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Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405

DOI 10.1617/s11527-008-9459-6

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Mechanical characteristics of self-compacting concretes


with different filler materials, exposed to elevated
temperatures
N. Anagnostopoulos Æ K. K. Sideris Æ
A. Georgiadis

Received: 7 April 2008 / Accepted: 11 December 2008 / Published online: 24 December 2008
 RILEM 2008

Abstract In this paper, the studies concern the 1 Introduction


influence that different fillers have on the properties
of SCC of different strength classes when exposed to 1.1 General
high temperatures. A total of six different SCC and
two conventional concrete mixtures were produced. An SCC is due to its various advanced properties
The specimens produced are placed at the age of most useful regarding to the structure industry. The
180 days in an electrical furnace which is capable of ability to self compact without the use of any vibrator
reaching 300C at half an hour and 600C at 70 min. allows SCC to pass through dense reinforcement and
The maximum temperature is maintained for an hour. fill in restricted sections, guaranteeing time superior
Then the specimens are let to cool down in the quality of the cast structure at the same. Moreover the
furnace. The hardened properties measured after fire fact that the compaction takes place while casting,
exposures are the compressive strength, splitting without any further delay, ensures a tight and
tensile strength, water capillary absorption and the accurate construction schedule. The feature of self
ultrasonic pulse velocity. Explosive spalling occurred consolidation is partly based on a new method for the
in most cases when specimens of higher strength production and quality control of SCC [1] which
class are exposed to high temperatures. The spalling involves lower water to binder ratio, accumulates the
tendency is increased for specimens of higher use of filler materials and the addition of superplast-
strength class C30/37 irrespective of the mixture icizer in order to achieve the desired workability.
type (SCC or NC) and the type of filler used. Many scientists have reported the similarity of SCC
with high performance concrete (HPC), which is also
Keywords Filler materials  Glass filler  produced with decreased water to cement ratio and
Mechanical characteristics  certain chemical admixtures [2, 3]. The problem that
Self-compacting concrete  Slag  Temperature occurs is the behavior of such concrete mixtures
when exposed to high temperatures.
In general, concrete as a building material has a
reasonably good fire resistance. But when SCC or
HPC is used there are some complications. These
complications concern microstructure changes which
N. Anagnostopoulos  K. K. Sideris (&)  A. Georgiadis
grow along with the increasing temperature [4]. At
Laboratory of Building Materials, Democritus University
of Thrace, P.O. Box 252, Xanthi 67100, Greece certain temperatures there is apparent deterioration
e-mail: kksider@civil.duth.gr mostly due to the dehydration of C–S–H gel and the
1394 Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405

increasing pore water pressure. The finer pore Table 1 Chemical composition of cement and filling materials
distribution along with the poor pore connectivity (%)
that characterizes SCC and HPC keeps the free and Sample CEMII-A/M Limestone Ladle Glass
chemically bound water trapped inside the structure, 42.5 N filler furnace slag filler
leading to growing pore pressure [2, 3, 5]. When high
SiO2a 23.85 1.8 32.5 62.1
temperature and high heating rate are applied, the
Al2O3 5.22 0.45 2.5 1.6
concrete’s fire resistance is most likely to decrease
Fe2O3 4.13 0.08 – 0.1
and thus spalling to occur.
FeO – – 1.72 –
CaO 58.2 54.8 54.1 18
1.2 Objective
MgO 3.2 0.68 5.55 2.4
SO3 3.3 0.05 – 0.2
Considering that SCC is a newer type of concrete
K2O 0.68 – 0.04 0
compared to the traditional concrete or even HPC, the
research performed on SCC after fire exposure is yet Na2O 0.32 – 0.34 12.4
limited. As reported in [2] the SCC mixtures which TiO2 0.24 0.17 – –
are subjected to fire have an explosive spalling P2O5 0.06 0.02 – 0.1
tendency which is evident in concrete mixes of higher SrO 0.03 – – –
strength classes, while SCC of lower strength classes Cr2O3 0.02 – – –
has a rather good fire resistance. In this contribution ZnO 0.01 – – –
b
the efforts are focused on producing SCC of different LoI 1.57 40.5 3.19 0.4
strength classes which incorporate different filler SGc (g/cm3) 3.1 2.65 2.59 2.51
materials, in order to investigate their performance a
All the samples are expressed by weigh percentage
after exposure at gradually up scaled temperature. b
Loss of ignition
c
Specific gravity

2 Materials and methods


Table 2 Composition of materials used (%)
2.1 Materials and mixtures
Aggregate passing 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32
Limestone sand 6 18 56 81 100 100 100 100
A total of six SCC and two NC mixes are produced
Coarse aggregates 0 0 0 0 12 57 100 100
for this study. The same class of blended cement
(CEM II 42, 5 N) is used in all cases to produce All fine materials pass through the 0.125-mm sieve
strength classes such as C25/30 and C30/37, accord-
ing to EN206-1 [6]. Coarse aggregates consisting of
crushed granite and limestone sand are used. A high properties while in fresh state. The mix proportions of
range water reducing carboxylic either polymer all concretes are presented in Table 3.
admixture is added in different dosages to achieve
slump of 190 mm in the case of NC, or self 2.2 Specimens and temperatures
compactibility in the case of SCC. The filling
materials used for the production of all SCC mixes The mixing is carried out in a pan mixer according to
are respectively: limestone filler, slag and glass filler. the European Guidelines for SCC [7]. Right after the
The cement-filler material chemical compositions as mixing is completed the SCC is tested accordingly as
well as the aggregate grading curves are listed in instructed in EFNARC specifications [8]. A number
Tables 1, 2 respectively. In all cases the water/ of 150-mm cubes are prepared in order to assess the
cement ratios as well as the cement content are kept compressive strength and the water capillary absorp-
relatively the same for each strength class. Moreover tion at the age of 28 days. The water capillary
the slump flow tests and slump tests with reference to absorption is measured according to the procedure
SCC and NC correspondingly were attempted to be of described by RILEM TC116 [9]. The 150-mm cubes
the same order of value and thus to present respective are tested for compressive strength after a period of
Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405 1395

Table 3 Mix design proportions and fresh properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) and normal concretes (NC)
Mix design proportions (kg/m3) Self compacting concrete Normal concrete
L-filler Slag Glass filler
SCC SCC SCC SCC SCC SCC NC NC
C25/30 LF C30/37 LF C25/30 SL C30/37 SL C25/30 GF C30/37 GF C25/30 NC C30/37 NC

CEMII-A/M 42.5 N 335 375 340 375 340 380 330 375
Filler 135 100 0 0 0 0 0 0
Slag 0 0 135 100 0 0 0 0
Glass filler 0 0 0 0 130 100 0 0
Sand 915 900 825 862 845 862 940 870
Coarse aggregates 800 800 800 800 800 800 927 955
Water 185 186 188 189 190 194 183 186
Super plasticizer (%)a 1.63 1.88 1.29 1.74 1.16 1.17 1.0 1.0
W/C 0.55 0.50 0.55 0.50 0.56 0.51 0.55 0.50
W/P 0.39 0.39 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.55 0.50
Air content (%) 1.70 1.60 1.90 1.70 1.40 1.20 2.10 1.80
Slump (cm) – – – – – – 19 20
Slump flow D (cm) 75.5 75 75.5 75.5 74 73.5 – –
t50 (s) 2 1.72 4.72 4.25 1.66 1.25 – –
V funnel 1 (s) 10.5 10 8.49 9.18 4.38 6.06 – –
V funnel 2 (s) 28 15 14.4 11.25 5.16 13 – –
J ring H (cm) 0.3 0.3 1 0.9 0.6 0.5 – –
J ring D (cm) 68 68 67 68 66 68 – –
LBOX (h2/h1) 0.88 0.88 0.83 0.85 0.82 0.84 – –
t200 (s) 1 1 2.5 3.41 1.2 1.35 – –
t400 (s) 2.01 3 5.5 5.1 1.4 2.25 – –
fc28 (Mpa)b 37.1 54 37.7 53.5 38.3 49 36 52.7
a
SP (super plasticizer) value is measured by % percent by weight of the entire fines amount (cement and filler materials)
b
Compressive strength at the age of 28 days is measured in specimens of 150-mm edge cubes

28 days of moist curing (20 ± 2C, RH C 95%), as constant mass at 105C. Table 4 shows the moisture
the mean value of three specimens. Fire resistance is content that is afterwards determined as following:
measured on 100-mm cubes and 150 9 300-mm
W = (m0 - md)/md
cylinders. Those specimens also go through moist
md = mass of the test specimen after drying at
curing for 28 days and are then left at ambience
105C
(20 ± 2C, RH C 65%), and not tested till the age of
m0 = mass of the specimen before drying
fire tests (180 days).
Right before fire exposure at the age of 180 days At the age of 180 days the specimens which meant
three 100-mm cubes of each mixture are dried to to be exposed to high temperatures are heated in an

Table 4 Moisture content of all the mixtures at the age of 180 days
Mixture C25/30 C30/37 C25/30 C30/37 C25/30 C30/37 C25/30 C30/37
CC-LF SCC-LF SCC-SL SCC-SL SCC-GF SCC-GF NC NC

Moisture content (%)a 4.41 3.39 3.17 3.18 4.01 4.11 3.98 3.93
a
Moisture content is measured in specimens of 100-mm edge cubes
1396 Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405

electrical furnace Fig. 1. Two peak temperatures are 2.3 Compressive strength
examined to determine the specimen’s fire resistance:
300 and 600C. The heating rate applied is 10C/min The compressive strength is measured according to
until the target temperature is reached, and this is EN 12390-3 [9]. The original compressive strength is
maintained for a period of 1 h, Fig. 2. When the measured on 150-mm cubes which are tested at the
heating period finishes, the furnace remains sealed for age of 28 days in order to specify the concrete’s
24 h in order to cool down the specimens down to the strength class. Residual compressive strength is
ambient temperature. Then the specimens are tested measured after the fire tests on 100-mm cubes. A
to determine properties such as compressive strength, Buehl & Fabel compression testing machine with
splitting tensile strength and pulse velocity. 3000 KN capacity is used in all cases.

2.4 Splitting tensile strength

Splitting tensile strength is determined by measuring


the tensile strength on 150 9 300-mm cylinders at
different peak temperatures so that the residual
tensile strength is assessed in each case. According
to EN 12390-6 [10] a splitting attachment (CON-
TROLS’ Model 50-C9000) is adjusted on the
laboratory compression testing machine.

2.5 Water capillary absorption

The water capillary absorption is measured according


to the procedure described by RILEM TC116 [11].
That property is measured on pre-weighted 150-mm
cubes. Specimens are placed on adjusted plastic
plates filled with water, so that only one surface of the
specimen is getting wet. Then the specimens are
weighted in regular intervals and the absorbed water
quantity is estimated.

2.6 Stress–strain curves

100-mm cubes are used in order to calculate stress–


Fig. 1 Indicative seating plan of the specimens in the furnace strain curves at the age of 180 days. The specimens

Fig. 2 Temperature development of 300C (left) and 600C (right)


Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405 1397

are placed on the laboratory compression testing appear to be more evenly distributed between the ITZ
machine and stress–strain sensors are adjusted on the and bulk density of SCC [15].
upper metallic plate of the pressing device. As soon In the case of SCC, it appears that there are slight
as the specimen is loaded, the sensors transmit variations as it regards their compressive strength
electric signal to the data logger which is converted values. The use of different filler materials for SCC
through a computer programme into stress–strain mixture production has everything to do with these
curves. deviations. SCC mixtures which are produced using
ladle furnace slag as a filler material have higher
2.7 Pulse velocity water absorption than expected, resulting to a viscous
and rather ‘‘slow concrete’’, while in fresh state. On
Pulse velocity is measured on 100-mm cubes accord- the other hand, when limestone filler is used the
ing to the procedure described by EN 12504-4 [12]. mixture performance is excellent in terms of rheo-
Specimens are tested at the age of 180 days before logical and mechanical characteristics. Similar
and after fire tests using a PUNDIT ultrasonic pulse performance is noted in the case of glass filler with
velocity testing device. even better rheological features. As mentioned
before, all mixtures are produced by keeping the w/c
ratio relatively the same. That means that in relation to
3 Results and discussion their absorption requirements, certain porosity is
developed in each case, which is finally reflected in
3.1 Original compressive strength the compressive strength values.

The compressive strength results at the age of 3.2 Residual compressive strength
28 days are presented at Table 3 for all prepared
concrete mixes. While studying the compressive What would be of great importance in a fire scenario
strength results it emerges that in almost all cases is definitely the state of the concrete’s mechanical
SCC develop higher values as compared with NC of properties. The residual compressive strength for all
the same strength class. This is attributed to the SCC and NC mixtures after heating in 300 and 600C
changes of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is presented in Fig. 3. As Chan reports in his
caused by the different filler materials [13]. As investigation there are three temperature ranges from
reported in Zhu and Bartos [14] ITZ is denser and the point of strength loss: 20–400, 400–800 and
significantly more uniform in SCC than in NC. 800–1200C [2, 5]. After exposing to fire HPC
Moreover as Traghard points out, the porosity of ITZ and NC mixtures prepared with ordinary Portland
is much lower in SCC than in NC of the same w/c cement, Chan concludes that only a small part of the
ratio, as the hydrated phases and unhydrited particles original strength is lost up to 400C, while severe

Fig. 3 Compressive strength of C25/30 (left) and C30/37 (right) SCC and NC, after heating at different temperatures (300 and
600C) compared with the compressive strength at room temperature (20C)
1398 Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405

compressive strength loss occurs within the 400– moisture and eventually to avoid spalling due to
800C range. That is mostly the case for the SCC and steam pressure. The concept of using glass filler is the
NC mixtures prepared in this contribution, which are formation of micro-cracks which develop because of
exposed to slightly different temperature ranges, the thermal expansion of glass that is greater than the
though. concrete’s [16]. Thus greater pore connectivity is
Regarding the 20–300C range, there is a com- thought to provide canals for the steam to escape.
pressive strength reduction for the SCC 25/30 which Ladle furnace slag is used as a filler material as it
fluctuates between 12% and 15% of its initial value, presents cementitious behavior mainly due to its high
while for the SCC 30/37 the strength loss percentage content in CaO [19]. According to Piasta et al. the
reaches 18%. The corresponding strength loss per- development of micro-cracks increases beyond
centages for the equivalent 25/30–30/37 NC are 18% 300C and firstly occurs around calcium hydroxide
and 17.6% respectively. At 600C the reduction in Ca(OH)2 crystals [20]. Hence slag due to its cemen-
compressive strength ranges from 52% to 57% for all titious properties is expected to ensure the
mixtures and explosive spalling occurs in cylindrical development of micro-cracks which will lead to
specimens in all cases. The phenomenon is more greater porosity.
intense when ladle furnace slag is used as filler
material and spalling occurs in 100-mm cubes as 3.3 Moisture content and water absorption
well. As there was no way for visible inspection,
spalling is identified by hearing the series of pop outs, Since the use of different filler materials is expected
happening in most cases when the distinctive tem- to alter the porosity of SCC mixtures and thus to
perature of 300C is overrun. prevent the effect of spalling, the moisture content
The use of different filler materials in the case of and the capillary water absorption for all mixtures are
SCC does not seem to make any difference as it presented in Tables 4 and 5 respectively. As Bostrom
regards explosive spalling Fig. 4. During fire the et al. points out, SCC has a high probability of
humidity of the concrete increases along with tem- spalling when exposed to fire compared to conven-
perature and fluid water is formed [16]. The water is tional concrete [21]. Considering the low
transported inwards to the center of the specimen permeability of SCC due to its denser structure,
where the space is limited [16]. At a certain point the water vapor is very limited to evaporate out of SCC.
region becomes saturated and the entrapped water is Lower moisture content is therefore of great signif-
eventually released in the form of steam by explosive icance, since the accumulated pore pressure is
spalling [17, 18]. The filler content used is relatively accordingly minimized.
high (150 kg/m3) to ensure low levels of concrete The concrete mixtures produced in this investiga-
tion vary with reference to their capillary water
absorption since they belong to different strength
classes. Concrete mixtures of the lower strength
class—C25/30—appear to have greater water capillary
absorption values compared to C30/37. Lower w/c
ratios as well as the higher cement content that is
used for the C30/37 production forms a tighter
structure which eventually results in lower perme-
ability. Water capillary absorption values are in all
cases lower in SCC compared to NC of the same
strength class, probably due to a more efficient
packing that is achieved by the use of filler materials.
Among SCC mixtures the one produced with glass
filler seems to have greater water absorption values,
since the w/c ratio in that occasion is somewhat
Fig. 4 Spalled specimens after exposure at high temperature higher. SCC produced with ladle furnace slag appears
(600C) to be less permeable than the remaining mixtures
Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405 1399

Table 5 Capillary water absorption (g/cm2)


Time/mix C25/30 C30/37 C25/30 C30/37 C25/30 C30/37 C25/30 C30/37
SCC-LF SCC-LF SCC-SL SCC-SL SCC-GF SCC-GF NC NC

T/10 min 0.1578 0.1022 0.1428 0.1122 0.1569 0.1448 0.1444 0.0933
T/24 h 0.5133 0.4133 0.5019 0.4003 0.5180 0.4536 0.5444 0.4667

mainly due to its denser microstructure, while The relative pulse velocity results in this research
limestone filler performed similarly. In any occasion coincide well with the above made statements, as
there is explosive spalling when the peak temperature there is a slight reduction in the slope up to 300C
of 600C is maintained when all concretes of both and then the angle of gradient is greater for the
strength classes are tested, and this is valid irrespec- temperature range of 300–600C for all mixtures
tive of the strength class and the filler material used. Fig. 5 (C25/30-left and C30/37-right). For the con-
crete mixtures which belong to the lower strength
3.4 Pulse velocity class—C25/30—the relative pulse velocity is almost
identical for all mixtures after exposure at 300C. At
The significant changes which concrete specimens the following temperature range (300–600C) more
undergo as far as their pore structure is concerned, severe degradation occurs. After exposure to 600C
when heated at different peak temperature are SCC produced with limestone filler have the best
assessed by the pulse velocity test. The results are performance and SCC with ladle furnace slag appear
plotted in Fig. 5 where the residual pulse velocity is to have suffered greater deterioration. That is mostly
expressed as the ratio of the pulse velocity after the case for the C30/37 mixtures. After exposure at
exposure to each peak temperature to the initial value 600C all SCC specimens containing slag suffer
at ambient temperature. Using pulse velocity propa- severe deterioration due to explosive spalling. With
gation is possible to figure out through a non the exception of all mixture produced with slag,
destructive method, the extent of deterioration due SCCs of the higher strength class perform slightly
to elevated temperatures or even the presence of higher residual values compared to ordinary concrete
cracks and voids [22]. A decrease in velocity after exposure to 600C.
indicates the initiation of cracks in the concrete mass
and increase in the porosity [2]. According to Piasta 3.5 Residual tensile strength
the development of micro-cracks in cement paste
increases significantly beyond 300C [20]. Lin et al. With a close look at the tensile splitting strength in
further confirms that the majority of the cracks and Fig. 6 it becomes evident that there is a sharp loss of
the extremely large cracks are formed between 300 tensile strength compared to a rather smoother declin-
and 500C [23]. ing curve which corresponds to the compressive

Fig. 5 Ratio of residual pulse velocity [V(T)] after peak temperature to the pulse velocity at room temperature [V(20C)] of C25/30
(left) and C30/37 (right) for SCC and NC
1400 Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405

Fig. 6 Tensile strength of C25/30 (left) and C30/37 (right) for SCC and NC after heating at different temperatures

strength loss at different peak temperatures [2, 5]. among SCC mixtures prepared with several filler
Chan et al. [5] attribute this to the presence of many materials compared to normal concrete.
micro or macro cracks that are produced in the As it is observed in Fig. 7, there is no noticeable
specimens due to thermal incompatibility. difference between SCC and NC in the shape of the
The tensile splitting strength results for the C25/30 curves, either between SCC with different filler
mixtures are plotted in Fig. 6 consisting of two materials. Generally, the ascending phase of all the
descending branches, exhibiting the strength loss at curves as the temperature increases becomes
20–300 and 300–600C temperature ranges respec- smoother especially at high temperatures (600C)
tively. All mixtures of this strength class tend to a while the peak strain increases and the peak strength
similar decrease from 20 to 300C. SCC with decreases. It must be mentioned that there could be a
limestone filler appear to have the best perfor- pronounced concave-up curve at the beginning of
mance, from 300 to 600C. On the other hand SCC loading due to the pre-existing cracks caused by
with ladle furnace slag in its composition along heating and cooling [25]. Comparing the curves
with SCC using glass filler follows similar decline between the two strength classes it can be mentioned
with NC and suffers the greater loss of tensile that the higher the strength class, the more rapid the
strength at the range of 300–600C. Splitting ascending phase and the more linear the descending
tensile strength results are only plotted from 20 one, due to the stiffness softening of the specimens at
to 300C regarding to the higher strength class all temperatures respectively. Also, the percent of
concrete, since all the cylinders which belong to peak strain increasing is for the C25/30 mixtures 12–
that strength category spall explosively. SCC with 15% and for the C30/37 mixtures 7–10% at 300 and
limestone filler manage in this case also to at 600C the respective percent is 60–65% and 50–
maintain greater percentage of its original tensile 55%. Finally, SL mixtures give the impression of
strength compared to the rest SCC and NC of the having more linear phases and rough curve distribu-
same strength class. tion before and after the peak strength compared to
the GF mixtures that have the smoother distribution.
3.6 Stress–strain curves
3.7 Model suggestion
The stress–strain curve, representing the deformation
and mechanical characteristics, is an important The model equations which are proposed in order to
material characteristic of concrete [24]. It is also evaluate the mechanical characteristics for both
important to extract results for the concrete attributes unheated and heated concrete are shown in the
from the stress–strain curves at elevated tempera- following equations [25]. In this paper the residual
tures, although many coexisting effects determine the mechanic characteristics (only the peak values) are
shape of the curve. In this study, an attempt is made evaluated and compared with the values that have
to observe the difference of the stress–strain curves been produced by the experimental program at
Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405 1401

Fig. 7 Stress–strain curves of C25/30 (left) and C30/37 (right) of NC (a, b) and SCC (c–h) after heating at different temperatures

different temperatures (T). In particular the residual measured tensile strength (ft), whilst Eq. 4 evaluates
peak strength value (fcr) is evaluated by Eq. 1 using the residual modulus of elasticity (Ecr).
original compressive strength (fc). Equation 2 T
expresses the peak strain value (eor) using the fcr =fc ¼ 1:008 þ  T  0:0; 20 C\T 800 C
450ln 5800
unheated peak strain. The residual tensile strength
(ftr) is calculated by Eq. 3 using the experimentally ð1Þ
1402 Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405

(
h 1; i 20 C\1  200 C
ecr =eo ¼ expð5:8þ0:01TÞ ð2Þ
ð0:1fc þ 7:7Þ 1þexpð5:8þ0:01TÞ  0:0219 þ 1; 200 C\T  800 C

8 (
1:05  0:025 T;
< 20 C\T  100 C 0:00165 T þ 1:033; 20 C\T  125 C
ftr =ft ¼ 0:80; 100 C\T  200 C Ecr =Ec ¼ 1
; 200 C\T  800 C
: 1:2 þ 18ð0:0015 TÞ4:5
1:02  0:0011 T  0; 200 C\T  800 C
ð4Þ
ð3Þ

(a) (b) (c)


C25/30 NC C25/30 NC C25/30 NC

Tensile Strength (GPa)


Compressive Strength

50 Experimental Values Model Values


5
40 8,3 8,18 4
30
(MPa)

3
20 2
10
3,42 3,16 1
0 2,8 2,8
0
20 300 600 20 300 600
Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C)
Experimental Values Model Values 20 C 300 C 600 C Experimental Values Model Values

C25/30 SCC-LF C25/30 SCC-LF C25/30 SCC-LF

Tensile Strength (GPa)


Compressive Strength

Experimental Values Model Values


50 5
40 7,8 7,96 4
(MPa)

30 3
20 2
10 3,9 1
2,8 2,8 3,15
0 0
20 300 600 20 300 600

Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C)


Experimental Values Model Values 20 C 300 C 600 C Experimental Values Model Values

C25/30 SCC-SL C25/30 SCC-SL C25/30 SCC-SL


Tensile Strength (GPa)
Compressive Strength

50 Experimental Values Model Values 5


40 8,5 4
7,27
(MPa)

30 3
20 2
10 3,85 1
0 2,6 2,6 2,91
0
20 300 600 20 300 600
Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C)
Experimental Values Model Values 20 C 300 C 600 C Experimental Values Model Values

C25/30 SCC-GF C25/30 SCC-GF


Tensile Strength (GPa)

C25/30 SCC-GF
Compressive Strength

50 Experimental Values Model Values 5


40 8,5 8,34 4
(MPa)

30 3
20 2
10 3,8 1
2,8 2,8 3,17
0 0
20 300 600 20 300 600

Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C)


Experimental Values Model Values 20 C 300 C 600 C Experimental Values Model Values

Fig. 8 Comparison of heated and unheated values of (column a) compressive strength, (column b) peak strain and (column c) tensile
strength among the model equations [18] and the experimental data for C25/30 SCC and NC
Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405 1403

(a) (b) (c)


Compressive Strength

Tensile Strength (GPa)


C30/37 NC C30/37 NC C30/37 NC
60 Experimental Values Model Values 5
50 4
40 6,02 5,59
(MPa)

3
30
20 2
3,13 2,74
10 2,53 2,53 1
0 0
20 300 600 20 300 600
Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C)
20 C 300 C 600 C
Experimental Values Model Values Experimental Values Model Values

Tensile Strength (GPa)


Compressive Strength

C30/37 SCC-LF C30/37 SCC-LF C30/37 SCC-LF


60 Experimental Values Model Values 5
50 4
40 5,97
(MPa)

5,51 3
30 2
20
3,02 2,75 1
10 2,55 2,55
0
0
20 300 600 20 300 600
Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C)
20 C 300 C 600 C Experimental Values
Experimental Values Model Values Model Values
Compressive Strength

Tensile Strength (GPa)


C30/37SCC-SL C30/37 SCC-SL C30/37SCC-SL
60 Experimental Values Model Values 5
50 4
(MPa)

40 3
5,79
30 5,24
2
20
10 2,89 2,61 1
2,42 2,42
0 0
20 300 600 20 300 600
Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C)
20 C 300 C 600 C Experimental Values
Experimental Values Model Values Model Values
Compressive Strength

Tensile Strength (GPa)


C30/37SCC-GF C30/37 SCC-GF C30/37SCC-GF
60 Experimental Values Model Values 5
50 4
40 6,13 5,84
(MPa)

3
30
2
20
10 3,12 2,81 1
2,59 2,59
0 0
20 300 600 20 300 600
Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C)
20 C 300 C 600 C
Experimental Values Model Values Experimental Values Model Values

Fig. 9 Comparison of heated and unheated values of (column a) compressive strength, (column b) peak strain and (column c) tensile
strength among the model equations [18] and the experimental data for C30/37 SCC and NC

As mentioned in [25], the shape of the stress–strain not for the whole stress–strain curve but for the peak
curves changes with various factors in unheated mechanical values after heating. In Figs. 8 and 9 the
concrete. The actual stress distribution in the com- theoretical values are compared with the experimental
pression zone of concrete is extremely difficult to measured values for C25/30 and C30/37 mixtures
measure and to model adequately. Thus, the shape is respectively. As observed, the model equations pro-
very complex because the factors do not act indepen- vide a good simulation in order to evaluate the residual
dently and they are not easy to represent as constants. mechanical characteristics of all the mixtures.
In addition with elevated temperature of concrete and
especially of SCC including their compositions sev-
eral filling materials with different attributes, it is very 4 Conclusions
difficult to propose a representative model equation of
the complete stress–strain curve including all these After the production and extensive testing of SCC
factors. Besides, in this paper, the model Eqs. 1–4 and NC which belonged to different strength classes
have been applied for all the mixtures of SCC and NC, such as C25/30 and C30/37 the following is noted:
1404 Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1393–1405

• Explosive spalling occurs in both cases of SCC production and quality control of self-compacting concrete.
and NC when the oven peak temperature of Concr Steel J Greece 4:35–45 (in Greek)
2. Sideris KK (2007) Mechanical characteristics of self con-
600C is maintained. solidating concrete exposed to elevated temperatures.
• SCC is bound to spall more compared to NC due ASCE Aug:648–654
to lower permeability and higher moisture content. 3. Ye G, Liu X, De Schutter D, Taerwe L, Vandevelde P
• SCC with ladle furnace slag in its composition (2007) Phase distribution and microstructural changes of
self-compacting concrete paste at elevated temperature.
performs the higher compressive strength at the Cement Concr Res 37:978–987. doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.
age of 28 days due to slag’s cementitious behav- 2007.02.011
ior, but is more susceptible to spalling effects 4. Kallifa P, Menneteau FD, Quenard D (2000) Spalling and
after fire exposure compared to other mixtures. pore pressure in HPC at elevated temperatures. Cement
Concr Res 30:1915–1927. doi:10.1016/S0008-8846(00)
• SCCs produced with glass filler has greater 00384-7
rheological characteristics at fresh state condition, 5. Chan YN, Peng GF, Anson M (1999) Residual strength and
but does not perform as well after heated at high pore structure of high-strength concrete and normal
temperatures. strength concrete after exposure to high temperatures.
Cement Concr Compos 21:23–27. doi:10.1016/S0958-
• SCCs produced with limestone filler appear to have 9465(98)00034-1
generally better performance compared to mixtures 6. Europeene de Normalisation C (CEN) (2000) Concrete-
prepared with different filler materials. These part 1: performance, production and conformity. EN206-1,
concretes maintain greater percentage of residual CEN, Brussels
7. EFNARC (2005) The European guidelines for self com-
values after exposed to high temperatures. pacting concrete. May 2005, pp 19–23
• Obtaining the stress–strain curves, the ascending 8. EFNARC (2002) Specifications and guidelines for self
phase is getting more linear as the temperature compacting concrete. Feb 2002, pp 21–32
increases and the original strength decreases, and 9. Européene de Normalisation C (CEN) (2000) Testing
hardened concrete-part 3: compressive strength of test
the descending phase becomes flatter and specimens. EN 12390-3, CEN, Brussels
smoother. No difference among SCC and NC 10. Européene de Normalisation C (CEN) (2006) Testing
behavior is observed as concerns stress–strain hardened concrete-part 6: testing splitting strength of test
curves. specimens. EN 12390-6, CEN, Brussels
11. RILEM (1999) RILEM TC 116 technical recommenda-
• The model for the evaluation of both heated and tions: determination of the capillary absorption of water of
unheated specimens seems to coincide well with hardened concrete. Mater Struct 32(4):174–179
the experimental data of this research. By apply- 12. Européene de Normalisation C (CEN) (2000) Testing
ing the single equation model proposed by other concrete-part 4: determination of ultrasonic pulse velocity.
EN 12504-4, CEN, Brussels
researchers [25], it is possible to predict the 13. Georgiadis A, Sideris KK, Anagnostopoulos N (2007)
mechanical characteristics of normal or SCC Mechanical characteristics of SCC produced with different
concrete using the original characteristics which filler materials. Proceedings of the 5th international
can be experimentally measured for heated or RILEM symposium, Ghent, pp 491–496
14. Zhu W, Bartos PJM (2005) Microstructure and properties
unheated concrete. of interfacial transition zone in SCC. Proceedings of the 1st
international symposium on design, performance and use
of self-consolidating concrete. Changsha, China, 26–28
Acknowledgments This paper is part of the 03ED375
May 2005, pp 319–327
research project, implemented within the framework of the
15. Traghard J (1999) Micro structural features and related
‘Reinforcement Programme of Human Research Manpower
properties of self-compacting concrete. In: Proceedings of
(PENED)’ and co-financed by National and Community Funds
the 1st international RILEM symposium on self-compact-
(75% from E.U.-European Social Fund and 25% from the
ing concrete. RILEM Publications S.A.R.L., Stockholm,
Greek Ministry of Development-General Secretariat of
pp 175–186
Research and Technology).
16. Persson B (2004) Fire resistance of self compacting con-
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17. Bostrom L, Jansson R (2007) Fire spalling of SCC. Pro-
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