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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY VOCABULARY

• There are literally thousands of medical terms. It would be very difficult to memorize the meaning
of each and every word. Most of the terms have a Greek or Latin origin.
• However, it is not necessary to learn each and every word. A more efficient approach is to learn the
basic word parts and recognize them in a word.
• The vocabulary will be broken down in to 3 categories:
1. Prefix - word part attached to the beginning of a word root and modifies its
meaning.
2. Root - contains the fundamental meaning of the word.
3. Suffix - word part attached to the end of a word root to modify its meaning.

• On Monday and Wednesday at the beginning of the period, you will copy down 5 vocabulary words,
the meaning of each word, and an example of the use of the word.
• On Friday, you will take a quiz where you will have to define the 10 words for that week.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY VOCABULARY


PREFIX#1
1.a- not, without. Atresia: A (without) + tresia (perforation). Not having an
opening.
2.para- beside, beyond. Paracervical: Para beside) + cervical (cervix). Next to the uterine
cervix. “para” sounds like “pair”
3.amnio- amnion or membraneous fetal sac. Amniocentesis: Amnio (fetal sac) + centesis
(puncture). The removal of a small amount of amniotic fluid for analysis. “amnio”
sounds like “I am new”.
4.ante- before. Anterior: Ante (before) + rior (foremost). The front portion of a
structure. “ante” sounds like “auntie”.
5.cyes- pregnancy. Pseudocyesis: Psuedo (false) +cyes (pregnant) + esis (condition). A
condition in which a woman believes she is pregnant. “cyes” sounds like “sighs”.
6. tendin- fibrous band. Tendinitis: Tendin(tendons) + itis (inflammation). The
inflammation of the tendons. “tend” sounds like “ten”.
7. alb- white. Albino: An individual with a lack of coloring pigment in the skin eyes, and hair.
“alba” sounds like “album”.
8. peri- around. Pericardium: Peri (around) + cardium(heart). A fibroserous sac that
surrounds the heart and the roots of the great vessels. “peri” sounds like
“Perry”.
9. nulli- none. Nullipara: Nulli (none) + para (childbirth). A woman who has not yet
delivered an infant. “nulli” sounds like “no light”.
10. alve- channel, cavity. Alveolitis: Alve (cavity) + ol (small) + itis (inflammation). An allergic
inflammation of the alveoli.

PREFIX#2

11.lacrim- tears. Lacrimal gland: Lacrim (tears) + - al (related to), The lacrimal gland
secretes tears. “lacrim” sounds like “lake rim”
12.lei- smooth. Leiodermia: Leio (smooth) + derm (skin) + ia (condition). Smooth
skin. “leio” sounds like “lying”.
13.nephr- kidney. Nephritis: Nephr (kidney) + -itis (inflammation). An inflammation
of the kidney. “nephr” sounds like “nephew”.
14.crypto- hidden. Cryptogenic: Crypto (hidden) + genic (origin). A disease whose
origin is unknown. “crypto” sounds like “crept”
15.aur- ear. Auricle: Aur (ear) + i + cle (small). The outer part of the ear. “auri” sounds like
“oar”
16. cry- cold. Cryotherapy: Cry (cold) + therapy . Treatment using cold.
17. dia- across. Diaphragm: Dia (cross) +phragm (muscular wall). The muscle
that goes across the chest cavity. “dia” sounds like “diary”.
18. eti- causing disease. Etiology: Eti (causing disease) + logy (study of). The study of
the caused of disease. “eti” sounds like “eating”.
19. bi- two. Binocular: Bi (two) + ocular (eye). Having two eyes. “bi” sounds like
“bicycle”.
20. meta- change of exchange. Metamorphosis: Meta (change) + morph (shape) + osis
(condition). A change in shape. “meta” sounds like “ met a”.

PREFIX#3

21. ex- outside, without. Exoskeleton: Ex (outside) + skeleton. The hard outer covering of
many invertebrates.
22. noct- night. Nocturia: Noct (night) + uria (urination). Excessive urination at night. “noct”
sounds like “knock”.
23. poly- many, much. Polymorphous: Poly (many) + morp (shape) + ous (relating to).
Changing in structure or form at different stages. “poly” sounds like “police”.
24. ecto- outside, misplaced. Ectoderm: Ecto (ouside) + derm (skin). The outer layer
of cells in the embryo. “ecto” sounds like “octopus”
25. myo- muscle. Myocardium: Myo (muscle) + card (heart) + ium. The muscle of the
heart. “myo” sounds like “my O”
26. brady- slow. Bradypnea: Brady (slow) + pnea (breathing). An abnormally slow rate of
breathing. “brady” sounds like “braid”
27. dys- painful or difficult. Dysmenorrhea: Dys (painful) + men (month) + rrhea
(bursting forth). Painful menstruation.
28. trans- across, through. Transducer: Trans (through) + duc (lead) + er (agent of).
An electronic device that sends and receives a soundwave signal.
29. supra- above or over. Suprapatellar: Supra “above” + patell (kneecap) + ar (related
to). Above the patella.
30. eu- normal, well, good. Euthanasia: Eu (normal) + thanas (death) + ia (condition).
Bringing about the death of someone with an incurable disease, in an attempt to
alleviate suffering. “eu” sounds like “you”

PREFIX#4

31. pan- all. Panacea: Pan (all) + acea (remedy). A remedy that is imagined to cure all
ills.
32. rhabdo- striated, rod shaped. Rhabdomyoma: Rhabdo (striated) + myo (muscle) + oma (tumor).
A tumor of the striated muscle. “rhabdo” sounds like “rabbit”.
33. scler- hard. Sclera: Scler (hard) + a (singular noun). The hard white membrane covering the
front of the eye. “sclera” sound like “skull”
34. ton- pressure, tension. Tonometer: Ton (pressure) + 0 + meter (instrument for measuring).
An instrument that measures pressure in the eyeball.
35. sym- with, together. Symmetry: Sym syn (together) + metry (measure). A correspondence of
body parts on both sides of the body.
36. sub- under. Subcutaneous: Sub(under) + cutaneous (skin). Underneath the skin.
37. hemi- half. Hemiplegia: Hemi (half) + plegia (paralysis). Paralysis of one side of the
body.
38. pre- before. Prefrontal: Pre (before) + front (front) + al (related to). Related to
extreme front of the brain.
39. post- after, behind. Post Partum: Post (after) + Partum (birth). An example is post-
partum care, or “after-birth” care.
40. photo- light. Photophobia: Photo (light) + phobia (fear). An aversion to light.

PREFIX#5

41. phon- voice sound. Phonation: Phon (voice) + ation (process). The production of
speech sounds through the vibration of the voice cords.
42. per- throughout. Percutaneous: Per (through) + cutaneous (skin). A
procedure performed through the skin.
43. neo- new. Neonate: Neo (new) + nate (birth). A newborn baby.
44. multi- many. Multiparous: Multi (many) + par (birth) + -ous (relating to). Having
given birth to more than one child.
45. micro- small. Microsurgery: Micro (small) + surgery. Surgery on very small physical
structures.
46. intra- within, inside. Intravenous: Intra (inside) + venous (veins). Inside the veins.
47. inter- between. Intercostal muscles: Inter (between) + cost (ribs) + al (related to)
muscles. Between the ribs.
48. hyp- below, not enough. Hypoglycemia: Hypo (below) + glyc (sugar) + emia (blood). Low
blood sugar.
49. hyper- above or excessive. Hyperpnea: Hyper (excessive) + pnea (breathing). Abnormally
excessive rapid breathing.
50. epi- covering, on, upon. Epidemic: Epi (covering) + demic (people). Disease
covering a large area and many people.

PREFIX AND SUFFIX#6

51. andr- male. Androgen: Andr (male) + gen (to produce). Any hormone that increases
male characteristics.
52. cyst- bladder or sac. Cystectomy: Cyst (bladder/sac) + ectomy (surgical removal). Surgical
removal of all or part of the bladder.
53. bio- life. Biopsy: Bio (life) + opsy (look at). The examination of a small piece of living
tissue in order to establish a diagnosis.
54. auto- self. Autoplasty: Auto (self) + plasty (to shape). Surgery in which parts of the patients
own tissues are used to replace other parts.
55. an- without. Anemia: An (without) + emia (blood). A condition in which blood in absent,
or there is not enough blood.
56. -cele swelling, hernia. Cystocele: Cyst (bladder) + o + cele (swelling). A swelling of the
tissue of the lung through an opening in the chest.
57. -ectas extension, dilatation. Pharyngectasis: Pharyng (throat) + ectas (stretching). The
expansion of the throat.
58. -pexy surgical fixation. Cecopexy: Cec (cecum) + o + pexy (surgical fixation). Surgery that
reduces the movement of the cecum, or the first part of the large intestine.
59. -scopy visual examination. Rhinoscopy: Rhino (nose) + scopy (visual examination). The visual
examination of the interior passages of the nose.
60. -plasty surgical repair. Otoplasty: Oto (ear) + plasty (surgical repair). Surgery performed on
the external ear.

Suffix#7

61. -malacia softening of tissue. Osteomalacia: Osteo (bone) + malacia (softening). Softening of the
bones.
62. -opia nearsightedness. Diplopia: (Dipl) (double) + opia (near sighted). Double-vision.
63. -penia deficiency. Leukopenia: Leuk (white) + o + penia (deficiency). Leukopenia is a
deficiency of white blood cells.
64. -coccus berry-shaped bacterium. Streptococcus: Strepto (twisted) + coccus (berry-shaped). A
genus of cocus-type bacteria responsible for a wide range of human diseases.
65. -ptosis dropping, falling. Glossoptosis: Gloss (tongue) + o + ptosis (falling). Downward
displacement of the tongue.
66. -plegia paralysis. Hemiplegia: Hemi (half) + plegia (paralysis). Paralysis of one side
of the body.
67. -ectomy surgical removal. Mastectomy: Mast (breast) + ectomy (surgical removal).
The surgical removal of a breast.
68. -ician specialist. Pediatrician: Ped (children) + iatr (treatment) + ician (specialist). A
specialist in the treatment of children.
69. -phobia fear. Claustrophobia: Claustro (closed) + phobia (fear). The fear of enclosed or
confined spaces.
70. -rrhage bursting forth. Hemorrhage: Hemo (blood) + rrhage (bursting forth).
Profuse bleeding.
Suffix #8

71. -phagia eat, injest. Osteophagia: Osteo (bone) + phagia (consume). A process in which certain
bone cells consume an rebuild bone tissue during growth and repair.
72. -algia pain. Neuralgia: Neur (nerves) + algia (pain). Nerve pain.
73. -metry measure. Geometry: Geo (earth) + metry (measure). Literally, the
measurement of the earth.
74. -asthen weakness. Phlebasthenia: Phleb (vein) + asthen (weakness) + ia (condition).
Weakness of a vein.
75. -itis inflammation. Adenitis: Aden (gland) + itis (inflammation). Inflammation of a gland.
76. -osis a condition. Narcosis: Narc (drugs) + -osis (a condition). The condition of
being drugged.
77. -stenosis narrowing or constriction. Aortic stenosis: The narrowing of the aorta of the
heart.
78. -poiesis formation or production. Leukopoesis: Leuk (white) + o + poesis (formation).
The formation of white blood cells.
79. -paresis partial paralysis. Hemiparesis: Hemi (half) + paresis (partial paralysis).
Paralysis of one half of the body.
80. -ostomy surgical opening. Tracheotomy: -otomy Trache (trachea) + otomy (to cut into).
An opening through the neck into the trachea.

Suffix#9

81. -gram record, drawing. Mammogram: Mamm (breast) + o + gram (record). An x-ray
recording the structures within the breast.
82. -megaly enlarged. Cardiomegaly: Cardi (heart) + o + -megaly (enlarged). A condition in which
the heart is enlarged.
83. -meter measuring instrument. Thermometer: Therm (heat) + o + meter (measuring
instrument). An instrument for measuring temperature.
84. -oid resembling. Mastoid: Mast (breast) + -oid (resembling). Resembling the
breast.
85. -drome moving together. Syndrome: Syn (union) + drome (moving together). Signs and
symptoms occurring together and having a common cause.
86. -graph record. Sonographer: Sono (sound) + graph (record) + er (one who does). A sonogram
techician.
87. -lysis break down, detach. Dialysis: Dia (through) + lysis (separate of loosen).
A procedure in which waste materials are removed from the blood of a person
with advanced kidney disease.
88. -phragm muscular wall. Diaphragm: Dia (across) + phragm (muscular wall). The muscular wall
that goes across the thoracic cavity just below the lungs.
89. -ole small. Bronchiole: Bronchi (air passage) + ole (small). The small
airways of the respiratory system, form the larger bronchi into the lobes
of the lung.
90. -centesis puncture of cavity. Paracentesis: Para (through) + centesis (puncture of cavity). Any
procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a bodily cavity.

Suffix#10

91. -critto separate. Hematocrit: Hemato (blood) + crit ( to separate). A measure of the packed cell
volume of red blood cells.
92. -clasia crushing or breaking. Osteoclasia: Osteo (bone) + clas (crushing) + ia(diseased
condition). The degeneration of bone through disease.
93. -phasia speech. Dysphasia: Dys (bad) + phasia (speech). Difficulty in speaking.
94. -ism state or condition. Autism: Aut (self) + ism (a state or condition). A
psychological state of extreme withdrawl.
95. -stasis stoppage, control. Hemostasis. Hemo (blood) + stasis (stoppage). Stopping of
blood flow.
96. -oma swelling or tumor. Carcinoma: Carcin (cancer) + oma (tumor). A cancerous tumor.
97. path- disease, suffering. Pathogenesis: Path (disease) + o + genesis (origin). The origin of
disease.
98. ren- kideny. Adrenal: Ad (toward) + ren (kidney) + al (pertaining to). Pertaining to the
adrenal gland.

99. pro- before, in front of. Progeria: Pro (before) + ger (old age) + -ia (diseased condition).
Progeria means early aging.
100. cortic- cortex or outside organ layers. Cortical: Cortic (outside organ layer) + al (relating to).
Related to cortex - as in cortical fracture; a fracture of the outer layers of
bone.

ROOT#11

101. kerat hard, horny. Keratolysis: kerato (hard) + lysis (loosening). The loosening and
shedding of the outer layer of the skin.
102. strepto- twisted. Streptococcus: Strepto (twisted) + coccus (berry-shaped). A
genus of round or spherical bacteria responsible for a wide range of human
diseases.
103. -tome cutting instrument. Osteotome: Osteo (bone) + tome (cutting instrument). A
surgical instrument for cutting through bone.
104. tricho- hair. Trichopathy: tricho (hair) + pathy (disease). Any disease involving the
hair.
105. hyster uterus. Hysterectomy: Hyster (uterus) + ectomy (surgical removal). The surgical
removal of the uterus.
106. myc- fungus. Dermatomycosis: Dermato (skin) + myc (fungus) + osis (condition). An
infection of the skin.
107. necr- dead. Necrosis: necr (dead) + osis (condition). The death of localized tissues resulting
from illness or injury.
108. onych- nail. Onychomycosis: onycho (nail) + myc (fungus) + osis (condition). A fungal
infection of the nails.
109. pachy- thick. Pachydactyly: Pachy (thick) + dactyly (fingers). An abnormal thickening of the
fingers and toes.
110. placent- organ that supports the fetus. Placental scan. Imagery used to locate the
placenta and detect bleeding.

ROOT#12
111. radicul nerve root. Radiculitis: Radicul (nerve root) + itis (inflammation). The inflammation of
a spinal nerve root.
112. cerebell posterior portion of brain.: Cerebellospinal: cerebell (the cerebellum) + o +
spinal. Leading from the cerebellum to the spine.
113. thym gland in chest. Thymosin: Thym (thymus gland) + osin (hormone). An immunologic
hormone secreted by the thymus gland.
114. splen spleen. Splenomegaly: Splen (the spleen) + o + megaly (enlargement). The abnormal
enlargement of the spleen.
115. thromb clot. Thrombbolytic: thromb (vein) + o + lyt (loosening) + ic (substance). A drug or
other agent that dissolves clots.
116. synov synovial membrane. Synovitis: Synov (synovial membrane) + itis (inflammation). An
inflammation of the synovial membrane.
117. oophor ovary. Oophorectomy: Oophor (ovary) + ectomy (surgical removal). The surgical
removal of one or both ovaries.
118. stern sternum, breastbone. Suprasternal: Supra (above) + stern (sternum) + al (related
to). Above the sternum.
119. pupill center of eye. Pupilloplegia: pupill (center of eye) + o + plegia (paralysis). Paralysis of
the pupil.
120. fibr fibers. Fibrin: A stringy blood protein formed during clotting.

ROOT#13
121. myel spinal cord. Myelodysplasia: myelo (spinal columnd) + dys (bad) + plasia
(growth). Abnormalities of the lower spinal cord.
122. myel bone marrow. Myelogram: myelo (bone marrow) + gram (record). A graphic
representation of the different kinds of cells in bone marrow.
123. kyph hump. Kyphos: kyph (hump) + os (structure). The hump of the thoracic column.
124. ischi ischium or round portion of pelvis. Ischial spines: ischi (ischium) + al (related to)
spines. Relating to the ischium.
125. ili illium or bone of pelvis. Ilioinguinal: ilio (ilium) + inguin (groin) + al (related to).
Relating to the hip and the groin regions
126. cervic neck. Cervicodynia: cervico (neck) + dynia (pain). Pain in the neck.
127. burs fibrous sac between tendons and bones. Bursitis: burs (fibrous sac between
tendons and bones) + itis (inflammation). An inflammation of the bursa.
128. fibul fibula, smaller of 2 shin bones. Fibular fracture: Fibul (fibula) + ar (related to) fracture.
Relating to the fibula.
129. disk circular structure. Diskography: Disk (intervertebral disk) + o + graphy (recoding). The
x-ray examination of individual intervertebral disks.
130. phalang bones of fingers and toes. Symphalangia: Sym (together) + phlang (bones of fingers of
toes) + ia (diseased condition). A congenital abnormality in which fingers or toes are
webbed together.

ROOT#14

131. vulvo- vagina. Vulvectomy: Vulv (structures covering the vagina) + ectomy (surgical
removal). The removal of all or parts of the tissues of the vuvla.
132. cec- st
1 portion of large intestine. Cecostomy: Cec (cecum) + ostomy (surgical incision). The
surgical construction of an opening into the cecum.
133. duoden- 1st part of small intestine. Duodenal digestion: Duoden (duodenum) + al (related to)
digestion.
134. jejun 2nd portion of small intestine. Jejunal feeding tube: Jejun (jejunum) + al (relating to). A
tube inserted into the jejunum to help administer liquids.
135. ile 3rd portion of small intestine. Ileal bypass: Ile (ileum) + al (related to) bypass. A surgical
procedure to treat obesity.
136. celi abdominal cavity. Celioma: Celi (abdominal cavity) + oma (tumor). A tumor in the
abdominal area.
137. pancreat pancreas or gland in abdomen that secretes insulin. Pancreatitis: Pancreat (pancreas) +
itis (inflammation). Inflammation of the pancreas.
138. palat hard palate or roof of mouth. Palatine arch: Palat (palate) + ine (pertaining to) arch.
The muscular structure forming the soft palate.
139. polyp- small growth. Polypectomy: Polyp (small growth) + ectomy (surgical removal). The
removal of any polyp in the digestive system.
140. peritoneo peritoneum or membrane lining abdominal wall. Peritoneal fluid: Peritone (peritoneum)
+ al (relating to) fluid. A naturally produced fluid that lubricates the peritoneum.

ROOT#15

141. sono sound. Sonogram: Sono (sound) + gram (recording). Imaging body structures by
recording the reflection of sound waves.
142. ophthalm eye. Ophthalmologist: Ophthalmo (eye) + logist (one who studies), A physician who
specializes in eye treatment.
143. sphygm pulse. Sphygmoid: Sphygm (pulse) + oid (resembling). Resembling a pulse.
144. echo- reflected sound. Echocardiogram: Echo (reflected sound) + cardi (heart) + o + gram
(recording). A recording of heart movements from ultrasound virbrations.
145. ventricul small cavity. Ventricular hypertrophy: Ventricul (small cavity) + ar (relating to)
hypertrophy. Relating to the ventricles, an abnormal enlargement of the
ventricles.
146. tars ankle. Tarsal Tunnel Syndrom: Tars (ankle) + al (related to) tunnel syndrome. Relating
to the tarsals.
147. blephar eyelid. Blepharitis: Blephar (eyelid) + itis (inflammation). Inflammation of the eyelid.
148. dacry tears. Dacryadenitis: Dacry (tears) + aden (gland) + itis (inflammation).
149. stape- 3rd bone in middle ear. Stapedectomy: stapes (third bone - ear) + d + ectomy
(surgical removal). Surgical removal of the stapes.
150. myring eardrum. Myringitis: Myring (eardrum) + itis (inflammation). Inflammation of the
eardrum.

ROOT#16

151. labyrinth maze-like inner ear. Labyrinthitis: labyrinth (maze-like inner ear) + -itis
(inflammation). Inflammation of the labyrinth.
152. retin back of eye. Retinitis: retins (retina) + itis (inflammation). Inflammation of the retina.
153. ren kidney. Renal: ren (kidney) + -al (relating to). Relating to the kindney –as in the renal
artery.
154. pyel collection area inside kidney. Pyelitis: Pyel (kidney collection area) + -itis
(inflammation). An inflammation of the pelvis of the kindey area.
155. gen cause, become. Pathogenesis: Patho (disease) + gen (cause) + esis (condition). The
origin of a disease.
156. olig few. Oliguria: Olig (few) + uria (urination). The diminished capacity to form and pass
urine.
157. glyc sugar. Hypoglycemia: Hypo ( low) + glyco (sugar) + -emia (blood condition). Low
blood sugar.
158. dips thirst, condition of. Dipsomania: Dips (thirst) + o + mania (madness). The craving for
alcoholic beverages, or alcoholism.
159. sial saliva. Sialorrhea: Sialo (saliva) + rrhea (flow). An excessive flow of saliva.
160. men egg month, menses. Menopause: Meno (month, menses) + pause (stop).
Cessation of menses.

ROOT #17

161. iatr treatment or physician. Pediatric: Ped (children) + iatr (treatment) + ic (related
to). The treatment of children.
162. gnosis knowledge. Prognosis: Pro (before) + gnosis (knowledge). Knowledge of how and
when a patient will recover.
163. opt vision. Optician: Opt (vision) + -ician (specialist). A person who makes, fits, or sells
eyewear.
164. tonsill small masses of tissue in pharynx. Tonsillits: Tonsill ( tonsils) + itis (inflammation).
An inflammation of the tonsils.
165. viscer internal organs. Visceral: Viscer (internal organs) + -al (relating to). Relating to the
viscera, as in visceral cavity – the space in the abdomen containing the internal organs.
166. somat body. Somatotrophic: Somat (body) + o + trop (nourishment) + ic (relating to).
Relating to the growth of the body, as in somatrophic hormone or
growth hormone.
167. plasia formation or development. Hyperplasia: Hyper (excessive) + plasia (formation).
Hyperplasia means an increase in the number of cells in the body.
168. sarc flesh. Sarcoma: Sarc (flesh) + -oma (tumor). A cancerous tumor.
169. tripsy surgical crushing. Lithotripsy: Lith (stone) + o + tripsy (surgical crushing).
The surgical crushing of kidney stones.
170. lith stone. Lithiasis: Lith (stone) + -iasis (condition). The formation of calculi, or stones, in
the organs of the body, such as kidney stones.

ROOT#18

171. physi nature. Physiology: Physi (nature) + ology (the study of). The study of the nature of the
human body.
172. spondyl vertebrae. Spondylosis: Spondyl (vertebrae) + osis (condition). A condition in which
the spinal vertebrae are fixed or stiff.
173. lapar abdomen. Laparotomy: Laparo (abdomen) + tomy (surgical incision). An incision into
the abdominal cavity, usually exploratory.
174. or mouth. Oral temperature: Or (mouth) + al (relating to) temperature. Relating to the mouth.
175. stomat mouth. Stomatitis: Stomat (mouth) + tis (inflammation). Any inflammation of the
mouth.
176. cheil lips. Cheilosis: Cheil (lips) + osis (condition). A scaly condition of the mouth and lips.
177. gingiv gums. Gingivitis: Gingiv (gums) + itis (inflammation). Inflammation and bleeding of
the gums.
178. gloss tongue. Glossopathy: Glosso ( tongue) + pathy (disease). Any abnormal or diseased
condition of the tongue.
179. pseud false. Pseudocyesis: Pseud (false) + o + cyesis (pregnancy). A condition in which a
woman believes she is pregnant when she is not.
180. meatus opening, tunnel. Urinary meatus: The exterior of the urethra.

ROOT#19

181. encephal brain. Encephalitis: En(in) + cephal in) + itis (inflammation). An inflammatory
condition of the brain, cause by a viral infection.
182. polio gray matter of brain. Poliomyelitis: Polio (gray matter) + myel (marrow) + itis
(inflammation). An infectious viral disease with symptoms ranging from mild to severe
paralysis.
183. gangli groups of nerves. Ganglion: Gangli (groups of nerves) + on (unit). A mass of nerves.
184. -edem excessive fluid. Edematous: Edema (swelling of fluid) + tous (condition of).
185. isch deficiency of blockage. Ischemia: Isch (blocked) + emia (blood condition). A condition
in which the supply of oxygen to a part of the body is blocked.
186. kerat cornea. Keratectomy: Kerat (conrea) + -ectomy (surgical removal). The surgical
removal of part of the cornea.
187. lingu tongue. Lingual frenum: (Lingu (tongue) + al (relating to) frenum. The band of tissue
from the tongue to the floor of the mouth.
188. ovi egg. Oviduct: Ovi (egg) + duct (lead). The tubes leading from the ovaries to the uterus.
189. ocul eye. Ocular: Ocul (eye) + ar (relating to).
190. lymph lymphatic system. Lymphoma: Lymph (lymphatic system) + oma (tumor). A
cancerous tumor of the lymphatic system.

ROOT#20

191. pneumon lungs or the air. Pneumonia: Pneumon (lungs) + ia (condition). An acute inflammation
of the lungs.
192. oto- ear. Otoplasty: Oto (ear) + -plasty (surgery). Surgery performed on the external ear.
193. plasm cell or tissue substance. Plasma: Plasm (cell) + -a. The fluid portion of the
lymph and blood.
194. vas vessel. Vasodilator: Vaso (vessel) + dilat (open) + or (agent of). An agent that causes
the dilation, or opening, of blood vessels.
195. psych mind. Psychology: Psych (mind) + o + logy (the study of). The study of the mind.
206. rhin nose. Rhinoplasty: Rhino (nose) + plasty (surgical repair). Plastic surgery which
changes the structure of the nose.
197. angi blood vessel. Angiogram: Angio (blood vessel) + gram (recorder). A radiographic
image of a blood vessel.
198. arthr joint. Arthritis: Arthr (joint) + itis (inflammation). An inflammatory condition of the
joints.
199. ather fats or lipids. Atherectomy: Ather (fat or lipids) + ectomy (surgical removal). The
surgical removal of fatty plaque from the wall of an artery.

200. irid iris of the eye. Iridoplegia: Irid (iris) + plegia (paralysis). Paralysis of the sphincter
muscle of the iris.

ROOT#21
201. enter intestines. Enteritis: Enter (intestines) + itis (inflammation). Inflammation of the lining
of the small intestine.
202. gastr stomach. Gastrointestinal: Gastro (stomach) + intestin + al (relating to). Having to do
with any of the organs of digestion, from the mouth to the anus.
203. gyn female. Gynecology: Gyneco (female) + logy (study of). The study of the female
reproductive organs.
204. hepat liver. Hepatitis: Hepat (liver) + itis (inflammation). An inflammation of the liver.
205. heter different, another. Heterosexual: Hetero (different) + sexual. A person whose sexual
preference is for people of the opposite sex.
206. hydr water. Hydronephrosis: Hydro (water) + nephr (kidney) + -osis (condition). Distention
of the kidney due to an obstruction that prevents urination.
207. kary nucleus of the cell. Karyotype: Kary (nucleus of a cell) + o + type (characteristic). A
diagram of the total chromosomes of an individual or a species.
208. mon one. Mononucleosis: Mono (one ) + o + nucle (nucleus) + osis (condition). An
abnormal increase in the number of mononuclear leukocytes in the blood.
209. neuro nerve. Neuromuscular: Neuro (nerve) + muscul (muscle) + ar (related to).
Relating to the nerves and the muscles.
210. osteo bone. Osteoporosis: Osteo (bone) + por (pores) + osis (condition). A disorder in which
bones become porous and brittle.

ROOT#22

211. femur thigh bone. Femoral artery: Femor (thigh bone) + al (relating to) artery. Relating to the
femur.
212. esthesi feeling or perception. Anesthesia: An (not) + esthes (feeling or perception) + ia
(condition). The absence of normal sensation, usually induced for medical
purposes.
213. mening membrane. Meningitis: Mening (the meninges) + itis (inflammation). An inflammation
or the infection of the menginges, usually caused by bacterial infection.
214. crani skull. Cranial nerves: Crani (skull) + al (related to) nerves. Relating to the cranium.
215. steth chest. Stethoscope: Steth (chest) + o + scope (instrument for examining). An
instrument used to help in hearing chest sounds.
216. dur hard. Dura mater: Dur (hard) + a (singular noun) + mater (cover). The outermost and
most fibrous of the 3 membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
217. phleb vein. Phlebotomy: Phleb (vein) + otomy (surgical incision). The surgical incision of a
vein for the letting of blood.
218. polyp growth. Polyposis: Polyp (growth) + osis (condition). An abnormal condition with
numerous polyps on a body part.
219. coron heart. Coronary bypass: Coron (the heart) + ary (related to) bypass. Open heart surgery
in which a section of blood vessel is used to bypass damage in a coronary artery.
220. dipl two or double. Diplopia: Dipl (double) + opia (vision). Double vision.

ROOT#23

221. prostate male reproductive system gland. Prostatectomy: Prostate (prostate) + ectomy (surgical
removal). The surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland.
222. test male reproductive gland. Testes: Test (male reproductive gland) + es (plural). The pair
of male reproductive gonads in which sperm is produced.
223. spermat male germ cell. Spermatocide: Spermato (male germ cell) + cide (kill). A chemical
substance that kills sperm.
224. orchid testicle. Orchidopexy: Orchido (testicle) + pexy (surgical fixation). An operation to
mobilize an undescended testes.
225. scrotum bag of skin containing testes. Scrotal raphe: Scrot (scrotum) + al (related to) raphe. The
line of union of the two halves of the scrotum.
226. uter uterus womb. Uterotomy: Uter (uterus) + o + tomy (surgical incision). A surgical
incision, such as a cesarean section.
227. cervic cervix, narrow portion of the uterus. Cervicitis: Cervix (cervix) + itis (inflammation).
An inflammation of the uterus.
228. vagin canal leading from uterus outside of body. Vaginal speculum. Vagin (vagina) + al
(related to) speculum. Relating to the vagina. The instrument used to inspect the vaginal
cavity.

229. colpo vagina. Colposcope: Colpo (vagina) + scope (instrument for viewing). A lighted
instrument for examination of the vagina and the cervix.
230. oscheo pertaining to the scrotum. Oscheoma: Osche (scrotum) + oma (tumor). A tumor within
the scrotum.