRANSFER Tube Side Heat Capacity CpC = 0.6 Btu/lb-°F Water Fluid Flow Regime Local r k Cp ρ ΔP/ft μ μW Gi Di
Therm conduct. Btu-ft/hr-sqft-degF 0.077 0.078 Tube Side Temperature In TC1 = 60 °F HC Oil Water Turbulent 0.0009 0.358 1 62.1 0.068 0.764 N/A 265 0.62
Total tube side cross sectional area Tube Side Temperature Out TC2 = 124 °F Methane HC Oil Turbulent 0.0038 0.0788 0.5 46.9 0.061 0.726 N/A 185 0.495
Inlet press, psia 124.7 449.7 236.69493 sq.in. Tube Side Density ρC = 38.3 lb/ft 3 Methane Turbulent 0.0058 0.02 0.54 0.27 0.137 0.0113 N/A 31.2 0.62
1.64371479 sq.ft. Tube Side Viscosity μC = 0.21 cP HC Oil Streamline 0.049 0.0716 0.526 51.3 0.008 6.62 27.75 42.3 0.834
Press drop (allowable/calc) 12 / 9.58 10 / 0.51 Mass flow rate per total tube area, G2 Tube Side Wall Viscosity μWC = N/A cP
109.991371 lb/(sqft-sec) Tube Side Thermal Conductivity kC = 0.078 Btu-ft/hr-ft -°F
2
Shell Side Flow Regime Local r k Cp ρ ΔP μ μW Go Do
Heat exchanged, btu/hr 25,000,000 Tube Side Fouling Resistance rf = 0.001 (hr-ft2-°F)/Btu Water Turbulent 0.005 0.395 1.007 59.8 0.23 0.282 N/A 156.7 0.625
MTD, corrected, degF 54.9 Reynolds Number Calculation Tube Side Fluid Fluid Type = HC Oil HC Oil Turbulent 0.0028 0.0762 0.557 46.8 0.25 0.549 N/A 132.4 0.625
Transfer rate, service/clean 100.6 / 148.4 2.87183737 Velocity, ft/sec-tube Methane Turbulent 0.0038 0.037 0.655 0.23 0.09 0.0182 N/A 6.19 0.625
40,270 Re turbulent Number of Tubes n = 784
No. tubes 784 Tube OD Do = 0.75 in
Tube OD, in 0.75 Tube Wall Thickness tw = 0.065 in
Tube wall, in 0.065 Film resistance factor, f, for determining film resistance, (ri)2 Tube ID Di = 0.62 in
Tube ID, in 0.62 0.83917013
Tube ID, ft 0.0516666667
Single Tube inside area, ft 0.002096575 Tube Length L = 30 ft
Tube length, ft 30 (ri )2 Number of Passes Np = 1
Fouling resistance 0.002 0.001 0.00318885 (hr-sqft-degF)/btu Net Cross Flow Area = 156.8 in2
Baffle spacing, c-c, inches 18.625 Tube Rows Crossed Between Baffle RC = 23
Pressure drop, psi/ft Number of Baffles = 18
Selected Base Values from Fig. 9-11 (dPi)1 from Fig. 9-11 as HC Oil Turbulent dP/ft Number of Crossflow Spaces SP = 19
HC Oil, Turbulent 0.061 psi/ft
Local r 0.0028 0.0038 Pressure drop factor, f, Eq 9-14 Heat Balance
k 0.0762 0.0788 0.28603766
Cp 0.557 0.5 (dPi)2 Hot Side Heat Flow QH = 25010661.002 Btu/hr Equation 9-3
ρ 46.8 46.9 0.0174483 psi/ft Cold Side Heat Flow QC = 24993024 Btu/hr Equation 9-3
dP (shell), dP/ft (tubes) 0.25 0.061 Pressure drop for 30 ft tube Heat Balance QH/QC = 1.0
μ 0.549 0.726 0.52 psi Within allowed dP of 10 psi.
Gi 132.4 185 LMTD
Di 0.625 0.495 Step 5. CALCULATE SHELL SIDE PRESSURE DROP AND RESISTANCE TO HEAT TRANSFER
Calculate shell side mass flow rate, G Log Mean Temperature Difference LMTD = 54.9 °F
Selected Values from Fig. 9-13 121.357908 lb/sqft-sec
Net cross flow area, sq.in. 156.8 Heat Transfer Coefficient
Calculate f from base values in Fig 9-11 and spec sheet data.
Net cross flow area is the distance 0.99782116 U = 100.7 Btu/(hr-sq ft-°F) Equation 9-5
between baffles (~18") times the total
open clearance (typically 0.1 to 0.2 Calculate (ro)2 Tube Side Pressure Drop and Resistance to Heat Transfer
inches) between tubes, multiplied by
the number of tube clearances. 0.0027939 (hr-sqft-degF)/btu
Tube Side Cross Sectional Area ATUBE = 237 in2
Calculate f Tube Side Cross Sectional Area ATUBE = 1.64 ft 2
38.2623863 Mass velocity GTUBE = 109.99 lb/ft 2-sec
Reynolds Number Re = 40235
Calculate (dPo)2 Flow Regime = TURBULENT
9.57 psi Within allowed dP of 12 psi.
Tube Side Base Values
Step 6. CALCULATE TUBE METAL RESISTANCE Local r = 0.0038 Figure 9-11
Calculate tube metal resistance, rw k = 0.0788 Figure 9-11
0.00020 (hr-sqft-degF)/btu Cp = 0.5 Figure 9-11
ρ = 46.9 Figure 9-11
Step 7. CALCULATE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT ΔP/ft = 0.061 Figure 9-11
Calculate sum of heat transfer resistances μ = 0.726 Figure 9-11
0.01005934 (hr-sqft-degF)/btu μW = N/A Figure 9-11
Calculate U Gi = 185 Figure 9-11
99.4 btu/(hr-sqft-degF) Di = 0.495 Figure 9-11
Np = 1 Figure 9-11
Step 8. COMPARE REQUIRED VS. CALCULATED HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS
Compare required U in Step 3. to calculated U in Step 7. (100.75951 vs. 99.087872) f = 0.839 Figure 9-10
Above pressure drops (tube and shell) are within allowable limits. (ri)2 = 0.0032 (hr-ft2-°F)/Btu Figure 9-10
Heat exchanger is adequately sized.
f = 0.286 Figure 9-10
(ΔPi) 2 = 0.017 psi/ft Figure 9-10
ΔP = 0.52 psi

Shell Side Pressure Drop and Resistance to Heat Transfer

Mass Velocity GSHELL = 121.4 lb/(ft2-sec)

Shell Side Base Values


Local r = 0.0028 Figure 9-11
k = 0.0762 Figure 9-11
Cp = 0.557 Figure 9-11
ρ = 46.8 Figure 9-11
ΔP = 0.25 Figure 9-11
μ = 0.549 Figure 9-11
μW = N/A Figure 9-11
Go = 132.4 Figure 9-11
Do = 0.625 Figure 9-11
Np = 1 Figure 9-11
RC = 10 Figure 9-11
SP = 1 Figure 9-11

f = 0.998 Figure 9-10


(ro) 2 = 0.0028 (hr-ft2-°F)/Btu Figure 9-10

f = 38.3 Figure 9-10


(ΔPo) 2 = 9.57 psi Figure 9-10

Tube Metal Resistance

Metal Thermal Conductivity kw = 30 Btu/((hr-ft2-°F)/ft) Figure 9-8


Tube Metal Resistance rw = 0.0002 (hr-ft2-°F)/Btu Equation 9-17

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Ao = 0.1963
Ai = 0.1623
Σr = 0.0101
U = 99.4 Btu/(hr-ft 2-°F) Equation 9-16

Performance 1.3%

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition
CALCULATION SPREADSHEET FOR GPSA ENGINEERING DATA BOOK, 13th ED.
EXAMPLE 9-2

GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Example 9-2 Propane Refrigerant Condenser Sizing Application 9-2 Propane Refrigerant Condenser Sizing
Given values:
Desuperheating propane, Zone 1
Upper Tv/lower temp 180 108 degF Operating Conditions and Deisgn
Uv, overall heat transfer coefficient of vapor 69.9 btu/(hr-sqft-degF)
hv, film coefficient of vapor 111.1 btu/(hr-sqft-degF) Desuperheating propane, Zone 1
Heat Removed 9.06 mmbtu/hr Upper Tv Tv = 180 °F
Condensing propane, Zone 2 Lower Temp T1 = 108 °F
Upper/lower temp 108 108 degF Overall heat transfer coefficient of vapor Uv = 69.9 Btu/(hr-ft2-°F)
Uv 140 btu/(hr-sqft-degF) Film coefficient of vapor hv = 111.1 Btu/(hr-ft2-°F)
Heat Removed 30.29 mmbtu/hr Heat Removed QV = 9.06 MMBtu/hr
Subcooling liquid propane, Zone 3
Upper/lower temp 108 95 degF Condensing propane, Zone 2
Uv 114.5 btu/(hr-sqft-degF) Condensing Temperature T2 = 108 °F
Heat Removed 2.13 mmbtu/hr Overall heat transfer coefficient of condensing UC = 140 Btu/(hr-ft2-°F)
Heat Removed Q2 = 30.3 MMBtu/hr
Cooling water temp (in/out) 82 94 degF

Keep cooling water Temp in less than propane temp out (94 degF).
Subcooling liquid propane, Zone 3
Step 1. Calculate outside tube wall surface temp on Upper Temp T2 = 108 °F
vapor (propane) side at propane stream inlet, given Lower Temp T3 = 95 °F
the following equation: Overall heat transfer coefficient of liquid UL = 114.5 Btu/(hr-ft2-°F)
Two = TV - [Uv(Tv-Tc)/hv] 125.89 degF Heat Removed Q3 = 2.12 MMBtu/hr

Step 2. Since Two is greater than propane saturation temperature, reduce Tv (bulk propane temp. below) until Two is at or below saturation temp. of 108 degF.
Two is calculated by entering various values of Tv below (keeping Two at or below 108 degF). 107.4 Two, degF Cooling water temp in Tw = 82 °F
Cooling water temp out TC = 94 °F
Tv 133 degF

Determine heat duty of desuperheating at Determine Heat Duty and Area


Two = 133 degF 5.914167 mmbtu/hr
Surface Temperature on Outside Wall on Vapor Refrigerant System inlet Two = 125.9 °F
Determine water temperature TC bulk wtr temp
when adding 5.914167 mmbtu/hr heat input. 92.28905 degF Two < T2 ? No
Adjusted Tv Tv = 133 °F
The remainder of desuperheating duty is Adjusted Desuperheating Duty Q1 = 5.91 MMBtu/hr
included in condensing Zone 2. Adjusted Tc TC = 92.3 °F
Goal Two Two-GOAL = 107.5 °F
Step 3. Obtain the duties for the appropriate Adjusted Two Two = 107.4 °F
temperature ranges, Fig 9-14. Repeat by lowering Tv until "Yes" Result Two < T2 ? = Yes
Zone 1 heat duty 5.914167 mmbtu/hr
Zone 2 heat duty 33.43583 mmbtu/hr
Zone 3 heat duty 2.13 mmbtu/hr Zone 1 Heat Duty Q1 = 5.91 MMBtu/hr
Zone 1 LMTD TLMTD-1 = 60.6 °F
Step 4. Solve the equation Q = UA(LMTD) to obtain Zone 1 Area A1 = 1397 ft2
the required surface area for each zone.
Zone 1 LMTD 60.55898 degF Zone 2 Heat Duty Q2 = 33.45 MMBtu/hr
Zone 1 Area 1,397 sq.ft. Zone 2 TC TC = 82.6
Zone 2 LMTD TLMTD-2 = 20.2 °F
Zone 2 Q 33.43583 mmbtu/hr Zone 2 Area A2 = 11848 ft2
Zone 2 TC 82.6162 degF
Zone 2 LMTD 20.16213 degF Zone 3 Heat Duty Q3 = 2.12 MMBtu/hr
Zone 2 Area 11,845 sq.ft. Zone 3 LMTD TLMTD-3 = 18.5 °F
Zone 2 note: Do not use 133 degF as the inlet temp Zone 3 Area A3 = 1000 ft2

Zone 3 LMTD 18.50644 degF Total Area A = 14246 ft2


Zone 3 Area 1,005 sq.ft.

Total Area 14,248 sq.ft.

The above example is suitable for condensing a pure propane vapor using Fig. 9-14, Propane Condensing Curve. For condensing another hydrocarbon or mixture of vapors having a condensing temperature range greater
than 10 degF, a specialist should be consulted.

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
CALCULATION SPREADSHEET FOR GPSA ENGINEERING DATA BOOK, 13th ED.
EXAMPLE 9-3

GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Example 9-3 Determine shell diameter Application 9-3 Determine shell diameter From Figure 9-26 From Figure 9-27 From Figure 9-28
Given values: Pitch Layout Multiplier Tube OD Tube OD Pitch Shell Inside Diameter Number of Passes Type
No. tubes 320 Operating Conditions and Design Triangle 1 1 1 1.25 25 Shell Diameter 2 4 6 8 Shell Diameter Fixed Tubesheet Split Ring Pull Through
Tube OD 1 inches Square 1.075 0.75 0.75 1 21 <12" 1.1 1.2 1.35 <27" None 0.625 3.5
Pitch layout Square Number of Tubes = 320 0.625 0.75 0.9375 20 2 4 6 8 Fixed Tubesheet Split Ring Pull Through
Tube passes Four Tube OD Do = 1 inch 0.625 0.8125 17 12" to 24" 1.03 1.08 1.12 1.25 27" to 41" None 1 4
Split ring floating head Tube Pitch 1.25 inch 2 4 6 8 Fixed Tubesheet Split Ring Pull Through
Allow for inlet flow area Pitch Layout = Square Tube OD 1 0.75 0.75 0.625 25" to 41" 1.02 1.05 1.07 1.08 >41" None 1.625 5
Calculation Number of Passes Np = 4 Pitch 1.25 1 0.9375 0.8125 2 4 6 8

25 inches
Step 1. From the top curve (1" OD tubes on 1-1/4"
pitch) of Fig 9-26 read 25" corresponding to 320 tubes. Type of Construction = Split Ring Number of Tubes Shell ID Shell ID Shell ID Shell ID >41" 1.01 1.03 1.04 1.06
Number of tubes can range from 200 to 2,000. Allow for Inlet or Outlet Flow Area = YES 200 20.5 16.5 16 14
300 24 19.5 18.5 16 Area Allowance
Step 2. Correct for square pitch by multiplying by 26.875 inches
1.075 (see note on Fig 9-26). Initial Shell ID = 25 inches Figure 9-26 400 27 22 21 18 YES 1.02
Pitch Layout Multiplier = 1.075 Figure 9-26 500 31 25 23.5 20.5 NO 1
Step 3. Use Fig 9-27 to correct for four pass by 28.21875 inches
multiplying by 1.05 Pass Multiplier = 1.05 Figure 9-27 600 34 27 26 22
Number of tube passes is limited to 2, 4, 6, or 8.
Flow Area Multiplater = 1.02 Figure 9-27 700 36.5 29 28 24 70
Step 4. Correct for inlet flow area by mutlipling by 28.78313 inches
1.02 Shell ID Subtotal = 28.78 inches 800 38.5 31 29.5 25.5
To allow for entrance or exit areas, multiply shell ID from Fig. 9-26 by 1.02 for 60
each inlet or outlet area to be used. Type of Construction Adder = 1 inches Figure 9-28 900 41 33 31.5 27 f(x) = - 6.04083738758663E-06x^2 + 0.0345091405x + 14.5563467492
R² = 0.9983548808
Step 5. From Fig 9-28, correct for split ring floating 29.78313 inches
head by adding 1". 1000 43 34.5 33 28.5
50
Shell ID = 30 inches 1100 45 36 34 29.5
Round up to nearest inch. Use as ID. 30 inches 1200 47 37 35.5 31 f(x) = - 4.31962258587646E-06x^2 + 0.0264856258x + 12.1779153767

f(x)==0.9979415085
- 4.43756449948401E-06x^2 + 0.0255696594x + 11.6004127967
1300 49 39 37 32
R² = 0.9977236011
1400 50.5 40.5 38 33.5 40
1500 52 42 39.5 34.5 f(x) = - 3.77414123544155E-06x^2 + 0.0221276721x + 9.9637770898
R² = 0.9990174425
1600 54 43 41 35.5
1700 56 44.5 42.5 36.5 30
1800 57 46 43.5 37.5
1900 58.5 47 44 38.5
2000 60 48.5 45.5 39.5
20

10

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

Tube OD=1;Pitch=1.25 Polynomial (Tube OD=1;Pitch=1.25)


Tube OD=0.75; Pitch=1 Polynomial (Tube OD=0.75; Pitch=1)
Tube OD=0.75; Pitch=0.938 Polynomial (Tube OD=0.75; Pitch=0.938)
Tube OD=0.625;Pitch=0.8125 Polynomial (Tube OD=0.625;Pitch=0.8125)

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
CALCULATION SPREADSHEET FOR GPSA ENGINEERING DATA BOOK, 13 th ED.
EXAMPLE 9-4

GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Example 9-4 Approximate sizing a gas-to-gas exchanger Application 9-4 Approximate sizing a gas-to-gas exchanger

Given values: Operating press Typical mass velocity from Fig. 9-40. Exchanger Width From Figure 9-40
Warm feed gas press = 810 psia 18.6 sq.ft./sec Operating Conditions and Design 12
Residue gas press = 205 psia 9.7 sq.ft./sec 17 Operating Pressure Mass Velocity
Recycle gas press = 285 psia 11.6 sq.ft./sec Warm Feed Flow Rate Vapor Inlet mH-in-V = 40650 lb/hr 25 25 3
Number of exchangers = 1 Warm Feed Flow Rate Liquid Inlet mH-in-L = 0 lb/hr 36 50 4.3
Fin surface type - serrated Warm Feed Flow Rate Vapor Outlet mH-out-V = 32195 lb/hr 42 100 6.5
Assumed exchanger width = 25 inches Common widths are 12, 17, 25, 35, 42, and 48 inches. Warm Feed Flow Rate Liquid Outlet mH-out-L = 8455 lb/hr 48 150 8.25
Inlet vapor flow rate, feed gas = 40,650 lb/hr Warm Feed Gas Pressure PH = 810 psia 200 9.7
Inlet vapor flow rate, residue = 31,320 lb/hr Warm Feed Gas Inlet Density Vapor ρH-in-V = 2.79 lb/ft3 250 10.8
Inlet vapor flow rate, recycle = 14,780 lb/hr Warm Feed Gas Inlet Density Liquid ρH-in-L = lb/ft3 300 11.8
Feed gas exchanger duty = 5,500,000 btu/hr Warm Feed Gas Outlet Density Vapor ρH-out-V = 4.84 lb/ft3 Fin Type 350 12.75
Feed gas exchanger CMTD = 11.2 degF Warm Feed Gas Outlet Density Liquid ρH-out-L = 28 lb/ft3
Serrated 400 13.6
Allowable pressure drop, feed gas = 10 psia Feed Gas Phase = Condensing Perforated 450 14.5
Allowable pressure drop, residue gas = 7 psia 500 15.2
Allowable pressure drop, recycle gas = 7 psia Residue Flow Rate Vapor Inlet mC1-in-V = 31320 lb/hr 550 15.75
Feed gas Xv @ 54 degF (Fig 9-39) = 0.792 Residue Flow Rate Liquid Inlet mC1-in-L = 0 lb/hr 600 16.5
One (1) minus Feed gas Xv = 0.208 Residue Flow Rate Vapor Outlet mC1-out-V = 31320 lb/hr Gas to Gas Length 650 17
Density of feed gas outlet (Fig. 9-38) = 4.840 lb/cu.ft. Residue Flow Rate Liquid Outlet mC1-out-L = 0 lb/hr Serrated 178 700 17.5
Density of feed gas liquid outlet (Fig. 9-38) = 28 lb/cu.ft. Residue Gas Pressure PC1 = 205 psia Perforated 258 750 18
Density of feed gas vapor inlet (Fig 9-38) = 2.790 lb/cu.ft. Residue Gas Inlet Density Vapor ρC1-in-V = 1.02 lb/ft3 800 18.5
Density of residue gas vapor in (Fig. 9-38) = 1.020 lb/cu.ft. Residue Gas Inlet Density Liquid ρC1-in-L = lb/ft3 Demethanizer Reboiler Length 850 19
Density of residue gas vapor out (Fig. 9-38) = 0.560 lb/cu.ft. Residue Gas Outlet Density Vapor ρC1-out-V = 0.56 lb/ft3 Serrated 151 900 19.5
Density of recycle gas vapor inlet (Fig 9-38) = 1.320 lb/cu.ft. Residue Gas Outlet Density Liquid ρC1-out-L = lb/ft3 Perforated 217 950 20
Density of recycle gas vapor outlet (Fig 9-38) = 0.800 lb/cu.ft. Residue Gas Phase = All Vapor 1000 20.25
Step 1. Determine Exchanger Cross Section Phase All Vapor dP 1050 20.75
From Fig 9-40 select the typical mass Recycle Flow Rate Vapor Inlet mC2-in-V = 14780 lb/hr All Vapor Serrated 1100 21
velocities (G) for each stream Recycle Flow Rate Liquid Inlet mC2-in-L = 0 lb/hr Condensing Perforated 1150 21.25
GH = 18.6 sq.ft/sec Recycle Flow Rate Vapor Outlet mC2-out-V = 14780 lb/hr 1200 21.5
GC = 9.7 sq.ft/sec Recycle Flow Rate Liquid Outlet mC2-out-L = 0 lb/hr Exchanger Type Exchanger Cross Section
GC = 11.6 sq.ft/sec Recycle Gas Pressure PC2 = 285 psia Gas to Gas 22.6
ρC2-in-V = 1.32
Mass Velocity
Recycle Gas Inlet Density Vapor lb/ft3 Demethanizer Reboiler 14.4
Compute the exchanger height, H = 22.2 inches ρC2-in-L = 25
Recycle Gas Inlet Density Liquid lb/ft3
Exchanger cross section is establishes as 25" wide X 22.2" high Recycle Gas Outlet Density Vapor ρC2-out-V = 0.8 lb/ft3
f(x) = 1.27014480876644E-08x^3 - 3.5105171242944E-05x^2 + 0.0398979082x + 2.5841091532
ρC2-out-L = 20 R² = 0.997957787
Recycle Gas Outlet Density Liquid lb/ft3
Step 2. Determine exchanger length. Recycle Gas Phase = All Vapor
First use Fig. 9-39 to calculate UA. = 490,196 btu/hr-degF 15 Mass Velocity
Use Eq. 9-17 (one, gas-to-gas, serrated fin, 25" X 22.2", and required UA = 490,200 BTU/hr-degF exchanger) to obtain Exchanger Type = Gas to Gas Polynomial (Mass Velocity)
exchanger length. = 180 inches Number of Exchangers N = 1
Exchanger Width W = 25 inches 10
Exchanger size is established as 25" X 22.2" X 180 "
If exchanger length is too long for packaging and/or transportation, then lower G and return to Step 1. Feed Gas Exchanger Duty Q = 5500000 Btu/hr 5
Step 3. Check pressure drops Feed Gas Corrected Log Mean Temperature Difference CMTD = 11.22 °F
Feed gas density out = 5.85 lb/cu.ft.
Feed gas mean density, ρm (Eq. 9-26) = 3.78 lb/cu.ft. Fin Type = Serrated 0
Delta P (Eq. 9-23). Compare with 10.0 psi allowed = 9.9 psi 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

Residue gas mean density, ρm = 0.72 lb/cu.ft. Determine Length


Delta P (Eq. 9-22). Compare with 7.0 psi allowed = 7.3 psi
Feed Gas Mass Velocity GH = 18.8 lb/(ft2-s) Figure 9-40
Recycle gas mean density, ρm = 1.00 lb/cu.ft. Residue Gas Mass Velocity GC1 = 9.4 lb/(ft2-s) Figure 9-40
Delta P (Eq. 9-22). Compare with 7.0 psi allowed = 7.26 psi Recycle Gas Mass Velocity GC2 = 11.4 lb/(ft2-s) Figure 9-40

If above pressure drops are excessive, then lower G and return to Step 1.
Cross Exchanger Stack Height H = 22.6 inches Equation 9-22/23 (if applicable)
This estimation is suitable for condensing up to 30 wt% of vapors in the feed gas, or for reboilers vaporizing up to 20 wt% of feed liquid. For services outside these limits, a plate fin design specialist should be
UA = 490200 Btu/(hr-°F)
consulted.
Exchanger Length L = 178 Equation 9-24/25/26/27/28 (if applicable)

Determine Pressure Drop

Feed Inlet Phase = VAPOR


Feed Inlet Density ρH-in = 2.79 lb/ft3 Equation 9-34 (if applicable)
Feed Outlet Phase = TWO PHASE
Feed Outlet Density ρH-out = 5.85 lb/ft3 Equation 9-34 (if applicable)
Feed Average Density ρHm = 3.78 lb/ft3 Equation 9-33
Feed Pressure Drop ΔPH = 9.96 psi Equation 9-29/30/31/32 (if applicable)

Residue Inlet Phase = VAPOR


Residue Inlet Density ρC1-in = 1.02 lb/ft3 Equation 9-34 (if applicable)
Residue Outlet Phase = VAPOR
Residue Outlet Density ρC1-out = 0.56 lb/ft3 Equation 9-34 (if applicable)
Residue Average Density ρC1m = 0.72 lb/ft3 Equation 9-33
Residue Pressure Drop ΔPC1 = 6.80 psi Equation 9-29/30/31/32 (if applicable)

Recycle Inlet Phase = VAPOR


Recycle Inlet Density ρC2-in = 1.32 lb/ft3 Equation 9-34 (if applicable)
Recycle Outlet Phase = VAPOR
Recycle Outlet Density ρC2-out = 0.8 lb/ft3 Equation 9-34 (if applicable)
Recycle Average Density ρC2m = 1.00 lb/ft3 Equation 9-33
Recycle Pressure Drop ΔPC2 = 6.99 psi Equation 9-29/30/31/32 (if applicable)

If above pressure drops are excessive, then lower G and return to


Step 1.
This estimation is suitable for condensing up to 30 wt% of vapors in the feed gas, or for reboilers vaporizing up to 20 wt% of feed liquid. For services outside these
limits, a plate fin design specialist should be consulted.

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
SECTION 9, FIGURES FOR GPSA ENGINEERING DATA BOOK, 12 th ED.

GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Fig-9-8

Fig-9-9

Fig-9-10

Fig-9-11

Fig-9-12

Fig-9-13
SECTION 9, FIGURES FOR GPSA ENGINEERING DATA BOOK, 12 th ED.

Fig-9-14

Fig-9-17

Fig-9-26

Fig-9-27

Fig-9-28

Fig-9-35
SECTION 9, FIGURES FOR GPSA ENGINEERING DATA BOOK, 12 th ED.

Fig-9-38

Fig-9-39

Fig-9-40