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Гимназија „Лаза Костић“

Лазе Лазаревића 1, Нови Сад

МАТУРСКИ РАД

Предмет:Енглески језик
Тема:George Orwell and his Animal Farm
Ментор: Ученик:
Тамара Кузмановић, професор Дејан Пушкаш, IV-6

Нови Сад, мај 2010. године


CHAPTER I....................................................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................................1
CHAPTER II...................................................................................................................................................2
2.1 LIFE.........................................................................................................................................................2
2.1.1 Early Life.......................................................................................................................................2
2.1.2 Education.......................................................................................................................................2
2.1.3 Burma............................................................................................................................................3
2.1.4 Spanish Civil War..........................................................................................................................3
2.1.5 World War II..................................................................................................................................4
2.1.6 Final Years.....................................................................................................................................4
2.2 WORK...................................................................................................................................................6
CHAPTER III.................................................................................................................................................9
ANIMAL FARM................................................................................................................................................9
3.1 The idea of Animal Farm..................................................................................................................9
3.2 Animalism.......................................................................................................................................10
3.3 Characters......................................................................................................................................12
3.3.1 Old Major....................................................................................................................................12
Chapter I
Introduction

The reason why I chose to write about George Orwell, his life and work, and his
novel, ‘Animal Farm’ is purely coincidental. The Serbian translation of this great book
came across my hands by a mere accident. For all I know, it could have been destined.
For a reason I forgot to this day, I was searching a book to read. I found this thin little
book and thought: ‘Ha! This book is so short! And its title is funny! It cannot be anything
serious…’

1
I was twelve at the time. When I finished reading it only thought: ‘What a funny
book!’
Years later, last autumn to be precise, I found myself listing graduation essay
topics in English, and, suddenly, I stumbled upon ‘George Orwell and his Animal
Farm!’In disbelief, I asked the teacher if any other masterpiece of literature might have
the same title, yet I was convinced the opposite. So this essay is my thanks to Eric Arthur
Blair, also known as George Orwell, and his genuine writings.

Chapter II
2.1 Life
2.1.1 Early Life
Eric Arthur Blair, whose pen name is George Orwell, was born on the 25th of
June, in 1903, in Montihari, Bihar, India. He was noted as an English author, journalist,
as well as a novelist, critic and a cultural commentator. He was best known for his two
novels critical of totalitarianism in general, and Stalinism in particular: Animal Farm and
Nineteen Eighty-Four. Both of the novels were published in his final years. His father,
Richard Walmesley Blair, worked for the Opium Department of the Civil Service. His
mother, Ida Mabel Blair, brought him to England at the age of one. He had an older and a
younger sister. In his own opinion, he said that his family belonged to a „Lower-upper-
middle class“.

2.1.2 Education
At the age of six, Blair was sent to a small Anglican parish school in Henley-on-
Thames, which his older sister had attented before him. He never wrote of his
recollections of it , but he must have impressed the teachers very favourably, for two
years later, he was recommended to the headmaster of one of the most successful
preparatory schools in England at the time: St. Cyprian’s School, in Eastbourne, Sussex.
Blair attended St. Cyprian’s with a help of a private financial arrangement that allowed
his parents to pay only half of the usual fees. At the school, he formed a lifelong
friendship with Cyril Connolly, the future editor of the magazine Horizon, in which many
of his most famous essays were originally published. However, in this time at St.
Cyprian’s, the young Blair successfully earned scholarships to both Wellington and Eton.
After one term at Wellington, Blair moved to Eton, where he was a King’s
Scholar from 1917 to 1921. Later in life he wrote that he had been “relatively happy” at
Eton, which allowed its students considerable independence, but also that he ceased
doing serious work after arriving there. Reports of his academic performance at Eton
vary; some assert that he was a poor student, while others claim the contrary. He was
clearly disliked by some of his teachers, who resented what they perceived as disrespect
for their authority.
2.1.3 Burma
After Blair finished his studies at Eton, his family could not pay for university and
his father felt that he had no prospect of winning a scholarship, so in 1922 George Orwell
joined the Indian Imperial Police, serving at Katha and Moulmein in Burma. He came to
hate imperialism, and when he returned to England on leave in 1927, he decided to resign
and become a writer. He later used his Burmese experiences for the novel Burmese
Days(1934) and in such essays as “A Hanging” (1931) and “Shooting an
Elephant”(1936). Back in England he wrote to Ruth Pitter, a family acquaintance, and she
and a friend of hers found a room in London, on the Portobello Road, where he started to
write. It was from here that he sallied out one evening to Limehouse Causeway –
following the footsteps of Jack London – and spent his first night in a common lodging
house. For a while he “went native” in his own country, dressing like other tramps and
making no concessions, and recording his experiences of low life in his first published
essay.
In the spring of 1928, he moved to Paris, where his Aunt Nellie lived and died,
hoping to make a living as a freelance writer. In the autumn of 1929, his lack of success
reduced Blair to take manual jobs as a dishwasher for a few weeks, principally in a
fashionable hotel (the Hotel X) on the rue de Rivoli.
Ill and penniless, he moved back to England in 1929, using his parent’s house in
Southwold, Suffolk, as a base for writing. Meanwhile, he became a regular contributor to
John Middleton Murray’s New Adelphi magazine.
One of his works was published early the next year while he was working briefly
as a school teacher at a private school called Frays College near Hayes, Middlesex. He
took the job as an escape from dire poverty and it was during this period that he managed
to obtain a literary agent called Leonard Moore. He left the choice of a pseudonym to
Moore and Victor Gollancz, the publisher. Four days later, Blair wrote Moore and
suggested P.O. Burton, a name he used “when tramping”, adding three other possibilities:
Kenneth Miles, George Orwell, and H. Lewis always.
Orwell continued his work as a teacher. However, because of his ill-health and the
urgings of his parents, he was forced to leave and to give up teaching. From late 1934 to
early 1936 he worked as a part-time assistant in a second-hand bookshop, Booklover’s
Corner, in Hampstead. Having led a lonely and very solitary existence, he wanted to
enjoy the company of other young writers, and Hampstead was a place for intellectuals.

2.1.4 Spanish Civil War


In December 1936, Orwell traveled to Spain primarily to fight, not to write, for
the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War against Francisco Franco’s Fascist uprising.
To Orwell, liberty and democracy went together and, among other things, guaranteed the
freedom of the artist; the present capitalist civilization was corrupt, but fascism would be
morally calamitous. He went alone, and his wife joined him later. He joined the
Independent Labour Party contingent, whose member he was, a group of some twenty-
five Britons who joined the militia of the Worker’s Party of Marxist Unification, a
revolutionary Spanish communist political party with which the ILP was allied. He
believed that Franco could be defeated only if the working class in the Republic
overthrew capitalism. During his military service, Orwell was shot through the neck and
nearly killed. At first it was feared that his voice would be permanently reduced to
nothing more than a painful whisper. This was not so, although the injury did affect his
voice, giving it what was described as, “a strange, compelling quietness”.*4
The Orwell’s then spent six months in Morocco in order to recover from his
wound, and during this period, he wrote his last pre World War II novel, Coming up For
Air. As the most English of all his novels, the alarms of war mingle with idyllic images of
a Thames-side Edwardian childhood. Much of the novel is pessimistic because the idea
that industrialism and capitalism have killed the best of old England permeates the whole
text.

2.1.5 World War II


After the ordeals of Spain, most of Orwell’s formative experiences were over. His
finest writing, his best essays and his great fame lay ahead. In 1940, Orwell closed up his
house in Wallington and he and Eileen moved into 18 Dorset Chambers, Chagford Street,
in the genteel neighborhood of Marylebone, very close to Regent’s Park in central
London. He supported himself by writing freelance reviews, mainly for the New English
Weekly but also for Time and Tide and the New Statesman. He joined the Home Guard
soon after the war began.
In 1941 Orwell took a job at the BBC Eastern Service, supervising broadcasts to
India aimed at stimulating Indian interest in the war effort, at a time when the Japanese
army was at India’s doorstep. He was well aware that he was engaged in propaganda.
Orwell devoted a good deal of effort to his BBC work.
Orwell’s decision to resign from the BBC followed a report confirming his fears
about the broadcasts: very few Indians were listening. He wanted to become a war
correspondent.
Despite the good salary, he resigned in September 1943 and in November became
the literary editor of Tribune, the left-wing weekly then edited by Aneurin Bevan and Jon
Kimche. With the end of the War in sight, Orwell felt his old desire growing to be
somehow in the trick of the action. David Astor asked him to act as a war correspondent
for the Observer to cover the liberation of France and the early occupation of Germany,
and therefore Orwell left Tribune to do so. He was a close friend of Astor, and his ideas
had a strong influence on Astor’s editorial policies. Astor, who died in 2001, is buried in
the grave next to Orwell.

2.1.6 Final Years


Orwell and his wife adopted a baby boy, as they could not have a child of their own,
Richard Horatio Blair, born in May 1944. Orwell was taken ill again in Cologne in spring
1945. While he was sick there , his wife died in Newcastle during an operation to remove
a tumor. She had not told him about this operation due to concerns about the cost and the
fact that she thought she would make a speedy recovery. Filled with pain and sadness by
the loss of his wife, he continued to look after his adopted son by himself.
For the next four years Orwell mixed journalistic workd – mainly for Tribune, the
Observer and the Manchester Evening News, though he also contributed to many small-
circulation political and literary magazines. He wrote much while living at Barnhill, a
remote farmhouse on the island of Jura, which lies in the Gulf stream off the west coast
of Scotland. It was an abandoned farmhouse where the paved road, the only road on the
island, came to an end.
In 1948, he co-edited a collection entitled British Pamphleteers with Reginald Reynolds.
In 1949, Orwell was approached by a friend, Celia Kirwan, who had just started working
for a Foreign Office unit, the Information Research Department, which the Labour
government had set up to publish anti-communist propaganda. He gave her a list of
thirty-seven writers and artists he considered to be unsuitable as IRD authors because of
their pro-communist leanings. Orwell’s explanation is the simplest: that he was helping a
friend in a cause – anti-Stalinism – that they both supported. There is no indication that
Orwell abandoned the democratic socialism that he consistently promoted in his later
writings – or that he believed the writers he named should be suppressed. Orwell’s list
was also accurate: the people on it had all made pro-Soviet or pro-communist public
pronouncements. In October 1949, shortly before his death, he married Sonia Brownell.
Orwell died in London, at the age of forty six of tuberculosis. He was in and out of
hospitals for the last three years of his life. Having requested burial in accordance with
the Anglican rite, he was interred in All Saints’ Churchyard, Sutton Courtenay,
Oxfordshire with the simple epitaph: “Here lies Eric Arthur Blair, born June 25, 1903,
died January 21, 1950“; no mention was made of his more famous pen-name. He had
wanted to be buried in the graveyard of the closest church to wherever he happened to
die, but the graveyards in central London had no space. For fear that he could have been
cremated, against his wishes, his widow appealed to his friends to see if any of them
heard of a church with space in its graveyard.
Orwell’s friend David Astor lived in Sutton Courtenay and negotiated with the vicar for
Orwell to be buried there, although he had no connection with the village.
Orwell’s son, Richard Blair, was raised by an aunt after his father’s death. Nowadays he
maintains a low public profile, though he has occasionally given interviews about the few
memories he has of his father. He worked for many years as an agricultural agent for the
British government.
2.2 WORK
During the greatest part of his career, Orwell was best known for his journalism, in
essays, review, columns in newspapers and magazines and in his books of reportage:
Down and out in Paris and London (describing a period of poverty in these cities), The
Road to Wigan Pier (describing the living conditions of the poor in northern England,
and the class division generally) and Homage to Catalonia.
Modern readers are more often introduced to Orwell as a novelist, particularly through
his enormously successful titles Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty – Four. Both of them
are primarily allegories of the Soviet Union, the former of developments in the Soviet
Union after the Russian Revolution, and the latter of life under Stalinist totalitarianism.

Why I write
In his essay “Why I write”, George Orwell explains, how, when, and why he
started writing.
“I give all this background information because I do not think one can assess a writer’s
motives without knowing something of his early development. His subject matter will be
determined by the age he lives in – at least this is true in tumultuous, revolutionary ages
like our own – but before he ever begins to write, he will have acquired an emotional
attitude from which he will never completely escape. It is his job, no doubt, to discipline
his temperament and avoid getting stuck at some immature stage, in some perverse mood;
but if he escapes from his early influences altogether, he will have killed his impulse to
write. Putting aside the need to earn a living, I think there are four great motives for
writing, at any rate for writing prose. They exist in different degrees in every writer, and
in any writer the proportions will vary from time to time, according to the atmosphere in
which he is living. They are:
1.
Sheer egoism.
Desire to seem clever, to be talked about, to be remembered after death, to get your own
back on the grown-ups who snubbed you in childhood. It is humbug to pretend this is not
a motive, and a strong one. Writers share this characteristic with scientists, artists,
politicians, lawyers, soldiers, successful businessmen – in short, with the whole top crust
of humanity. The great masses of human beings are not acutely selfish. After the age of
about thirty they almost abandon the sense of being individuals at all – and live chiefly
for others, or are simple smothered under drudgery. But there is also the minority of
gifted, willful people who are determined to live their own lives to the end, and writers
belong in this class. Serious writers, I should say, are on the whole more vain and self –
centered than journalists, though less interested in money.
2.
Aesthetic enthusiasm.
Perception of beauty in the external world, or, on the other hand, in words and their right
arrangement. Pleasure in the impact of one sound on another, in the firmness of good
prose or the rhythm of a good story. Desire to share an experience which one feels is
valuable and ought not to be missed. The aesthetic motive is very feeble in a lot of
writers, but even a pamphleteer or writer of textbooks will have pet words and phrases
which appeal to him for non-utilitarian reasons; or he may feel strongly about
typography, width of margins, etc. Above the level of a railway guide, no book is quite
free from aesthetic considerations.
3.
Historical impulse.
Desire to see things as they are, to find out true facts and store them up for the use of
posterity.
4.
Political purpose.
Using the word ‘political’ in the widest possible sense. Desire to push the world in a
certain direction, to alter other people’s idea of the kind of society that they should strive
after. Once again, no book is genuinely free from political bias. The opinion that art
should have nothing to do with politics is itself a political attitude.”
Chapter III
Animal Farm

3.1 The idea of Animal Farm


Animal Farm, being the novel it is, and written by a man of anti – Stalinism views, is
what critics see, a direct assault on the Communist Russia, the way the Revolution went
through, and how well are things ordered there afterwards.
Animal Farm is a story about a bunch of animals on a farm in England, taking over
control, chasing off the farmer, his wife and workers and establishing what they thought
would be the Piedmont for creating an Animal Republic. In this novel, pigs represent the
“brains” of operation, and all other animals trust the pig council on most matters…This is
also the stepping stone for corruption, and misuse of power, which is exactly what had
overcome the pigs. Dogs, guardians, pigs are using for their bodyguards, and annoying
sheep whose minds can easily be manipulated with, are there to make anyone wish away
from saying anything against the pigs council by their irritating bleating
The reason this novel was translated into all major languages of the world, and almost all
the languages there are, is that that even a child can read this book, and still find a
message of sorts in it. Every time you read this book, no matter your age, you will look at
it as a completely different experience.
This is a story how the ideal of Utopia slowly and painlessly degenerated, taking animals
to a far worse state than they ever were under the rule of their old farmer…

3.2 Animalism
Animalism in an allegorical mirror to the Soviet Union, particularly between the 1910s
and the 1940s, as well as the evolution of the view of the Russian revolutionaries and
government of how to practice it, but not limited to the Soviet Union in that period, but
many other countries after the Great War and especially after the Second World War, to
many countries which also accepted the socialist system.
In this dystopian allegorical novella, it is invented by the highly respected pig Old Major.
The leaders among the pigs, Snowball, and Napoleon, adapt Old Major’s ideas and create
an actual philosophy from it, naming it Animalism. Since not all animals could
comprehend the Animalism from the intellectual point of view, the idea was broken down
into seven commandments. Those commandments were as follows:
1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend
3. No animal shall wear clothes
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed
5. No animal shall drink alcohol
6. No animal shall kill any other animal
7. All animals are equal

Even though this was quite understandable for the masses, not everyone could
comprehend all this information easily, so even these commandments were broken even
more into one single motto:

“Four legs good, two legs bad.”

Not long after, Napoleon and the other pigs, after banishing Snowball off of the farm,
slowly fell under the same vices they had prohibited to all animals in the seven
commandments.
Firstly, they broke the sixth commandment, Napoleon himself issued the order to execute
anyone who was suspected to or committed of helping Snowball the traitor. Secondly,
pigs moved to the farmhouse, and started sleeping in beds. Not long from that, they
started drinking alcohol, and wearing clothes. Finally, the irony of the whole novella is
pretty clearly shown when Orwell described how pigs were walking on their back
trotters, wearing farmers’ clothes, whips in hand.
In the very end, the table with the seven commandments was removed, and instead there
was a sign that stated:

“All animals are equal but some are more equal than others.”
This is, in short, the beginning, development, degradation, and end of the utopian idea
named Animalism.

3.3 Characters

3.3.1 Old Major


He is the oldest pig on the farm. He survived through better and/or worse. He had
friends and foes, and he had seen many animal generations grow up, live, breed, grow
old, die…Those who have read the novel suggest his character is an analogy to Karl
Marx, or Lenin, which Orwell never confirmed nor denied. Major is the one who inspired
the animals to rebel against Mr. Jones… He led the animals believe they were under
torture, in inhumane conditions…Perhaps that was true, but like humans, whenever an
event becomes massive, due to corrupt and evil, selfish and self-centered individuals, the
main purpose is easily forgotten, and its highest principle becomes immoral. Animal
Farm and the famous Rebellion was no better. After the night when he set off the
rebellion spark, Major died, leaving the animals to themselves, to manage and prepare
everything for younger generations, as they were supposed to carry out the Rebellion.

3.3.2 Snowball

In short, he was “the brightest bulb on the tree”. He is small white boar that
resembles all intellectuals in this fable. He was perhaps more innovative then people
wanted him to be and he was also ahead of his time. Firstly, he showed the animals that
they could actually live as gods if humans were to be expelled. He promised electricity,
hot and cold water for every corner of the farm. They could have all that from a windmill
that could be created if animals worked for only three days a week over one year. This
was the analogy to a possible outcome of the Bolshevik revolution in 1917, given that
they would focus on their work, and they worked, under supervision that would result
efficiency. Animals did not argue about it, yet one pig, a Berkshire boar, resented
Snowball and all he stood up for, Napoleon.(In French translation, the name was changed
to Caesar)

3.3.3 Napoleon

He is a larger, rather fierce – looking Berkshire boar, the only one on the whole
farm. Not as talkative and inventive as his counterpart Snowball, with a reputation for
getting his own way. There is a high possibility this character represents Joseph Stalin,
but it can hold true to any dictator and self – proclaimed “Leader of the people”. His
wickedness from within, and his slow fall to corruption over time, is what makes him the
darkest character in the novel. Not only did he overthrew Snowball and took all the rule
in his own greasy, muddy trotters, but after chasing Snowball off the farm he also led the
animals on the Farm to a lot worse situation than it was during Mr. Jones’ rule. All these
events took place under the cover that it was good for the Rebellion, that it did not cross
ideas and principles of so-called Animalism. Even while “democracy” had reigned, he
took the first born young’s of the Rebellion, the pups of Bluebell, Jessie and Pincher and
raised them on his own. Later on, he used the nine pups as his personal Black Guard, and
no one could ever approach him, since the dogs growled with such ferocity it instated fear
into everyone’s bones, if anyone dared approach Napoleon. This effect also occurred
when someone stood up to talk against Napoleon.

3.3.4 Squealer
Squealer is a pig with no identity, a pig without an attitude. He uses verbal
confusion to persuade animals to believing without questioning. “Squealer always spoke
of it as a “readjustment”, never as a reduction”*1. His best argument was when he let
animals believe they were far better off than before Rebellion. “Surely there is no one
among you who want to see Jones come back?”*2
He was using some cheap, fake graphs to convince the animals that everything was
getting better, as they were working harder and harder. In truth, nothing changed as much
as the pigs themselves. The altruistic, selfless pigs from the beginning of the Rebellion
became the very things animals despised and had chased off from the farm during the
Rebellion. Squealer’s only crime was that he let Napoleon turn him into an instrument of
his ill will. However, on the other hand, he only could have done that to save himself
from a fate far worse than Snowball’s. “The others said of Squealer that he could turn
black into white”*3.

3.3.5 Boxer

Boxer’s a rather young brown horse that really put his back into everything on the
farm. He never faltered to work to the best of his ability. Even when animals failed to
accomplish something, Boxer was only saying: “I will work harder”* 4. That soon
became his well-known maxim. He never asked how much it will take
neither how long it will take, he only asked what needed be done. He
was functionally illiterate, for he only learned the first few letters of the
alphabet, and when he tried to memorize more than first four, he
learned the second four, but forgot the first four. After some time, after
Snowball’s expulsion, he added another maxim in addition to “I will
work harder!” That other maxim was “Napoleon is always right!”*5
from a certain point of view, his detachment from politics and
disinterest in it was the best decision he ever made. At any point of
time, at any place on Earth, going to such extremes never ended well.
In the end, he did not escape his tragic destiny… Under Jones’ rule,
when he would become old, Jones would send him to the knackers.
Pigs that took over leadership on the farm, promised all animals that
are past their working age a small paddock near the orchard as their
resting place. What pigs promised at first, and what they really did
when the time was right for Boxer to retire, is no different whatsoever
to what would become of Boxer under Mr. Jones. This is a good
example to see all the corruption the pigs fell under over time. All in
all, I believe that Boxer’s strongest point was in the end his weakest
point, for he was all muscles and no brains.

3.3.6 Benjamin

Benjamin’s the most intelligent animal on the farm, but with hardly any emotion
for others. When animals wanted to know something more about him and his views, he
only said that donkeys live long. In truth, he could have led the farm far better than any
pig or any other animal, but he did not care. It cannot be said that it was his evil will and
wish to see animals suffer from the very Rebellion they carried out, but he realized the
amount of corruption power brings, and could not be bothered to reason with the animals.
Apathy for anything or anyone isiwhat saved him the cruel fate, like Boxer’s. He did not
work very much, neither had he talked, and pigs just silently put up with him. The only
one he kept somewhat close to was Boxer. Benjamin respected him highly, mostly for his
strength and iron-willed character. Benjamin and Clover were the only animals that really
cared for Boxer, though everyone was saying they respected Boxer highly.

3.3.7 Muriel and Clover

Muriel is complaining, but contends. She is literate, but also kind of dumb and
slow to understand certain things. She was best friends with Clover, and has been by her
side when she needed her.
Clover on the other hand, is a young white mare, a carthorse, same as Boxer. She
is a rather stupid animal, but kind, and noble. She has, what others call it, an ear for
people’s trouble and above everyone, she cared for Boxer most, though she resented his
stubbornness.

3.3.8 Mr. Jones

Since most critics suggest this novel represents Soviet revolution in 1917, this
character, accordingly, resembles Russian emperor, Nicholas II Romanov. Mr. Jones, in
particular, is just a farmer like any other, with only one exception. He was too addicted to
liquor and one day, that addiction was his undoing, in a matter of speaking. The crucial
event before he was banished off of the farm was that he had not fed the animals for two
nights and two days at all. Animals, in their hunger rush, fell under the. Animals,
therefore, were lost to their wild instincts, becoming highly aggressive, so they charged
on Mr. Jones, who could only run for his life, away from the farm.

3.3.9 Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick

Mr. Pilkington owns a farm overgrown by fruits and crops, and is not using the
maximum of the farm’s potential. Hi is a hypocrite, the same as Mr. Frederick. On
Foxwood, which is Mr. Pilkington’s farm, things are done with ease and without much
tension.
Mr. Frederick is a rather strict, but proud owner of Pinchfield. Animals there are
extorted to their limits, only to reach the same level as Foxwood.
Both Mr. Frederick and Mr. Pilkington at first denied that animals could ever run
a farm, but later on as the plot developed they just “forgot” what they were previously
saying and tried to make amends and be friends with the animals. This would be
considered a highly moral act if not for their hypocrisy. They were actually more
interested in the log of timber the animals were going to sell.
At the very end of the novel, there were twelve living beings in the farmhouse, Napoleon
and his pigs, Mr. Frederick and Mr. Pilkington and their men, playing poker. “The
creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man
again, but already it was impossible to say which is which.”*6
i1
George Orwell, Animal Farm, Penguin Books, London, England, the UK, p. 75
2 ibid, p. 23
3 ibid, p. 9
4 ibid, p. 18
5 ibid, p. 37
6 ibid, p. 95

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