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IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY ACADEMY

Madrid Blvd. Pinamalayan Oriental Mindoro

GUAVA EXTRACT AS AN ALTERNATIVE ANTIFUNGAL SOAP

A Science Investigatory Project

Presented by:

Shekainah I. Lacdang

Presented to:

Sir. Mark Anthony Magcamit

(Adviser)

January 2016

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Abstract

This study was conducted to prove if guava leaves extract is alternative for producing an

antifungal soap. This study aims to prove if guava soap is effective in fighting fungal infections

and it strive to prove if it can be a substitute product from the commercial one.

The researcher come up to this study to help the society who are most problematic of

fungal infections due to the natural devastations like floods.

To produce an alternative antifungal soap the researcher did the step by step procedure.

First the materials needed in making the soap were all gathered. Using the electronic kitchen

scale, the ingredients were all weighed and measured. In a mixing container, the 50 grams of

olive oil was placed. Then the 200 grams of castor oil, 200 grams of coconut oil and Shea butter

were mixed into the container. Using the stick blender, the carrier oils were mixed and set aside

for a while. The 50 grams of purified water was added to the 2.5 grams of potassium sorbate.

After that, a pinch of sodium bicarbonate was added into the mixture and was mixed using a

disposable spoon then set aside. The 80.91 grams of sodium hydroxide was poured into the

frozen guava extract. The researcher wore gloves to protect the skin from the sodium hydroxide.

Then the sea salt solution was added to it. The solution was mixed in a plastic ware until the

frozen guava extract was molten. Then carrier oils were mixed into the mixture. The solution

was mixed by the stick blender. Then the preservatives were mixed into it. The citric acid was

added. The mixture was poured into the mould. Lastly, it was rested until two days before

unmoulding to ensure that it was harden.

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The researcher observe that Guava soap is effective and suitable for skin by testing it to

the people who have fungal infections. The testing shows that Guava soap is effective in fighting

fungal infections.

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Acknowledgement

This study wouldn’t be possible without the love and everlasting assistance from the

researcher’s family, who supported her until the end even the researcher experienced

discouragement.

The researcher would not forget to acknowledge Mr. Arman Narciso, who extended the

time in explaining the whole goal of the research and gave words that encourage the researcher.

Furthermore, the researcher would like to thank Dra. Bauson who helped and taught the

easy ways in making the product.

Most of all, to God the Father who gave strength and wisdom. For without his unfailing

love and guidance this study would never be realized.

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Table of Contents

Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………………1

Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………………………………..2

Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………… 3

Chapter I Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….. 4

a. Statement of the Problem………………………………. 4

b. Hypothesis………………………….................................4

c. Objectives ……………………………………………….5

d. Significance of the Study………………………………..5

e. Scopes and Limitations…………………………...……. .6

f. Background of the Study………………………………..6

Chapter II Review of Related Literature…………………………………………………………7

a. Review of Related Literature……………………………8

Chapter III Methodology…………………………………………………………………………9

a. Materials ………………………………………………..9

b. Procedure ……………………………………………….9

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Chapter IV Results and Discussion………………………………………………………………10

a. Findings ………………………………………………....11

Chapter V Conclusion and Recommendation………………………………………………….12

a. Conclusion ………………………………………………12

b. Recommendation ………………………………………..12

Bibliography …………………………………………………………………………………... 13

Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………… 15

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Chapter I

Introduction

Nowadays, people are being problematic because of fungi. Some people especially the

one who are being affected by the natural devastation such as typhoon, floods etc. Fungi can

caught from dirty water like flood. It can also be caught from the air. People who are living

especially in the Philippines are very conservative of their bodies. They do not want a dirty body

but fungi are everywhere it do not choose whose body that will be the target. Fungi are easy to

remove but with a routine. Some people didn’t know and do not understand that fungi can lead

into serious problem if not treated quickly.

In order to help the people who are suffering from fungal infections. The researcher

conducted a study to prove if Guava extract can be an alternative additive to produce an

antifungal soap. Guava(Psidium Guajava Linn) is easily to be seen in our surroundings most

common areas where guava are grown in open areas, forests, Backyards etc. It was a local plant

that is very common in the Philippines. Guava is also known because of its antiseptic properties.

Guava has healing property that can treat wounds such as cuts, impacts, abrasion etc. The

antifungal and antibacterial agent that prevent infection and reduces inflammation.

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Statement of the Problem

These are the following problems that the researcher wanted to answer:

1.) Is there any significant difference of using guava extract, natural oils such as Coconut oil,

Castor oil, and Olive oil, Shea butter and sodium hydroxide from the commercial one?

2.) Does the color of the Guava antifungal soap changed within weeks?

3.) Does the Guava antifungal soap is effective in preventing and curing the fungal infections

than the commercial one?

Alternative Hypothesis

1.) There is significant difference of using Guava extract, Coconut oil, Castor oil, and Olive oil,

Shea butter, Sodium hydroxide from the commercial one because mostly of its ingredients are

natural because almost all of the ingredients are natural oils while commercial one are harmful

for the skin because it contains too much chemicals.

2.) The color of Guava antifungal soap changed within a weeks because of the process of

evaporation.

3.) The Guava antifungal soap is effective in preventing and curing the fungal infections than the

commercial one because guava contains healing property that can treat wounds such as cuts,

impacts, abrasion etc. It has antifungal and antibacterial agent that prevent infection and reduces

inflammation.

Null Hypothesis

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1.) There is no any significant difference of using Guava extract, Coconut oil, Castor oil Olive

oil, Shea butter, and Sodium Hydroxide from the commercial one.

2.) The color of guava antifungal soap didn’t change within a week.

3.) Guava antifungal soap is not effective in preventing and curing the fungal infections than the

commercial one.

Objectives

General Objectives

This study strives to prove if Guava Soap can be use as an alternative antifungal soap. It

aims to prove and know if Guava Soap can be a substitute product from the commercial one.

Specific Objectives

This study aims to prove if guava Soap is suitable for the skin, to determine the exact

amount and combination of guava extract, Coconut oil, Castor oil, and Olive oil, Shea butter,

Sodium hydroxide and to know what is more effective between Guava Soap and commercial

one.

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Significance of the Study

In the present, society is facing many problems. Some of the people are suffering from

financial problems. People especially in the Philippines, are very conservative if body is the

topic. Even they are conservative diseases cannot be prevented by people. Mostly of the

population who suffer from fungi are the one who cannot afford to buy medicines that are needed

to cute it. Most of antifungal medicines are expensive. The relevance of the study to the society

is it can help people to lessen their common problems by using the product.

Scope and Limitation

This research is only focused in producing an alternative antifungal soap out of Guava

Extract and to test if it is suitable for the skin.

Background of the Study

Currently, guava is used as herbal medicine and is a shrub that grows wild in the tropical

climate zone. Guava is widely used in the Philippines as herbal medicine. The existence of

modern medicine is possibly made from the discovery of herbal plants. Guava, one of the

amazing plants, has a variety of qualities. It can stop diarrhea and has saved many lives across

the world. There are components in the guava leaf that attack pathogens. It is also antibacterial. It

is one of the reasons that catch attention to the researcher. Aside from that during the months of

May to November are rainy seasons. Flooded areas are usually everywhere, so the researcher

made this product to help those victims who are suffering from fungi and treat the infections so

that their problems will be lessen.

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Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

According to Lozoya et al., 1995, 1990 who has published numerous papers on guava

leaf extract, “reports maintain a tradition of repeating the [same] data each decade, ignoring

already published observations. He stated that guava extracts have a) the anti-microbial

capacity…confirming its growth-inhibiting effect particularly on Staphylococcus aureus,

Escherichia coli, and other common entero-pathogenic cultures; (b) the anti-diarrheic measured

as an effect on motility property of intestine; and (c) the sedative effect of some guava extract

measured in animals on locomotor and nervous activity”.

Lozoya is telling us that up until recently, the same three “tracks” of studies have been

repeated again and again. So, scientific studies have proven beyond doubt that guava leaf has

powerful anti-microbial properties, anti-diarrhea properties and it also has a calming (or

sedative) effect on the nervous system.

Guava leaf extract has also been shown to “exhibit antioxidant, hepatoprotection, anti-

allergy, antimicrobial, antigenotoxic, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antispasmodic, cardioactive,

anticough, antidiabetic, antiinflamatory and antinociceptive activities, supporting its traditional

uses” (Gutierrez et. al. 2008).

The bark and leaf extracts were shown to have in vitro toxic action against numerous

bacteria. (Matsuo et, al., 1996)

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The long history of Guava( Psidium guajava) use has led modern day researchers to study

guava extracts(Manosroi et al., 2006)

In this study and research about guava, it is believed that guava(Psidium Guajava) is

amazing plant through hundreds of years past. Guava leaves is a very useful and important part

of the plant because most of its nutrients are found there. Guava is believed to be amazing

because of its components.According to Limsong et al., 2002 Guava(Psidium Guajava)and leaf

extracts have the antimicrobial activities. It is determined by disk diffusion method.

Guava is a common tropical fruit cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and

subtropicalregions. Guava (Psidium guajava) is a small tree in the myrtle family.Guava extract is

from the guava leaves that have many nutrients.

Soap is substance used with water for washing and cleaning.

Coconut oil is also known as copra oil is edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of

matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm. It has various applications in food, medicine

and industry.

Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seed of the castor oil plant ( Ricinus

communis). Castor oil is colorless to very pale yellow liquid with a distinct taste and odor once

first ingested.

Olive oil is fat obtained from the olive, a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean basin. The

oil is produce by pressing whole olives.

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Shea butter is an off-white or ivory- colored fat extracted from the nut of the African Shea

tree ( vitellaria paradoxa). Shea butter is a Triglyceride fat derive mainly from the stearic acid

and oleic acid it is widely used in cosmetics as a moisturizer, salve, or lotion.

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is also known as LYE and caustic soda. It is an inorganic

compound. It is a white solid and highly caustic metallic base and alkali salt which is available in

pellets, flake, granules, and as prepared solutions at a number of different concentration.

Preservative is used to preserve foodstuff, wood or other materials against decay

Sodium bicarbonate it is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCo3. Sodium

bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It is also known

as baking soda.

Potassium Sorbate is also known as yeast is a white salt that is very soluble in water. It is

primarily used as a food preservative.

Sea salt solution is a solution of any salt specifically an isotonic sodium chloride solution.

Citric acid is weak organic acid. It is natural preservative/ conservative which occurs

naturally in citrus fruits and is also used to add an acidic or sour taste to foods and drinks.

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Chapter III

Methodology

The materials that the researcher used for making the product are 50 grams of purified water,

80.91 grams of sodium hydroxide, 200 grams of coconut oil, 200 grams of castor oil, 50 grams

of olive oil, 50 grams of Shea butter, 110 grams of frozen guava extracts, 15 grams of sea salt

solution, 2.5 of Potassium Sorbate, a pinch of sodium bicarbonate, 15 grams of citric acid,

Electronic kitchen scale, Stick blender, Mixing container, Disposable spoons, Plastic wares,

Scrapers, and lastly is mould.

To produce an alternative antifungal soap the researcher did the step by step procedure. First

the materials needed in making the soap were all gathered. Using the electronic kitchen scale, the

ingredients were all weighed and measured. In a mixing container, the 50 grams of olive oil was

placed. Then the 200 grams of castor oil, 200 grams of coconut oil and Shea butter were mixed

into the container. Using the stick blender, the carrier oils were mixed and set aside for a while.

The 50 grams of purified water was added to the 2.5 grams of potassium sorbate. After that, a

pinch of sodium bicarbonate was added into the mixture and was mixed using a disposable spoon

then set aside. The 80.91 grams of sodium hydroxide was poured into the frozen guava extract.

The researcher wore gloves to protect the skin from the sodium hydroxide. Then the sea salt

solution was added to it. The solution was mixed in a plastic ware until the frozen guava extract

was molten. Then carrier oils were mixed into the mixture. The solution was mixed by the stick

blender. Then the preservatives were mixed into it. The citric acid was added. The mixture was

poured into the mould. Lastly, it was rested until two days before unmoulding to ensure that it

was harden.

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Chapter IV

Results and Discussion

Findings

Table 1.1 Difference between the ordinary antifungal soap with Guava anti fungal soap

price odor texture color effectiveness

Ordinary More Better Fine Green Effective

antifungal expensive

soap

Guava Expensive good fine Natural effective

antifungal color(yellowish)

soap

Table 1.1 shows that ordinary antifungal soap and Guava antifungal soap have the same

effectiveness and texture. The difference of the two is its color, price and odor. The guava

antifungal soap are green because some of was added with artificial colors. The price of two

soaps has little difference. The ordinary antifungal soap is more expensive than the guava soap.

It is said that soaps like the commercial ones have many chemicals and is easy to be made

because it contains too much chemicals that is why it is cheap.

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Table 2.1 Color of the guava antifungal soap

Day1 Day2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day10

color

white white yellowish yellowish yellowish yellowish yellowish yellowish yellowish yellowish

Table 2.1 shows that the color of the guava anti fungal soap changes within weeks of

observation. In day 1 and day 2, the color is white. The color changed into yellowish color in day

3 up to day 10. The color changed because of the humidity and evaporation.

Table 3.1 the effectiveness between ordinary antifungal soap and Guava antifungal soap

White spots Eczema

Ordinary antifungal soap effective More effective

Guava antifungal soap effective effective

Table 3.1 shows the effectiveness between the ordinary antifungal soap and Guava antifungal

soap. The soaps were used by people with white spots and eczema. It was observed a week to

know if what is more effective between the two soaps and can cure quickly. The table above only

shows that the two soaps can cure white spots while the ordinary antifungal soap is more

effective than Guava antifungal soap in curing Eczema.

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Chapter V

Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion

The researcher concluded that Guava antifungal soap can be a substitute commercial

antifungal soap. There is significant difference of using Guava extract, coconut oil castor oil,

olive oil, Shea butter and sodium hydroxide from the commercial one because even it has the

same quality, guava soap is less expensive. It can also prevent fungal infections and moisturizes

the ski. Guava soap doesn’t have any negative effects. The guava soap is stocked within one

month for the evaporation process for the consumers to not suffer from itchiness.

Recommendation

Based on the conclusion, the researcher recommending that:

1. Future researcher can also test other medicinal properties of guava based on its

components.

2. Guava can be used only for external.

3. It is also recommended that guava leaves must be extracted to get the pure nutrients

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Bibliography

These are the references that the researcher use for the research and that serves as guide and

pattern:

Magazine:

 Bato Balani (for the arrangement of the study)

Sites:

 www.google.com

 www.scribd.com

 www.studymode.com

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Gathering Extracting Weighing

Pouring Blending Mixing

Testing

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Appendices

Ingredients Price

Sodium hydroxide 520.00

Castor oil 150.00

Shea butter 150.00

Potassium sorbate 5.00

Sodium bicarbonate 5.00

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Scale (effectiveness of guava extracts as an alternative antifungal soap )

5- Excellent

4-Good

3-Average

2-Fair

1-Poor

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Respondents Effectiveness

1 3

2 2

3 4

4 3

5 3

6 3

7 3

8 4

9 5

10 3

11 2

12 3

13 5

14 4

15 4

16 4

17 3

18 2

19 5

20 3

21 3

22 3
21
23 4

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Respondents 2
Effectiveness

25
1 43

26
2 34

27 5

28 3

29 3

30 2

Table 1.1

Table 1.1 shows that 30 respondents tried the guava soap in the first week. 4 out of 30

respondents rated said that guava antifungal soap is excellent in fighting fungi. 6 out of 30

respondents said that guava soap is good and 15 out of 30 respondents rated average

effectiveness of guava soap and only 5 respondents said that the effectiveness of guava soap is

fair.

Table 1.2

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3 3

4 5

5 4

6 4

7 3

8 4

9 5

10 5

11 3

12 3

13 5

14 4

15 4

16 4

17 3

18 3

19 4

20 3

21 3

22 3

23 4

24 3

25 3

23
26 3

27 5

28 3

29 3

30 3

Table 1.2 shows the ratings of the respondents after 2 weeks. 5 out of 30 respondents

rated 5(excellent). 10 out of 30 respondents rated 4(good). And 15 out of 30 respondents rated 3

( average) .

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