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Reference No.

83140 55625
PDM−Version D

SOAC

ILS 420

Instrument Landing System

Glide Path 422

Technical Manual

Part 1
Equipment Description

As for details, the electrical and mechanical information given in the


documentation supplied with each equipment prevails

All rights reserved


E 2010
Thales ATM GmbH
Stuttgart
Printed in Germany
NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids Documentation Structure

GP 422

The equipment documentation comprises:

Part Technical Manuals Code No.


1 Equipment Description 83140 55625
2 Operation and Maintenance
3 Antenna Systems 83140 55626

Volume Drawing Set Code No.


A Set of Circuit Diagrams (1F) 83051 48561
Set of Circuit Diagrams (2F active) 83051 48561
B Set of Circuit Diagrams (1F) 83051 48561
Set of Circuit Diagrams (2F active) 83051 48561

Ed. 01.10 SOAC Info 1


NAVAIDS

GENERAL
As for details, the electrical and mechanical information given in the documentation supplied with each equip-
ment prevails. Despite of careful editing work technical inaccuracies and printing faults cannot be excluded
in this publication. Change of text remains reserved without notification.
Thales reserves the right to make design changes, additions to improvements in its products without obligation
to install such in products previously manufactured or installed.
TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND HANDLING REPLACEMENT PARTS
Subassemblies and components which are sent to the manufacturer for repair or returns must be packed in
a way that no damage of the parts could arise. It is recommended to use the original packing, e.g. of the spare
part, or a comparable packing in corresponding performance to ensure a safe shipping of defective subassem-
blies or components. For technical support and information on how to order or sent back replacement parts,
contact your equipment provider listed below.
Germany: Thales ATM GmbH
Lilienthalstrasse 2
70825 Korntal−Münchingen Germany
Tel: +49 711 86032−151
Fax: +49 711 86032−804
Italy: Thales Italia SPA
Via E. Mattei, 1
20064 Gorgonzola (MI) Italy
Tel: +39 02 95095−405
Fax: +39 02 95095−331
United States: Thales ATM Inc.
23501 West 84th Street
Shawnee, Kansas 66227 USA
Tel: +1 913 422−2600
Fax: +1 913 422−2962
LIMITATION OF USE
The use of this manual is limited to the operation and maintenance of the system stated in the title page. It shall
not be used for purposes of product manufacture. The installation drawings in the manuals, e.g. foundations
and site drawings are for information only. The as−built engineering drawings for the site are the only one to
be used. The information in the technical manuals is thought to be used by skilled workers to install the antenna
and perform the related electrical and mechanical adjustments. The leader of the installation team should be
an engineer, technician or experienced master craftsman. Special training and initiation by Thales are urgently
recommended. The fitters should be trained craftsman, for example mechanics, electricians or locksmiths.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
The safety regulations laid down by the local authorities (e.g. concerning accident prevention, work safety or
operation of electronic equipment and navigation systems) must be observed at all times. The purpose of safe-
ty precautions is to protect persons and property, and they must always be heeded. Station shutdown due
to repair and maintenance: The responsible authorities must be notified of any work which may require opera-
tion of the system to be interrupted, in accordance with national regulations. Further information due to system
handling is contained in the correspondent sections.
COPYRIGHT
Reproduction of this manual is not permitted without written authorization of Thales ATM.
TRADEMARKS
Microsoft and MS−DOS are registered trademarks, WINDOWS is a trademark of the Microsoft Corporation.
IBM is a registered trademark of the International Business Machines Corporation. Pentium is a registered
trademark of the Intel Corporation. All other mentioned product names may be trademarks of the respective
manufacturers and must be observed.

Ed. 01.10 Info 2


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Preliminary Remarks

PRELIMINARY REMARKS
The equipment manuals for ILS Glide Path 422 (1F and 2F versions) comprise:

PART CONTENTS CODE NO.


1 Equipment Description 83140 55625
2 Operation and Maintenance
3 Antenna System Description 83140 55626

This Technical Manual Part 1 includes the Equipment Description with the chapters below:

1 General Information
2 Technical Description GP−1F
3 Technical Description GP−2F
4 Emergency Power Supply
5 Remote Maintenance and Monitoring Configuration (RMMC)
Chapter 1 contains general descriptions both for GP−1F and −2F. The GP−1F−specific descriptions
are contained in Chapter 2, and the GP−2F−specific descriptions in Chapter 3. Due to the fact that
subassembly descriptions are mostly identical, Chapter 2 comprises detailed descriptions only of dif-
ferent subassemblies or remarks to differences. With the cross−reference system used it is easily to
be fined where the information can be found.

Since it is not possible to include modifications, such as those which may be made to circuitry details
or dimensioning in the interests of technical progress, in the Technical Manual, we should point out
that questions of detail should always be answered using the technical documentation supplied with
the system. It is possible that drawing numbers used in this description are no longer contained in
the set of drawings supplied (GP−1F (2F) , Volume A to B (C), but rather than (to conform with the
system) they have been replaced by new drawings with another number. Please carry out a once−on-
ly check on the basis of delivery list supplied and exchange where appropriate.
Description and use of the ’PC User Program’ will be found for use of ADRACS in the Tech. Manual,
Code No. 83140 55324, the one for use of MCS in the Tech. Manual, Code No. 83140 55325.
MARK SYMBOLS
To get the best out of the navigation systems you should study the contents of this manual carefully.
In particular you should familiarize yourself with the marks given in this manual which are highlighted
for easy recognition:

CAUTION WARNING

Cautions call attention to methods Warnings call attention to methods,


and procedures which must be procedures or limits which must be
followed to avoid damage to followed precisely to avoid injury to
equipment. persons.

NOTE or REMARK : For more information about operations.

Ed. 07.06 SOAC A


GP 422 ILS 420
Preliminary Remarks Equipment Description

Table of effective pages


Basic edition: 01.04 / Revised: 01.10

Pages Ed. Pages Ed. Remarks

Title 01.10 2−20 06.05


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Trademarks: Microsoft and MS−DOS are registered trademarks, WINDOWS is a trademark of the Microsoft Corporation. IBM is a registered trademark of the International
Business Machines Corporation. Pentium is a registered trademark of the Intel Corporation. All other mentioned product names may be trademarks of the
respective manufacturers and must be observed.

Note Despite of careful editing work technical inaccuracies and printing faults cannot be excluded in this publication. Change of text remains reserved without notification.

B SOAC Ed. 01.10


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Title Page

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−1


1.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−1
1.2 ILS−PRINCIPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−3
1.2.1 Arrangement of Subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−3
1.2.2 Navigation Signal Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−5
1.2.2.1 Localizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−5
1.2.2.2 Glide Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−6
1.2.2.3 Approach Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−7
1.2.3 Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−8
1.2.4 Equipment Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−9
1.2.4.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−9
1.2.4.2 Equipment Versions and Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−10
1.3 TECHNICAL DATA OF GLIDE PATH 1F/2F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−11
1.3.1 Dimensions and Weight of the Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−11
1.3.2 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−11
1.3.3 Environmental Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−11
1.3.4 System Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−11
1.3.5 Equipment Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−12
1.3.5.1 CSB Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−12
1.3.5.2 CSB Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−12
1.3.5.2.1 GS−1F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−12
1.3.5.2.2 GS−2F (active) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−12
1.3.5.2.3 GS−2F (standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−13
1.3.5.3 SBO Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−13
1.3.5.4 Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−13
1.3.5.5 Built In Test (BIT) Measuring Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−14
1.3.6 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−14
1.3.7 Antenna System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−14
1.3.8 Notes on "Standby" operational Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−15
1.3.9 Conformity and Licensing Approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−15
1.4 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−17
1.4.1 Operating at the Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−17

Ed. 07.06 SOAC I


GP 422 ILS 420
Table of Contents Equipment Description

Section Title Page

1.4.2 Handling Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−17


1.4.3 Handling Lead Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−18
1.4.4 Components with Beryllium Oxide Ceramic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−18
1.4.5 Using Lithium Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−18
1.4.6 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−18
1.4.7 Observation of Safety Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−18
1.5 FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−19
1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−19
1.5.2 Brief Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−20
1.5.2.1 Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−20
1.5.2.2 Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−20
1.5.2.3 Equipment Control and Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−21
1.5.2.4 Local/Remote Communication Interface (LRCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−22
1.5.2.5 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−22
1.5.3 Peripheral subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−22
1.5.4 General block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−22
1.6 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRANSMITTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−25
1.6.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−25
1.6.2 Audio Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−25
1.6.3 Synthesizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−26
1.6.4 Modulator/Power Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−27
1.6.4.1 CSB Modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−27
1.6.4.2 SBO Modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−28
1.6.4.3 Linear Power Amplifiers for CSB and SBO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−28
1.7 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF THE MONITOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−29
1.7.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−29
1.7.2 Monitor Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−30
1.7.2.1 Executive and Standby Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−31
1.7.2.2 Alarm Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−31
1.7.2.3 Monitor Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−31
1.7.2.4 Fail Safe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−31
1.7.3 Executive Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−32
1.7.3.1 Fail Safe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−34
1.8 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION LRCI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−35

II SOAC Ed. 07.06


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Table of Contents
Section Title Page
1.8.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−35
1.8.2 Introduction to the LCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−35
1.8.3 Data Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−35
1.9 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION POWER SUPPLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−36
1.9.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−36
1.9.2 Startup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−36
1.10 NAVAIDS 400 SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−45
1.10.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−45
1.10.2 PC User Program Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−45
1.10.3 Description of the ILS Transmitter Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−46
1.10.3.1 Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−46
1.10.3.2 Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−46
1.10.4 Description of Monitor Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−48
1.10.4.1 Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−48
1.10.4.2 Software Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−48
1.10.5 Description of LRCI Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−52
1.10.5.1 Short Description of the Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−52

CHAPTER 2 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION GP−1F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−1


2.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−1
2.1.1 System Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−1
2.1.2 Basic Components of an GP Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−2
2.1.2.1 Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−2
2.1.2.2 Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−2
2.1.2.3 Control and Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−2
2.1.2.4 Local/Remote Communication Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−2
2.1.2.5 Generation of the Operating Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−2
2.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−5
2.2.1 GP Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−5
2.2.2 Shelter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−11
2.3 DESCRIPTION OF SUBASSEMBLIES OF THE TRANSMITTER RACK . . . . . 2−13
2.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−13
2.3.2 Overview Subassemblies GP−1F Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−13
2.3.3 Transmitter Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−15
2.3.3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−15

Ed. 07.06 SOAC III


GP 422 ILS 420
Table of Contents Equipment Description

Section Title Page


2.3.3.2 Localizer/Glide Path Audio Generator LG−A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−16
2.3.3.3 Synthesizer (SYN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−16
2.3.3.4 Modulator Power Amplifier (MODPA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−16
2.3.3.5 Transfer Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−16
2.3.3.6 B−Type: Power Adder (PAD−S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−17
2.3.4 Monitor Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−19
2.3.4.1 Monitor Interface (INTFC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−20
2.3.4.2 Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LG−M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−20
2.3.4.3 Executive Control Unit (ECU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−20
2.3.4.4 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−20
2.3.4.4.1 Operation of a typical Down Conversion Channel (On−air) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−21
2.3.4.4.2 Standby Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−21
2.3.4.4.3 Antenna Configuration Signal Processing Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−21
2.3.4.4.4 Local Oscillator Switching and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−21
2.3.5 LRCI Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−25
2.3.6 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−25

CHAPTER 3 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION GP−2F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−1


3.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−1
3.1.1 System Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−1
3.1.2 Basic Components of an GP Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−2
3.1.2.1 Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−2
3.1.2.2 Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−2
3.1.2.3 Control and Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−2
3.1.2.4 Local/Remote Communication Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−2
3.1.2.5 Generation of the Operating Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−2
3.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−7
3.2.1 GP Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−7
3.2.2 Shelter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−13
3.3 DESCRIPTION OF SUBASSEMBLIES OF THE TRANSMITTER RACK . . . . . 3−15
3.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−15
3.3.2 Overview Subassemblies GP−2F Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−15
3.3.3 Transmitter Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−17
3.3.3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−17
3.3.3.2 Localizer/Glide Path Audio Generator (LG−A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−18

IV SOAC Ed. 07.06


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Table of Contents
Section Title Page

3.3.3.2.1 LG−A Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−18


3.3.3.2.2 LG−A functional Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−19
3.3.3.3 Synthesizer (SYN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−21
3.3.3.4 Modulator Power Amplifier (MODPA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−23
3.3.3.5 PIN−Diode Transfer Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−27
3.3.3.6 Power Adder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−28
3.3.3.6.1 Power Adder (PAD−A), GP−2F (M−Type, active) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−28
3.3.3.6.2 Power Adder (PAD−S), GP−2F (M−Type, standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−30
3.3.4 Monitor Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−33
3.3.4.1 Monitor Interface (INTFC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−34
3.3.4.2 Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LG−M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−36
3.3.4.2.1 LG−M Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−36
3.3.4.2.2 LG−M functional Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−38
3.3.4.3 Executive Control Unit (ECU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−41
3.3.4.3.1 Executive Control Unit Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−41
3.3.4.4 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−45
3.3.4.4.1 Operation of a typical Down Conversion Channel (On−air) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−46
3.3.4.4.2 Standby Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−49
3.3.4.4.3 Antenna Configuration Signal Processing Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−49
3.3.4.4.4 Local Oscillator Switching and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−49
3.3.4.4.5 DC supply for PIN−Diode Transfer Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−50
3.3.4.4.6 Additional Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−50
3.3.5 LRCI Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−51
3.3.5.1 Local Control Panel (LCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−51
3.3.5.1.1 Local Control CPU (LC−CPU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−52
3.3.5.1.2 CPU Board (DIMM−PC/386−I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−54
3.3.5.1.3 Local Control Interface (LCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−55
3.3.5.2 Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−56
3.3.5.2.1 Dedicated Line Modem LGM1200MD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−56
3.3.5.2.2 Switched Line Modem LGM 28.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−57
3.3.6 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−59
3.3.6.1 Overview DC/DC Converter and Power Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−59
3.3.6.2 Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−60
3.3.6.3 DC Converter 5 V (DCC−5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−60

Ed. 07.06 SOAC V


GP 422 ILS 420
Table of Contents Equipment Description

Section Title Page

3.3.6.4 DC Converter Multivolt (DCC−MV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−61


3.3.6.5 AC/DC Converter (ACC−54) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−64

CHAPTER 4 EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4−1

CHAPTER 5 REMOTE MAINTENANCE AND MONITORING CONFIGURATION (RMMC) . 5−1


5.1 APPLICATION AND DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5−1
5.1.1 Hierarchy of RMMC Remote Control System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . 5−2
5.1.2 System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5−3
5.1.2.1 Local Remote Control Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5−3
5.1.2.2 Remote Control and Status Equipment (RCSE 443) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5−3
5.1.2.3 Remote Control and Monitoring System (RCMS 443) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5−4
5.1.2.4 Local Communication Unit (LCU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5−4
5.1.2.5 Remote Maintenance Center (RMC 443) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5−4

VI SOAC Ed. 07.06


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Table of Contents

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.−No. Title Page

Fig. 1−1 Measurement of DDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−1


Fig. 1−2 Arrangement of ILS subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−4
Fig. 1−3 LLZ characteristic values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−5
Fig. 1−4 GP characteristic values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−6
Fig. 1−5 Overall diagram of ILS data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−7
Fig. 1−6 Localizer configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−10
Fig. 1−7 Glide Path configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−10
Fig. 1−8 Basic structure of an ILS GP; example GP−2F active, dual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−23
Fig. 1−9 Cockpit indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−25
Fig. 1−10 Audio Generator principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−26
Fig. 1−11 Synthesizer principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−27
Fig. 1−12 Modulator Power Amplifier, principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−28
Fig. 1−13 ILS 420 monitoring, simplified block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−29
Fig. 1−14 Monitored parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−29
Fig. 1−15 Detector Measurement Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−30
Fig. 1−16 Executive Control Unit, principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−32
Fig. 1−17 Monitor verification testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−33
Fig. 1−18 Power supply, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−37
Fig. 1−19 ILS GP−1F; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown) . . . . . . . . 1−39
Fig. 1−20 ILS GP−2F active; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown) . . . 1−41
Fig. 1−21 ILS GP−2F standard; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown) 1−43
Fig. 1−22 System software, overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−45
Fig. 1−23 Task definitions and priority assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−48
Fig. 1−24 ADCS auto−calibration measurement times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−50
Fig. 1−25 Maximum ECU status update periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−51
Fig. 1−26 Overview LCP SW structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1−52
Fig. 2−1 GP−1F system overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−3
Fig. 2−2 Main components of a GP−1F transmitter cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−3
Fig. 2−3 Power distribution, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−4
Fig. 2−4 Locations in the GP−1F rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−6
Fig. 2−5 Assignment of subassemblies for GP, dual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−7
Fig. 2−6 Transmitter rack ILS 420 (LLZ/GP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−8

Ed. 07.06 SOAC VII


GP 422 ILS 420
Table of Contents Equipment Description

Fig.−No. Title Page

Fig. 2−7 Transmitter rack GP−1F, dual, front door open, rear door open . . . . . . . . . . 2−9
Fig. 2−8 Navaids shelter, dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−11
Fig. 2−9 Standard shelter, inner arrangement and electrical installation (example) . . 2−12
Fig. 2−10 Circuit diagrams of subassemblies (transmitter rack) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−13
Fig. 2−11 GP−1F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power . . . . . . . . 2−15
supply not shown)
Fig. 2−12 Transfer Assembly, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−16
Fig. 2−13 GP−1F, B−Type, overview and arrangement Power Adder PAD−S . . . . . . . 2−17
Fig. 2−14 GP−1F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power . . . . . . . . 2−19
supply not shown)
Fig. 2−15 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−20
Fig. 2−16 J19, example switch setting for GP−1F Null reference and B−Type mode . 2−21
Fig. 2−17 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC), front view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2−21
Fig. 2−18 Stby and On−Air Combiner, block diagram, 0−Ref. configuration selected 2−22
Fig. 2−19 Stby and On−Air Combiner, block diagram, B−Type configuration selected 2−23
Fig. 3−1 GP−2F system overview (GP active) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−3
Fig. 3−2 GP−2F system overview (GP standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−3
Fig. 3−3 Main components of a GP−2F transmitter cabinet (GP active) . . . . . . . . . . . 3−4
Fig. 3−4 Main components of a GP−2F transmitter cabinet (GP standard) . . . . . . . . . 3−4
Fig. 3−5 Power distribution, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−5
Fig. 3−6 Locations in the GP−2F rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−8
Fig. 3−7 Assignment of subassemblies for GP, dual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−9
Fig. 3−8 Transmitter rack ILS 420 (LLZ/GP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−10
Fig. 3−9 Transmitter rack GP−2F active, dual, front door open, rear door open . . . . 3−11
Fig. 3−10 Navaids shelter, dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−13
Fig. 3−11 Standard shelter, inner arrangement and electrical installation (example) . . 3−14
Fig. 3−12 Circuit diagrams of subassemblies (transmitter rack) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−15
Fig. 3−13 GP−2F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power . . . . . . . . 3−17
supply not shown)
Fig. 3−14 Localizer/Glide Path Audio generator (LG−A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−20
Fig. 3−15 Synthesizer (SYN), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−22
Fig. 3−16 CSB and SBO, amplitude modulated signals (principle view) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−23
Fig. 3−17 MODPA CSB section, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−23
Fig. 3−18 MODPA SBO Section Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−25
Fig. 3−19 Transfer Assembly, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−27

VIII SOAC Ed. 07.06


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Table of Contents
Fig.−No. Title Page

Fig. 3−20 Power Adder PAD−A, GP−2F (M−Type, active), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . 3−28
Fig. 3−21 Power Adder PAD−A, mechanical arrangement and cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−29
Fig. 3−22 Power Adder PAD−S, GP−2F (M−Type, standard), block diagram . . . . . . . 3−30
Fig. 3−23 Power Adder PAD−S, mechanical arrangement and cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−31
Fig. 3−24 GP−2F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power . . . . . . . . 3−33
supply not shown)
Fig. 3−25 LLZ/GP Monitor Interface (INTFC), principle block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−35
Fig. 3−26 Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LG−M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−37
Fig. 3−27 Monitor ADCS conceptual block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−38
Fig. 3−28 Acquisition and processing times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−39
Fig. 3−29 Monitor detector processing cycle and measurement cycle within . . . . . . . . 3−39
the "other" slot
Fig. 3−30 ECU to Monitor Status Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−41
Fig. 3−31 Executive Control Unit (ECU), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−43
Fig. 3−32 Stby and On−Air Combiner, overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−45
Fig. 3−33 Stby and On−Air Combiner, block diagram, active M−array configuration 3−47
selected
Fig. 3−34 Stby and On−Air Combiner, block diagram, standard M−array . . . . . . . . . 3−48
configuration selected
Fig. 3−35 J19, example switch setting for GP−2F active and standard M−Array mode 3−49
Fig. 3−36 GP phase detector application (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−50
Fig. 3−37 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC), front view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−50
Fig. 3−38 LCP, overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−51
Fig. 3−39 Local Control CPU (LC−CPU), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−53
Fig. 3−40 CPU board, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−54
Fig. 3−41 Local Control Interface (LCI), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−55
Fig. 3−42 Local Control Interface (LCI), visible front view (text example: . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−55
system status screen)
Fig. 3−43 LGM1200MD, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−56
Fig. 3−44 LGM 28.8, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−58
Fig. 3−45 Overview power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−59
Fig. 3−46 Low Voltage Sensor (LVS), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−60
Fig. 3−47 DC converter DCC−5, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−60
Fig. 3−48 DC converter DCC−MV, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−63
Fig. 3−49 AC/DC converter (ACC−54), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3−65

Ed. 07.06 SOAC IX


GP 422 ILS 420
Table of Contents Equipment Description

Fig.−No. Title Page

Fig. 5−1 RMMC, overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5−1


Fig. 5−2 Hierarchy of the RMMC system components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5−2
Fig. 5−3 Example Configuration: RCMS 443 for two ILS and VOR/DME/TACAN . . . . 5−5
Fig. 5−4 MCS system architecture and components (example) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5−6

X SOAC Ed. 07.06


NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids List of Abbreviations

ABKÜRZUNGSVERZEICHNIS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
LISTE D’ABRÉVIATIONS
LISTA DE ABREVIATURAS
A Antenne
Antenna
Antena
AC Alternating Current
Courant alternatif
Corriente alterna
ACA Analogical Carrier Amplifier (BITE signal)
Amplificateur pour porteurs analogiques (signal BITE)
Amplificdor portador analogico (señal BITE)
ACC Alternating Current Converter
ADC Analog−Digital Converter
Convertisseur analogique/numérique
Convertidor analógico/digital
ADCS Analog−to−digital Converter Subsystem
Sous−système convertisseur analogique/numérique
Subsistema convertidor analógico/digital
ADR Analog Display Routine
Routine affichage analogique
Rutina de indicator analógico
ADRACS Automatic Data Recording And Control System
ADSB Alternating Double Sideband
Bande latérale double alternante
Banda lateral doble alternante
ADU Antenna Distribution Unit
Antennen−Verteileinheit
Ensemble de distribution d’antenne
Unidad de distribución de antena
AF Audio Frequency
Basse fréquence
Audiofrequencia
AFC Automatic Frequency Control
Commande automatique par fréquence
Control automático de frecuencia
AGC Automatic Gain Control
Commande automatique de gain
Control automático de ganancia
AM Amplitude Modulation
Modulation d’amplitude
Modulación de amplitud

Ed. 07.06 SOAC AV−1


NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations Conventional Navaids
AMP AMPlifier
Amplificateur
Amplificador
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ASB Alternating SideBand
Bandes latérales alternantes
Banda lateral alternante
ASC Antenna Switch Control
Commutateur d’antennes de commande
Control de conmutador de antena
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Code standard américain pour l’échange d’informations
Código stándard americano para el intercambio de informaciones
ASM Antenna Switch Module
Module de commutateur d’antennes
Módulo de conmutador de antena
ASU Antenna Switching Unit
Ensemble de commutation d’antennes
Unidad de conmutación de antena
ATC Air Traffic Control
Contrôle du trafic aérien
Control del tráfico aéreo
ATIS Air Traffic Information System
Système d’informations du trafic aérien
Sistema de informaciones del tráfico aéreo
ATM Air Traffic Management
AWD Automatische Wähleinrichtung für Datenverbindungen
Automatic dialling equipment for data connections
Dispositif automatique de sélection pour liaisons d’acheminement de données
Dispositivo automático de selección para comunicaciones de datos
BAZ Back−Azimuth
BCD Binär Codiert Dezimal
Binary Coded decimal
BCPS Battery Charging Power Supply
Chargeur de batterie et bloc d’alimentation
Chargador de bateria y equipo de alimentación
BD Baud
Baud
Baudio
BF Basse Fréquency
Audio Frequency
Baja frecuencia (audiofrecuencia)
BIT(E) Built−in Test (Equipment)
Dispositif de test intégré
Dispositivo de test integrado

AV−2 SOAC Ed. 07.06


NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids List of Abbreviations
BKZ BefehlsKennZahl
Command code number
Numéro indicatif de commande
Número indicador de orden
BNC Bayonet Navy Connector
Koaxialverbinder mit Bayonetkupplung
BP Backplane
Rückwandverdrahtung
bro. broches
polig
pin
BSE Betriebs− und Schutzerde
System and protective ground
Prise de terre de système et terre de protection
Puesta a tierra del sistema y de protección
BSG−D Blending Signal Generator
Générateur de signaux de transition
Generador de señal de transición
BST Baustahl
Structure steel
Acier de construction
Acero de construcción
BUSGNT Bus Grant
Autorisation de bus
Autorización de bus
BUSRQ Bus Request
Demande de bus
Solicitud de bus
CA Carrier Amplifier
CAB Cabinet
Armoire
Armario
CAT Category
Kategorie
Category
Categoría
CCA Circuit Card Assembly
Baugruppe
Assemblage de la carte de circuit
CCITT Commitée Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique
International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee
CCP Control Coupler
Coupleur de commande
Acoplador de control

Ed. 07.06 SOAC AV−3


NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations Conventional Navaids
CDI Course Deviation Indicator
Indicateur de déviation (cap)
Indicador de desviaciòn de rumbo
CD−ROM Compact Disc − Read Only Memory
Disque compact −Mémoire à lecture
Disco compacto − Memoria permanente
CE Conformité Européen oder/or/ou Communautés Européennes
CEE International Commmision on Rules for the Approval of Electrical Equipment
CLR; CL Clearance signal
Signal de Clearance
Señal de Clearance
CMOS Complementary Metaloxide Semiconductor
Semi−conducteur oxyde métallique complémentaire
Semiconductor complementario de óxido metálico
CONC Phone Concentrator
Telefon−Umschalteinrichtung
Installation de commutation téléphonique
Centralilla teléfonica
CPU Central Processing Unit
Zentrale Prozessoreinheit
CR Carriage Return
Retour du chariot
Retorno de carro
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
Tube cathodique
Tubo catódico
CRS; CS Course signal
Kurssignal
Signal de directif
Señal de rumbo
CSB (1) Carrier signal with SideBands (HF)
Signal de porteuse avec bandes latérales
Señal de portadora con bandas laterales
CSB (2) Control&Status Board (part of the LCSU)
CSL Control and Selector Logic
Logique de commande et de sélection
Lógica de control y de selección
CTOL Conventional Take−off and Landing
Décollage et atterrissage classiques
Despegue y aterrizaje convencionales
CTS Clear to Send
Prêt à émettre
Listo para transmitir

AV−4 SOAC Ed. 07.06


NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids List of Abbreviations
CW Continuous Wave
Fortlaufende Welle
Ondes continues
Ondas continuos
DAC Digital/Analog Converter
Convertisseur numérique/analogique
Convertidor digital/analógico
DAS DME−based Azimuth System
Système d’azimut basé DME
Sistema de acimut basado en DME
DC Direct Current
Courant continu
Corriente continua
DCC DC−Converter
Convertisseur de courant continu (Convertisseur CC)
Convertidor de corriente continua (convertidor CC)
DCC−MV DC−Converter Multivolt
Convertisseur CC−Multivolt
Convertidor CC−Multivolt
DCC−MVD DC−Converter Multivolt Doppler
Convertisseur CC−Multivolt Doppler
Convertidor CC−Multivolt Doppler
DDM Difference in Depth of Modulation
Differenz der Modulationsgrade
Différence de taux de modulation
Diferencia de grados de modulación
DDS Direct Digital Synthesis
DFS Deutsche Flugsicherung
Administration of air navigation services
Bureau de la sécurité aérienne
Instituto de protección de vuelo
DFT Diskrete Fourier Transformation
Discrete Fourier Transformation
DIF Differenzsignal
Difference signal
Signal différentiel
Señal diferencial
DIN Deutsche Industrie Norm
German industrial standard
Norme industrielle allemande
Norma industrial alemana
DIP Dual−In−Line Package
DME Distance Measuring Equipment
Equipement de mesure de la distance
Equipo de medición de la distancia

Ed. 07.06 SOAC AV−5


NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations Conventional Navaids
DSB Double Sideband
Bandes latérales doubles
Banda lateral doble
DSP Digital Signal Processing
Digitaler Signal Prozessor
DSR Data Set Ready
Enregistrement des données prêt
Registro de datos listo
DTR Data Terminal Ready
Terminal de données prêt
Terminal de datos listo
DU Distribution Unit
Verteilereinheit
Ensemble de distribution
Unidad de distribución
DVOR Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range
Radiophare omnidirectionnel VHF Doppler
Radiofaro omnidireccional VHF Doppler
EC European Community
ECU Executive Control Unit
Ausführende Steuereinheit
Ensemble de contrôl exécutif
Unidad de control ejecución
EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
Mémoire à lecture seule, programmable et erasable électrique
Memoria permanente borrable eléctricamente y programada
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit
ENBT Enable Bus Transfer
Validation transfert de bus
Conexión transferencia de bus
EPLD Electrically Programmable Logic Device
Elektrisch programmierbare Schaltungseinheit
Montage programmable électrique
Circuito programado eléctricamente
EPROM Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
Mémoire à lecture seule, programmable et erasable
Memoria permanente borrable y programada
EUROCAE European Organization for Civil Aviation Electronics
Organisation européenne pour l’électronique de l’aviation civile
Organización europea para la electrónica de la aviacion civil

FAA Federal Aviation Administration


Administration fédérale de l’aviation
Administración federal de aviación

AV−6 SOAC Ed. 07.06


NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids List of Abbreviations
FET Feldeffekttransistor
Field−effect transistor
FFM Farfield Monitor
(FF) Moniteur de champ lointain (zone Fraunhofer)
Monitor campo lejano
FIFO First In/First Out
Premier entré/premier sortie
Primera entrada/primera salida
FM Frequency Modulation
Modulation de fréquence
Modulación de frecuencia
FPE Functional Protection Earth
Betriebsschutzerde
FSK Frequency−Shift Keying
Frequenzumtastverfahren
Manipulation par déplacement de fréquence
Método de manipulación de frecuencia
GP, GS Glide Slope, Glide Path
Gleitweg
Radiophare d’alignement de descente
Transmisor de trayectoria de descenso
HF Hochfrequenz
Radio frequency
Haute fréquence
Alta frecuencia
IC Integrated Circuit
Integrierter Schaltkreis
Circuit intégré
Circuito integrado
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
Organisation de l’aviation civile internationale (OACI)
Organización de aviación civil international (OACI)
ILS Instrument Landing System
Système d’atterrissage aux instruments
Sistema de aterrizaje por instrumentos
IM Inner Marker
Radiobalise intérieure
Radiobaliza interior
INC Indication and Control
Anzeige und Steuerung
Indicateur et contrôle
Panel de indicaciones y control
INT Interface Unit
Schnittstelleneinheit
Unité d’interface
Unidad de interfase

Ed. 07.06 SOAC AV−7


NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations Conventional Navaids
INTFC Interface Board for monitor
Schnittstellenkarte für Monitor
Platine d’interface du moniteur
Placa enchufable de la interfase de monitor
I/O−Port Input/Output−Port
Ein−/Ausgabeport
Porte d’entrée/sortie
Puerto de entrada/salida
ISO International Organization for Standardization
Internationale Organisation für Normung
Organisation Internationale de Normalisation
I/Q In Phase/Quadraturphase
In−phase/Quadratur−phase
KADP Kabeladapter
Cable adapter
Adaptateur de cable
Adaptador de cable
LCC Local Communication Control
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
Ecran à cristaux liquides
Indicador de cristal liquido
LCI Local Control Interface
Interface de commande locale
LCP Local Control Panel
Panneau de commande locale
LCSU Local Control and Status Unit
LCU Local Communication Unit
LED Light Emitting Diode
Diode électroluminiscente
Diodo electroluminiscente
LF Line Feed
Avancement de ligne
Avance de línea
LG−A Localizer/Glide Path − Audio Generator
LLZ/GP − Générateur Audio
LG−M Localizer/Glide Path − Monitor Processor
LLZ/GP − Processeur du Moniteur
LGM Modembezeichnung (LOGEM)
Modem assignation
LLZ/LOC Localizer
Radiophare d’alignement de piste
Localizador

AV−8 SOAC Ed. 07.06


NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids List of Abbreviations
LP Leiterplatte
Printed circuit board
Plaquette à circuits imprimé
Placa de circuito impreso
LPF Low Pass Filter
Filtre passe−bas
Filtro de paso bajo
LRCI Local/Remote Communication Interface
LRU Line Replaceable Unit
LSB (1) Lower Sideband (HF DVOR)
Bandes latérales inférieures
Banda lateral inferior
LSB (2) Least Significant Bit (digital)
m Modulationsgrad
Mod−Depth
Taux de modulation
Profundidad (grado) de modulación
MCS Monitoring and Control System
MEU Marker Extension Unit
Unité de radiobalise d’extension
Fuente de alimentación suplementaria de la radiobaliza
MIA Monitor Interface Adapter
Adapteur d’interface du moniteur
Adaptador de la interfase de monitor
MIB Monitor Interface Board
Platine d’interface du moniteur
Placa enchufable de la interfase de monitor
MLS Microwave Landing System
Système d’atterrissage aux micro−ondes
Sistema de aterrizaje por microondas
MM Middle Marker
Radiobalise médiane
Radiobaliza intermedia
MOD Modulation
Modulation
Modulación
MODPA Modulator/Power Amplifier
Modulateur/Amplificadeur de puissance
Modulador/AmplificadorAlimentación
MOD−SBB Modulator Sideband Blending (DVOR)
Modulateur de transition des bandes latérales
Modulador de transición de banda lateral
MON Monitor
Moniteur
Monitor

Ed. 07.06 SOAC AV−9


NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations Conventional Navaids
MOS Metallic Oxide Semiconductor
Semi−conducteur métal oxyde
Semiconductor de óxido metálico
MPS Minimum Performance Specification
Spécification de rendement minimum
Especificación de rendimiento mínimo
MPU Marker Processing Unit
Unité de marqueur de traitement
Procesador de radiobaliza
MSB Most Significant Bit
MSG Modulation Signal Generator
Générateur de signaux de modulation
Generador de señal de modulación
MSP Monitor Signal Processor
Processeur de signaux de moniteur
Procesador de señal de monitor
MSR Monitor Service Routine
Routine de service de moniteur
Rutina de servicio de monitor
MTBF Meantime between Failures
Temps moyen entre défauts
Tiempo medio entre fallos
MTTR Meantime to Repair
Temps moyen de réparation
Tiempo medio de reparacion
MUX Multiplexer
Multiplexeur
Multiplexor
MV Multivolt
NAV Navigation
Navigation
Navigation
Navegación
NAVAIDS Navigational Aids
Navigationsanlagen
Aide de navigation
Radioayudas a la navegación
NC Normally closed
Normalement fermé
Normalmente cerrado
NDB Non−Directional radio Beacon
Radiophare omnidirectional
Radiofaro omnidireccional

AV−10 SOAC Ed. 07.06


NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids List of Abbreviations
NF Niederfrequenz
Audio frequency
Basse fréquence
Baja frecuencia
NFK Niederfrequenzknoten (Sternverteiler)
Star distributor (for audio frequency)
NFM Nearfield Monitor
Moniteur de champ proche
Monitor campo cercano
NM Nautical Mile
Mile nautique
Milla náutica
NO Normally open
Normalement ouvert
Normalmente abierto
OAB Optocoupler Adapter Board
Platine d’adaptateur d’optcoupleur
Placa enchufable del adaptador optoacoplador
OACI Organisation de l’aviation civile internationale (= ICAO)
International Civil Aviation Organization
Organización de aviación civil international
OIO Opto Coupler Isolated Input/Output
OM Outer Marker
Radiobalise extérieure
Radiobaliza exterior
PC Personal Computer
PCB Printed Circuit Board
Carte à circuit imprimé
Tarjeta de circuito impreso
PDME Precision DME
DME de précision
DME de precición
PE Protection Earth
PEP Peak Envelope Power
Spitzenleistung
Puissance de pointe
Potencia punta
PIR Portable ILS Receiver
PLL Phase Locked Loop
Boucle à verrouillage de phase
Bucle de bloqueo de fase
PM Phase Modulation
Pasenmodulation
Modulation de phase
Modulación de fase

Ed. 07.06 SOAC AV−11


NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations Conventional Navaids
PMC Phase Monitor and Control
Moniteur de phase et commande
Monitor de fase y control
PMM Power Management Module
POP Power on Parallel
POSN./Pos. Position
Axe
Posición
PROM Programmable Read Only Memory
Mémoire à lecture seule et programmable
Memoria permanente programada
PRUM Protector Unit Marker
Radiobalise d’unité de protection
Unidad de protección de la radiobaliza
PRUT Protector Unit Tower
Unité de protection
Unidad de protección
PS Power Supply
Bloc d’alimentation
Equipo de alimentación
PSI Power Supply Interface
Interface du bloc d’alimentation
Interfase equipo de alimentación
PSS Power Supply Switch
PSW Interrupteur de puissance
Interruptor de alimentación
PSN Position
Position
Axe
Posición
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
PTT Post Telephone and Telecommunications (Authority)
PVC Polyvinylchlorid
Polyvinyl chloride
Chlorure de polyvinyl (C.P.V.)
Chloruro de polivinilo
PWR Password Routine
Routimne de mot de passe
Rutina de contrasena
RAM Random Access Memory
Mémoire à accés aléatoire
Memoria de acceso aleatorio
RC Remote Control
Télécommande
Control remoto

AV−12 SOAC Ed. 07.06


NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids List of Abbreviations
RCMS Remote Control Monitoring System
Système de télécommande et de surveillance
Sistema de control y monitoreo remotos
RCSE Remote Control and Status Equipment
RCSR Remote Control Service Routine
Routine de service de télécommande
Rutina de servicio de control remoto
RCSU Remote Control Status Unit
REU Remote Electronic Unit
RF Radio Frequency
Haute fréquence (HF)
Radiofrecuencia
RIA Remote Interface Adapter
Adaptateur d’interface de télécommande
Adaptador de interfase telemando
RIAX Remote Interface Adapter extended
Adaptateur d’interface de télécommande étendé
Adaptador suplementario de interfase telemando
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computing
Rechner mit reduziertem Befehlssatz
RL Radio link
Richtfunkverbindung
Liaison hetzienne
Radioenlace dirigido
RMMC Remote Monitoring and Maintenance Configuration
ROM Read Only Memory
Mémoire à lecture seule
Memoria permanente
RST Restart
Remettre en marche
Nueva puesta en marche
RTC Real Time Clock
Echtzeituhr
Rythme en temps réel
Reloj en tiempo real
RTCR Real Time Clock Routine
Routine de rythme en temps réel
Rutina de reloj en tiempo real
RTS Request to send
Marche l’émetteur
Activación del transmisor
RWY Runway
Landebahn
Piste d’aviation
Pista de aterrizaje

Ed. 07.06 SOAC AV−13


NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations Conventional Navaids
RX Receiver
Récepteur
Receptor
RXC Receiver Clock
Rythme du récepteur
Reloj de receptor
RXD Receiver Data
Données de récepteur
Datos de receptor
RXRDY Receiver Ready
Récepteur prêt
Receptor listo
S Switch
Commutateur
Conmutador
SB Sideband
Bandes latérales
Banda lateral
SB1, SB2 Sideband 1, Sideband 2
Bandes latérales 1, 2
Banda lateral 1, 2
SBA Sideband A (used in VOR)
Bandes latérales A (utilizé en VOR)
Banda lateral A (utilizado para VOR)
SBB Sideband B (used in VOR)
Bandes latérales B (utilizé en VOR)
Banda lateral B (utilizado para VOR)
SBO Sideband Only
Bandes latérales seulement
Banda lateral solamente
SBR Subrack
Sous−bâti
Subrack (con junto)
SCC Serial Communication Controller
SDM Sum of Depths of Modulation
Somme des taux de modulation
Suma de grado de modulación
SMA Subminiature connector type A
Miniatur HF−Steckverbinder für Mikrowellenanwendungen
SPDT Single Pole Double Throw
Commutateur unipolaire
Conmutador unipolar doble
SP3T Single Pole 3 Throw
Commutateur unipolaire triple
Conmutador unipolar triple

AV−14 SOAC Ed. 07.06


NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids List of Abbreviations
STOL Short Take−Off and Landing
Système de décollage et d’atterissage court
Despegue y aterrizaje corto
SUM Summensignal
Summation Signal
Signal de la somme
Señal de suma
SW Software
SYN (1) Synchronisation
Synchronisation
Sincronización
SYN (2) Synthesizer
TACAN Tactical Air Navigation
Navigation aérienne tactique
Navigación aérea táctica
TCXO Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator
Temperatur kompensierter Quarzoszillator
Oscillateur à quartz compensé par témperature
Oscilador de cuarzo termo compensado
TEG Test Generator
Générateur de test
Generador de test
THR Threshold
Schwellwert
Valeur de seuil
Nivel determinado
TNC Threaded Navy Connector
Koaxialverbinder mit Gewindekupplung
TNV Telephone Network Voltage
TOR Time Out Routine
Routine de temps de suspension
Rutina de tiempo de suspensión
TTL Transistor−Transistor Logic
Logique transistor−transistor
Lógica transistor − transistor
TX Transmitter
Emetteur
Transmisor
TXC Transmitter Clock
Rythme d’émetteur
Reloj de transmisor
TXD Transmitter Data
Données d’émetteur
Datos de transmisor

Ed. 07.06 SOAC AV−15


NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations Conventional Navaids
TXRDY Transmitter Ready
Emetteur prêt
Transmisor listo
USART Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
Récepteur/émetteur universel synchrone/asynchrone
Receptor/transmisor universal síncrono/asíncrono
USB Upper Sideband (HF DVOR)
Bandes latérales supérieures
Banda lateral superior
UV Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
Ultravioleta
VAM Voice Amplifier
Amplificateur vocal
Amplificador vocal
VCO Voltage Controlled Oscillator
VGA Video Graphic Adapter
VHF Very High Frequency
Hyperfréquence
Hiperfrecuencia
VOR Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range
Radiophare omnidirectionnel VHF
Radiofaro omnidireccional VHF
VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
Taux d’ondulation
Grado de ondulación
VTOL Vertical Take−off and Landing
Décollage et atterrissage verticaux
Despegue y aterrizaje vertical
WI Width signal
Breite−Signal
Signal faisceau
WT Wechselstrom−Telegrafie
Voice−frequency carrier telegraphy
Télégraphie harmonique à ondes porteuses
Telegrafía armónica
ZU Zeichenumsetzer
Modem for data transfer
Convertisseur de signaux
Convertidor de señal

AV−16 SOAC Ed. 07.06


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description General

CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
See Fig. 1−1, 1−5.
The ILS (Instrument Landing System) is a navigation aid used internationally to facilitate approach
and landing. It is comprised of a localizer (LLZ or LOC), a glide path (GP or GS) and a series of marker
beacons that includes an outer and middle marker and, in special cases, an inner marker. Each group
generates radio signals independently and simultaneously. The localizer supplies left−right naviga-
tion information, the glide path supplies up−down navigation information, and the marker beacons
supplies distance−to−threshold information. The system includes equipment in the control tower
that can be used to remotely control, monitor, and maintain the localizer, glide slope and markers.
The localizer and the glide path principle of operation is based on measurements of the difference
in depth of modulation (DDM) between two signals with frequencies 90 Hz and 150 Hz. These are the
navigation frequencies used to detect the correct approach course (DDM = 0) and the specified glide
path angle (DDM = 0).
The localizer operates in the frequency range of 108 to 112 MHz and generates a vertical guidance
plane, which permits the aircraft pilot to select a left/right approach course from a distance of up to
about 30 km. The antenna radiation pattern reveals exactly the same amplitude for the two modulation
frequencies of 90 and 150 Hz in the guidance plane. If the pilot deviates to the left of the guidance
plane, the 90 Hz modulation signal will predominate causing the cockpit indicator to show a fly right
indication. If the pilot deviates to the right, the 150 Hz modulation signal will predominate causing the
cockpit indicator to show a fly left indication (Fig. 1−1).
The glide path operates in the frequency range between 328 and 336 MHz and generates the glide
path plane, which is elevated above the runway by the glide angle. The antenna radiation pattern re-
sults from an interaction with the earth’s surface, and contains predominantly 150 Hz modulation be-
low the glide path plane and predominantly 90 Hz modulation above the glide path plane causing the
cockpit indicator to show a fly higher or fly lower indication. In the glide path plane itself the amplitudes
of the two modulation signals are equal.
The beam which shows the aircraft the correct landing approach path is formed by the intersection
of the vertical course guidance plane and the horizontal glide path plane. In addition, the marker bea-
cons provide marks that indicate the distance from the runway thresholds. The marker beacon trans-
mitters radiate vertically upwards at the same carrier frequency, and are characterized by various con-
tinuously keyed Morse code signals and different modulation frequencies (see also Fig. 1−5).

ÊÊ
LLZ

ÊÊ
ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ
ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ
GP

ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ
ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ
ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ
ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ
ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ
ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ
90 Hz

ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ
ÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊÊ
MM

150 Hz
150 Hz

90 Hz OM

DDM = 0

Fig. 1−1 Measurement of DDM

Ed. 07.06
01.04 SOAC 1−1
GP 422 ILS 420
General Equipment Description
The main features of the NAV 400 family in general and the ILS 420 in particular are as follows:
High compatibility: The ILS 420’s electronics are compatible with all of Thales ATM’s many antenna
types and configurations. They are also compatible with previous Thales ATM (SEL, Alcatel Air Navi-
gation Systems, Face, Thomson−CSF, and Wilcox) antenna configurations. The flexibility facilitates
cost−effective update by allowing to combine the ILS 420 electronic subsystem with existing arrays.
High−power output: The robust output powers of the Glide Path (5 W) and the Localizer (25 W) pro-
vide excellent coverage for challenging sites and for many types of antenna arrays.
High configuration flexibility: The ILS 420 has been designed to meet any site’s needs. Its many con-
figurations can be combined to suit your requirements, from the simplest CAT. I application to the
most complex CAT. III application. A summary of the main ILS configuration options are:
S single or dual frequency
S single or dual transmitter/monitor equipment
S seven Localizer antenna subsystems
S four Glide Path antenna subsystems
S optional environmental sensor package
S DME compatibility (can replace markers)
S optional field monitors
S LLZ course and displacement sensitivity far−field monitoring (FFM)
S LLZ and GP near−field monitoring (NFM)
S 10 ft shelters with pre−installed LLZ or GP equipment available
Easy setup and maintenance: All of the ILS 420 system parameters can be setup, adjusted, and moni-
tored locally or remotely with the PC.
User−friendly: The maintenance software (ADRACS or MCS) is very user−friendly and facilitates
troubleshooting to the modular level.
Secure: ADRACS resp. MCS uses passwords to control operator access by level and proficiency.
Simple and quick equipment firmware updates: The ILS 420 firmware incorporates "Flash Memory"
technology that eliminates the need to replace EPROM’s* during updates. Instead, updates are
quickly and conveniently achieved in the field through software alone.
(* Erasable Programmable Read−Only Memory)

Advanced equipment supervision: The advanced remote monitoring and control system is a powerful
tool for centralizing technical expertise and support. Its versatility and scalability allow it to meet the
spectrum of usage needs, from servicing one site or a nation wide matrix of navigational equipment.
With it, support personnel can monitor many systems from one location and can respond to mainte-
nance needs anywhere in the network much more quickly than in typical maintenance organizations.
This strategy uses personnel and resources more efficiently and creates significant long−term sav-
ings. The monitoring system supports simultaneous NFM/FFM (LLZ) configurations and integral in-
puts. Its far−field monitor system meets the latest ICAO requirements and includes an executive con-
trol option.

1−2 SOAC Ed. 07.06


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description General
1.2 ILS−PRINCIPLE
1.2.1 Arrangement of Subsystems
See Fig. 1−2.
The basic subsystems belonging to the ILS system, namely
− the Localizer (LLZ)
− the Glide Path (GP)
− and the Markers (MM, OM)
and in addition
− a DME (optional)
− and a Far Field Monitor (FFM) for the localizer (optional)
are arranged on the runway, as shown in Fig. 1−2. This arrangement is valid for the single and dual
frequency (1F, 2F) installations described in further detail below.

The LLZ antenna is located 200 to 360 m beyond the end of the runway on the extended centre line.
The associated LLZ transmitter is in a shelter near the antenna.

The GP antenna is located 120 to 180 m from the runway centre line. The reference height for the glide
path has been fixed at 15 m above the runway threshold. The dimension "D" (286 to 344 m) between
the GP antenna mast and the runway threshold is calculated from this height and the glide angle, the
latter being determined on the basis of local circumstances. The associated GP transmitter is in a shel-
ter in near the antenna.

The inner marker (IM) is 75 to 450 m ahead of the runway threshold on the extended centre line, the
middle marker (MM) is 1050 m ahead, and the outer marker (OM) is 7200 m ahead. In most cases
only the middle and the outer marker are used.

When a DME systems is used to supplement the marker beacons there are a number of installation
alternatives, for example:

− DME antenna on the GP mast (DME transponder in the GP shelter),


− DME antenna on the roof of the LLZ shelter (DME transponder in the LLZ shelter),
− DME transponder in a separate shelter with the DME antenna on its roof,
− DME transponder in a separate shelter and DME antenna on a separate mast.

The latter two configurations are preferable, since they permit the runway to be approached from both
directions. The shelter is located next to the runway at its midpoint.
Running time differences between touchdown and the DME installation are always included, so that
touchdown is always at exactly 0 m.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−3


GP 422 ILS 420
General Equipment Description

Control and monitoring of all ILS


subsystems from the tower

RCMS
MODEM

6+2

2 2+2 2 2
OM MM GP−antenna** GP−shelter LLZ −shelter
FFM +DME (optional) FFM*

D
ca. 150 m Runway

 LLZ antenna

1050 m Runway Touchdown ca. 250 m


threshold
7200 m

* For opposite direction (optional)


** +DME antenna (optional)

= FFM−antenna (optional)

 = Half course width

IM is not shown

Fig. 1−2 Arrangement of ILS subsystems

1−4 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description General
1.2.2 Navigation Signal Parameters
1.2.2.1 Localizer
See Fig. 1−3.
The LLZ generates an RF−signal in the frequency range of 108 to 112 MHz, which is modulated in
amplitude with 90 and 150 Hz. This signal identifies the "course plane" and is produced by a transmit-
ter and antenna system, which can be a 2F system with 25 W transmitter power or a 1F system with
30 W transmitter power. The localizer signal is obtainable up to a distance of up to 25 nautical miles
(approx. 46 km) for a sector of ±10°, and it is obtainable up to a distance of  17 nautical miles (ap-
prox. 31 km) for a sector of ±35° relative to the course line and the LLZ−antenna. The characteristic
values for LLZ within certain sectors, and in relation to the runway centre line, are as follows:
− DDM = 0
− DDM = 15.5 % (0.155)
− DDM  18 % (0.18)
DDM 0 exists when the approach direction corresponds exactly to the runway centre line. DDM 15.5
% characterizes the course sector selected such that the boundary at the level of the runway threshold
is 107 m to the left and right of the runway with respect to the centre line. These points are also known
as WIDTH points. The DDM has a linear characteristic within these points and an elevation of 0.145
% per meter. This results in approx. 107 m for the half sector calculated for DDM=15.5 %. ICAO An-
nex10 (4th Ed., April 85, section 3.1.3.7.3, Note1) assumes a nominal sector width of 210 m (700 ft).
DDM 18 % characterizes a sector of ±10°and DDM 15.5 % characterizes a sector of ±10° to
±35° where correct LLZ information is still ensured. In the LLZ−1F, this sector is covered by a specifi-
cally formed antenna pattern, and, in the LLZ−2F system, it is covered by an additional clearance
signal (see also section 1.2.4). The course information consists of 90 and 150 Hz amplitude−modu-
lated signals. When the aircraft is approaching the runway on the desired course, the air−borne re-
ceiver receives the two modulation signals with equal amplitudes. This state corresponds to DDM 0.
If there is a leftward deviation from the desired course, there will be a predominant 90 Hz amplitude,
and if there is a rightward deviation there will be a predominant 150 Hz amplitude.

DDM >15,5 %
Off Course Clearance
DDM >18 % DDM = +15,5 %
m150Hz > m90 Hz
Threshold

107 m
LLZ antenna

±10° ±35° DDM = 0


m90 Hz = m150Hz
107 m

DDM >18 % DDM = −15,5 %


m90 Hz > m150Hz
DDM >15,5 %

Fig. 1−3 LLZ characteristic values

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−5


GP 422 ILS 420
General Equipment Description

1.2.2.2 Glide Path


See Fig. 1−4.
The GP generates an RF−Signal in the frequency range of 328 to 336 MHz that is modulated in ampli-
tude with 90 and 150 Hz. The signal to identify the "glide path plane" is achieved by a transmitter and
antenna system. The transmitter can be a 2F system or 1F system, but both produce up to 5 W of
power. The glide path signal is obtainable up to a distance of 10 nautical miles (approx. 18.5 km) within
an azimuthal sector of±8° relative to the localizer course line with the touch down point as reference
and between the elevations 0.30  to 1.75 , where" is the nominal glide path angle. Below the
glide path sector the DDM increases smoothly for decreasing angle until a value of 22 % is reached.
From there to 0.45 to 0.3  the DDM is not less than 22 % as it is required to safeguard the promulgated
glide path intercept procedure (turning to the guide beam). The characteristic values for GP within
certain sectors and in relation to the runway centre line are as follows:
− DDM = 0
− DDM = 17.5 % (0.175)
− = 2.5 to 3° (typical)
The plane DDM 0 radiated by the glide path antenna is hyperbolic and does not touch the ground,
as the dotted line shows. According to ICAO Annex 10, section 3.1.1, the reference height of this curve
has been fixed at 15 m (ILS reference datum) at the runway threshold. Taken together with the speci-
fied glide angle of = 2.5 to 3° this produces an offset of the glide path antenna mast with respect
to the runway threshold of the distance D. This offset is 286 to 344 m depending upon the glide path
angle selected (see Fig. 1−2). Due to this the optimal vertical glide path is not a straight line in azimuth
direction of the centre line of the extended runway, it is a hyperbola.
DDM=17.5 % is specified for glide angle deviations of ±0.24  from the nominal glide path  ( 
DDM 0). These values correspond to the WIDTH. The DDM characteristic is linear within this sector
(±0.24 ).
Like the localizer the glide path’s angle information consists of signals amplitude−modulated with
90 Hz and 150 Hz. When the aircraft approaches the runway on the desired glide path, the airborne
receiver receives both signals with equal amplitude (equivalent to DDM 0). Deviations above the nomi-
nal glide path will result in a predominant 90 Hz amplitude, and deviations below will result in a pre-
dominant 150 Hz amplitude (positive DDM).
DDM −17.5%

 
m90 Hz > m150Hz

GP−1F antenna

ÄÄ
DDM 0

ÄÄ
actual DDM=0 curve m90 Hz = m150Hz
A2

ÄÄ
ÄÄ
DDM +17.5%
 

ÄÄ
m150Hz > m90 Hz

A1

ÄÄ
 
15 m

ÄÄ
ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ
ÄÄ   

D Runway threshold

Fig. 1−4 GP characteristic values

1−6 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description General
1.2.2.3 Approach Path
See Fig. 1−5.
The nominal approach path to the runway is obtained from the intersection of the planes generated
by LLZ and the GP. Both planes contain the above−mentioned 90 Hz and 150 Hz modulation signals.
These signals are interpreted by the airborne receiver and supplied to a cross−pointer instrument,
which displays control information to the pilot corresponding to deviations from the nominal course
and glide path. The signals interpreted by the airborne receiver can also be supplied to the auto−pilot.
In addition, the pilot receives distance information via two (three) marker beacons. The 2 (under nor-
mal conditions) or 3 (in special cases) marker beacons are set out at a distance of
− 75 m (inner marker in special cases)
− 1050 m (middle marker)
− 7200 m (outer marker)
from the runway threshold. Each of these marker beacons transmits a particular pulse code vertically
upwards at a carrier frequency of 75 MHz. The identity frequencies are:
− 3000 Hz (inner marker)
− 1300 Hz (middle marker)
− 400 Hz (outer marker)
The aircraft flies through the transmission "cones" in the approach path, and the pilot receives an au-
dible indication of the pulse code and the identity signal. The marker outputs are adjusted to ensure
the following beam widths, measured along the Glide Path axis and Localizer axis:
− Inner marker: 150 ±50 m
− Middle marker: 300 ±100 m
− Outer marker: 600 ±200 m
A DME system (distance measuring equipment) is often installed instead of the marker beacons. This
system provides continuous distance readout between the aircraft and the runway touchdown point.
The DME principle is based on delay time measurements of high−frequency pulses, whereby the air-
borne system transmits a series of pulses, which are answered by a transponder on the ground after
a defined time delay. The time between transmission of the interrogation pulses and receipt of the
answering pulses is interpreted by the airborne system, and the distance is displayed in directly read-
able form.
Localizer Glide Path
110 MHz
Localizer Course Plane
1300 Hz

400 Hz

330 MHz

Glide Path Plane


90 Hz

110 MHz
Runway threshold
150 Hz
Middle Marker Beacon 75 MHz 330 MHz

90 Hz Approach
approx. 1050 m (3500 ft)
Path
150 Hz

Outer Marker Beacon 75 MHz


Extended RWY
Centre Line
approx. 7200 m (3.9 NM)

Fig. 1−5 Overall diagram of ILS data

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−7


GP 422 ILS 420
General Equipment Description

1.2.3 Monitoring

According to ICAO, Annex 10 all navigation systems must be permanently monitored for correct radi-
ation by an independently operating monitoring system.

The NAV 400/ILS 420 has 2 monitors that monitor signals for CAT. II/III operations. For CAT. I opera-
tions, a single monitor is applied. In both cases equipment−internal sensors and antenna−internal
sensors provide signal components, along with the optional nearfield monitor dipole. These signals
are transferred to the two monitors. The monitor 1 signal processing is driven by monitor signal pro-
cessor 1, and the monitor 2 signal processing is driven by monitor signal processor 2. This assures
that the the various signals are selected according to a specified control sequence. The processor
compares the actual values of the signals with nominal values. Any deviations that exceed specified
tolerance thresholds always leads to an alarm and to an automatic switch over to the standby trans-
mitter or to a shut down of the system. This action is executed by the Executive Control Unit (ECU)
and arrived at through hardware performed evaluation and decision on.

For monitoring the localizer course signal and displacement sensitivity (standalone FFM only), we can
provide an optional standalone and an integrated farfield monitor (FFM) facility. The integrated FFM
facility measures the course line; it includes a specified monitor channel within the ILS 420 and an
external antenna with VHF receiver that is connected through twisted pair of telephone lines to the
localizer. The FFM signal evaluation uses one or more antennas placed in the farfield. This FFM facility
will, however, only initiate an alarm output and will not trigger a changeover to the standby transmitter.

The standalone farfield monitor operates independently, and has no connections to the localizer
transmitter rack. Refer to Technical Manual FFM 414, part number 83140 55421 for information about
the standalone FFM.

1−8 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description General
1.2.4 Equipment Versions
1.2.4.1 Summary
The topography of the terrain preceding the airfield, including any obstructions, strongly influences
the quality of the navigation signals (especially the smooth course signal) interpreted by the airborne
receiver during glide path descent. The ideal site has smooth terrain without obstructions. Since not
every site is ideal, however, we have many configurations designed to eliminate the influences of ter-
rain and obstructions. The electronic and antenna equipment versions selected for a site will be deter-
mined according the site’s unique terrain and obstruction profile.
The available equipment versions are:
− LOCALIZER 1F (single frequency version)
This is for sites with most flat terrain and without reflective obstructions, near or in front of the run-
way, that might compromise the course signal.
− LOCALIZER 2F (dual frequency version)
This is for sites that do not have flat terrain and have reflective obstructions like hills or buildings
near or in front of the runway.
Two antenna types can be applied in 2F systems. Which kind is used depends on the severity of
the obstructions. The medium−aperture antenna is recommended for moderate obstructive situa-
tions, and the wide−aperture antenna is recommended for cases of severe obstruction. Also, if
necessary, off course clearance distortion can be eliminated on center line with specific clearance
and course modulation phasing (Out of Phase Clearance).
The medium aperture antenna offers maximum operational reliability (up to Cat. III) with minimal
calibration and maintenance. The wide−aperture antenna facilitates Cat. III use, including auto-
matic landing.
− GLIDE PATH 1F, 0−TYPE, null reference method (single frequency version)
Used when the terrain in front of the GP antenna is smooth and level.
− GLIDE PATH 1F, B−TYPE, sideband method (single frequency version)
Advantageous for sites with moderate sloping and short terrain in front of the antenna.
− GLIDE PATH 2F, M−TYPE, capture effect method (dual frequency version)
Advantageous for sites with severe sloping and short terrain in front of the antenna.
The tables shown in Figs. 1−6 and 1−7 list all configurations available for an ILS 420 and the equip-
ment options.

Usually the ILS subsystems are dualized. In the hot standby mode, the main transmitter operates on
antenna, and the standby transmitter is on a dummy load. Remote monitoring and/or remote control
from the tower is possible for the LLZ, GP and the marker beacons (or DME) via a Remote Mainte-
nance and Monitoring Configuration (RMMC).

Besides its course information, The localizer’s RF signal includes an airport identity signal in Morse
code. This code includes 3 or 4 characters with a frequency of 1020 Hz, and can be entered via a
connected PC and the user program. It is also possible to use an auxiliary feature to externally modu-
late the LLZ RF signal with a voice signal (e.g. ATIS from tower). This feature provides a tone frequency
range of 300 to 3000 Hz and a modulation depth of up to 40 % are provided.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−9


GP 422 ILS 420
General Equipment Description

1.2.4.2 Equipment Versions and Options

Equipment Model Description


Electronic cabinet SESF Single transmitter/monitor Equipment, Single Frequency
DESF Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Single Frequency
SEDF Single transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency
DEDF Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency
DEDF Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency, monitored Hot
Standby

Antenna LPD Single Frequency 8 element or 14 element


Dual Frequency 14 element or 20 element

Dipole/Refl. Single Frequency 14 element


Dual Frequency 13 element or 21 element

Optional equipment Near−field monitor for localizer course position


Integrated Far−Field Monitor course position (maximum 2 receivers,
1 antenna)
Standalone Far−Field Monitor course position (maximum 3 anten-
nas) and displacement sensitivity (maximum 1 antenna).
Battery kit
Environmental sensor package
Voice Amplifier circuit card assembly
LPD= Logarithmic Periodic Dipole antenna system; Dipole/Refl.= Dipole/Reflector antenna system

Fig. 1−6 Localizer configurations

Equipment Model Description


Electronic cabinet SESF Single transmitter/monitor Equipment, Single Frequency
DESF Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Single Frequency
SEDF Single transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency
DEDF Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency*
DEDF Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency, monitored hot
standby*
* active and conventional feed of antenna

Antenna SF Null Reference (0−Type) or Side Band Reference (B−Type)

DF Capture effect method (M−Type),

Optional equipment Near−field monitor glide path position


Battery kit
Environmental sensor package

Fig. 1−7 Glide Path configurations

1−10 SOAC Ed. 01.10


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description General
1.3 TECHNICAL DATA OF GLIDE PATH 1F/2F

The system complies with ICAO Annex 10, Volume 1, Part 1, 6th Ed.July 96 including all amendments.
All categories are available in single frequency or two frequency versions.
− CAT. I single or dual transmitter/single or dual monitor
− CAT. II single or dual transmitter/dual monitor
− CAT. III dual transmitter/dual monitor
The device fulfills the EMC requirements of EC Guideline 89/336/EEC. It bears the CE Designation
and is licensed according to REG TP SSB FL 005 Licensing Test Regulations (see section 1.3.9).

1.3.1 Dimensions and Weight of the Transmitter Rack


Height 1736 mm
Width 611 mm
Depth 661 mm
Weight approx. 205 kg

1.3.2 Power Supply


AC voltage input (with BCPS) 115 VAC to 230 VAC, min. 98/max. 264 VAC
48 to 64 Hz, three wire, single phase
DC−voltage output BCPS modules (ACC) nom. 48 VDC, 14 A (max.) each
DC voltage input (system) 43 to 62 V, e.g. from BCPS
Emergency power supply 48 V battery, standby parallel operation
Power consumption approx. 285 W (GP−2F 5/5 W, hot standby)

1.3.3 Environmental Conditions


Ambient temperature
Operation indoor −10 to +55 °C
Operation outdoor equipment −50 to +70 °C
Transport −30 to +70 °C
Relative humidity max. 95 % (−10 to +35 °C); max. 60 % (>35 °C)
Non operation and transport up to 100 % with condensation
Atmospheric pressure
Operation up to 10,000 ft (approx. 3000 m)
Transport up to 50,000 ft (approx. 15000 m)

1.3.4 System Data


In predominantly flat terrain
Glide Path coverage 10 NM in the range of the front course line
±8° azimuth
Glide angle  2 to 4° (variable)
Course width ±0.24  (variable)
Precision and stability of glide angle setting > ±0.04  typically ±0.02 

Ed. 01.10
01.04 SOAC 1−11
GP 422 ILS 420
General Equipment Description

1.3.5 Equipment Data


1.3.5.1 CSB Transmitter
Carrier frequency range 328.6 to 335.4 MHz
Channel pattern 150 kHz, defined by synthesizer
Carrier frequency tolerance ±0.0005 %
Frequency spacing course/clearance (2F) 8 kHz ±0.5 %, course and clearance carriers
±4 kHz to the nominal frequency f0
Course/clearance (2F) phase lock < 0.5°
Course transmitter power (1F) 0 to 5 W; set in 0.1 W steps
Course transmitter power CSB1 (2F) 0 to 5 W; set in 0.1 W steps
CSB2* (2F) 0 to 1.5 W; set in 0.1 W steps
Clearance transmitter power (2F) 0 to 5 W; set in 0.1 W steps
Output power stability <3%
1.3.5.2 CSB Modulation
1.3.5.2.1 GS−1F
Navigation frequencies 90 and 150 Hz ±0.01 %, coherent
SDM
SDM for course 80 %
SDM setting range 0 to 99 % in steps of 0.1 %
SDM stability  ±0.5 %
DDM
DDM 0%
DDM setting range for test purposes 0 to SDM setting in steps of 0.1 %
DDM stability  ±0.15 %
Carrier modulation Control loop for envelope curve and RF phase
Distortion factor < 1 % for all modulation signals
Phase stability < ±5 % with respect to the reference phase
of the synthesizer
1.3.5.2.2 GS−2F (active)*
Navigation frequencies 90 and 150 Hz ±0.01 %, coherent
SDM
SDM for course 80 %
SDM for clearance 80 %
SDM setting range 0 to 99.5 % in steps of 0.1 %
SDM stability  ±0.5 %
DDM
DDM (CSB1) 12 %
DDM (CSB2)* 48 %
DDM (Clearance) 30 % (or 150 Hz only with DDM=60%, SDM=60 %)
DDM setting range for test purposes 0 to SDM setting in steps of 0.1 %
DDM stability  ±0.15 %
* °active° means a direct feeding method of RFOut to antenna A2 via a separate path of the Modulator/Amplifier
Carrier modulation Control loop for envelope curve and RF phase
Distortion factor < 1 % for all modulation signals
Phase stability < ±5 % with respect to the reference phase
of the synthesizer

1−12 SOAC Ed. 01.10


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description General
Phase modulation (CAT III)
90 Hz peak  90 Hz / 1.0 radian
150 Hz peak  90 Hz / 0.6 radian
deviation difference  30 Hz
1.3.5.2.3 GS−2F (standard)
Navigation frequencies 90 and 150 Hz ±0.01 %, coherent
SDM
SDM for course 80 %
SDM for clearance 80 %
SDM setting range 0 ... 99.5 % in steps of 0.1 %
SDM stability  ±0.5 %
DDM 0%
DDM setting range for test purposes 0 to SDM setting in steps of 0.1 %
DDM stability  ±0.15 %
Carrier modulation Control loop for envelope curve and RF phase
Distortion factor < 1 % for all modulation signals
Phase stability < ±5 % with respect to the reference phase
of the synthesizer
1.3.5.3 SBO Transmitter
Input signal Non−modulated carrier from the synthesizer
Output signal SBO signal 90 Hz and 150 Hz above and below the
carrier frequency
Output power 0 to 1.5 W, set in steps of 0.1 %
Output power instability Automatically regulated to < 5 %
RF phase setting range 0° to 359°, set in steps of 1°
RF phase stability < 3°
Carrier suppression > 30 dB
1.3.5.4 Monitoring
Number of monitor systems 1 or 2
Dualization Hardware and software
Input level range −5 dBm to −35 dBm
Executive monitor channels CRS Position, CRS Width, CLR (2F),
Field monitor channels Nearfield course position dipole (NFM, optional)
Frequency measurement Difference frequency and channel frequency
Standby monitor channels CRS Position, CRS Width, CLR (2F), stdby
transmitter
Parameters evaluated by each monitor channel DDM, SDM, RF level
Channel evaluation Fast Fourier analysis
Alarm threshold* settings DDM, SDM in steps of 0.1 %;
(* thresholds programmable, depending on Category) RF level in steps of 1 %
Pre−alarm nominal 75 % of alarm threshold, limits progr.
Integrity channel evaluation every 1.5 s
Alarm check 4 to 6 times/second, depending on configuration
Decision procedure Continuous status exchange of both monitor sys−
tems and logically sequenced hardware decision
procedure performed by the Executive Control
Unit (ECU), three redundant decision paths

Ed. 01.10
01.04 SOAC 1−13
GP 422 ILS 420
General Equipment Description
Radiation of a false signal < 1 s for dual transmitter
Switch over delay * Set between 0.5 and 30 s
Executive monitor channels typ. 0.5 s
Standby monitor channels typ. 5 s
Nearfield monitor channels typ. 20 s
* setting depends on CAT of operation

Switch over and shutdown within 1 s

1.3.5.5 Built In Test (BIT) Measuring Functions


Analog measurements Analog test signals sampled periodically, then
digitized. Measurement of battery voltage.
Built in measurement of signal characteristics
evaluated by DFT filtering.
Evaluation of measurement of RF power
characteristics (e.g. output power, VSWR).
Presentation of data is achieved using the PC User
Program menus.
Fault location Performed via connected data terminal (PC) and
User Program software down to line replaceable
unit (LRU−level), including BCPS modules.

1.3.6 Interfaces
− PC connector*/** Serial, SubD, 9 pin, male on top of cabinet
− MODEM connectors*/*** 2−wire, via SubD, 9 pin, male, on top of cabinet
LGM1 (opt.) 2−wire switched or dedicated line
LGM2/DME (opt.) 2−wire switched or dedicated line or configured as
RS232 interface
LGM3/NDB (opt.) used as additional serial interface (RS232)
− DME−Interface (not used in GP)
− LCP (spare in/out) OIO IN/OIO OUT SubD, 25 pin each, male/female, on top of cabinet
input optocoupler log 0= max. 1 mA / log 1= max. 10 mA
output optocoupler*/** max. 35 V/150 mA
− Input environmental sensors (opt.)*/*** Analog signal max. ±13.5 V; connected to
(smoke, intrusion, temperature) connector SubD, 37 pin, female on top of cabinet
* according IEC60950 ** SELV−circuit (Safety Extra Low Voltage) *** TNV−circuit ( Telephone Network Voltage)

1.3.7 Antenna System


Technical characteristics of the antenna system will be found in Part 3, Antenna System Description.

1−14 SOAC Ed. 01.10


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description General
1.3.8 Notes on "Standby" operational Mode
The NAVAIDS Technical Manuals distinguish between the hot standby and cold standby operating
states as follows:
" Hot Standby
Both transmitters are in operation − i.e. one transmitter is connected by means of a command to
the antenna (aerial), the second is connected to a dummy load (standby).
In NORMAL operation mode, the Monitor Bypass is off. If the radiating transmitter fails, the system
automatically switches the antenna to the standby transmitter. The switch over time is  20 ms.
ILS installations are generally operated in the hot standby mode.
" Cold Standby
One transmitter (TX1 or TX2) is in operation (i.e. connected to antenna or to dummy load), the sec-
ond is switched off by means of a command.
If the radiating transmitter fails, the monitor and controller ensure connection and initialisation of
the standby transmitter and antenna switch−over. This process takes about 6 seconds.

1.3.9 Conformity and Licensing Approval


The ILS 420, Glide Path device (GP 422) of the Navaids 400 system family complies with the require-
ments of EC Guideline 89/336/EEC in its implementation. It also fulfills the requirements of the follow-
ing EMC Guidelines:
− EN 55022 Ed. 1998 Interference Transmittal, Class B
− EN 50082−1 Ed. 1997 Interference Resistance
− ETS 300 339 Ed. 1998 EMC for Radio Transmission Devices
− EN60950 (IEC950) Device Safety
Furthermore, the device fulfills the requirements of the REG TP SSB FL 005 Licensing Test Regula-
tions for the radio transmission interface.

Ed. 01.10
01.04 SOAC 1−15
GP 422 ILS 420
General Equipment Description

1−16 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description General
1.4 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
1.4.1 Operating at the Device

To avoid injury to persons or subsequent damage to subassemblies, always disconnect the supply
voltage before removing a subassembly or a plug−in connection. Disconnect the supply voltage by
actuating switch TX1 or TX2 or even mains switch on the AC/DC subassembly. For exceptions see
Part 2, Operation and Maintenance, Chapter 6.

WARNING

Mains subunit ACC (BCPS): The device should be disconnected from the mains before
commencing maintenance or installation operations.
The heat sinks of the modulators (MODPA) may warm up during operation. This is normal
and does not have any affect on the functioning of the devices. Avoid touching the heat−
sinks when the cabinet door has been opened for any reason. When replacing this subas-
semblies it is recommended to let them cool down for a while or take suitable measures
(e.g. gloves).
The inner borders of the cabinet doors may have a residual flash which may injure hands
or fingers. Use the handle to open or close the front or rear door.

1.4.2 Handling Subassemblies

To prevent damage to the components during replacement, take special precautionary measures
when removing, transporting, and installing subassemblies and plug−in cards containing electro-
statically sensitive components.

PCB’s containing electrostatically sensitive components are marked with this symbol:

Electrostatic damage may be caused when the person performing the subassembly replacement
bears a static charge due to friction with an insulated floor covering or with synthetic articles of cloth-
ing (eg. soles) and the charge is transferred to the terminals of the MOS components.

In order to avoid this, make positive contact between the system ground and your hand before and
during removal or insertion of the subassembly. Any body charge is then discharged to the system
ground. When the subassembly has been removed, the short−circuit bar provided should be con-
nected to the connector strip, and the subassembly should be placed in a special container or enve-
lope.

Use the following procedure and sequence to insert a subassembly:

− Discharge the body by touching the system ground with both hands.
− Remove the subassembly from the special container.
− Remove the short−circuit bar from the subassembly.
− Touch the device ground.
− Insert the subassembly, if possible whilst retaining contact with the device ground.

Further instructions on this type of safety measure can be found in the Technical Manual, Part 2.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−17


GP 422 ILS 420
General Equipment Description

1.4.3 Handling Lead Batteries

WARNING

Before starting up a battery, i.e. before filling an empty battery with acid, always refer to
the relevant instructions in Part 2.

Wear protective goggles for all maintenance operations that involve opening the acid screw caps. The
acid is highly caustic, so remove any spattered acid immediately from the clothing by washing with
water or any soda solution (100 g soda to 1 l water) on account of its highly caustic effect. Howecer,
make sure to avoid allowing soda or soda solution to get into the cells.
When the emergency battery is charged up during mains operation oxyhydrogen gas can result from
the decomposition of the water. For this reason do not seal the ventilation holes on the outside of the
battery box.

1.4.4 Components with Beryllium Oxide Ceramic


Some of the subassemblies are equipped with transistors containing beryllium oxide. These are state
of the art transistors and are in use all over the world. They are absolutely harmless in a sealed, com-
pact condition. If they are opened, however, beryllium oxide dust, which is detrimental to health, may
escape. They should not be dismantled or shattered even when scrapped or disposed of. The follow-
ing subassemblies contain power transistors with beryllium oxide:
− MODPA : Transistor types MRFC166

1.4.5 Using Lithium Batteries

Always read the label on the battery. Thales ATM recommends only those with lithium copper oxide.
Other types of lithium battery, e.g. those with lithium sulphur dioxide, are not approved by Thales ATM
for use in navigation systems (see also the instructions in Part 2, Operation and Maintenance, Chapter
6).

WARNING

Do not recharge, disassemble, heat above 100 °C or incinerate any lithium cell. Do not
short−circuit the cell or solder directly on it. Disregard of the norms regarding the use of
lithium batteries may cause the risk of fire, explosion and the leakage of toxic liquid and
gas. Run−down batteries are objects that can pollute the environment and must be dis-
posed of taking the proper precautions.

1.4.6 Miscellaneous
To avoid risks of lightning, do not work outside the shelter or on the antenna system during thunder-
storms.

1.4.7 Observation of Safety Regulations


In addition to following the above instructions for avoiding damage and injury, always observe locally
pertinent safety regulations.

1−18 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description
1.5 FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW
1.5.1 General
The localizer and glide path subsystems of the ILS 420 are composed of four separate configuration
items:
− Electronics subsystem
− Antenna subsystem
− Battery kit (optional)
− Environmental sensors (optional)
The electronic subsystem consists of hardware based on RF and AF subassemblies and of software
which controls the hardware to a large extent. It is subdivided into the following units:
− Transmitter in dual or single version
− Monitor in dual or single version
− Equipment control and switching
− Local/Remote Communication Interface (LRCI)
− Battery charger and power supply (BCPS)
The glide path electronics subsystem is nearly identical to the localizer electronics subsystem. Only
the modulator/power amplifier (MODPA) assemblies are different, and their differences are due to the
corresponding difference in RF operating frequencies and RF signals.
Each transmitter path and monitor path is controlled by its own individual microprocessor. The moni-
tor and audio generator are hardware identical units; their differences arise from their installed operat-
ing firmwares. Both communicate via the LRCI.
The transmitter processor performs the following tasks:
− Digital signal generation
− Control/adjustment of amplitude (envelope), RF phase and phase polarity
− Calculation of the settings for the transmitter subassemblies
− Communication
The monitor processor performs the following tasks:
− Processing and evaluation of the signals of internal, integral sensors and nearfield dipoles
− Initiation of appropriate actions in case of fault detection (station changeover or shutdown)
− Ensuring of its own performance independent of environmental conditions and component
aging
The equipment control and switching assembly which may be considered as part of the overall moni-
toring function performs the following tasks:
− HW decision and execution of appropriate actions in case of fault detection (station changeover
or shutdown) derived from monitor messages.

The software packages (i.e. transmitter SW, monitor SW, LRCI SW and PC User Program SW) looks
after and supports the most important tasks as follows:

− Startup (alignment and calibration of the antenna system and the navigation system)
− Modulation and transmitter control
− Signal generation
− Monitoring the navigation signal
− Support in system repair and maintenance
− Operation of the system (local/remote)

Ed. 07.06
01.04 SOAC 1−19
GP 422 ILS 420
Functional Description Equipment Description

1.5.2 Brief Description


See Fig. 1−8.
Fig. 1−8 shows the basic structure of a ILS 420 GP system. Transmitter and monitor are dualized,
whereby each monitor monitors both transmitters. The remaining subassemblies in the signal path
of the transmitter are single. These are mostly components which cannot be practically dualized, such
as the transfer assembly, the antennas and cables and the main passive components which are inher-
ently reliable.
1.5.2.1 Transmitter
The transmitters utilize digital control for initial alignment/setup purposes, but once in normal opera-
tion they are not dependent on microprocessors or software−controlled servo−loops to maintain ac-
curacy. Only three circuit card assemblies are required to provide the transmitter function:
− The audio generator (LG−A) is responsible for producing the composite carrier−plus−sideband
1 (CSB1) and sideband−only (SBO) modulation envelopes for the course MODPA and, if a dual
frequency and "active" GP system, the modulation envelope for the second MODPA which is used
in one path for the composite carrier−plus−sideband 2 (CSB2) modulation envelope. The audio
generator utilizes digital generation of the composite audio tone, essentially eliminating the audio
signal as a source of error. The complete dynamic range of a 13−bit digital−to−analog (D/A) con-
verter is used to form the waveform with a further 8 bit multiplying D/A converter controlling the
output level. The configuration data is maintained within an electrically erasable programmable
read−only memory (EEPROM). The audio generator also has some measurement capabilities
that are used to gather system data useful for maintenance and faultfinding.
− The frequency synthesizer (SYN) generates the RF carrier for the course MODPA assembly and,
if a dual frequency system, also generates RF for the clearance MODPA. The frequency synthe-
sizer is based on a very stable temperature−compensated crystal oscillator (TXCO) combined
with direct digital synthesis (DDS) to provide very accurate low noise continuous wave (CW) signal.
The same synthesizer board is used in the localizer and glide path. The frequency is set by BCD
jumpers on the printed circuit board (PCB) which prevents the frequency from being inadvertently
changed from the local or remote keyboard.
− The modulator/power amplifier (MODPA) provides two amplitude modulated signals, the CSB and
the SBO. One MODPA unit is required for single frequency operation and, for two−frequency op-
eration, a 2nd MODPA unit is required which generates the clearance signal. In addition for the "ac-
tive" GP the remaining RF path of this modulator is fed by the SBO path of the other MODPA unit.
The MODPA are broadband units with no field adjustments required either for frequency changes
or unit replacement. The power amplifiers are conservatively designed, capable of operating at CW
levels in excess of the required peak envelope power. The design and layout of LLZ and GP
MODPA units are identical. Only components that are frequency specific are different. In addition
the GP MODPA contains jumpers to adapt its function to the GP active or specific requirements.
Feedback control loops are employed to control amplitude and phase while minimizing distortion.
Feedback control loops also allow a full 360° setting of the SBO phase relative to the CSB.
1.5.2.2 Monitor
The monitor can be either a single or dual redundant monitor system. In the dual redundant mode
the monitors can be configured in "OR" mode for high integrity or "AND" mode for high continuity.
A single monitor system consists of the monitor board (LG−M) and monitor interface board (INTFC).
A dual monitor system adds a second monitor board. The input paths from the integral (on−air) and
internal (stdby) sensors are processed in the Stdby and On−Air Combiner unit (SOAC) and fed with
other monitoring inputs to the monitor interface. The monitor interface board actually contains two
identical circuit groups with each group dedicated to a monitor.

1−20 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description
Both the monitor and monitor interface boards are identical for both the localizer and glide path equip-
ment. The monitor is identical to the audio generator used in the transmitter except with different firm-
ware.

The monitor board is essentially a high−precision audio−frequency spectrum analyzer, utilizing a


combination of dedicated hardware and an electrically programmable logic device (EPLD) in con-
junction with an Intel 80C196 high−performance micro−controller. Each monitor has an on−board
sampling analog−to−digital converter subsystem (ADCS). The ADCS is continuously checked and
calibrated against on−board precision external references, which are cross−verified against the ana-
log−to−digital (A/D’s) internal precision reference, resulting in the elimination of factory or field hard-
ware adjustment of monitor and detector paths.

The monitor cycles through each input signal in turn, utilizing Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT). It
computes the spectral component of each, and from these components calculates the desired pa-
rameter (difference in depth of modulation [DDM], sum of depth of modulation [SDM], etc.). These
parameters are compared to operator programmed threshold values. If any parameter is beyond the
tolerances, this results in the appropriate monitor field signaling an alarm. Separate alarm timers exist
for Executive, Field, and Standby parameter groups.

1.5.2.3 Equipment Control and Switching

The control and switching section consists of the following modules: Executive control unit (ECU) and
transfer switch assembly. The ECU is responsible for performing all the control actions of the station
such as which equipment is routed to the antenna, which to the load, and the on/off status of each.
The ECU turns off the transmitting equipment, whether from an alarm off condition or a user off selec-
tion, using two redundant circuit paths. One goes to the audio generator to terminate the modulation
signal; the other goes to the frequency synthesizer to turn off the carrier.

Alarm action depends on whether the ECU is configured for series (alarm−AND, higher continuity of
service) or parallel (alarm−OR, higher station integrity). Alarm−AND requires that both monitors indi-
cate the same alarm before control action is initiated, while alarm−OR initiates control action based
on only one monitor’s status. An alarm status results in either a transfer to standby equipment (dual−
equipment) or cessation of transmission (single equipment or hot standby in alarm) by the ECU.

The ECU employs multiple redundancies for the critical path circuits to achieve the highest level of
safety while maintaining high reliability by minimizing the individual parts count. The ECU is a state−
machine built primarily from three EPLDs. Two of the three EPLDs provide dual semi−redundancy
for the critical station control functions, although each has some unique inputs and outputs. A Watch-
dog circuit monitors these semi−redundant EPLDs to ensure they remain synchronized. The third
EPLD, which is also of a different part type, implements a more basic and simplistic fail−safe circuit
using a few external devices. Its function is to echo the other two and cause a complete station shut-
down should they fail to take the appropriate action when needed.

A poll−response alarm status protocol assures fail−safe communications between the monitor and
ECU. The ECU continuously requests a health status for one of three monitor normal signals (Execu-
tive, Field, or Standby) from each monitor CCA and expects a certain response within a certain time.
Should a monitor signal fail to respond within a specific timing window or respond with more than one
edge during that window, the ECU will declare the particular parameter bad and take the appropriate
alarm action.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−21


GP 422 ILS 420
Functional Description Equipment Description
The monitor system integrity of operation is verified by the ECU by periodically applying one of two
analog test signals from the on−antenna audio generator to each monitor. These are set to simulate
two different valid operating points. The monitor must be able to discern between the two, and provide
a toggling health indication on one of two ECU inputs corresponding to the particular signal type. The
monitor must respond correctly within a fixed time period or it will be switched out of executive alarm
actions, with the ECU relying solely on the alternate monitor.

The transfer switch assembly is built up with PIN−Diode switches. It is used for dual transmitter con-
figurations. The job of the transfer switch is to route the selected main transmitter to the antenna with
the standby transmitter being connected to dummy loads. The localizer and glide path assemblies
are identical designs differing only in frequency dependant components.

1.5.2.4 Local/Remote Communication Interface (LRCI)


The LRCI makes available the following interfaces:
− Communications of the individual functional groups
− Controls for the equipment
− Local display and local control of the equipment for the operator
− Remote control functions
All relevant data or parameters can be set locally or remotely via an intelligent terminal (PC/Laptop).
A change−over or shut down is also possible. For integrity reasons data entry (input/change) is only
possible in the maintenance mode (monitors bypassed). Access to the system is barred by a pass-
word procedure with different security levels. The software to be used is referred to as ’PC User Pro-
gram’ (MCS or ADRACS).

1.5.2.5 Power Supply


The battery−charging power supply (BCPS) supplies the entire system with the DC supply voltage
(nom. 48 VDC). The BCPS can be connected to a mains input voltage in the range from nominal
115 VAC to 230 VAC. The construction of the BCPS is modular, with a building−block concept allow-
ing two 14 A (max.) modules. The power supply has sufficient capacity allowing collocated DME to
share the power supply and batteries.
The batteries are connected in parallel with the AC/DC converter outputs providing the functionality
of an uninterruptible power supply. The BCPS applies the correct voltage required to keep the batter-
ies fully charged.
Each transmitter owns dedicated quad output DC/DC converters (+5V,+15V,−15 V,+24V). Common
modules (i.e. ECU) are fed with combined power from both converters.
In addition the power supply subrack contains a low voltage sensing circuit (LVS) and an electronic
relais which inhibits deep discharge of a connected battery set. It also contains a single DC−Con-
verter (+5 V) which supplies the LCP subassembly to provide operability.

1.5.3 Peripheral subassemblies


The DC power supply is switched on and off with separate DC switches for each transmitter.

1.5.4 General block diagram

Figs. 1−19, 1−20 and 1−21 provide an overview of the subassemblies and signal flow of the ILS
GP−1F and GP−2F system.

1−22 SOAC Ed. 07.08


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description

A3

ANTENNAS FIELD DIPOLE (opt.)


A2
NFM

A1
CSB2 A2*

CSB1 A1*
SBO A3*

Power Adder*

RF Stdby RF Stdby RF on−air NF


PIN−diode
Transfer Assembly Stby and On−Air Combiner analog inputs
detected field and
stby signals in
CRS CSB2*

CRS CSB2*
CRS CSB1

CRS CSB1

TRANSMITTER 1 TRANSMITTER 2 Monitor Interface


CRS SBO

CRS SBO
CLR

CLR

RF RF to TX1
Executive Control
Signal Generation Signal Generation to TX2 Unit
and and
Amplification Amplification
MONITOR 1 MONITOR 2

Modulation Signal Modulation Signal Monitor Signal Monitor Signal


Generator Generator Processor Processor

Local Remote Communication Interface

DC/DC DC/DC Local


converter converter Display

DC/DC I * GP−2F standard:


converter Main DC switch A1: CSB+SBO+Clear.
I A2: CSB+SBO
A3: SBO+Clear
CSB2 A2 not used, A2 fed
by Power adder
BCPS
AC/DC converter
Transmitter Cabinet

Battery fuse switch PTT line Local PC


Mains 230 VAC RC
I Emergency Battery
(Pb)
48 V (53.5 V)

Fig. 1−8 Basic structure of an ILS GP; example GP−2F active, dual

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−23


GP 422 ILS 420
Functional Description Equipment Description

1−24 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description
1.6 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRANSMITTER
This functional description of the transmitter provides a introduction to the signal generation and con-
ditioning. It will be of use in understanding the subsequent chapters, since certain relationships are
discussed in advance.

1.6.1 Overview
The ILS 420 transmitter generates and radiates radio frequency (RF) signals to provide final approach
glide path navigation information to landing aircraft. The aircraft interprets the signals and displays
them on the cockpit indicator, guiding the pilot until the runway is in sight. The deflection of the cockpit
indicator needle is directly proportional to the aircraft’s angular displacement from the centerline,
within a 0.155 (LLZ) or 0.175 (GP) difference in depth of modulation (DDM) limit (150 A). Conse-
quently, the needle’s position reflects very accurately the aircraft’s distance from the glide path and
the pilots subsequent adjustments. Thales ATM’s ILS transmitters use its patented sideband−only
(SBO) generation process to digitally generate signals and high gain feedback loops that assure ac-
curate and stable output signals. The 90− and 150−Hz navigation tones are precise, as are the high
gain RF envelopes that follow these tones. The transmitters meet all of the signal generation, control,
accuracy, fidelity, and stability requirements of ICAO Annex 10.
LEFT BESIDE ON RIGHT BESIDE ABOVE ON BELOW
Approach path (LLZ) Approach path (GP)

0.0 %
15.5 % (90) 15.5 % (150)
150 uA
150 uA

17.5 % (90)
150 uA
0.0 %
150 uA
17.5 % (150)
Cockpit Indication Cockpit Indication

Fig. 1−9 Cockpit indication


The Transmitter requires only 3 circuit cards to develop a complete ILS signal:
− Audio generator
− Modulator/Power Amplifier (2 in a dual system)
− Synthesizer

1.6.2 Audio Generator


The Audio Generator and the monitor processor use the same hardware but different firmware.The
audio generator generates all of the navigation and identification information used to modulate the
ILS RF carrier, and it provides the means to control the radiated signal. The audio generator digitally
creates the system’s navigation signals, which essentially eliminates it as a source of error. The audio
generator provides four channels of digital synthesized navigation information, one each for course
carrier−plus−sideband (CSB), course sideband only (SBO), clearance CSB (Clear. in the GP−2F),
and clearance SBO (used in the "active" GP−2F for CSB2). Each of these synthesizers use a 12−bit
digital−to−analog (D/A) converter that outputs 512 separate data points for each ILS cycle (1/30th
of a second), assuring very accurate and precise navigation audio that allow a DDM control resolution
of 0.0005. The audio generator is completely independent of the monitor. The Executive Control Unit
(ECU) and the Local Control Panel (LCP) control the ability of the audio generator to accept com-
mands by gating the monitor write pulse with an active low enable signal. This enable signal is active
only during the initialization period immediately following a system reset or when the system is ac-
cessed through the Local PC or LCP interface.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−25


GP 422 ILS 420
Functional Description Equipment Description
This write control approach allows audio generator programming and calibration flexibility while main-
taining audio generator/monitor independence for fail−safe objectives. The interface electrically pro-
grammable logic device (EPLD) receives data and control inputs from the monitor through an 8−bit
data bus. During station startup, the monitor board reads all the station requirements from nonvolatile
memory, including these data inquiries:
− Is the station a localizer or glide slope?
− Is there single or dual transmitters?
− Is there a distance−measuring equipment (DME) station to be keyed? (not used in GP)
− What are the station DDM and RF levels and % of modulation for each CSB and SBO output?
When all the pattern calculations are completed, the monitor then loads the information to the ran-
dom−access memory (RAM). The RAM information is in the form of complete navigation waveform
in digital format. This exact information is converted to analog signal by very accurate 12−bit D/A con-
verters, filtered, and amplified through operational amplifiers and output to the modulator/power am-
plifier. Once loaded, the monitor and the audio generator remain independent until a change in station
parameters is input by an operator. The complete navigation waveform always uses the full 12 bits
of the D/A converter for best possible accuracy. The amplitude (RF level and modulation) is set using
an 8−bit multiplying D/A converter that functions as an accurate 256−step level control.

auto boot
sequencer
Flash program
Board personality memory used for monitor only
serial communication UART digital output

External signals (10) digital input RS 422 output

Processor
frequency EEPROM
External signals (8) measure station config.
MUX memory

used for audio generator only


CSB/SBO CRS
External signals (20) analog analog wave CLR/CSB2 (GP active)
External signals (3) measure RAM generator Ident (not GP)
data memory
Internal signals MUX Integrity

Fig. 1−10 Audio Generator principle

1.6.3 Synthesizer
The synthesizer uses high frequency, phase stable temperature−compensated crystal oscillators
(TCXO) and state−of−the−art direct digital synthesis (DDS) technology to produce its low−noise
signal. The use of DDS allows a phase detector to operate at a frequency more than 350 times the
25 kHz of conventional phase−locked loop (PLL) designs. The advantage of this technique over con-
ventional designs is that it gives a potential of 48 dB more phase correction gain at 150 Hz. The heart
of the synthesizer’s design is its DDS integrated circuit. The synthesizer’s DDS and 10−bit D/A con-
verter are combined into one package that is specified for clock speeds up to 125 MHz and for output
frequencies of up to 40 MHz. The synthesizer’s frequency decoding is on the board, which makes
it very easy to use. The operator needs only to know the desired frequency, which he or she can then
set with the synthesizer’s BCD jumpers. No charts or tables required, and no additional jumpers re-
quired. By setting the frequency, the operator selects whether the SYN functions as a localizer or glide
path synthesizer.

1−26 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description
The frequency accuracy is achieved by the use of a stable TCXO and small frequency steps allowed
by the DDS design. The TCXO has a specified frequency tolerance of ±10 parts per million (ppm) from
−40 to 85 °C. The carrier frequencies are phase locked to this frequency. The station frequency and
frequency offset for the capture effect is set by the program in the programmable erasable read−only
memory (EPROM). The 8 kHz course/clearance frequency difference will be set to less than 2 Hz error
and phase locked to the same TCXO so that there is always less than 2 Hz error. The 8 kHz frequency
difference is either counted down to 125 Hz to be compatible with existing systems or selected by
direct 8 kHz (jumper) for use in a more accurate difference detector.

VCO LLZ
BCD jumper DDS PLL ampl. RF out LLZ or GP (1)
frequency select CRS
VCO GP

EPLD EPROM TCXO

VCO LLZ
DDS PLL ampl. RF out LLZ or GP (2)
VCO GP CLR

Fig. 1−11 Synthesizer principle

1.6.4 Modulator/Power Amplifier


The ILS 420 Modulator Power Amplifiers (MODPA) modulate and amplify the CSB and SBO signals
and they monitor and measure output power and reflected power. The MOPA includes three main
circuits: the CSB modulator, the SBO modulator, and the linear power amplifier.
1.6.4.1 CSB Modulator
The forward power RF sample is used in two feedback loops, the AM loop and the CSB phase control
loop. The AM loop modulates the transmitter and corrects any AM modulation distortion. The audio
generator creates the CSB Audio waveform, which consist of a DC level, the 90 and 150 Hz audio
tones, and the Ident tone. It is input into one side of the AM loop error amplifier. Also, an audio signal
from a highly linear AM detector which is driven from the RF Output sample obtained from the direc-
tional coupler is input to the loop error amplifier. The input DC level sets the desired RF carrier power
and the detected DC level is proportional to the actual RF carrier power. Similarly, the levels of the
90 and 150 Hz tones, relative to the DC level, at the input of the error amplifier set the desired modula-
tion percentage for each tone. The detected level of these tones represents the actual modulation
percentage, including the effects of modulator and linear amplifier non−linearity. The signals are ap-
plied to the differential inputs of the AM error amplifier where the difference between them is amplified
and output as a control voltage which is applied to the AM modulator. The result is a closed loop feed-
back control system which continuously detects, and compensates for, any deviation in RF power,
or modulation percentage. It also removes any distortion introduced by the AM modulator or the linear
RF power amplifier. Thus the output power and modulation percentage are accurately determined by
the digitally generated input CSB signal from the audio generator. The CSB phase control loop oper-
ates like the AM loop and has two main functions. The first is to set and maintain the phase relationship
between the input RF carrier signal (from the Synthesizer) and the modulated output carrier. This
maintains the desired phase relationship between the CSB and SBO signals (in conjunction with simi-
lar loops in the SBO section which are also referenced to the input carrier).
The second function of the CSB phase control loop is to compensate for any undesired phase modu-
lation of the RF carrier occurring in the linear RF power amplifier. This form of phase modulation, often
referred to as AM to PM conversion, commonly occurs in highly efficient linear RF power amplifiers,
and may result in undesired PM sidebands on the transmitter output.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−27


GP 422 ILS 420
Functional Description Equipment Description

Phase Pin Diode AM Power amplifier coupler


modulator modulator modulator CSB out

RF carrier input power power AM control loop


from SYN divider divider
CSB section
Carrier phase detector
CW RF to SBO reference phase
CSB audio waveform
from audio generator
RF OUT GP−2F active
jumper select: I and Q in phase power coupler
SBO RF out Power amplifier
modulator combiner modulator SBO out
ext. RF SBO in
RF IN

CW RF from CSB power


divider
SBO section
Carrier I detector
reference phase Q detector
SBO audio waveform I and Q
from audio generator

Fig. 1−12 Modulator Power Amplifier, principle

1.6.4.2 SBO Modulator

The SBO section controls the SBO Power, suppresses the RF carrier, and adjusts the SBO phase
relative to the CSB phase over the full range of 0 to 360 degrees. Full 360 degree phase adjustment
saves installation time by eliminating the need to trim RF cables to correct phase lengths. The I−Q
modulator use two balanced modulators. One modulates the 0 degree (I) signal from the power divi-
der, and the other modulates the 90 degree (Q) signal. The two modulated signals are then summed
in the in−phase power combiner to obtain the vector summation of the 0 and 90 degree components.
For example, equal level control signals applied to both modulators will produce a vector sum of 45
degrees. Thus any output phase may be obtained by adjusting the relative proportion, and the polar-
ity, of I and Q control signals. The power output obtained is proportional to the magnitude of the two
signals. The output phase will be constant as the power is varied with the control voltages, provided
the relative amplitude ratio is held constant between the I and Q voltages. The balanced modulators
also suppress the RF carrier. Ideally, with 0 Volts on the control port, the output from each modulator
is 0. If an AC signal, symmetrical about 0 Volts, is applied, the output from each modulator is a double
sideband, suppressed carrier, or SBO signal. By adjusting the relative magnitude, and polarity, of the
AC signals applied to the I and Q modulation ports, an operator can obtain an SBO signal of any de-
sired phase from 0 to 360 degrees.

1.6.4.3 Linear Power Amplifiers for CSB and SBO


The ILS 420 power stages uses RF Power FETs. For added protection, the amplifiers incorporate a
reverse power sensor and fold back circuit which reduces the power output until the load mismatch
is corrected. Each amplifier includes forward and reverse power sensors and detectors providing
power measurement outputs to the system monitor and portable maintenance data terminal. The
power amplifiers are conservatively designed and fully capable of continuous CW power outputs in
excess of the peak envelope power required for full modulation as indicated in the following:
− Amplifier Localizer CSB Glide Path CSB
− Rated Carrier Power 25 W 5W
− Required Peak Envelope Power (@ 80 % modulation) 80 W 18 W
− CW Power Output Capability >100 W >25 W

1−28 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description
1.7 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF THE MONITOR
This functional description of the monitor provides an introduction to the monitoring concept. Its pur-
pose is to help you understand how the ILS 420 works and how its subsystems interrelate.
1.7.1 Overview
Signals transmitted from a localizer or glide path station must be constantly validated to ensure safe
landings. The Thales ATM high−integrity Monitor continually measures and analyzes these signals,
comparing their current values to stored alarm limits. If a measured parameter is not within limits, the
Monitor signals an alarm condition. Fig. 1−13 shows the information flow and Fig. 1−14 lists the mon-
itored parameters for the on−antenna (Executive and Field groups) and the "hot" Standby group.

Monitoring and Control

Transmitter 1 Monitor Interface (INTFC) Transmitter 2


Monitor path 1 Monitor path 2
Synthesizer 1 Audio Audio Synthesizer 2
Demodulator Demodulator

MODPA 1 LG−A 1 LG−M 1 ECU LG−M 2 LG−A 2 MODPA 2


RF power Audio Monitor Executive Control Monitor Audio RF power
amplifiers Generator Unit Generator amplifiers

Audio 1 enable Audio 2 enable

Side1 Tx enable Antenna select Side2 Tx enable

RF out 1 RF out 2

4 PIN−diode switches (LLZ−2F, GP−2F active)


stby
Stby and On−Air
Antennas Combiner
on−air
Antenna
Distribution Unit

Fig. 1−13 ILS 420 monitoring, simplified block diagram

LLZ GP LLZ GP
LLZ Executive Monitor GP Executive Monitor LLZ Near Field Monitor GP Near Field Monitor
RF level of course position RF level of course position RF level of course position nearfield RF level of course position nearfield
DDM of course position DDM of course position DDM of course position nearfield DDM of course position nearfield
SDM of course position SDM of course position SDM of course position nearfield SDM of course position nearfield
Ident modulation −
RF level of course width RF level of course width LLZ Standby Monitor GP Standby Monitor
DDM of course width DDM of course width RF level of course position RF level of course position
SDM of course width SDM of course width DDM of course position DDM of course position
RF level of clearance width RF level of clearance width SDM of course position SDM of course position
DDM of clearance width DDM of clearance width RF level of course width RF level of course width
SDM of clearance width SDM of clearance width DDM of course width DDM of course width
CRS/CLR RF frequency difference CRS/CLR RF frequency difference SDM of course width SDM of course width
Antenna cable fauIt (opt.) − RF level of clearance width RF level of clearance width
Monitor auto−calibration Monitor auto−calibration DDM of clearance width DDM of clearance width
Executive Monitor BITE Executive Monitor BITE SDM of clearance width SDM of clearance width
Continuous Ident − CRS/CLR RF frequency difference CRS/CLR RF frequency difference
Lack of Ident − Synthesizer lock Synthesizer lock
Forced Alarm Forced Alarm RF channel RF channel
ECU status poll rate ECU status poll rate
Synthesizer lock Synthesizer lock
RF channel RF channel

Fig. 1−14 Monitored parameters

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−29


GP 422 ILS 420
Functional Description Equipment Description

1.7.2 Monitor Operation

The monitor processor uses the same hardware as the audio generator, but it uses different firmware.
Refer for the hardware description part to in section 1.6.2.

On−board automatic calibration eliminates factory or field hardware adjustment of monitor and de-
tector paths. The monitor provides the capability to fully characterize its analog signal processing
through program−controlled adjustments using a precision 5−Volt (±0.05%) reference. Once it’s
A/D subsystem is characterized, the monitors are then capable of calibrating the detector path (audio
generator) which provides accurate system measurements without factory or field manual hardware
adjustments. The precision external reference is continuously cross−verified using the A/D’s internal
precision reference.

The Monitors basic "monitoring" function consists of measuring configured detector signals, plus
measuring the RF carrier and carrier−difference frequencies. Localizer Monitors measure the Morse
Code Ident level and may also optionally measure a cable fault signal. Once a station is operational,
detector measurements are continuously cycled as shown in Fig. 1−15.

The measurements performed in the "OTHER" slot is variable, based on configuration. These may
alternate between Integrity (one signal), ADCS calibration (one of the 16 ADCS calibration measure-
ments), Field (one signal), and/or hot Standby (two or three signals). The "miscellaneous overhead"
is time due to various other processing (e.g. alarm timer processing, alarm history processing, and
data file write operation, interrupts due to I/O servicing, higher priority tasks), that adds to the total
cycle times.
Capture Effect Capture Effect
Localizer Glideslope

Exec Course Position Exec Path Position

Exec Course Width Exec Path Width

Exec Clearance Width Exec Clearance Signal

[ Exec Near Field ] ”OTHER”

misc. overhead *
”OTHER”

misc. overhead *

Fig. 1−15 Detector Measurement Cycles

1−30 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description
There are two modes for acquiring a digital representation of a selected analog signal. The 12−bit
A/D may be used to acquire either a single sample of a selected analog signal, or a block of conver-
sions of a selected signal may be acquired with virtually no processor overhead. The hardware−as-
sisted data conversion control and DMA are by an EPLD. The block size is selectable in 128−sample
increments from 128 to 1024 samples and two different acquisition times are available: 7.58 and
30.72 kHz. Each sample of converted data is transferred directly in the microcontroller’s data memory
(SRAM) using the hold/hold acknowledge bus arbitration protocol. The selection of which sampling
mode is used (block or single) on a given signal is based on the signal type (periodic or dc) and the
analysis to be performed on the result. The Monitor has a serial input/output communication link with
the Local Control Panel (LCP) for access to the following setup parameters, commands, and system
status identifiers:
− alarm/prealarm limit entry and validation
− on−command calibration of audio generator and detectors
− calibration results of monitor, audio generator, or detectors
− current executive, field, and/or hot standby parameter readings
1.7.2.1 Executive and Standby Monitoring
The RF signals for monitoring the aerial transmitter are derived from sensors in the antenna system.
For LLZ, these RF signals are first processed in the Integral Network in the ADU and fed to the Stby
and On−air Combiner (SOAC). The SOAC converts down the received signals (CRS Posn., CRS
Width, CLR Width and Nearfield) to an Intermediate Frequency carrier (IF of 8 kHz). The resulting sig-
nal is fed to the monitor interface board (INTFC). For GP (and LLZ with LPD−antenna),, the Integral
Network is part of the SOAC assembly and the incoming RF signals are processed here to CRS Posn.,
CRS Width and CLR.
The RF signals for monitoring of the standby transmitter are derived from the PIN−diode transfer
switch assembly and fed to the Stby and On−air Combiner, where these signals are down converted
to an Intermediate Frequency carrier of (IF of 8 kHz) and following added in phase and amplitude in
an appropriate manner to achieve the output signals CRS Posn., CRS Width and CLR Width (CLR
for GP). The resulting signal is fed to the monitor interface board (INTFC).
1.7.2.2 Alarm Identification
Digital signal processing techniques provide system status with minimal time delay. To fully character-
ize the valid operation of an ILS 420 station, a predefined set of signal must be measured and vali-
dated. The monitor extracts the value of these parameters from the detected analog signals using
Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) for the time−to−frequency domain conversion of the critical 90
and 150 Hz navigation signal components. Additionally, frequency (e.g. carrier frequency) and/or pe-
riod (e.g. carrier frequency difference) measurements are performed on selected digital signals.
1.7.2.3 Monitor Interface
Transformer coupling provides isolation of electronics subsystem from incoming monitoring signals.
The monitor interface (INTFC) provides signal interface for all configurations of localizer and glide
path facilities. It provides the necessary interface between the electronics subsystem and the sys-
tem’s integral and field detectors.
1.7.2.4 Fail Safe
The ILS 420 monitor includes many fail−safe checks. A fail−safe trigger could potentially impact con-
tinuity−of−service or at least level−of−service; for instance the system could switch from CAT. III to
CAT. II or CAT. I, at least momentarily. But the ILS 420 monitor minimizes this possibility with its high−
availability mode. This mode uses two monitors which must agree on alarm status (i.e. alarm−AND)
before any control action is taken.

Ed. 10.04
01.04 SOAC 1−31
GP 422 ILS 420
Functional Description Equipment Description
Therefore, a momentary "glitch" on one Monitor, even resulting in a Monitor reset, should not result
a transfer or shutdown, since concurrent failures on both Monitors are very improbable.

1.7.3 Executive Control Unit


The Executive Control Unit (ECU) ensures that safe guidance signals are generated by the ILS station.
This unit controls where each of the redundant transmitting equipment is routed; to antenna or
standby load, whether on or off, and, by periodically checking with both monitors, keeps a good sig-
nal in space by automatically changing equipment when a failure is detected. Due to the criticality of
ensuring a good signal in space, the ECU employs multiple redundant control, alarm detection, and
shutdown circuits to achieve the highest level of safety. Fig. 1−16 shows the ECU’s principle diagram.

Station control and status is communicated by the ECU to the Local Control Panel (LCP) using a
single serial interface. This interface conveys such information as turning a particular equipment on/
off, bypass, changing mains, and interlock status. Replies provide status from each redundant control
path to permit maximum flexibility for built in test capabilities. Unique customer applications can be
accommodated by configuration switches on the ECU. These switches allow the user to define:
− Which equipment is the default main
− Enable station interlock or stand−alone
− Require both LG−M to show alarm before alarm action or only one LG−M (and/or)
− Define standby equipment to be default hot/cold
− Enable field monitoring
− Enable executive alarm action with field monitoring
− Define station to shutdown if communication to LCP lost, or remain in last operational state
− Define whether DME to be interlocked with ILS or to be enabled whenever ILS is on (not GP)

serial communication UART


to/from LCP Status
3 Bypass Configuration 3
switch
to 1 to 3

Mon 1 pres Bypass 1


TX1 pres Station Control
System configuration 1st
Mon 2 pres
TX2 pres Antenna Select
Integ. detector
Field Alarm 1 Shutdown 1A
Field Alarm 2
Standby Alarm 1 Redundant Shutdown 1B
Standby Alarm 2 Shutdown Shutdown 2A
Station Control Shutdown 2B
Bypass 2 2nd
Integrity A1
Integrity B1 Integ. detector
Integrity A2 Off Tx1/Tx2
Integrity B2 Integrity status

Bypass 3
3rd
safety 3
Executive Alarm 1 shutdown
Executive Alarm 2 Executive on
clck fail detect. Status poll
combiner

Status poll 1
Buffer Status poll 2

from LG−A Integr. test signal to LG−M

Fig. 1−16 Executive Control Unit, principle

1−32 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description
In order to maintain a fail−safe design on a single circuit card assembly, redundancy is applied to
the station stepping control and shutdown logic. Two programmable logic devices (PLD) process the
user commands received from the serial interface to select primary control of the station: setting which
equipment is on antenna, or to bypass alarm processing for station setup and test. At all times, these
PLD maintain a constant vigil on the station monitors, checking for any alarm condition, and if not
otherwise bypassed by the Local Control Panel (LCP), will cause station equipment change in the
event of an executive alarm. A third, fail−safe, path echoes these two PLD, capable of an entire station
shutdown should the other two paths fail. This third path uses a different architecture, consisting of
a different PLD type and a resistor/capacitor (RC) timed one shot to validate the health of the LG−M
executive alarms. This third path not only checks for the alarm status, but, by using the RC one shot,
also detects clock failures of the ECU.

Redundant logic is used also to disable both equipment transmitter chains to prevent unwanted trans-
missions. Two stacks (or totem poles) of three transistors each are combined so that any one transis-
tor being turned off will disable the transmitter of the offending equipment. One totem pole turns off
the audio modulation, the other the Synthesizer. The three redundant detection logic circuits de-
scribed above each drive one of these three transistors.

The redundant logic is further augmented by monitoring integrity validation circuitry (see Fig. 1−17).
The integrity tests assure that the monitors are capable of differentiating between two test signals.
The test signals are generated by the LG−A. The ECU multiplexes these two test signals from the
on−air LG−A to both LG−M, and then verifies that the LG−M responds with an alarm condition on
the appropriate integrity status line. If an LG−M fails to respond appropriately, the ECU removes that
particular monitor from alarm action consideration; relying solely on the alternate LG−M. Should the
offending LG−M later respond correctly, it is again returned into alarm action consideration.

Audio Raw integrity B #1


Generator 1
Raw integrity A #1

Alarm status poll Executive Control Unit


Integrity A alarm #1 ECU
Monitor 1 Integrity B alarm #1
Integrity measure #1
Integrity fail #1

Integrity test signal Antenna Integrity


select A/B select

Alarm status poll


Integrity A alarm #2
Monitor 2 Integrity B alarm #2
Integrity measure #2
Integrity fail #2

Audio
Generator 2 Raw integrity A #2

Raw integrity B #2

Fig. 1−17 Monitor verification testing

By implementing all local control logic functions on a single CCA, the Thales ATM ECU requires no
special grounding, mounting, or enclosure requirements because it is mounted directly into the local-
izer or glide slope electronics card cage. Since the design is implemented using low−speed digital
logic, there are no shielding requirements for electromagnetic interference.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−33


GP 422 ILS 420
Functional Description Equipment Description

1.7.3.1 Fail Safe

The ECU plays a critical role in the Fail−Safe design, and the complete hardware implementation in-
creases design testability and fail−safe analysis. The primary responsibility of the ECU is to ensure
that an alarm indication from the monitor subsystem results in a station transfer or shutdown. This
implies that any failure in the control unit must manifest itself in one of two ways:

− a control unit failure must directly result in a station shutdown, or


− the failure must not prevent the control unit from recognizing a monitor alarm and taking appropri-
ate action.

Given these constraints, the control unit’s function must be implemented with some level of redun-
dancy. Any single, non−redundant control function possesses an inherent single point failure which
can impede required operation. In addition, any redundant implementation must be fully testable in
order to eliminate any common mode failures between similar components within the design. The
shutdown detection logic is validated by means of independent bypass controls. By applying a by-
pass to the two opposing control paths and causing an alarm, each control path can be indepen-
dently confirmed to be capable of detecting an alarm and equipment shutdown. The Thales ATM ap-
proach to the ILS 420 control unit provides a triple−redundant hardware solution which is fully test-
able using straight−forward logical analysis. In addition, each of the redundant control sections are
individually testable during system integrity diagnostics to ensure proper operation and to prevent
failure latency.

1−34 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description
1.8 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION LRCI
1.8.1 Overview

The Local/Remote Communication Interface (LRCI) facilitates all interfaces between the equipment
groups. The LRCI’s task is to communicate with the different functions, including equipment controls,
local display, local controls, and remote control functions. The LRCI includes the Local Control Panel
(LCP), individual optional Modem units, and the optional voice amplifier (VAM) module (LLZ only).
The Modem units enable remote communication. Modems used for dedicated or switched line ap-
plications are available.

1.8.2 Introduction to the LCP

Each equipment (ILS−LLZ, ILS−GP) includes an LCP. The LCP consists of a microprocessor 80386
SX, which is called the Local Control CPU board (LC−CPU) and a station status display which is
called the Local Control Interface (LCI). The LCI is controlled by the LC−CPU. The LCP enables the
control of the LRCI’s functions and local control. It provides main status indication, equipment status,
and measurement data. The Local Control Interface (LCI) has indication lamps for the main status
and a menu driven liquid crystal display (LCD) for indication of status and measurement data, and
it includes manual controls for simple commands like TX on/off or change TX. Besides serial data in-
terfaces to the monitor and transmitter processors, there is an RS 232C interface so that an operator
can use the PC User Program to locally and/or remotely (through the Modem) control the equipment
from a PC. The LCP main features are:

− Communication to subsystems
− Interface to collocated stations (DME, NDB)
− Built−In Test equipment (BIT)
− BCPS Control
− Programming station parameters

The LCP is the interface of the NAV−Station to the outside world, e.g. Remote Control. The LCP con-
trols up to ten serial control channels. A NAV−Station normally consists of two transmitters, two moni-
tors (which are called subsystems) and the LCP. It is also possible to collocat stations like NDB or DME
and have their data accessible through the LCP.

1.8.3 Data Transmission

When the station is switched on, the LCP reads the configuration files in the RAM−Floppy, initializes
the Station, and brings it into a normal operational state. The communication between LCP and the
subsystems works on the master−slave principle. The LCP automatically sends queries (which are
called INTERNAL) with a configured frequency between 0.04 Hz and 10 Hz (in steps of 100 ms) to
the subsystems (monitors, transmitters). From the subsystem’s answers, the LCP gets the necessary
information to determine the Main Status of the station and to check if all subsystems are available
and working correctly.

If the remote control is connected, it is possible to get directly data from transmitters, monitors, or
the LCP itself to have detailed status information or to program station parameters. Every time data
are requested from a PC, the LCP sends also the INTERNAL telegrams to compose the Main Status.
For reliability reasons, the telegrams are checked with a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) after ANSI
X3.99−1979 with the CCIT V.41 generator polynomial.

Ed. 07.06
01.04 SOAC 1−35
GP 422 ILS 420
Functional Description Equipment Description

1.9 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION POWER SUPPLY


1.9.1 Overview
See Fig. 1−18.

The power supply used for the ILS system is normally the 230 VAC mains. An emergency power sup-
ply must be provided by a battery to ensure that operation is not interrupted if the mains power fails.

The 230 V mains supplies the Battery−Charging Power Supply (BCPS), which in turn supplies a DC
voltage to the navigation system and keeps the parallel floating battery charged. An uninterruptible
power supply is thus available for a transitional period if the mains power fails. One of the two power
modules (ACC) acts as a standby in case of failures, making the system extremely reliable. The output
voltage is normally 54 V DC (max. 14 A per module), corresponding to the maximum charge of a lead
battery with 24 cells. The number of modules which are connected in parallel is sufficient not only to
operate the navigation system, but also to permit the floating battery to be recharged within a reason-
able time. If one of the modules fails, the other continue working normally.

The BCPS provides the supply voltage to the main DC−switches TX1 and TX2, which are used to
switch on or off the DC supply voltage for the two transmitters, either individually or together. The
switches also provide an overcurrent protection. In addition, a low voltage sensing circuit (LVS) is im-
plemented which senses the 48 V supply voltage to cut off the supply line to the emergency battery
if the operating voltage drops below 43 V; this prevents the battery from being exhausted and dam-
aged.

Downstream of switches TX1 and TX2 are the quad output DC converters (DCC−MV), which supply
the voltages for the transmitters, monitors and the LRCI. They generate the component voltages 5
V, ±15 V and 24 V exactly from the nom. 48 V (43...62 V). The DC converters take the form of switching
regulators. They incorporate circuits for current limiting, overvoltage cutoff, and internal monitoring.
To supply common functions in the ILS equipment the supply voltages +5/±15 V are ored by diodes.
The converters can also be switched on or off electronically (e.g. command from LCP). Besides the
common voltages for ECU and Interface a separate DC−converter (5 V) is used to supply the LCP
and Modem equipment, which remain operable if the quad converter are shut down.

The transmitter and monitor assemblies are supplied by separate power supply modules. The LRCI,
ECU and Interface CCA are operational as soon as at least one TX switch is switched on. A transmitter
system (e.g. TX1) is electronically switched on or off either by the LRCI or the monitors via the ECU
with control lines which enable or disable the Synthesizer board.

1.9.2 Startup Procedure

When the system is switched on first time with the TX1 and/or TX2 switches, all the power supply mod-
ules will be connected to the 54 V voltage. The system is initialized and is ready to start operation.
The control of the station is performed via the connected PC and running User Program. The request
ENTER PASSWORD appears on the PC. If an input is not made, or if an incorrect password is entered,
further action will not be possible. If the password is entered correctly, the system is ready to accept
commands. Transmitter TX1 or TX2 can then be switched on via the LRCI or the connected PC with
the appropriate command. If the station is completely aligned and setup normal operation starts if
the power is switched on.

1−36 SOAC Ed. 07.08


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description

Transmitter 1 Monitor 1 Monitor 2 Transmitter 2


SYN PIN−Diode SYN
Transfer Switch

24 V 5V 5V 5V 5V 24 V
+15 V +15 V +15 V +15 V
−15 V −15 V SOAC −15 V −15 V

INTFC

ECU

LRCI

Shutdown 1 Shutdown 2

LG−A 1/2
DCC−MV DCC−MV

DCC−5

F4

Transmitter 1 Transmitter 2
TX1 TX2

Under−
voltage relay
Sense sense

ACC (BCPS−Module) Emergency Battery


54 VDC
F5

Mains 230 VAC collocated equipment

Control line

Fig. 1−18 Power supply, block diagram

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−37


GP 422 ILS 420
Functional Description Equipment Description

1−38 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description

from Transmitter 2 B−Type with PAD−S ANTENNA SYSTEM


TRANSMITTER 1 and MONITOR 1 CRS SBO
not used
CRS CSB 80° cable
PAD−S*
load Power Adder load
MODPA 1/1 phase shifter
RFcw
CRS CSB B−Type:
Carrier modulator CRS CSB CSB+SBO, LSB
CSB Power Amplifier Course (CRSCSB)
Course (CRSSBO) PIN Diode A1
CRS SBO
Sideband modulator CRS SBO Transfer switch CSB* lower Outputs to the antenna arrays A1,
SBO Q Power Amplifier RF aerial A2 with 0−Reference (B−Type)*
B−Type: SBO, USB
A2
SYN SBO I
not used
SBO* upper
Synthesizer
Stdby RF Nearfield Dipole (opt.)
Posn. NF
CW RF f0
Transfer Control
CW RF f0 offset to SOAC Antenna Select IN A1
A1 Inputs from the integral coupling
probes of A1, A2
IN A2 A2
SOAC CW RFoffset
CW RFoffset
Stby and On−Air Combiner (from SYN TX2) * B−Type signal characteristics set by DDM preadjustment (DDM not 0)
(from SYN TX1)
or alternatively with Power Adder PAD−S
internal sensor signals integral sensor signals

Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc. INTFC


Analog/Digital data (bus) Monitor Interface board Analog/Digital data (bus)
Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc.
Syn data
Shutdown A (Synthesizer) Shutdown A (Synthesizer) to
SYN
Shutdown B (Modulation) Shutdown B (Modulation)
DME Key (ident) DME Key (ident)
Raw Integrity B#1 Raw Integrity B#2
to
Raw Integrity A#1 Raw Integrity A#2 MODPA 1/2
Monitor Bypassed Monitor Bypassed

LG−A /1 LG−M /1
Ant. select ECU Ant. select
LG−M /2 LG−A /2
Alarms Exec./Field/Stby Alarms Exec./Field/Stby
Audio Generator Monitor Processor Executive Control Unit Monitor Processor Audio Generator
Raw Integrity A alarm#1 Raw Integrity A alarm#2
Raw Integrity B alarm#1 Raw Integrity B alarm#2
Integrity test signal 1 Integrity test signal 2
DC supply ECU Poll ECU Poll
DC supply
V.24 / RS232
TRANSMITTER 2 BITE
BITE
MONITOR 2
to transmitter 1 DC supply to transmitter 2 DC supply V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232
V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232
+5 V +15 V −15 V +24 V +5 V +15 V −15 V +24 V Smoke det. Alarm
Smoke det. reset
Intrusion Alarm

DCC−MV F4 DCC−MV to LG−A /2


Analog Inputs (spare)
DC supply +5 V
V.24 / RS232

TX1 TX2 LC−CPU LCI LCP


53,5 VDC MODEM Local Control CPU Local Control Indicator Local Control Panel
(48 VDC nom.) LGM1200MD o. LGM 28.8 Smoke Det.
2 LRCI Intrusion
Temp. outside
ACC LVS DCC−5 RS232/TTL (opt.) RS232/TTL V.24 / RS232 16 16 Local/Remote Communication Interface etc.
+5 V
2
Analog Inputs LGM1 Local PC Inputs Outputs Environmental sensors
ACC (spare) Remote Site
LGM2/DME LGM3/NDB
2nd modem (opt.) digital I/O (spare) (PC−User Program) (spare) (spare)
F5

Mains DC 48 V to colloc. NAV system to emergency battery


115 to 230 VAC (if available) (if available)

Fig. 1−19 ILS GP−1F; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown)

Ed. 01.10 SOAC 1−39


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description

CLR
TRANSMITTER 1 and MONITOR 1 CRS CSB2
CRS SBO
from Transmitter 2
CW RF CRS to SOAC
CRS CSB1 ANTENNA SYSTEM
MODPA 1/1
RFcw phase shifter*
CRS CSB1
CSB1
Carrier modulator CRS CSB
Course (CRSCSB1) DDM=12 % CSB1 PAD−A CSB1−A1/clear. A1
Power Amplifier phase shifter* lower
Course (CRSSBO) CRS SBO PIN Diode SBO
Power
Sideband modulator CRS SBO Transfer switch 6 dB opt. Adder SBO−A3/Clear. A3 Outputs to the antenna arrays A1, A2, A3
SBO Q Power Amplifier upper
CRS CSB2
SYN SBO I
RF SBO out
(RFcw) CSB2 CSB2−A2
A2
CLR middle
Synthesizer
CW RF CLR to SOAC Stdby RF CLR 6 dB opt.
Nearfield Dipole (opt.)
CW RF f0 + 4 kHz Posn. NF
MODPA 2/1 Transfer Control
A1 Inputs from the integral coupling probes of
RFcw (CL) IN A1
CW RF f0 − 4 kHz RF SBO in Antenna Select A2 A1, A2, A3
(RFcw for CSB2) IN A2
IN A3 A3
CSB2 Carrier modulator CRS CSB2
Power Amplifier Course (CRSCSB2) DDM=48 %
Clearance (CLR) DDM=30% CW RF CRS SOAC CW RF CRS
SBO Q Clearance modulator CLR CW RF CLR CW RF CLR
Power Amplifier Stby and On−Air Combiner
(from SYN TX1 via MODPA) (from SYN TX2 via MODPA)
SBO I internal sensor signals integral sensor signals

Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc. INTFC


Analog/Digital data (bus) Monitor Interface board Analog/Digital data (bus) Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc.

Syn data
Shutdown A (Synthesizer) Shutdown A (Synthesizer) to
SYN
Shutdown B (Modulation) Shutdown B (Modulation)
DME Key (ident) DME Key (ident)
Raw Integrity B#1 Raw Integrity B#2
to
Raw Integrity A#1 Raw Integrity A#2 MODPA 1/2
Monitor Bypassed Monitor Bypassed

LG−A /1 LG−M /1
Ant. select ECU Ant. select
LG−M /2 LG−A /2
Alarms Exec./Field/Stby Alarms Exec./Field/Stby
Audio Generator Monitor Processor Executive Control Unit Monitor Processor Audio Generator
Raw Integrity A alarm#1 Raw Integrity A alarm#2
Raw Integrity B alarm#1 Raw Integrity B alarm#2
Integrity test signal 1 Integrity test signal 2
DC supply ECU Poll ECU Poll DC supply

V.24 / RS232
TRANSMITTER 2
BITE
BITE
MONITOR 2
to transmitter 1 DC supply V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232
to transmitter 2 DC supply
V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232
+5 V +15 V −15 V +24 V +5 V +15 V −15 V +24 V Smoke det. Alarm
Smoke det. reset
Intrusion Alarm

DCC−MV F4 DCC−MV to LG−A /2


Analog Inputs (spare)
DC supply +5 V
V.24 / RS232

TX1 TX2 LC−CPU LCI LCP


53,5 VDC
MODEM Local Control CPU Local Control Indicator Local Control Panel
(48 VDC nom.) LGM1200MD o. LGM 28.8 Smoke Det.
2 LRCI Intrusion
Temp. outside
16 16 Local/Remote Communication Interface
ACC LVS DCC−5 RS232/TTL (opt.) RS232/TTL V.24 / RS232 etc.
+5 V 2
Analog Inputs LGM1 LGM2/DME LGM3/NDB Inputs Outputs Environmental sensors
ACC (spare)
Local PC
Remote Site 2nd modem (opt.) digital I/O (spare) (PC−User Program) (spare) (spare)
F5

Mains DC 48 V to colloc. NAV system to emergency battery


115 to 230 VAC (if available) (if available) * optional

Fig. 1−20 ILS GP−2F active; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown)

Ed. 01.10 SOAC 1−41


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Functional Description

CLR
TRANSMITTER 1 and MONITOR 1 CRS SBO
from Transmitter 2
CW RF CRS to SOAC
CRS CSB ANTENNA SYSTEM
MODPA 1/1
RFcw phase shifter
CRS CSB

CSB
Carrier modulator CRS CSB
Course (CRSCSB) CSB CSB+SBO+Clear. A1
Power Amplifier lower
Course (CRSSBO) CRS SBO PIN Diode PAD−S
Sideband modulator CRS SBO Transfer switch
SBO Power CSB+SBO A2 Outputs to the antenna arrays A1, A2, A3
SBO Q Power Amplifier 6 dB opt. Adder middle
phase shifter

SYN SBO I
not used
CLR SBO+Clear.
A3
CLR upper
Synthesizer
CW RF CLR to SOAC Stdby RF
CW RF f0 + 4 kHz Nearfield Dipole (opt.)
Posn. NF
RFcw (CL) MODPA 2/1 Transfer Control
A1 Inputs from the integral coupling probes of
CW RF f0 − 4 kHz IN A1
not used Antenna Select A2 A1, A2, A3
IN A2
not used IN A3 A3
SBO Q
Clearance modulator CLR CW RF CRS CW RF CRS
Power Amplifier Clearance (CLR) SOAC
SBO I CW RF CLR Stby and On−Air Combiner CW RF CLR
(from SYN TX1 via MODPA) (from SYN TX2 via MODPA)

internal sensor signals integral sensor signals

Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc. INTFC


Analog/Digital data (bus) Monitor Interface board Analog/Digital data (bus) Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc.

Syn data
Shutdown A (Synthesizer) Shutdown A (Synthesizer) to
SYN
Shutdown B (Modulation) Shutdown B (Modulation)
DME Key (ident) DME Key (ident)
Raw Integrity B#1 Raw Integrity B#2
to
Raw Integrity A#1 Raw Integrity A#2 MODPA 1/2
Monitor Bypassed Monitor Bypassed

LG−A /1 LG−M /1
Ant. select ECU Ant. select
LG−M /2 LG−A /2
Alarms Exec./Field/Stby Alarms Exec./Field/Stby
Audio Generator Monitor Processor Executive Control Unit Monitor Processor Audio Generator
Raw Integrity A alarm#1 Raw Integrity A alarm#2
Raw Integrity B alarm#1 Raw Integrity B alarm#2
Integrity test signal 1 Integrity test signal 2
DC supply ECU Poll ECU Poll DC supply

V.24 / RS232
TRANSMITTER 2
BITE
BITE
MONITOR 2
to transmitter 1 DC supply V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232
to transmitter 2 DC supply
V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232
+5 V +15 V −15 V +24 V +5 V +15 V −15 V +24 V Smoke det. Alarm
Smoke det. reset
Intrusion Alarm

DCC−MV F4 DCC−MV to LG−A /2


Analog Inputs (spare)
DC supply +5 V
V.24 / RS232

TX1 TX2 LC−CPU LCI LCP


53,5 VDC
MODEM Local Control CPU Local Control Indicator Local Control Panel
(48 VDC nom.) LGM1200MD o. LGM 28.8 Smoke Det.
2 LRCI Intrusion
Temp. outside
16 16 Local/Remote Communication Interface
ACC LVS DCC−5 RS232/TTL (opt.) RS232/TTL V.24 / RS232 etc.
+5 V 2
Analog Inputs LGM1 LGM2/DME LGM3/NDB Local PC Inputs Outputs Environmental sensors
ACC (spare) Remote Site 2nd modem (opt.) digital I/O (spare) (PC−User Program) (spare) (spare)
F5

Mains DC 48 V to colloc. NAV system to emergency battery


115 to 230 VAC (if available) (if available)

Fig. 1−21 ILS GP−2F standard; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown)

Ed. 01.10 SOAC 1−43


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Software Description
1.10 NAVAIDS 400 SOFTWARE
1.10.1 Overview

The Navaids 400 software is modular. It’s modules are the TRANSMITTER SW, MONITOR SW, LRCI
SW and the user software for PC. The equipment SW is stored in the flash program memory of the
microprocessor for transmitter (LG−A), monitor (LG−M) and LCP. The valid system version can be
called up via PC.

Navaids 400
Software packages

Transmitter software Monitor software LRCI software


LG−A LG−M LCP
Signal generation Transmitter/signal monitoring Communication
RF amplification, RF radiation Local Control

PC User Program software


(e.g. ADRACS or MCS)
Operation, maintenance

Fig. 1−22 System software, overview

1.10.2 PC User Program Software

Much of the software that controls the ILS 420 is transparent to the user. The user controls, assesses,
and maintains the system through the PC User Program software, which in turn relates with software
that is embedded in the circuit card assemblies (CCA’s) in the system itself. The embedded programs
control the transmitter and monitor and provide the user information to the PC User Program for status
checking and maintenance.

The PC User Program ADRACS or MCS is an easy−to−use interface for remotely monitoring and
controlling the ILS 420. It limits access and control by password level and only allows full control to
high level operators in the maintenance mode. The maintenance mode includes fault isolation, pa-
rameter save and restore, data recording(for trend analysis), history evaluation, and a highly configur-
able and menu driven technical data display.

More details about the PC User Program and its use can be found in the Technical Manual ADRACS,
Code No. 83140 55324, or in the Technical Manual MCS, Code No. 83140 55325.

Ed. 07.06
01.04 SOAC 1−45
GP 422 ILS 420
Software Description Equipment Description

1.10.3 Description of the ILS Transmitter Software


The ILS 420 transmitter software has two discreet sub−programs: Generation and Diagnostics.

1.10.3.1 Generation

The generation sub−program manages two sets of waveforms: the transmitter waveforms and the
integrity setup wave forms.

− TRANSMITTER WAVEFORMS
These include the waveforms that setup, configure, and control the transmitter, including the vari-
ous on−the−air calibration functions.
AUTO CALIBRATION DATA
This file contains data collected by the audio generator’s A/D subsystem (ADCS) calibration pro-
cess. This process is immediately performed by the LG−A at power−up and continuously thereaf-
ter.
CONFIGURATION
The configuration function is primarily used by the waveform generation function to configure the
audio generator for the outputs and functions appropriate to the system it is in. For instance, the
configuration function tells the audio generator (LG−A) and MODPA what to produce, depending
on what system the audio generator is in. It then adapts the audio generator and MODPA outputs
to meet the system’s needs.
− INTEGRITY TEST WAVEFORMS
This file is a simplified version of the other waveform files, containing the specification for the two
Integrity Test Waveforms used during LG−M Integrity Test measurements. Each signal has only
the basic ILS signal specification for RF Level (i.e. the DC level) SDM and DDM. These files are
non−volatile and read−write. An Integrity Test Waveform resembles the CSB portion of a normal
waveform file.
− INTEGRITY TEST CALIBRATION DATA
This file contains data collected as the result of an audio generator’s integrity test calibration pro-
cess performed by the LG−A under operator command. The data represents the voltage gain and
DC voltage source error components of the audio CCA’s programming model and are only accu-
rate for the LG−A that performed the calibration. The operator must perform a "calibrate audio"
command whenever the LG−A is replaced and is recommended only for scheduled periodic main-
tenance thereafter, so that any component drifts may be compensated and parametric failures may
be detected

1.10.3.2 Diagnostics
− AUDIO GENERATOR CALIBRATION DATA
This file contains data collected as the result of an audio generator calibration process performed
by the LG−A under operator command.
− AUDIO GENERATOR DATA
This file contains ILS signal data measured from the LG−A diagnostic outputs.
− RF POWER AMPLIFIER (PA) DATA
This file contains ILS signal data measured from the LG−A and MODPA diagnostic outputs.
− BIRD WATTMETER DATA (optional)
This file contains power measurement data derived from amplified outputs which are connected
to optional Bird Wattmeter sensors.

1−46 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Software Description
− MAINTENANCE ALERT DATA NOMINALS
This file contains nominal values (i.e. midpoints) used for processing spare A/D input maintenance
alerts (exclusive of environmental sensors). The power supply nominals are fixed internally to their
respective supply levels.
− MAINTENANCE ALERT ALARM LIMITS
This file contains alarm limit definitions for the continuously collected power supply data. Parame-
ters that do not exist for a configuration are ignored and should be set to the respective nominal
for compatibility.
NOTE: Setting a limit to its corresponding nominal value disables that limit. Two sets of limits
are available to distinguish primary and secondary alert levels, where needed
− CURRENT MAINTENANCE ALERT DATA
This file contains data collected as the result of the LG−A’s maintenance monitoring function, plus
LG−A BIT status bits.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−47


GP 422 ILS 420
Software Description Equipment Description

1.10.4 Description of Monitor Software


1.10.4.1 Operating System
The Monitor uses a Thales ATM developed minimal, preemptive, multitasking kernel, OS196. The en-
tire kernel occupies less than 500 bytes of assembly code (the average 80C196 assembly instruction
is about 3 bytes in length). The operating system (OS) allows the Monitor to be efficiently partitioned
into independent tasks, simplifying the overall design and minimizing coupling between functions.

1.10.4.2 Software Tasks


Each OS196 task has a statically assigned (i.e. compile time) private stack and priority. All priorities
are fixed (i.e. no dynamic priority assignments) and unique to each task (i.e. no round−robin schedul-
ing). The following table in Fig. 1−23 lists the eight (8) Monitor tasks along with the task’s name used,
a brief description, and each task’s assigned priority.

Task name Description Priority

idle OS196 Idle task (always lowest priority) 8

rmm_comm LCP communications task 4

file_mgr file initialization and EEPROM file write task 3

autocal ADCS (periodic) automatic calibration task 7

exec ECU interface and status reporting task 1

data main data monitoring task 6

id_data (LOC) Ident monitoring task 2

fp_data frequency/period monitoring task 5

Fig. 1−23 Task definitions and priority assignments

Task priority assignments follow "rate monotonic" guidelines, modified to favor the operational struc-
ture of the Monitor code when it is in "normal" monitoring mode.

OS196 always checks the stack of each task for overflow before allowing it to transition from the ready
to the running state. If a stack overflow is detected, program flow is redirected to OS_reset. Only I/O
drivers service interrupts. In general, I/O drivers are dedicated to the specific task which uses its ser-
vices, since exclusive use of a resource eliminates priority inversion problems. The sole exception
is the combination A/D and frequency/period measurement I/O driver (OS_GPIO). Since A/D services
are needed by three distinct operational areas: autocal, audio card calibration, and data monitoring,
OS_GPIO has a queue manager that is both first−come−first−serve and first−fit (i.e. the first re-
quester that fits the available resources is granted access). However, access to this driver for A/D mea-
surements is regulated by an access protocol that gives the data task priority when the Monitor is in
its normal monitor state.

1−48 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Software Description
There is no dynamic buffer allocation. All buffers are either static or local (i.e. stack). All control files
use a CRC (CCITT−16), whose error detection capability is much more extensive than that of simple
2’s complement or exclusive−or checksums. All control files are read into a buffer private to each task
which uses them (i.e. tasks do not access the common file store). Only one task may write to a file,
while any number of tasks may read a file. When a critical setup file is updated, the "file manager"
subroutines set a flag for those tasks that need to be informed of the new version.

Tasks which write to files, do so by first updating a temporary, private copy. File writes are only per-
formed when the file update is complete. This is true regardless of whether or not a file is volatile. File
movement into and out−of the file store is via the 80C196’s uninterruptible block move instruction.
Since all file sizes are relatively small (less than 256 bytes) and the 80C196’s block−move is similar
in speed to a DMA operation, the length of time that interrupts are disabled does not impact critical
interrupt response times. Non−volatile files are stored in E2PROM. The architecture of the Monitor’s
memory map overlays the E2PROM with SRAM. Switching between E2PROM and SRAM banks is
controlled by a special I/O mapped instruction (via an EPLD) which is used by only one task (the
E2PROM task). When E2PROM data is read or write accessed, interrupts are disabled during the ac-
cess. Access is limited to 8 byte pages to avoid any impact on critical interrupt response times. To
ensure the maximum durability of the E2PROM, all write operations are read−modify−writes to avoid
unnecessarily (re)programming a location with a value that it already has, thus avoiding premature
memory write failure. All tasks requiring Monitor system level files are forced to wait until the entire
file system has been verified and copied to its working RAM image.

The autocal task continuously monitors the Monitors’ A/D converter subsystem (ADCS) and the Inter-
face card demodulator (I/F−D). Should autocal fail (either a hard or parametric failure), the data task
is not allowed to perform any of its detector measurements, which forces the data task to report an
alarm status for all detector data groups (i.e. EXEC, FIELD, STANDBY, and Integrity) with all A/D de-
rived data reported as zeroes. This can be seen as the AUTO−CAL status bit being in alarm on any
of the monitoring data screens.

A minimal set of key measurements are made and compared against hard−coded limits derived from
design data including the manufacturers’ data sheets. The basic ADCS calibration measurements
correct for net ADCS DC offset error (i.e. corrects to "true" analog ground), net ADCS gain error (i.e.
the number of A/D steps per Volt), nominal gain−DAC gain error, and DC offset−DAC error. The I/F
reference detector signal and its DC offset error measurements compensate for variations in both DC
and AC gain plus demodulator DC offset error due to aging and temperature effects in all detector
measurements (done by the data task).

The autocalibration sequence begins immediately on autocal task activation (i.e. after Monitor reset).
There are a total of 16 ADC block conversions, where each block consists of 1024 equally time spaced
samples within 1/30 second (or 33.3 ms): 5 for the basic ADCS, 10 for DC offset DAC, and 2 for the
Interface CCA. The following table (Fig. 1−24) shows the raw processor timing for these 16 autocal
measurements.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−49


GP 422 ILS 420
Software Description Equipment Description

Signal settling [ms] processing [ms] total [ms]


−5 Volt reference 0.2 6.1 39.6
−5 Volt reference 0.2 6.1 39.6
analog ground 0.2 16.0 49.6
+5 V reference 0.2 6.1 39.6
I/F analog ground 10.0 6.1 49.4
I/F reference detector 10.0 42.0 85.3

DC offset DAC
Do= 0 0.2 6.1 39.6
Do=255 0.2 6.1 39.6
Do=1 0.2 6.1 39.6
Do=2 0.2 6.1 39.6
Do=4 0.2 6.1 39.6
Do=8 0.2 6.1 39.6
Do=16 0.2 6.1 39.6
Do=32 0.2 6.1 39.6
Do=64 0.2 6.1 39.6
Do=128 0.2 6.1 39.6
grand total 699.0

Fig. 1−24 ADCS auto−calibration measurement times

The "DC offset DAC" measurements are for the ADCS’s programmable 8−bit 0 to +10 Volt DC offset
DAC which is used to remove a signal’s DC portion prior to maximizing the gain for the remaining AC
portion. The gains are the nominal values achieved by the ADCS’s 8−bit gain DAC. The processing
time is essentially the raw CPU time required and includes the I/O driver CPU overhead, plus the cal-
culation times associated with each specific signal. The total time is the sum of the processing time
plus both the settling and measurement times (recall, measurement time is fixed at 1/30 second).
Within the OS196 multitasking environment, other task(s) may run during the time periods due to ei-
ther the settling or measurement times. Simply adding the processing times gives a grand total of
699.0 ms, which assumes no other task blocks the autocal task during the times that it needs the CPU.
This is close to the measured first autocal cycle after power−up, since as mentioned earlier, when
the autocal status is bad, the autocal task does not need permission from the data task to access the
ADCS. Therefore, when autocal is the only user of the "other" measurements and data task cycles
are normal, a full autocal task cycle is about 16 times the LLZ’s (average) data task measurement
cycle time. As noted earlier, the ADCS shares the "other" measurement slot with other configured
measurements. The worst case occurs for a LLZ−2F (Capture Effect) with Executive Near Field, Far
Field, and hot Standby configured. Since the data task cycle time under these conditions is 242 ms
and it requires six of these cycles for one ADCS measurement, the total time is:

6 * 16 * 242 ms = 23.23 seconds

For all other configurations, this time is shorter. Once all data have been measured and is OK, then
the autocal task follows the normal data task cycle access protocol. For a functional Monitor, the auto-
cal task primarily compensates for drift effects, but due to the tight limits of the autocal checks, a hard
failure will be detected within one data cycle, while a parametric (i.e. soft) failure may take up
23.23 s as indicated above.

Each task performing A/D conversions has a private Direct Memory Access (DMA) block of SRAM
statically allocated (i.e. separate autocal and data task SRAM blocks). While A/D measurements
within a task may use the same block of SRAM, they alternate between different types of signals. Thus,
a failure to perform one measurement is typically detected by the limits applied to the next signal pro-
cessed.

1−50 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Software Description
While the use of common signal−processing hardware has the disadvantage of serial access to sig-
nals ((e.g. slower throughput), the advantages are greater:

− centralized calibration of the "heart" of the Monitor


− fewer components means a larger MTBF
− a failure is both is more quickly and more likely detected, since all signal processing goes through
a common path

The use of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques (when coupled with automatic ADCS calibra-
tion) provides drift−free processing of the 90 and 150 Hz navigation components. Almost all drift can
be attributed to analog sources external to the I/F detector and Monitor ADCS (e.g. RF cable phase
and impedance drift with temperature).

When the data (monitoring) task begins (i.e. power−up), all monitoring control files (limits, nominals,
detector calibration and normalization) are read and processed into a static control table. The entire
control table is checksummed prior to actual monitoring. After every "Monitor data cycle", the control
table’s checksum is verified to detect memory corruption. If the memory is corrupt, the entire initializa-
tion procedure is repeated before monitoring resumes. This reinitialization typically requires less than
2 ms of CPU time and therefore is transparent to normal monitoring (see "ECU status watchdog").

All ECU status I/O is polled (i.e. not interrupt driven) by the Monitors’ exec task. Thus, if the Monitor
software has a stuck interrupt or somehow hangs (i.e. prevents an alarm status report cycle), the ECU
will interpret this as an alarm condition and respond appropriately. This Monitor/ECU "handshake"
cycles every 26.67 ms (i.e. the ECU detects a dead Monitor within 26.67 ms). Monitor’s ECU status
watchdog: The exec task (highest priority) reports Monitor alarm status to the ECU, and it verifies the
update rate of the Monitor’s EXEC, FIELD, STANDBY, and Integrity data measurements. The maxi-
mum ECU status update periods are listed in the following table (Fig. 1−25). If these periods are not
met, then the exec task forces the corresponding group’s status into alarm on subsequent ECU sta-
tus polls, regardless of the data task’s last reported value.

Signal Group Must be updated no less than every..


EXEC 0.5 seconds
FIELD 1.0 seconds
STANDBY 6.0 seconds
INTEGRITY 2.0 seconds

Fig. 1−25 Maximum ECU status update periods

The purpose of the Integrity test is to verify the Monitor’ ability to measure signals and perform alarm
processing. The ILS 420 does this in an innovative way that is more comprehensive then prior meth-
ods employed by any other ILS equipment. Each Audio CCA produces two special Integrity signals
(A and B). These signals are routed to the ECU. The Integrity signals from the on−antenna equipment
are then toggled between signals A and B and fed as one signal into the Monitors’ Integrity input.
While the Monitor measures only one Integrity signal input, it must apply two distinct sets of limits to
this single measurement. The signals and limits are designed so that, when the limits are applied to
the current Integrity signal input, only one set of limits has no parameters in alarm. The ECU times
the responses of the Integrity signal changes sent to the Monitors, and if the Monitors do not issue
the correct response within the ECU’s hard−coded time limit, then the Monitor is declared to be in
Integrity alarm. An Integrity alarm may cause the ECU to initiate executive control action, depending
on whether the ECU is configured for alarm−AND or alarm−OR operation.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 1−51


GP 422 ILS 420
Software Description Equipment Description

1.10.5 Description of LRCI Software

1.10.5.1 Short Description of the Modules


See Fig. 1−26.
The LCP Software is a customer of the RMMC Software package, e.g. the LCP Software get the orders
from the RMMC part with the DEPOSIT_ORDER command and returns the result with the DE-
POSIT_RESULT command. The RMMC part controls the communication to the remote control and
the LCP part the communication to the subsystems inside the station. The modules of the LCP Soft-
ware are:
− REU_CUSTOMER_MANAGEMENT
Receives Order and perform queueing with DEPOSIT_ORDER command. After queueing the PER-
FORM entry of the task is called and performs a rendezvous with the four subsystem tasks by call-
ing REQUEST_STATI. After completion of data acquisition the SUBSYSTEM_MANAGER reports
ALL_READY and terminate the rendezvous. The command SPLIT_RESULT splits the telegram in-
formation into data records. The command PUZZLE_Result prepares of these records the RESULT
telegrams. The DEPOSIT_Result command finally returns the RESULT telegrams to the RMMC
part of the SW−Package.
− SUBSYSTEM_MANAGER
The SUBSYSTEM_MANAGER contains the five tasks depending to each Subsystem (TX1, TX2,
MON1, MON2, ECU). It performs the communication between the subsystems and the LCP. The
station management provides system data (e.g. Main Status), dependent on the configuration
(e.g. TX/MON, DME/INDEP, Hot/Cold Stdby)
− PS_MANAGER
The PS_MANAGER consists of one task: T_BCPS. It is responsible for status of the power supply
and the calculation of the battery capacity.
− LCD_MANAGER of the Station.
It consists of two tasks: The T_BUTTON_OBSERVER controls the pushbuttons of the LCI−panel
for the LCP−menu, and the T_LCI_CONTROL controls the display of LCI−text, and the read/write
operation of I/O−signals (e.g. BIT−signals from power supply, external shelter signals).

Ê
ÊÊ
External Communication (e.g. RMMC) PC

ÊÊ
Ê
RS232/RS422/T TL RS232/RS422/T TL TTL RS232 RS232
2. DIAL NDB DME not used LGM1 LOCAL PC not used
COM3 COM4 COM6 COM8 COM7
Communication to external units Terminal
(opt.)
DEPOSIT RESULT DEPOSIT ORDER

PS_MANAGER T_CONTROL LCD_MANAGER

LCP
T_BCPS T.BUTTON:OBSERVER
SUBSYSTEM_MANAGER
Internal Communication
T.LCI CONTROL
T_SUB T_SUB T_SUB T_SUB T_SUB

I_AM PERFORM_EXTERNAL_ACTION
RS232 READY PERFORM_INTERNAL_ACTION

COM9 COM10 COM1 COM2 COM5


Mon1 Mon2 TX1 TX2 ECU

Fig. 1−26 Overview LCP SW structure

1−52 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−1F

CHAPTER 2
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION GP−1F
2.1 GENERAL
This chapter describes the GP−1F system, 0−reference and sideband reference (B−Type). For the
subassemblies, only the description of subassemblies which are different to the GP−2F are con-
tained in this chapter. References to chapter 3 are made for the other which are identical to GP−2F.

2.1.1 System Overview


See Fig. 2−1, 2−2.
The ILS GP−1F installation comprises the following main components and accessories:
− Transmitter rack housing the transmitter, monitor and power supply/battery charging (BCPS),
single or dual
− Emergency power supply (48 V lead battery)
These components are housed in a building or shelter. Since there is possibility of generated oxyhy-
drogen, the battery is separately housed.
− Antenna system (refer to Part 3, Antenna System Description)
The GP antenna is installed approximately 286 to 344 m beyond the runway threshold and 120 to
180 m from the runway centre line (see Fig. 1−2). The GP transmitter building (shelter) is installed
in the vicinity of the GS antenna.
− Cable set
− Grounding

The antenna system (including optional nearfield dipole) and the transmitter rack are connected via
5 coaxial cables. The cables are fed via connectors on top of the transmitter rack on the one hand
to the PIN diode transfer switch (2x RF out) and on the other hand to the Stby and On−Air Combiner
unit (3x RF in) which combines the signal components, which are obtained via the coupling probes
integrated in each antenna array. With B−Type, alternatively a power adder may be additionally in-
serted in the RF−out path which conditions passively the RF output signal required for the B−Type.
The Stby and On−Air Combiner supplies the resulting signals and the signal of the optional nearfield
monitor at the antenna site to the monitors:

− Course position (POSN.)


− Course width (WIDTH)
A grounding network must be installed around the transmitter building (shelter) which does not afford
special symmetrical requirements. The grounding networks of shelter and antenna system must be
connected by low resistance.

The GP transmitter can be controlled, monitored and maintained from the tower with a respective re-
mote control and monitoring system (e.g. RMMC).

Ed. 06.05
01.04 SOAC 2−1
GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−1F Equipment Description

2.1.2 Basic Components of an GP Transmitter Rack


The main components of a GP transmitter rack are as follows (see Fig. 2−2):
− Transmitter
− Monitoring system (monitor)
− Control and Switching
− Local/remote communication interface (LRCI)
− Operating voltage supply

2.1.2.1 Transmitter
The dualized transmitter generates the required RF signals for this type of installation. These signals
are fed to and radiated from the antenna system. Signal generation and transmitter control are micro-
processor controlled. A single transmitter configuration is also available.

2.1.2.2 Monitor
The dualized monitor is supplied with signals from the internal and integral sensors and with informa-
tions obtained from the radiated RF field via an optional nearfield and/or farfield monitor dipole. The
RF signals obtained are down converted by the Stby and On−Air Combiner to an Intermediate Fre-
quency carrier and fed via an interface to the monitor signal processor for processing. A single moni-
tor configuration is also available.

2.1.2.3 Control and Switching


The results of the monitor process are supplied to the control and switching function. This function
will switch−over (in a dual system) or shutdown transmitters if the hardware based decision paths
find an appropriate result. Also the other control functions are performed here.

2.1.2.4 Local/Remote Communication Interface

The LRCI is the focal point for internal/external communication between the transmitter and the moni-
tor, the local or remote operator and the system, including any connected subsystems. All commu-
nication with the system takes place via a local or remote intelligent terminal (PC or laptop), which
is used for all settings, commissioning and maintenance. The MAIN STATUS indication, basic settings
(on/off, change over, Mon. Bypass) and call up of certain transmitter or monitor measurement data
are performed with the Local Control Interface (LCI) of the Local Control Panel (LCP).

2.1.2.5 Generation of the Operating Voltage


The transmitter rack requires a nominal supply voltage of 48 V. The mains module (ACC) of the BCPS
supplies an output DC voltage of 54 V and 14 A max. Two of the modules are connected in parallel
depending on the power requirement of the navigation system. The value of 54 V is derived from the
trickle charge voltage for a 48 V lead battery.
The DC/DC converters housed in the BCPS subrack act as switched−mode regulators, which supply
the necessary supply voltages with a high efficiency, namely :
− DC/DC converter DCC−MV +5 V/3 A; +15 V/2.5 A; −15 V/1.5 A; +24 V/11 A
− DC/DC converter DCC−5 (on Backpanel) +5 V/3 A, used to supply separately LCP, Modems

2−2 SOAC Ed. 07.08


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−1F
ÄÄ
ÄÄ
a) GP−1F, 0−Reference
Ä
b) GP−1F, Sideband Reference 1) Distance dependent on glide path
angle and local conditions

ÄÄ Ä
9 (B−Type)
8

ÄÄ Ä
A2 9

ÄÄ Ä
8
A2

ÄÄ Ä
ÄÄ Ä
A1

ÄÄ Ä
7
6 A1
5 5

ÄÄ
ÄÄ
Ä
Ä
7
6

ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ
4
4

CSB/SBO (LSB)
SBO

1)
CSB

SBO (USB)
1)
POSN.
POSN.
GP−shelter GP−Shelter
Tower Tower 1a
1 1
10 3 2 10 3 2

1 Stby and On−Air Combiner 4 Reflecting area 8 Inductive coupling probe A2


1a B−Type alt.: Power Adder 5 Nearfield Monitor dipole (opt.) 9 Dipole antenna array A2
2 Emergency power supply battery 6 Inductive coupling probe A1 10 Remote Control and Monitoring System
3 ILS/GP transmitter rack 7 Dipole antenna array A1

Fig. 2−1 GP−1F system overview

Antenna Nearfield dipole (opt.)


A1 A2
CSB SBO

(B−type: + SBO,LSB) (B−type: SBO, USB)

B−Type, alternative: Power Adder

CSB SBO A1 A2 POSN.


2
Aerial/Stdby Stby and On−Air Combiner

Interface
Course Control
Transmitter and Monitor
Switching

RS 232 RS 232
LRCI
Modem
Operating voltages RS 232
RMMC Terminal
(PC/Laptop)
DC−Converter
Supply voltage Transmitter rack
Mains ACC (BCPS)

NOTE: Diagrammatic view, dual installation not shown for purposes of clarity.

Fig. 2−2 Main components of a GP−1F transmitter cabinet

Ed. 06.05
01.04 SOAC 2−3
GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−1F Equipment Description

PIN−diode transfer switch


24 V

SOAC

XMTR 1 MON1 LRCI/INTFC/ECU MON 2** XMTR 2** LCP/Modem


24 V 5 V/±15 V 5 V/±15 V 24 V L/G−A 5V

5 V/±15 V 48 V

+24 V +5 V +15 V −15 V −15 V +15 V +5 V +24 V +5 V

DCC−MV /1 DCC−MV /2 ** DCC−5

F4

TX1 TX2** Low Voltage


Sense
sense relay
53,5 VDC
(48 VDC nom.)
F5

Mains module Mains module Battery


1 2

shunt BCPS subrack

collocated equipment Mains


(115 VAC to 230 VAC) ** dual Version

Fig. 2−3 Power distribution, block diagram

2−4 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−1F
2.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN
2.2.1 GP Transmitter Rack
See Fig. 2−4 to 2−7.

The cabinet is made of sheet steel. It accommodates three standard 19" subassembly carriers (sub-
rack). The subracks are assembled with plug−in units which are designed as double or single Euro-
form printed circuit boards (PCB) with dimensions of 233.4 x 200 [mm] or 100 x160 or 100 x 220 [mm].
The printed circuit boards are interconnected in each subrack on a motherboard back panel. The sub-
racks themselves are connected together via flat ribbon cables with plug−in connectors or via plug−
in or screw−on coaxial cables (used for RF connections) at the rear. The front of the cabinet is hidden
by a front door which can be key locked and swung open by a door handle. The local control and
indication panel (LCP) is flush−mounted in the front door. The cabinet rear is closed by a rear door
which can also be swung open by a door handle. The installed equipment should have enough room
between the cabinet and the shelter wall to allow the rear door to be opened and to allow space for
measuring equipment.

The RF outputs to the antenna and the monitor sensor inputs from the antenna are located on top
of the cabinet. The AF or interface connections (e.g. detector signals, local PC, modem, etc.) are lo-
cated on top of the cabinet and those for the power supply are located on the back panel of the BCPS
subrack or on a terminal bar in the lower part on the rear side of the cabinet. The cabinet, which has
a perforated metal plate at the top and bottom, is self−ventilated (no forced ventilation necessary).
The components of the PIN−diode transfer switch are located on a heat sink mounted inside the cabi-
net at the rear side. The Stby and On−Air Combiner unit (SOAC) is mounted inside the cabinet at the
front side. The SOAC can be hinged down for easier access to the backside located RF connections.
The alternatively used Power Adder (PAD−S) in the B−type version is mounted to the rear side, upper
part, of the rear door.

CAUTION

Do not block or seal the holes for the cooling air supply at the bottom of the rack or the
cooling air outlet at the top of the rack (transmitter)!

WARNING

The heat sinks of the modulators (MODPA) may warm up during operation. This is normal
and does not have any affect on the functioning of the devices. Avoid touching the heat−
sinks when the cabinet door has been opened for any reason. When replacing these sub-
assemblies it is recommended to let them cool down for a while before touching them
or take suitable measures (e.g. gloves).
The inner borders of the cabinet doors may have a residual flash which may injure hands
or fingers. Use the door handles for opening or closing the doors.

Ed. 06.05
01.04 SOAC 2−5
GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−1F Equipment Description

Power Adder mounted to the rear door (PAD−S)

Ê Ê Ê Ê
alternatively with B−Type version

Ê CRS CRS

Ê Ê BP MODPA
Ê
Ê Ê Ê Ê
J1 J2

MOD/PA 1/1

MOD/PA 1/2
Ê Ê Ê Ê

BP MODPA

XMTR1

XMTR2
Ê Ê Ê Ê
LCP

Ê Ê Ê Ê
SBO
TX2 CRS TX1
CSB

Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
J3 J7 J10 J13 J16
Ê
Ê

Phone1

Phone2
Jumper1
1 2
J19
J5 J18−15V +15V 5V GND

Ê ÊModem*
Ê Ê
J12
Modem2 J8 XA12
Interface INTFC

−15V +15V 5V
J1 J4 J6 J11 J17J14 +24V1

BP Digital
1

Ê Ê Ê Ê

MODDIG2
−15V +15V 5V +24V2

CABI/O
LG−M 1

LG−M 2
LG−A 1

LG−A 2

LCP/COM7
MODIG3
LCP/CT6

LCP/CT5

LCP/CT1
MAINPWR
5V3 +48V

Modem1
Ê Ê Ê Ê
SYN 1

SYN 2

J2
Modem*
J9 J15
ECU

MODDIG1
Ê Ê Ê Ê
Ê Ê Ê Ê
BP Digital
J10 J12 J7 J9 J4 J6 J1 J3

Ê Ê Ê Ê
OUT OUT OUT OUT
IN1 IN1 IN1 IN1
J11 J8 J5 J2

Ê Ê Ê Ê
J28 J27 J26 J25
IN2 IN2 IN2

Ê Ê Ê Ê
IN2
stby SBO stby CSB stby SBO stby CSB

Ê Ê Ê Ê
not used
J20 J21 J31 CRSSBO CRSCSB

Ê Ê Ê Ê
Stby and On−air Combiner PIN diode Transfer Switch assembly
CLR CSB and CLR SBO path not used

Ê Ê Ê Ê
(includes combining network for GP, not used in LLZ)

Ê Ê Ê Ê
Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
DCC−MV /1

DCC−MV /2

Ê Ê Ê Ê
ACC 54
ACC 54

F4 BP−PS
TX1 TX2 LVS
BP−PS

Ê Ê Ê Ê
F5
DCC
Relay
5V

Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
Mains connection and mains filter

Front View Rear View

* optional
NOTE: The diagram shows the locations of the plug−in and screw−on subassemblies (printed circuit boards). The mo-
dule assignment for GP−1F is shown in greater detail in Fig. 2−5.

Fig. 2−4 Locations in the GP−1F rack

2−6 SOAC Ed. 06.05


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−1F

TYPE of INSTALLATION: GP−1F dual TYPE of INSTALLATION: GP−2F, dual


SUBRACK Subassembly used SUBRACK Subassembly used
View from left to right Cabinet, preassembled assign. to Cabinet, preassembled assign. to
Front door LCP LCP
Backplane MODPA, left − − MODPA 2/1 CLR
TX1 CSB2**

MODPA 1/1 CRSCSB MODPA 1/1 CSB1


CRSSBO SBO
Backplane MODPA, right MODPA 1/2 CRSCSB MODPA 1/2 CSB1
TX2 CRSSBO SBO

− − MODPA 2/2 CLR


CSB2**
Backplane Digital − −
INTFC MON1/2 INTFC MON1/2

SYN 1 TX1 SYN 1 TX1


LG−A 1 TX1 LG−A 1 TX1
LG−M 1 TX1 LG−M 1 TX1

ECU TX1/2 ECU TX1/2

LG−M 2 TX2 LG−M 2 TX2


LG−A 2 TX2 LG−A 2 TX2
SYN 2 TX2 SYN 2 TX2

Modem* LGM2 Modem* LGM2


Modem* LGM1 Modem* LGM1
Cabinet, rear PIN−diode transfer switch TX1/2 PIN−diode transfer switch TX1/2
SBO,CSB SBO,CSB1; CLR ; CSB2

incl. Attenuator/Load (1x) incl. Attenuator/Load (2x)

Cabinet, front Stby and On−Air MON1/2 Stby and On−Air MON1/2
Combiner Combiner
Cabinet, inner, left Power Adder PAD−A** TX1/TX2
Cabinet, rear, upper part Power Adder PAD−S*** Power Adder PAD−S*** TX1/TX2

Cabinet, lower part, AC/DC−Converter: AC/DC−Converter:


Backplane BP−PS ACC /1 ACC /1
ACC /2 ACC /2

DC/DC−Converter: DC/DC−Converter:
DCC−MV /1 TX1 DCC−MV /1 TX1
DCC−MV /2 TX2 DCC−MV /2 TX2

DC main switch TX1/TX2 DC main switch TX1/TX2


Cabinet, rear, lower part, Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) TX1/TX2 Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) TX1/TX2
Backplane BP−PS and DCC−5 and DCC−5

* optional; Modem= LGM1200MD or LGM28.8


** GP−2F active only
*** GP−2F standard or alternatively with B−Type (GP−1F)

Fig. 2−5 Assignment of subassemblies for GP, dual

Ed. 06.05
01.04 SOAC 2−7
GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−1F Equipment Description

1 2 3

rear view

front view

1 Door handle, rear door


2 Local Control Panel (LCP)
3 Door handle with key lock, front door

Fig. 2−6 Transmitter rack ILS 420 (LLZ/GP)

2−8 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−1F

1 2

not assembled in 1F systems


not assembled in RF cable directly fed to SOAC Power Adder, alternatively with B−Type, not shown
1F systems
not assembled in
1F systems

not connected
in 1F systems

Front Rear

1 Local Control Panel (LCP)


2 PIN−diode transfer switch
3 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC)

Fig. 2−7 Transmitter rack GP−1F, dual, front door open, rear door open (example shown 2F)

Ed. 01.10
01.04 SOAC 2−9
GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−1F Equipment Description

2−10 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−1F
2.2.2 Shelter
See Fig. 2−8, 2−9.
The Navaids shelter is used as permanent housing for electronic navaids equipment. The standard
shelter is a self−supporting transport unit which is especially suited for the whole range of transporta-
tion means. It withstands all climatic conditions worldwide and is designed, except for mechanical
damages, for a minimum life−cycle of 10 years. The standard shelter meets the ISO/DIN standards/
requirements for transport containers. It consists of a self−supporting, distortion resistant aluminium
frame construction with eight ISO corners and standardized container dimensions.
The walls are made of sandwich panels and provide plenty of options for installating equipment and
accessories. The shelter includes a polyurethane layer that ensures excellent thermal isolation. The
floor is covered with an antistatic material which is connected to the system ground to protect mainte-
nance personnel and to avoid electronic equipment damage. The personnel door is in the front. The
door has a key lock and can be locked from inside or outside. The inner and outer sides of the shelter
are typically painted white (RAL 9002), but, optionally, they can be painted with warning colours as
per ICAO Annex 10.
The standard shelterincludes a complete electrical installation that can be easily adapted to specific
project requirements. The battery box, which is hermetically sealed from the interior in its operating
state, is accessible from the inside of the shelter and ventilated from the outside. Its shelf−type con-
struction provides space for a block of batteries (48 V, 256 Ah max.) for the NAV 400 navaids as well
as for collocated equipment.
One or two through−the−wall air conditioning units and thermostats provide ventilation. The air con-
ditioning equipment is designed to provide the appropriate environmental conditions for all products
installed in the container. One fire extinguisher is provided. Other options are: obstruction lighting,
heater, table and chair, book−shelves, or an additional sun roof.

The navaids shelter is secured using the ISO corners and twist locks that connect it to four foundation
blocks.The roof of the Navaids Shelter is accessible. The container itself is splash−proof, resistant
against sea climate and invulnerable to salty water, fungus and termites.
2438

Support for A/C

2991 2438

(Dimensions in mm; Tare weight approx. 900 kg)

Fig. 2−8 Navaids shelter, dimensions

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 2−11


GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−1F Equipment Description

cable duct on the ceiling


Signal cable (RF/AF)
10 ft Container Shelter

ÄÄÄ
ÄÄÄ Top connector panel
on cabinet

Â
cable entry
Â
Location of NAV 400 racks
(GP, LLZ, DME)

Battery Box
Ventilation of battery box

Wiring Diagram of electrical Installation

option box Main Distribution Panel


Main Fuse
switch
L1 *
L2

L3
Residual
Current Breaker
N 40
I>
0.03
FI1
B2A

B10A B18A C20A C20A C20A C20A


B10A
B10A

PE F4 F3 F1 F2 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9
change o.
Overvoltage
Protection
4 3 1 Spare 2 5 6 7 8 9 10
optional
..
optional

BCPS θ junction box


. .. .
DME

+
− 48 V set to heater
. .. . TX DME A/C1 A/C2 36 °C
. .. .
Earth Collector Bar

BCPS if available Temp.


TX Rack Sensor
DME Inside Light Socket outlets Air−Conditioner
etc.
Single Phase "Option"
F21 (G0,2A)
F20 (K50A)

20 protected wires


Station Ground

+
twilight obstruction lights
Signal lines 90 V/Type F
Emergency battery switch 1 2
NF 600 OHM 48 V
Line Terminal Box

* Example diagram for Mains Supply with 3 Phases, N and PE

Fig. 2−9 Standard shelter, inner arrangement and electrical installation (example)

2−12 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−1F
2.3 DESCRIPTION OF SUBASSEMBLIES OF THE TRANSMITTER RACK
2.3.1 General
All plug−in or screw−on subassemblies (printed circuit boards) in the transmitter rack for the GP−1F
version are described in Section 2.3. Because subassemblies of GP−1F are mostly identical to those
described with GP−2F, a reference is made to the applicable sections of chapter 3 if there is no major
difference in function. Their tasks are described and illustrated with the aid of simplified block dia-
grams. The integration within the complete system is shown in block diagram Fig. 1−19. More details
about the subassemblies (printed circuit boards), which may exceed the information given in the fol-
lowing description part and figures, may be taken from the circuit diagrams listed in Fig. 2−10.

2.3.2 Overview Subassemblies GP−1F Transmitter Rack

SUBASSEMBLY ASSIGNMENT CODE NUMBER*) 1F REFERENCE 2F


Transmitter: 2.3.3 3.3.3

LLZ/GP Audio Generator (LG−A) 120570−0004 2.3.3.2 3.3.3.2


Synthesizer (SYN) 120496−0002 2.3.3.3 3.3.3.3
Modulator Power Amplifier GP (MODPA) 120589−0001 2.3.3.4 3.3.3.4
PIN−diode Transfer Switch 120622−0001 2.3.3.5 3.3.3.5
Power Adder, alternativ. with B−Type (PAD−S) 120609−0001 2.3.3.6 3.3.3.6.2

Monitor: 2.3.4 3.3.4

Monitor Interface (INTFC) 120628−0001 2.3.4.1 3.3.4.1


(INTFC) 120498−0001
LLZ/GP Monitor Processor (LG−M) 120570−0004 2.3.4.2 3.3.4.2
Executive Control Unit (ECU) 120571−0003 2.3.4.3 3.3.4.3
Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC) 120621−0001 2.3.4.4 3.3.4.4

Local/Remote Communication Interface: 2.3.5 3.3.5

Local Control Panel (LCP) 83135 21001/21002 − 3.3.5.1


Modem, dedicated line / party line (LGM 1200MD) 84045 83233 − 3.3.5.2.1
Modem, switched line (LGM 28.8) 84045 83245 − 3.3.5.2.2

Power Supply: 2.3.6 3.3.6

Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) 83138 30511 − 3.3.6.2


DC−Converter 5 V (on LVS board) (DCC−5) − − 3.3.6.3
DC−Converter Multivolt (DCC−MV) 83138 12400 − 3.3.6.4
AC/DC−Converter (12 A) (ACC−54) 58341 20101 − 3.3.6.5
AC/DC−Converter (14 A) (ACC−54) 58341 20102 −

*) The code numbers given may differ to those of the delivered installation in individual cases. In such case the actual code
number can be taken from the delivery list of the installation or the drawing set.

Fig. 2−10 Circuit diagrams of subassemblies (transmitter rack)

Ed. 01.10
06.05 SOAC 2−13
GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−1F Equipment Description

2−14 SOAC Ed. 06.05


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−1F
2.3.3 Transmitter Subassemblies
2.3.3.1 Overview
The GP−1F transmitter section, the function of which is to generate the RF signals and amplify the
RF, consists of the following subassemblies (single, Fig. 2−11, blocks dark grey):
− Localizer/Glide Path audio generator LG−A
− Synthesizer SYN
− Modulator/power amplifier for carrier (CSB) and sideband (SBO) MODPA1
− PIN−diode transfer switch
− B−Type: with additional Power Adder PAD−S
The location of the transmitter subassemblies is shown in Fig. 2−4.

NF dipole (NFM), opt.)


B−Typ, antennas A1,A2 0 reference/B−Type antennas A1, A2**
from probes

RF OUT to antenna system


Shelter/Cabinet stby RF signal field signals
80° Phase Shifter

Power Adder (PAD−S)

CSB SBO RF OUT CSB SBO

Stby and On−Air Combiner


PIN−diode PIN−diode CW RF SYN 1/2
Transfer Switch SOAC
GP−1F B−Type Transfer Switch
alt. Version Interface Inputs
TX1 TX2 INTFC analog

TRANSMITTER 1 TRANSMITTER 2

from MODPA 2
CSB
Modulator/
CW RF f0 Power Amplifier
Synthesizer MODPA 1 SBO
1
SYN
CW RF f0 control
offset
to SOAC

Audio Generator Audio Generator


1 Executive Control Unit
2
LG−A ECU LG−A

BITE

Integrity signals
Analog IN (spare) Monitor Monitor
1 2
SYN data LG−M RS232C LG−M
RS232C RS232C
RS232C RS232C

LRCI
MODEM*
LCI LC−CPU
LCP
MODEM*

* optional
** B−Type with DDM−presetting not 0 OIO (spare) Maintenance RMMC PTT
Data Terminal

Fig. 2−11 GP−1F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power supply not shown)

Ed. 07.06
06.05 SOAC 2−15
GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−1F Equipment Description

2.3.3.2 Localizer/Glide Path Audio Generator LG−A


The LG−A produces the composite carrier−plus−sideband (CSB) and sideband−only (SBO) modu-
lation envelopes for the CSB/SBO MODPA. The LG−A is described in detail in section 3.3.3.2.
2.3.3.3 Synthesizer (SYN)
For GP−1F, the synthesizer delivers the CW RF of the desired frequency f0. In addition, a second RF
output supplies the Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC) with a frequency which is 8 kHz offset to f0.
The SYN is described in detail in section 3.3.3.3.
2.3.3.4 Modulator Power Amplifier (MODPA)
The MODPA delivers both the CSB and the SBO power to the antennas. The MODPA is described
in detail in section 3.3.3.4.
2.3.3.5 Transfer Assembly
See Fig. 2−12.
The RF signals are distributed to the antenna system by means of the discrete PIN−diode transfer
switches. The PIN−Diode transfer switches and the attenuators/dummy loads are located on a
printed circuit board which is mounted to a heat sink. The complete assembly is mounted at the rear
of the cabinet. Components of the RF signals used for monitoring the standby transmitter are coupled
out and fed to the Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC). The components are:
− 4 PIN−diode transfer switches (2 not used) including attenuators/dummy load resistors
− PIN−diode bias supply (dc in: +24 V; dc out: +5 V, −120 V)
− transfer switch driver

J10 J12 J7 J9 J4 J6 J1 J3
4 J11 3 J8 2 J5 1 J2
J28 J27 J26 J25
to antenna system
SBO CSB1
alternatively with B−Type
HF OUT 80° Phase Shifter
Driver and Bias supply
J31
CSB SBO Power Adder (PAD−S)
rear view CSB SBO

CSB SBO not used not used

J3 J6 J9 J12
RF Stby

20 dB/100 W 15 dB/1 W 20 dB/100 W 10 dB/1 W 15 dB/1 W 20 dB/100 W 10 dB/1 W 20 dB/100 W

Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna


changeover changeover changeover changeover
PIN−diode switch PIN−diode switch PIN−diode switch PIN−diode switch
1 2 3 4

−120 VDC

J1 J2 J4 J5 +5 VDC J7 J8 J10 J11


CSB/TX1 CSB/TX2 SBO/TX1 SBO/TX2 not used not used not used not used
changeover signals
PIN−diode PIN−diode
switch driver bias supply Transfer assembly
J31 24 VDC J26 J25 J28 J27 rear of cabinet
Control DC
Stby and On−Air Combiner
J21
J20
ECU 24V1/24V2 to INTFC and monitor

Fig. 2−12 Transfer Assembly, block diagram

2−16 SOAC Ed. 06.05


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−1F
The function of the various components is to switch the antenna system over to transmitter 1 or 2.
The signals of the transmitter which is currently switched to the antenna by the PIN−diode transfer
switch 1 to 2 each pass through to the antenna system. The changeover signals received from the
Executive Control Unit (ECU) control the PIN−diode switches 1 to 2. The CSB/SBO signals of the
standby transmitter, which is active, but not switched to the antenna, are passed through to the Stby
and SOAC by RF attenuators which are also used as dummy loads. The PIN−diode transfer switch
is supplied with two DC voltages (+5 V/2.5 A; −120 V/0.03 A) which are derived from the 24 V DC
input in the bias supply part. This voltage coming from both DCC−MV is ored at the SOAC.
The location of the PIN−diode transfer switch assembly is shown in Fig. 2−4.

2.3.3.6 B−Type: Power Adder (PAD−S)

The signal characteristic for the GP−1F B−Type can be generated either in a similar way to the
GP−2F active with adjustment of the modulators (DDM unequal 0) or with the use of a Power Adder.
With this alternative the same PAD−S is used as for the GP−2F standard version but with another
suitable wiring (Fig. 2−13). The PAD−S is described in detail in section 3.3.3.6.2 . The location of the
Power Adder for the B−Type is shown in Fig. 2−4.

swivel nut
to J1, cabinet top (A2)
adjustable part
to J8, cabinet top (A1) position indication

Ë
Z3
J1 upper antenna

Delay
W26

J2 Phase shifter

35°

35°

Delay
PAD−S, GP−1F, B−Type
cabinet, rear view W21
J6 J5 J4

UPPER ANTENNA LOWER ANTENNA MIDDLE ANTENNA

W23

THALES
120609−0001
PAD−S

J3 J2 J1

CLEARANCE COURSE SBO COURSE CSB

from J6, PIN diode transfer switch W18


INPUT INPUT INPUT

from J3, PIN diode transfer switch W17


NOTE: The A1 signal path is 180° longer
than the A2 signal path
CSB J1 J4
W17
J2 PAD−S Load
PIN−diode CSB+SBO,LSB
Transfer switch J5 A1
Load to
J3 W21 80° −cable 932839−0002 lower
SBO antenna
W18 J6 SBO,USB
system
 Z3 A2
W23 W26 upper
adjustable
Phase shifter

Fig. 2−13 GP−1F, B−Type, overview and arrangement Power Adder PAD−S

Ed. 06.05 SOAC 2−17


GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−1F Equipment Description

2−18 SOAC Ed. 06.05


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−1F
2.3.4 Monitor Subassemblies
The monitor section monitors the radiated signal and detects any errors or faults that might be critical
for aviation. In addition to executive tasks, the monitor data can be used to identify any deviations
or minor deficiencies in performance at an early stage, insofar as they might have a detrimental effect
on the future continuity of service or system availability (warning monitor). The response to an alarm
is a logic−controlled changeover or disconnection of the transmitters performed by the Executive
Control Unit (ECU). The monitor subassemblies thus comprise (Fig. 2−14, blocks dark grey):
− Monitor Interface (INTFC)
− Monitor signal processor (LG−M)
− Executive Control Unit (ECU)
− Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC)
The location of the monitor subassemblies is shown in Fig. 2−4.
NF dipole (NFM), opt.)
0 reference/B−Type antennas A1, A2
from probes

to antenna system
Shelter/Cabinet stby RF signal field signals

RF OUT CSB SBO

Stby and On−Air Combiner


PIN−diode CW RF SYN 1/2
Transfer Switch SOAC

Interface Inputs
INTFC analog

TRANSMITTER 1 TRANSMITTER 2

from MODPA 2
CSB
Modulator/
CW RF f0 Power Amplifier
Synthesizer MODPA 1 SBO
1
SYN
CW RF f0 control
offset
to SOAC

Audio Generator Audio Generator


1 Executive Control Unit
2
LG−A ECU LG−A

BITE

Integrity signals
Analog IN (spare) Monitor Monitor
1 2
SYN data LG−M RS232C LG−M
RS232C RS232C
RS232C RS232C

LRCI
MODEM*
LCI LC−CPU
LCP
MODEM*

* optional OIO (spare) Maintenance RMMC PTT


Data Terminal

Fig. 2−14 GP−1F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power supply not shown)

Ed. 07.06
06.05 SOAC 2−19
GP 422 ILS 420
Monitor Subassemblies GP−1F Equipment Description

2.3.4.1 Monitor Interface (INTFC)


The Monitor Interface (INTFC) is the signal interface for all configurations of localizer and glide path
facilities. It provides the necessary interface between the electronics subsystem and the system’s in-
tegral and field detectors. The INTFC is described in detail in section 3.3.4.1.
2.3.4.2 Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LG−M)
Signals transmitted from a localizer or glide path station must be constantly validated to ensure safe
landings. For this purpose, the LG−M can be seen as a high precision audio frequency spectrum
analyzer which continually measures and analyzes these signals, comparing their current values to
stored alarm limits. If a measured parameter is not within limits, the monitor signals an alarm condi-
tion. The monitored parameters are evaluated for the on−antenna executive and field groups and the
"hot" Standby group. The LG−M is described in detail in section 3.3.4.2.
2.3.4.3 Executive Control Unit (ECU)
The Executive Control Unit (ECU) is responsible for performing all the control actions of the station
(e.g. transfer, shutdown, bypass, etc.). Each Monitor reports its alarm status(es) to the ECU which
then decides what type of action, if any, to take based upon that status and other internal state infor-
mation. The ECU is described in detail in section 3.3.4.3.
2.3.4.4 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC)
See Fig. 2−15, 2−17.
The Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC) unit processes the ILS monitor signals both for Localizer and
Glide Path. For the Glide Path, it contains the function of an integral network which combines the input
antenna sensor signals to farfield equivalent signals for position and width. The clearance path is not
used in 1F installations. The SOAC operates in principal with a down−conversion technique which
results in 8 kHz intermediate signals for further processing. The local oszillator offset frequency of
8 kHz is directly supplied by the Synthesizer. The SOAC is described in detail in section 3.3.4.4.
* also LLZ with LPD−antenna
** with LLZ and Dipole/Reflect. Posn./CRS
antenna GP only*
Integral Network Path Width

GP A1/LLZ CRS Posn. Posn./CRS via INTFC to


Antenna system LG−M 1/2
Integral Network (LLZ)** GP A2/LLZ Width Width
Integral Sensors (GP) On−Air down converter
not used combiner not used

NFM Input NFM output

SYN TX1 (8 kHz offset) Offset frequency Course frequency


SYN TX2 (8 kHz offset) (CRS L.O.) (CLR L.O.)
not used in 1F system
DC supply in
DC Transfer control
from ECU

RF aerial Stby CRS CSB/GP A1 Posn./CRS via INTFC to


LG−M 1/2
Stby CRS SBO/GP A2 Standby down converter Width
RF Stby combiner
not used not used
PIN−diode Transfer Switch not used

Fig. 2−15 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC), block diagram

2−20 SOAC Ed. 06.05


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−1F
2.3.4.4.1 Operation of a typical Down Conversion Channel (On−air)
The signal flow within the SOAC for Null Reference and B−Type is shown in Figs. 2−18 and 2−19.
For details refer to section 3.3.4.4.1 . The CLR channel paths are not used. Jumper J1 and J6 are set
to 1−3, 2−4 to insert a voltage divider because the mixer frequency is directly fed from SYN1 and
SYN2 (CLR out) and not via a MODPA.

2.3.4.4.2 Standby Channels


The signal flow within the SOAC for Null Reference and B−Type is shown in Figs. 2−18 and 2−19.
For details refer to section 3.3.4.4.2 . The CLR channel paths are not used.

2.3.4.4.3 Antenna Configuration Signal Processing Selection


NOTE: In GP−1F applications, input J7 "A3" is used as input for sensor signals of antenna A2,
i.e. upper antenna. Input J8 "A2" is used only in GP−2F M−Type systems !
The configuration setting for the GP−1F Null Reference and B−Type version is shown in Fig. 2−16.
For details refer to section 3.3.4.4.3 .
J19/7−8 Null reference: J19/5−6 Sideband reference (B−Type):

Switch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Switch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Path A x x x x Path A x x x x
Path B x x x x Path B x x x x

Fig. 2−16 J19, example switch setting for GP−1F Null reference and B−Type mode

2.3.4.4.4 Local Oscillator Switching and Distribution


The necessary offset of 8 kHz for the down conversion to the nominal frequency is derived from the
second output of the synthesizer board. For details refer to section 3.3.4.4.4 .
RF connectors rear:
CRS Stby CRS Stby CRS Stby
GP Nearfield A1 A2* A3 (A2) A1 CSB1 CSB A2* SBO A3 CLR Stby

LLZ Nearfield CRS Posn.. CRS Width CRS Stby CRS Stby CLR Width(2) CLR Width(1) CLR Stby CLR Stby
CSB SBO SBO CSB

J10 J9 J8 J7 J2 J47 J6 J17 J18 J16 J12

J4 R485 J14

J1 RFcwCLR TX2 J11 RFcwCRS TX2


TP67

R2 R511 R25 R240 R217


R105 R275 R286
R90 R62 R43

RFcwCLR TX1 TP69


J3 J13 RFcwCRS TX1

J5 TP70 J15
R382 JP41 R318 R305
R123 R136 R327
R353
R166 R150 R133
R189 TP68 R345 R312
R383
R372
R499 R343
R386 R185
R379 R146
1 2
TP71

J19 R524
R377

TP62 TP66 TP60 TP61 TP18 TP14 TP13 TP10 TP7 TP6 TP2 TP1 TP5 JP43 TP24 TP25 TP22 TP19

TP65 TP59 TP63 TP64 TP15 TP17 TP16 TP11 TP12 TP9 TP8 TP3 TP4 TP56 TP57 TP58 TP55 TP29 TP26 TP27 TP31 TP21 TP23 TP20
GND TP74 TP76 TP72 GND

J20 TP30 TP53 TP47 TP49 TP37 J21 TP39 TP34


TP41 TP77 TP75 TP73 TP51
Front View
* used in GP−2F, M−Type, only; for GP−1F: A3 = upper antenna, here A2

Fig. 2−17 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC), front view

Ed. 07.08
06.05 SOAC 2−21
GP 422 ILS 420
ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
Monitor Subassemblies GP−1F Equipment Description

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
A3−RF
RF A3 in (GP)
JP36 JP37,38 JP39,40 IF gain Filter Temp. comp.
fact. align.
phase calibr.
field align.
Phase adj. TP27
S7
TP31
TP39

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
TP71 TP25 A
R286
CLR Width In mixer out
R353 R345 B

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
LLZ only J18 −10 dB +15/−5 dB 2 kHz 20 kHz CLR Width1
−10 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead control* R343
TP26

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
SBO phase inversion

TP29

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
A1−RF +/−
JP31 JP32,33 JP34,35 Filter Temp. comp. R327
IF gain TP37
LLZ only TP24
R275

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
CLR Width2 in mixer out
2 kHz 20 kHz CLR Width2
J17 −10 dB +15/−5 dB
−10 dB
control*
fact. align. field align. TP62
phase calibr. Phase adj. R377
JP7,8 JP9,10 Filter Temp. comp. B R372
TP51
IF gain
R43 TP8 TP6 out
LLZ: A
mixer S1
CRS Width In R150 R146 CRS Posn.
2 kHz 20 kHz
(GP: A3 input) −10 dB +15/−5 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead TP9 A1
J7 −10 dB fixed TP60 S3
GP−1F: phase ctrl* TP7 A S4 S8
B
A2 input JP11 A3 IF
A A
A3−RF S2 A T61 fixed phase B B
B
+/−
JP12,13 JP14,15 Filter Temp. comp. field align. control* control*
IF gain Phase adj.
TP12
R62 S5 TP10 TP13 A2 IF
GP−2F only mixer B
fixed A1 IF
2 kHz 20 kHz TP64 TP63
(GP: A2 input) −10 dB +15/−5 dB
phase R166
A R379
J8 −10 dB fixed
control* nom. 90° 90° lead
phase
TP11
A1 IF R383
fact. align. field align.
JP16,17 JP18,19 Temp. comp. phase calibr. Phase adj.
IF gain Filter
TP16 TP14 TP17 S6 TP65
R90 TP66
LLZ: mixer A

CRS Posn. In R189 R185 TP53


2 kHz 20 kHz B
(GP: A1 input) −10 dB +15/−5 dB
J9 −10 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead out
TP15 CRS Width
A1−RF JP20 R386
control* R382 A1+A2
A1
A2
JP22 JP23,24 Filter Temp. comp.
IF gain
R105 TP18 TP41
NFM In mixer out
2 kHz 20 kHz CRS NF
J10 −10 dB +15/−5 dB

5V J19 local oscillator transfer switch On−Air Combiner path


TP55 Ant. config. signal processing select J3
J20 2 Clearance SYN TX1 (CLR out)
1 M−Array standard JP6
frequency J1
M−Array TSIS (CRS L.O.)
JP1 SYN TX2 (CLR out)
24V1 S−Band reference
Null reference S1
24V2
Transfer control from ECU
DF LLZ det mode 5V A COM
J13
DF LLZ int width B Course not used
frequency JP30
spare J11
0V: A −− COM

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
J21 Transfer control 15 16 spare S1 S3 (CLR L.O.) not used
5V: B −− COM JP25

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
JP44,45 IF gain Filter Temp. comp. TP77 TP74
Stby combiner path
GP−2F active only R511

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
mixer
R524
Stby CSB A2 2 kHz JP46
−15/−10 dB TP75 phase adj.
J47 TP1 TP47
JP2,3 TP76
IF gain Filter Temp. comp. out
Stby CRS CSB R2 TP72 CS Stby Posn.
mixer
Stby CSB R123 CSB
−15/−10 dB 2 kHz R499
J2 TP2
fact. align.
CSB phase adj. out
R133
field align. TP49
CS Stby Width
SBO Phase adj. CSB+SBO
TP5 +/−
Temp. comp. Phase alignment:
JP4,5 Filter
IF gain R136 TP5/TP1: A1 − A3 relative phase = 0°

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
Stby CRS SBO R25
SBO phase TP73
mixer
Stby SBO 2 kHz inversion
−10 dB

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
TP3
J6 −10 dB TP4 fact. align.
JP26,27 Temp. comp. CSB phase adj.

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
IF gain Filter
TP19
R217
Stby CLR CSB mixer

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
R305 TP34
Stby CLR J12 −15/−10 dB 2 kHz TP20 fact. align.
R312 out

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
CLR Stby Width
field align.
SBO Phase adj.

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
TP23 +/−
JP28,29 Filter Temp. comp.

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
IF gain R318
R240
Stby CLR SBO mixer SBO phase
(LLZ only) −10 dB 2 kHz inversion
J16 TP21
−10 dB TP22 *used for switch control

Fig. 2−18 Stby and On−Air Combiner, block diagram, 0−Ref. configuration selected

2−22 SOAC Ed. 07.08


06.05
ILS 420 GP 422
ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−1F
ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
A3−RF
RF A3 in (GP)
JP36 JP37,38 JP39,40 IF gain Filter Temp. comp.
fact. align.
phase calibr.
field align.
Phase adj. TP27
S7
TP31
TP39

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
TP71 TP25 A
R286
CLR Width In mixer out
R353 R345 B

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
LLZ: only J18 −10 dB +15/−5 dB 2 kHz 20 kHz CLR Width1
−10 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead control* R343
TP26

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
SBO phase inversion

TP29

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
A1−RF +/−
JP31 JP32,33 JP34,35 Filter Temp. comp. R327
IF gain TP37
LLZ only TP24
R275

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
CLR Width2 in mixer out
2 kHz 20 kHz CLR Width2
J17 −10 dB +15/−5 dB
−10 dB
control*
fact. align. field align. TP62
phase calibr. Phase adj. R377
JP7,8 JP9,10 Filter Temp. comp. B R372
TP51
IF gain
R43 TP8 TP6 out
LLZ: A
mixer S1
CRS Width In R150 R146 CRS Posn.
2 kHz 20 kHz
(GP: A3 input) −10 dB +15/−5 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead TP9 A2+A1
J7 −10 dB fixed TP60 S3
GP−1F: phase ctrl*
B TP7 A S4 S8
A2 input A
JP11 A3 IF A
A3−RF S2 A T61 fixed phase B B
B
+/−
JP12,13 JP14,15 Filter Temp. comp. field align. control* control*
IF gain Phase adj.
TP12
R62 S5 TP10 TP13 A2 IF
GP−2F only mixer B
fixed A1+AA2 IF
2 kHz 20 kHz TP64 TP63
(GP: A2 input) −10 dB +15/−5 dB
phase R166
A R379
J8 −10 dB fixed
control* nom. 90° 90° lead
phase
TP11
A1 IF R383
fact. align. field align.
JP16,17 JP18,19 Temp. comp. phase calibr. Phase adj.
IF gain Filter
TP16 TP14 TP17 S6 TP65
R90 TP66
LLZ: mixer A

CRS Posn. In R189 R185 TP53


2 kHz 20 kHz B
(GP: A1 input) −10 dB +15/−5 dB
J9 −10 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead out
TP15 CRS Width
A1−RF JP20 R386
control* R382 A1+A2
A1
A2
JP22 JP23,24 Filter Temp. comp.
IF gain
R105 TP18 TP41
NFM In mixer out
2 kHz 20 kHz CRS NF
J10 −10 dB +15/−5 dB

5V J19 local oscillator transfer switch On−Air Combiner path


TP55 Ant. config. signal processing select J3
J20 2 Clearance SYN TX1 (CLR out)
1 M−Array standard JP6
frequency J1
M−Array TSIS (CRS L.O.)
JP1 SYN TX2 (CLR out)
24V1 S−Band reference
Null reference S1
24V2
Transfer control from ECU
DF LLZ det mode 5V A COM
J13
DF LLZ int width B Course not used
frequency JP30
spare J11
0V: A −− COM

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
J21 Transfer control 15 16 spare S1 S3 (CLR L.O.) not used
5V: B −− COM JP25

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
JP44,45 IF gain Filter Temp. comp. TP77 TP74
Stby combiner path
GP−2F active only R511

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
mixer
R524
Stby CSB A2 2 kHz JP46
−15/−10 dB TP75 phase adj.
J47 TP1 TP47
JP2,3 TP76
IF gain Filter Temp. comp. out
Stby CRS CSB R2 TP72 CS Stby Posn.
mixer
Stby CSB R123 CSB
−15/−10 dB 2 kHz R499
J2 TP2
fact. align.
CSB phase adj. out
R133
field align. TP49
CS Stby Width
SBO Phase adj. CSB+SBO
TP5 +/−
Temp. comp. Phase alignment:
JP4,5 Filter
IF gain R136 TP5/TP1: A1 − A3 relative phase = 0°

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
Stby CRS SBO R25
SBO phase TP73
mixer
Stby SBO 2 kHz inversion
−10 dB

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
TP3
J6 −10 dB TP4 fact. align.
JP26,27 Temp. comp. CSB phase adj.

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
IF gain Filter
TP19
R217
Stby CLR CSB mixer

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
R305 TP34
Stby CLR J12 −15/−10 dB 2 kHz TP20 fact. align.
R312 out

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
CLR Stby Width
field align.
SBO Phase adj.

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
TP23 +/−
JP28,29 Filter Temp. comp.

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
IF gain R318
R240
Stby CLR SBO mixer SBO phase
(LLZ only) −10 dB 2 kHz inversion
J16 TP21
−10 dB TP22 *used for switch control

Fig. 2−19 Stby and On−Air Combiner, block diagram, B−Type configuration selected

Ed. 07.08
06.05 SOAC 2−23
GP 422 ILS 420
Monitor Subassemblies GP−1F Equipment Description

2−24 SOAC Ed. 07.08


06.05
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description LRCI and Power Supply Subassemblies
2.3.5 LRCI Subassemblies

The local remote communication interface functional unit (LRCI) is the focal point for communication
between the various functional groups, the local control panel (LCP) and the remote control. The LRCI
consists of the following subassemblies:

− Local Control Panel (LCP)


− Modem for dedicated line (LGM1200MD, Party Line)
− Modem for switched line (LGM 28.8)
The LRCI subassemblies are described in detail in section 3.3.5.
The location of the LRCI subassemblies is shown in Fig. 2−4.

2.3.6 Power Supply


The power supply of the Navaids 400 installation is taken from mains (nom. 115 to 230 VAC) or from
an existing DC power supply (nom. 48 V). The equipment contains therefore a mains module with
battery charger (BCPS). The BCPS is modular in a building−block concept with several AC/DC con-
verter ACC−54 connected in parallel, and several DC/DC converters to generate the necessary volt-
ages. A low voltage sensor cuts off the battery line to prevent deep discharge of the emergency batter-
ies.The power supply subassemblies are described in detail in section 3.3.6.
The location of the AC/DC and DC/DC converters is shown in Fig. 2−4.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 2−25


GP 422 ILS 420
LRCI and Power Supply Subassemblies Equipment Description

2−26 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−2F

CHAPTER 3
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION GP−2F
3.1 GENERAL
3.1.1 System Overview
See Fig. 3−1 to 3−5.
The ILS GP−2F installation comprises the following main components and accessories:
− Transmitter rack housing the transmitter, monitor and power supply/battery charging (BCPS),
single or dual
− Emergency power supply (48 V lead battery)
These components are housed in a building or shelter. Since there is possibility of generated oxyhy-
drogen, the battery is separately housed.
− Antenna system (refer to Part 3, Antenna System Description)
The GP antenna is installed approximately 286 to 344 m beyond the runway threshold and 120 to
180 m from the runway centre line (see Fig. 1−2). The GP transmitter building (shelter) is installed
in the vicinity of the GS antenna.
− Cable set
− Grounding

The antenna system (including optional nearfield dipole) and the transmitter rack are connected via
7 coaxial cables. The cables are fed via connectors on top of the transmitter rack on the one hand
to the Power Adder and the PIN diode transfer switch (3x RF out) and on the other hand to the Stby
and On−Air Combiner unit (4x RF in) which combines the signal components, which are obtained
via the coupling probes integrated in each antenna array. The Stby and On−Air Combiner supplies
the resulting signals and the signal of the optional nearfield monitor at the antenna site to the monitors:

− Course position (POSN.)


− Course width (WIDTH)
− Clearance (CLEAR.)
− Position Nearfield (POSN. NF, optional)
A grounding network must be installed around the transmitter building (shelter) which does not afford
special symmetrical requirements. The grounding networks of shelter and antenna system must be
connected by low resistance.

The GP transmitter can be controlled, monitored and maintained from the tower with a respective re-
mote control and monitoring system (e.g. RMMC).

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 3−1


GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−2F Equipment Description

3.1.2 Basic Components of an GP Transmitter Rack


The main components of a GP transmitter rack are as follows (see Fig. 3−3):
− Transmitter
− Monitoring System (monitor)
− Control and Switching
− Local/Remote Communication Interface (LRCI)
− Operating voltage supply

3.1.2.1 Transmitter
The dualized transmitter generates the required RF signals for this type of installation. These signals
are fed to and radiated from the antenna system. Signal generation and transmitter control are micro-
processor controlled. A single transmitter configuration is also available.

3.1.2.2 Monitor
The dualized monitor is supplied with signals from the internal and integral sensors and with informa-
tions obtained from the radiated RF field via an optional nearfield and/or farfield monitor dipole. The
RF signals obtained are down converted by the Stby and On−Air Combiner to an Intermediate Fre-
quency carrier and fed via an interface to the monitor signal processor for processing. A single moni-
tor configuration is also available.

3.1.2.3 Control and Switching


The results of the monitor process are supplied to the control and switching function. These functions
will switch−over (in a dual system) or shutdown transmitters if the hardware based decision paths
find an appropriate result. Also, the other control functions are performed here.

3.1.2.4 Local/Remote Communication Interface


The LRCI is the focal point for internal/external communication between the transmitter and the moni-
tor, the local or remote operator and the system, including any connected subsystems. All commu-
nication with the system takes place via a local or remote intelligent terminal (PC or laptop), which
is used for all settings, commissioning and maintenance. The MAIN STATUS indication, basic settings
(on/off, change over, Mon. Bypass) and call up of certain transmitter or monitor measurement data
are performed with the Local Control Interface (LCI) of the Local Control Panel (LCP).

3.1.2.5 Generation of the Operating Voltage


The transmitter rack requires a nominal supply voltage of 48 V. The mains module (ACC) of the BCPS
supplies an output DC voltage of 54 V and 14 A max. Two of the modules are connected in parallel
depending on the power requirement of the navigation system. The value of 54 V is derived from the
trickle charge voltage for a 48 V lead battery.
The DC/DC converters housed in the BCPS subrack act as switched−mode regulators, which supply
the necessary supply voltages with a high efficiency, namely :
− DC/DC converter DCC−MV +5 V/3 A; +15 V/2.5 A; −15 V/1.5 A; +24 V/11 A
− DC/DC converter DCC−5 (on Backpanel) +5 V/3 A, used to supply separately LCP, Modems

3−2 SOAC Ed. 07.08


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−2F
Ä
Ä
A3

Ä
SBO A3 +Clear.
12

Ä
11

Ä
Ä 10
A2
CSB A2

Ä 9

Ä
Ä
Ä 8
A1 CSB A1 +Clear.

Ä
6 7

Ä
ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ
GP−shelter

Tower Ä
ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ
5
4 1
3 2
13

1 Power adder GP−2F active 5 Reflecting area 10 Dipole antenna array A2


2 Emergency power supply battery 6 Nearfield Monitor dipole (opt.) 11 Inductive coupling probe A3
3 ILS/GP transmitter rack 7 Inductive coupling probe A1 12 Dipole antenna array A3
4 Stby and On−Air Combiner 8 Dipole antenna array A1 13 Remote Control and Monitoring System
9 Inductive coupling probe A2

Ä
Fig. 3−1 GP−2F system overview (GP active)

Ä A3

Ä
SBO+Clear.
12

Ä
11

Ä
Ä
A2
CSB1+SBO

Ä
10
9

Ä
Ä
Ä
A1
CSB1+SBO+Clear.
8

Ä
6 7

Ä GP−shelter

Ä
ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ 5

ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ
4 1
Tower
3 2
13

1 Power adder GP−2F standard 5 Reflecting area 10 Dipole antenna array A2


2 Emergency power supply battery 6 Nearfield Monitor dipole (opt.) 11 Inductive coupling probe A3
3 ILS/GP transmitter rack 7 Inductive coupling probe A1 12 Dipole antenna array A3
4 Stby and On−Air Combiner 8 Dipole antenna array A1 13 Remote Control and Monitoring System
9 Inductive coupling probe A2

Fig. 3−2 GP−2F system overview (GP standard)

Ed. 10.04
01.04 SOAC 3−3
GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−2F Equipment Description

Antenna system
Nearfield dipole (opt.)
A1 A2 A3

CSB−A1/Clear. CSB−A2 SBO−A3/Clear.


A1 A2 A3 POSN.NF

Power Adder

CSB1 SBO CLEAR. CSB2 4


Aerial/Stdby Stby and On−Air Combiner

Interface
Course and Clearance Control
Transmitter and Monitor
Switching

RS 232 RS 232
LRCI
Modem
Operating voltages RS 232
RMMC Terminal
(PC/Laptop)
DC−Converter
Supply voltage Transmitter rack
Mains ACC (BCPS)

NOTE: Diagrammatic view, dual installation not shown for purposes of clarity.

Fig. 3−3 Main components of a GP−2F transmitter cabinet (GP active)

Antenna system
Nearfield dipole (opt.)
A1 A2 A3

CSB+SBO+Clear. CSB1+SBO SBO+Clear


A1 A2 A3 POSN.NF

Power Adder

CSB1 SBO CLEAR. 4


Aerial/Stdby Stby and On−Air Combiner

Interface
Course and Clearance Control
Transmitter and Monitor
Switching

RS 232 RS 232
LRCI
Modem
Operating voltages RS 232
RMMC Terminal
(PC/Laptop)
DC−Converter
Supply voltage Transmitter rack
Mains ACC (BCPS)

NOTE: Diagrammatic view, dual installation not shown for purposes of clarity.

Fig. 3−4 Main components of a GP−2F transmitter cabinet (GP standard)

3−4 SOAC Ed. 10.04


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−2F

PIN−diode transfer switch


24 V

SOAC

XMTR 1 MON1 LRCI/INTFC/ECU MON 2** XMTR 2** LCP/Modem


24 V 5 V/±15 V 5 V/±15 V 24 V L/G−A 5V

5 V/±15 V 48 V

+24 V +5 V +15 V −15 V −15 V +15 V +5 V +24 V +5 V

DCC−MV /1 DCC−MV /2 ** DCC−5

F4

TX1 TX2** Low Voltage


Sense
sense relay
53,5 VDC
(48 VDC nom.)
F5

Mains module Mains module Battery


1 2

shunt BCPS subrack

collocated equipment Mains


(115 VAC to 230 VAC) ** dual Version

Fig. 3−5 Power distribution, block diagram

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 3−5


GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−2F Equipment Description

3−6 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−2F
3.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN
3.2.1 GP Transmitter Rack
See Fig. 3−6 to 3−9.

The cabinet is made of sheet steel. It accommodates three standard 19" subassembly carriers (sub-
rack). The subracks are assembled with plug−in units which are designed as double or single Euro-
form printed circuit boards (PCB) with dimensions of 233.4 x 200 [mm] or 100 x160 or 100 x 220 [mm].
The printed circuit boards are interconnected in each subrack on a motherboard back panel. The sub-
racks themselves are connected together via flat ribbon cables with plug−in connectors or via plug−
in or screw−on coaxial cables (used for RF connections) at the rear. The front of the cabinet is hidden
by a front door which can be key locked and swung open by a door handle. The local control and
indication panel (LCP) is flush−mounted in the front door. The cabinet rear is closed by a rear door
which can also be swung open by a door handle. The installed equipment should have enough room
between the cabinet and the shelter wall to allow the rear door to be opened and to allow space for
measuring equipment.

The RF outputs to the antenna and the monitor sensor inputs from the antenna are located on top
of the cabinet. The AF or interface connections (e.g. detector signals, local PC, modem, etc.) are lo-
cated on top of the cabinet and those for the power supply are located on the back panel of the BCPS
subrack or on a terminal bar in the lower part on the rear side of the cabinet. The cabinet, which has
a perforated metal plate at the top and bottom, is self−ventilated (no forced ventilation necessary).
The components of the PIN−diode transfer switch are located on a heat sink mounted inside the cabi-
net at the rear side. The Stby and On−Air Combiner unit (SOAC) is mounted inside the cabinet at the
front side. The SOAC can be hinged down for easier access to the backside located RF connections.
The power adder for GP−2F active is mounted to the left inner side wall, the one of the standard
GP−2F to the rear side, upper part, or to the rear door.

CAUTION

Do not block or seal the holes for the cooling air supply at the bottom of the rack or the
cooling air outlet at the top of the rack (transmitter)!

WARNING

The heat sinks of the modulators (MODPA) may warm up during operation. This is normal
and does not have any affect on the functioning of the devices. Avoid touching the heat−
sinks when the cabinet door has been opened for any reason. When replacing these sub-
assemblies it is recommended to let them cool down for a while before touching them
or take suitable measures (e.g. gloves).
The inner borders of the cabinet doors may have a residual flash which may injure hands
or fingers. Use the door handles for opening or closing the doors.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 3−7


GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−2F Equipment Description
connection not used in GP−2F standard Power Adder mounted to rear door***
PAD−S incl. phase shifter or PAD−A

Ê Ê Ê Ê
PAD−S GP−2F standard or PAD−A (altern.)***

Ê CLR CRS CRS CLR

Ê Ê BP MODPA
Ê
Ê Ê Ê Ê
J1 J2
MOD/PA 2/1

MOD/PA 1/1

MOD/PA 1/2

MOD/PA 2/2
Ê Ê Ê Ê

BP MODPA

XMTR1

XMTR2
Ê Ê Ê Ê
LCP

Ê Ê Ê Ê
CSB2** SBO CSB2**
TX2 CRS TX1
CLR CSB CLR

Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
J3 J7 J10 J13 J16
Ê
Ê

Phone1

Phone2
Jumper1
1 2
J19
J5 J18−15V +15V 5V GND

Ê ÊModem*
Ê Ê
J12
Modem2 J8 XA12
Interface INTFC

−15V +15V 5V
J1 J4 J6 J11 J17J14 +24V1

BP Digital
1

Ê Ê Ê Ê

MODDIG2
−15V +15V 5V +24V2

CABI/O
LG−M 1

LG−M 2
LG−A 1

LG−A 2

LCP/COM7
MODIG3
LCP/CT6

LCP/CT5

LCP/CT1
MAINPWR
5V3 +48V

Modem1
Ê Ê Ê Ê
SYN 1

SYN 2

J2
Modem*
J9 J15
ECU

MODDIG1
Ê Ê Ê Ê
Ê Ê Ê Ê
BP Digital
J10 J12 J7 J9 J4 J6 J1 J3

Ê Ê Ê Ê
OUT OUT OUT OUT
IN1 IN1 IN1 IN1
J11 J8 J5 J2

Ê Ê Ê Ê
J28 J27 J26 J25
IN2 IN2 IN2

Ê Ê Ê Ê
IN2
stby SBO stby CSB stby SBO stby CSB

Ê Ê Ê Ê
J20 J21 J31 CSB2** CLR CRSSBO CRSCSB

Ê Ê Ê Ê
Stby and On−air Combiner PIN diode Transfer Switch assembly

Ê Ê Ê Ê
(includes combining network for GP, not used in LLZ)

Ê Ê Ê Power Adder**
Ê
Ê Ê Ê Ê
Power Adder**
PAD−A PAD−A
alternative mounting

Ê Ê Ê Ê
alternative mounting

Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
DCC−MV /1

DCC−MV /2

Ê Ê Ê Ê
ACC 54
ACC 54

F4 BP−PS
TX1 TX2 LVS
BP−PS

Ê Ê Ê Ê
F5
DCC
Relay
5V

Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê Ê
Ê
Mains connection and mains filter

Front View Rear View


Remark:
The RFcw connections of CRS and CLR frequency from J7 or J6 at the Synthesizer to the CRS ** GP−2F active only
and CLR MODPA may be interchanged. But in one cabinet both TX must be connected the same. * optional *** GP−2F standard

NOTE: The diagram shows the locations of the plug−in and screw−on subassemblies (printed circuit boards). The mo-
dule assignment for GP−2F is shown in greater detail in Fig. 3−7.

Fig. 3−6 Locations in the GP−2F rack

3−8 SOAC Ed. 06.05


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−2F

TYPE of INSTALLATION: GP−1F dual TYPE of INSTALLATION: GP−2F, dual


SUBRACK Subassembly used SUBRACK Subassembly used
View from left to right Cabinet, preassembled assign. to Cabinet, preassembled assign. to
Front door LCP LCP
Backplane MODPA, left − − MODPA 2/1 CLR
TX1 CSB2**

MODPA 1/1 CRSCSB MODPA 1/1 CSB1


CRSSBO SBO
Backplane MODPA, right MODPA 1/2 CRSCSB MODPA 1/2 CSB1
TX2 CRSSBO SBO

− − MODPA 2/2 CLR


CSB2**
Backplane Digital − −
INTFC MON1/2 INTFC MON1/2

SYN 1 TX1 SYN 1 TX1


LG−A 1 TX1 LG−A 1 TX1
LG−M 1 TX1 LG−M 1 TX1

ECU TX1/2 ECU TX1/2

LG−M 2 TX2 LG−M 2 TX2


LG−A 2 TX2 LG−A 2 TX2
SYN 2 TX2 SYN 2 TX2

Modem* LGM2 Modem* LGM2


Modem* LGM1 Modem* LGM1
Cabinet, rear PIN−diode transfer switch TX1/2 PIN−diode transfer switch TX1/2
SBO,CSB SBO,CSB1; CLR ; CSB2

incl. Attenuator/Load (1x) incl. Attenuator/Load (2x)

Cabinet, front Stby and On−Air MON1/2 Stby and On−Air MON1/2
Combiner Combiner
Cabinet, inner, left Power Adder PAD−A** TX1/TX2
Cabinet, rear door Power Adder (B−Type) Power Adder PAD−S*** TX1/TX2

Cabinet, lower part, AC/DC−Converter: AC/DC−Converter:


Backplane BP−PS ACC /1 ACC /1
ACC /2 ACC /2

DC/DC−Converter: DC/DC−Converter:
DCC−MV /1 TX1 DCC−MV /1 TX1
DCC−MV /2 TX2 DCC−MV /2 TX2

DC main switch TX1/TX2 DC main switch TX1/TX2


Cabinet, rear, lower part, Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) TX1/TX2 Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) TX1/TX2
Backplane BP−PS and DCC−5 and DCC−5

* optional; Modem= LGM1200MD or LGM28.8


** GP−2F active only, can be also loacated on the rear door like the PAD−S
*** GP−2F standard

Fig. 3−7 Assignment of subassemblies for GP, dual

Ed. 06.05
01.04 SOAC 3−9
GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−2F Equipment Description

1 2 3

rear view

front view

1 Door handle, rear door


2 Local Control Panel (LCP)
3 Door handle with key lock, front door

Fig. 3−8 Transmitter rack ILS 420 (LLZ/GP)

3−10 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−2F

1 2 3

connection not used in GP−2F standard

3a

Front Rear

1 Local Control Panel (LCP)


2 PIN−diode transfer switch
3 Power Adder PAD−A incl. opt. phase shifter (or PAD−S with phase shifter for GP−2F standard)
3a Power Adder PAD−A, alternative mounting inside
4 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC)

Fig. 3−9 Transmitter rack GP−2F active, dual, front door open, rear door open (example view)

Ed. 06.05
01.04 SOAC 3−11
GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−2F Equipment Description

3−12 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Description GP−2F
3.2.2 Shelter

See Fig. 3−10, 3−11.

The Navaids shelter is used as permanent housing for electronic navaids equipment. The standard
shelter is a self−supporting transport unit which is especially suited for the whole range of transporta-
tion means. It withstands all climatic conditions worldwide and is designed, except for mechanical
damages, for a minimum life−cycle of 10 years. The standard shelter meets the ISO/DIN standards/
requirements for transport containers. It consists of a self−supporting, distortion resistant aluminium
frame construction with eight ISO corners and standardized container dimensions.
The walls are made of sandwich panels and provide plenty of options for installating equipment and
accessories. The shelter includes a polyurethane layer that ensures excellent thermal isolation. The
floor is covered with an antistatic material which is connected to the system ground to protect mainte-
nance personnel and to avoid electronic equipment damage. The personnel door is in the front. The
door has a key lock and can be locked from inside or outside. The inner and outer sides of the shelter
are typically painted white (RAL 9002), but, optionally, they can be painted with warning colours as
per ICAO Annex 10.
The standard shelterincludes a complete electrical installation that can be easily adapted to specific
project requirements. The battery box, which is hermetically sealed from the interior in its operating
state, is accessible from the inside of the shelter and ventilated from the outside. Its shelf−type con-
struction provides space for a block of batteries (48 V, 256 Ah max.) for the NAV 400 navaids as well
as for collocated equipment.
One or two through−the−wall air conditioning units and thermostats provide ventilation. The air con-
ditioning equipment is designed to provide the appropriate environmental conditions for all products
installed in the container. One fire extinguisher is provided. Other options are: obstruction lighting,
heater, table and chair, book−shelves, or an additional sun roof.

The navaids shelter is secured using the ISO corners and twist locks that connect it to four foundation
blocks.The roof of the Navaids Shelter is accessible. The container itself is splash−proof, resistant
against sea climate and invulnerable to salty water, fungus and termites.
2438

Support for A/C

2991 2438

(Dimensions in mm; Tare weight approx. 900 kg)

Fig. 3−10 Navaids shelter, dimensions

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 3−13


GP 422 ILS 420
Description GP−2F Equipment Description

cable duct on the ceiling


Signal cable (RF/AF)
10 ft Container Shelter

ÄÄÄ
ÄÄÄ Top connector panel
on cabinet

Â
cable entry
Â
Location of NAV 400 racks
(GP, LLZ, DME, CVOR, DVOR)

Battery Box
Ventilation of battery box

Wiring Diagram of electrical Installation

option box Main Distribution Panel


Main Fuse
switch
L1 *
L2

L3
Residual
Current Breaker
N 40
I>
0.03
FI1
B2A

B10A B18A C20A C20A C20A C20A


B10A
B10A

PE F4 F3 F1 F2 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9
change o.
Overvoltage
Protection
4 3 1 Spare 2 5 6 7 8 9 10
optional
..
optional

BCPS θ junction box


. .. .
DME

+
− 48 V set to heater
. .. . TX DME A/C1 A/C2 36 °C
. .. .
Earth Collector Bar

BCPS if available Temp.


TX Rack Sensor
DME Inside Light Socket outlets Air−Conditioner
etc.
Single Phase "Option"
F21 (G0.2A)
F20 (K50A)

20 protected wires


Station Ground

+
twilight obstruction lights
Signal lines 90 V/Type F
Emergency battery switch 1 2
NF 600 OHM 48 V
Line Terminal Box

* Example diagram for Mains Supply with 3 Phases, N and PE

Fig. 3−11 Standard shelter, inner arrangement and electrical installation (example)

3−14 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F
3.3 DESCRIPTION OF SUBASSEMBLIES OF THE TRANSMITTER RACK
3.3.1 General
All plug−in or screw−on subassemblies (printed circuit boards) in the transmitter rack for the GP−2F
versions are described in Section 3.3. Their tasks are described and illustrated with the aid of simpli-
fied block diagrams. The integration within the complete system is shown in block diagram Fig. 1−20.
More details about the subassemblies (printed circuit boards), which may exceed the information giv-
en in the following description part and figures, may be taken from the circuit diagrams listed in Fig.
3−12.
The following sections describe first the subassemblies of the GP−2F "active" version. Because sub-
assemblies of the "standard" GP−2F version are mostly identical, the differences in description are
highlighted in the correspondent section.

3.3.2 Overview Subassemblies GP−2F Transmitter Rack

SUBASSEMBLY ASSIGNMENT CODE NUMBER*) REFERENCE


Transmitter: 3.3.3

LLZ/GP Audio Generator (LG−A) 120570−0004 3.3.3.2


Synthesizer (SYN) 120496−0002 3.3.3.3
Modulator Power Amplifier GP (MODPA) 120589−0001 3.3.3.4
PIN−diode Transfer Switch 120622−0001 3.3.3.5
Power Adder (options) 3.3.3.6
Power Adder (GP−2F active) (PAD−A) 120634−0001 3.3.3.6.1
Power Adder (GP−2F standard) (PAD−S) 120609−0001 3.3.3.6.2

Monitor: 3.3.4

Monitor Interface (INTFC) 120628−0001 3.3.4.1


(INTFC) 120498−0001
LLZ/GP Monitor Processor (LG−M) 120570−0004 3.3.4.2
Executive Control Unit (ECU) 120571−0003 3.3.4.3
Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC) 120621−0001 3.3.4.4

Local/Remote Communication Interface: 3.3.5

Local Control Panel (LCP) 83135 1001/21002 3.3.5.1


Modem, dedicated line / party line (LGM1200MD) 84045 83233 3.3.5.2.1
Modem, switched line (LGM28.8) 84045 83245 3.3.5.2.2

Power Supply: 3.3.6

Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) 83138 30511 3.3.6.2


DC−Converter 5 V (on LVS board) (DCC−5) − 3.3.6.3
DC−Converter Multivolt (DCC−MV) 83138 12400 3.3.6.4
AC/DC−Converter (12 A) (ACC−54) 58341 20101 3.3.6.5
AC/DC−Converter (14 A) (ACC−54) 58341 20102

*) The code numbers given may differ to those of the delivered installation in individual cases. In such case the actual code
number can be taken from the delivery list of the installation or the drawing set.

Fig. 3−12 Circuit diagrams of subassemblies (transmitter rack)

Ed. 01.10
01.04 SOAC 3−15
GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description

3−16 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F
3.3.3 Transmitter Subassemblies
3.3.3.1 Overview
The GP−2F transmitter section, the function of which is to generate the RF signals and amplify the
RF, consists of the following subassemblies (single, Fig. 3−13, blocks dark grey); the block diagram
shows both active and standard version:
− Localizer/Glide Path audio generator LG−A
− Synthesizer SYN
− Modulator/power amplifier for carrier 1 (CSB1) and sideband (SBO) MODPA1
− Modulator/power amplifier for clearance and carrier 2 (CSB2) MODPA2
− PIN−diode transfer switch
− Power Adder (GP−2F active or standard) PAD−A; PAD−S
NF dipole (NFM), opt.)

M−Type Antennas A1, A2, A3 M−Type Antennas A1, A2, A3


from probes
to antenna system
Shelter/Cabinet Phase Shifter
Phase Shifter stby RF signal field signals
***
Power Adder (PAD−S)
RF OUT Power Adder (PAD−A)
RF OUT
**
CSB* SBO* Clear.* CSB A1 SBO A3 Clear. CSB A2

Stby and On−Air Combiner CW RF TX1/2


PIN−diode PIN−diode
Transfer Switch Transfer Switch SOAC CRS/CLR
GP−2F standard
version
TX1 TX2
Interface Inputs
INTFC analog

TRANSMITTER 1 CSB−A1 TRANSMITTER 2

from MODPA 1/2


CW RF Modulator/ (CSB)*
f0 + 4 kHz Power Amplifier
Synthesizer MODPA 1 SBO−A3
1 (SBO)*
SYN
CW RF Modulator/ Clearance
control
f0 − 4 kHz Power Amplifier
CSB−A2**
MODPA 2

Audio Generator Audio Generator


1 Executive Control Unit
2
LG−A ECU LG−A

BITE

Integrity signals
Analog IN (spare) Monitor Monitor
1 2
SYN data LG−M RS232C LG−M
RS232C RS232C
RS232C RS232C

LRCI
MODEM***
LCI LC−CPU
LCP
MODEM***
* RF signal in GP−2F standard
** used in GP−2F active
*** optional OIO (spare) Maintenance RMMC PTT
Data Terminal

Fig. 3−13 GP−2F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power supply not shown)

Ed. 07.06
01.04 SOAC 3−17
GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description

3.3.3.2 Localizer/Glide Path Audio Generator (LG−A)


See Fig. 3−14.
The Audio generator LG−A produces the composite carrier−plus−sideband (CSB) and sideband−
only (SBO) modulation envelopes for the CSB1/SBO MODPA and, in dual frequency Glide Path sys-
tems, the Clearance and CSB2 (active only) MODPA.
NOTE: Audio Generator and Monitor module commonality: The same CCA module is used for
the Monitor and Audio functions, which reduces spare inventory requirements. The differ-
ence is the dedicated individual firmware used. The CCA automatically configures itself
for audio generator or monitor function when it is plugged into the backplane. The audio
and monitor functions are always completely independent. Program updates are easily
accommodated (see also 3.3.4.2.1 ).

3.3.3.2.1 LG−A Hardware


The design meets all audio generation requirements by combining an advanced EPLD in conjunction
with an Intel 80C196 high−performance microcontroller. The design provides for measuring all re-
quired analog and digital signals through multiplexed input and direct port input/output (I/O). The ver-
satile 80C196 RISC−based microcontroller provides complex I/O and an instruction set suitable for
both computational and general−purpose use. Supporting circuitry for the 80C196 includes code
(FLASH, program storage) and data (SRAM) memory as well as nonvolatile data storage (EEPROM,
storage of station specific characteristics). The EPLD provides chip−select logic, Direct Memory Ac-
cess (DMA) interface to the SRAM for automatic sampled A/D conversion, automatic D/A conversion
for audio generation, a high−speed UART, and ROM−less booting of the FLASH programming
boot−loader program. EPLD based hardware−partitioning of the programming function prevents ac-
cidental FLASH programming. A time−tested minimal multitasking OS kernel allows partitioning the
software into separate functional tasks, easing the development and testing of the design and reduc-
ing design errors.

The 80C196 microcontroller was selected based on its ideal combination of features for embedded
applications including its internal I/O peripherals and its RISC based architecture which is optimized
for both high−speed mathematical computations (e.g. DSP) and general−purpose use (e.g. inter-
rupts and multitasking). The embedded software consists of a mix of compiled "C" language routines
plus assembly language routines for time−critical portions. Internal peripherals include a watchdog
timer, two 16−bit general−purpose timers, a high−speed I/O subsystem, and a hold/hold acknowl-
edge bus protocol interface (used by the DMA). The 80C196’s high−level of integrated peripherals
and its multi−feature advanced EPLD help it to achieve the system requirements. The increased reli-
ability that results from reducing part counts makes it superior to other microprocessor or microcon-
troller implementations.

For signal processing, up to 32 analog inputs are available for signals and 8 analog inputs for refer-
ence inputs. Selected signal and reference inputs are fed to a monolithic, unity−gain differential am-
plifier for common mode noise rejection. The reference input can also be connected to a software−
controlled 0 to +10 Volt DAC controlled DC offset adjustment circuit to minimize a signal’s DC compo-
nent, to maximize its AC portion and increase the signal’s signal−to−noise ratio (SNR). The accurate,
high−speed 12−bit A/D converter has a dynamic range of ±10 Volts. Weak signals may be amplified
by a software−controlled DAC gain amplifier to more closely achieve the A/D’s full−scale range. The
EPLD provides the ability to automatically sample an entire block of data, in 128−sample increments
up to 1024 equally spaced samples, as needed for digital signal processing. Over−sampled DC sig-
nals are averaged to provide resolution greater than 12 bits for various calibration operations.

3−18 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F
The EPLD also provides logic for a high−speed (19,200 bps) serial interface. The transmit/receive
lines are buffered to normal EIA RS−232/ITU−V.23 levels for communication with the LCP. For audio
generation, the EPLD provides a convenient memory window for writing/reading the waveform data
to/from SRAM and, when enabled, the EPLD automatically uses DMA to transfer the data from me-
mory to the 13−bit audio generator DACs. By maintaining a versatile, high−level approach, the audio
generator meets the requirements for generating high−quality signals for localizer or glide path sys-
tems. This flexible approach provides features that are not available with an all−hardware imple-
mentation. These features include self−calibration that continuously removes data acquisition errors
from actual signal data while also verifying its validity through the use of design based, hard−coded
limits, plus easy signal waveform adjustment through the audio generator’s memory window.

3.3.3.2.2 LG−A functional Operation

On−board automatic calibration eliminates factory or field hardware adjustment of the audio genera-
tor and audio generation paths. The audio generator/monitor provides the capability to fully charac-
terize its analog signal processing through program−controlled adjustments using a precision 5 V
(±0.05 %) reference. Once its A/D subsystem is characterized, the processor then calibrates the A/D
circuits which provides accurate system measurements without factory or field manual hardware ad-
justments. The precision external reference is continuously cross−verified using the A/D’s internal
precision reference.

Two modes exist for acquiring a digital representation of a selected analog signal. The 12−bit A/D
may be used to acquire either a single sample of a selected analog signal, or a block of conversions
of a selected signal may be acquired with virtually no processor overhead. The hardware−assisted
data conversion control and DMA are by an EPLD. The block size is selectable in 128−sample incre-
ments from 128 to 1024 samples and two different acquisition times are available: 7.58 and 30.72 kHz.
Each sample of converted data is transferred directly in the microcontroller’s data memory (SRAM)
using the hold/hold acknowledge bus arbitration protocol. The selection of which sampling mode is
used (block or single) on a given signal is based on the signal type (periodic or dc) and the analysis
to be performed on the result. The audio card has a high−speed (19,200 bps) serial input/output com-
munication link with the LCP for access to the following setup parameters, commands, and system
status identifiers:
− alarm/prealarm limit entry and validation (used only in the LG−M application)
− on−command calibration of audio generator and detectors
− calibration results of audio generator, or detectors
Digital signal generation of navigational tones eliminates the audio generator maintenance as a
source of error. The audio generator generates all navigation and identification information used to
modulate the ILS RF carrier and provides the means to control the radiated signal. Four channels of
digitally synthesized navigation information are provided, one each for course/path carrier−plus−
sideband (CSB1), course/path SBO, Clearance and carrier−plus−sideband CSB2 (GP−2F active
only). Each of these synthesizers uses a 12−bit digital−to−analog (D/A) converter that outputs 512
separate data points for each ILS cycle (1/30th of a second), assuring very accurate and precise navi-
gation audio that allow a DDM control resolution of 0.0005.

When all the pattern calculations are completed, the audio generator then loads the information to
the random−access memory (RAM). The RAM information is in the form of complete navigation wave-
form in digital format. This exact information is converted to analog signal by very accurate 12−bit
D/A converters, filtered, and amplified through operational amplifiers and output to the modulator/
power amplifier.

Ed. 07.06
01.04 SOAC 3−19
GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description
Once loaded, the monitor and audio generator board remain independent until a change in station
parameters is input by an operator. The complete navigation waveform always uses the full 12 bits
of the D/A converter for best possible accuracy. The amplitude (RF level and modulation) is set using
an 8−bit multiplying D/A converter that functions as an accurate 256−step level control.
The monitor and audio generator are completely independent. Two LED at the front signalize availabil-
ity or ok of the CPU and audio signals.

NOTE: The LLZ or GP installation can be equipped with the LGx Ref. 120570−0004, e.g. for re-
placement. The LGx 120570−0004 is backward compatible to the LGx −0003 version
and can be used with former standard Export SW kits used by the 120570−0003.

The location of the two LG−A (transmitter 1 and 2) is shown in Fig. 3−6.

UART EPLD (1) Reset out (P2/c18)


Serial communication
to LRCI Auto−boot
sequencer

CPU Normal Audio on


3.3V clock
Board personality 2
LG−A/LG−M
Flash program
memory
Firmware LG−A
station data Digital output 4
config. data
buffer

used in LG−M application


8
External signals Digital input
(e.g. ANT SEL, Shut down, ...) buffer RS 422 5
Digital output

CPU Bus
Micro−Controller
MUX 80C196KB EEPROM
8 configuration
External signals Frequency memory
(e.g. DME KEY IN, INTFC_CLK,...) measure
station data,
config. data

Reset Debug communication

used in LG−A application


CSB/SBO
20 clock 1 CSB/2 SBO (I/Q)
External signals 3
(e.g. +24 V, +48 V, obstr. light, etc.) MUX
14.7456 MHz Course
3 Analog CLR/CSB2* to MODPA ’s
External Reference measure
signals RAM Analog wave 3
Clearance
data memory generator
Internal signals (8 DAC) Ident
(not with GP)
ADCS clock 2
Integrity
to ECU
EPLD (2)
timing control KEY_DME
Vcc (not with GP)
3.3V

* active GP only

Fig. 3−14 Localizer/Glide Path Audio generator (LG−A)

3−20 SOAC Ed. 01.10


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F
3.3.3.3 Synthesizer (SYN)
See Fig. 3−15.
The Frequency synthesizer CCA generates the RF carrier for the course MODPA and, if a dual fre-
quency system, also for the clearance MODPA. The synthesizer produces a clean low noise CW sig-
nal. The low noise signal is achieved by high frequency, phase stable TCXO and modern Direct Digital
Synthesis (DDS) technology. The DDS allows a phase detector to operate at a frequency more than
350 times the 25 kHz of conventional PLL designs, which gives a potential of 48 dB more phase
correction gain at 150 Hz than conventional designs. The desired frequency is easily set with the
jumpers. Once the frequency is set, the synthesizer is automatically ready for glide path or localizer
function. The frequency accuracy is achieved by the use of a stable TCXO and small frequency steps
allowed by the DDS design. The TCXO has a specified frequency tolerance of ±10 parts per million
(ppm) from −40 to +85 °C. The carrier frequencies are phase locked to this frequency and can be
set in 0.17 Hz steps (0.52 Hz steps for the glide slope). The station frequency and frequency offset
for the capture effect is set by the program in the programmable read−only memory (PROM). The
8 kHz will be set to less than 2 Hz error and phase locked to the same TCXO to always have less than
2 Hz error. For measurement, the 8 kHz frequency difference is either counted down to 125 Hz (default
for ILS 420) to be compatible with other ILS systems or directly supplied as 8 kHz (jumper selectable)
for use in a more accurate difference detector.
− Direct Digital Synthesis :
The heart of the design is the DDS integrated circuit. The DDS and the 10 bit D/A converter are speci-
fied for clock speeds up to 125 MHz and output frequencies of up to 40 MHz. The big advantage of
using the DDS approach is that instead of a phase detector in the PLL that is limited to the channel
frequency separation, the PLL detector can operate at 10 MHz or more. A frequency higher than 10
MHz can be used but there is a trade off between increased PLL gain and more spurious noise out
of the DDS. Using a high PLL detector frequency allows a much higher correction gain. The glide path
phase corrections at 90 and 150 Hz are particularly interesting. The feedback correction frequency
of any phase locked loop is limited by the frequency of the phase detector. With a standard PLL, the
maximum phase detector frequency is the channel separation. The gain of the phase correction loop
at 150 Hz can go up to 6 dB for every octave the phase detector frequency goes up. Since 25 kHz
to 10 MHz is more than 8 octaves, the loop could theoretically have 48 dB more gain at 150 Hz than
a PPL with a phase detector operating at 25 kHz. The 10 MHz (channel frequency divided by 10 for
the localizer and by 30 for the glide path) can be set by increments of the TCXO divided by the numeri-
cal counter of the DDS integrated circuit (IC). For the capture effect, the plus and minus 4 kHz offset
can be set in less than 1 Hz steps from the same TCXO and will always be phase locked at the exact
frequency difference.
− Phase−locked−loop IC
The Phase−locked−loop integrated circuit (IC) used is a high quality part designed for low−noise
synthesizers. It allows the phase detector to operate at the incoming reference frequency. This is
highly desirable in this application because the phase detector can operate at the 10 MHz DDS output
frequency. The IC has all the counters, lock detector, and charge pump output to complete a PLL func-
tion. The voltage−controlled oscillator (VCO) input will handle up to 2000 MHz and will allow this same
circuit to operate in the DME band. The output filter to the VCOs is a standard active low−pass filter.
− Voltage−Controlled−Oscillators
These VCOs are rugged, linear tuning, surface mount, mini−circuit VCOs. The DDS IC requires a
40−bit tuning word to set it up and to set the 3−bit counter. This is accomplished with five 8−bit words
and two ICs. The timing and control IC is a programmable device that has a resistance−capacitance
(RC) oscillator and the outputs to control loading and addressing of the DDS IC and PROM.

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 3−21


GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description
The frequency set will be input to the DDS IC at power up and periodically thereafter. The coding from
BCD to binary is programmed into the PROMs. By programming PROMs, the VCO output frequency
can be set to within less than 1 Hz for each channel frequency. Jumpering either the 100 MHz jumper
or the 300 MHz jumper sets the VCO divider in the PLL IC and selects either the 100 MHz VCO or the
300 MHz VCO. Selecting the 100 or 300 MHz jumper also routes the signal through the 380 MHz low−
pass filter or the 135 MHz low−pass filter.
The location of the two SYN (transmitter 1 and 2) is shown in Fig. 3−6.

(VCO2)
harmonic filter
VCO RF out
LLZ f+4 kHz
DDS PLL low Amplifier CRS
divide by 30/12
pass J7
VCO
clock GP LLZ or GP
8 bit
feedback loop
BCD jumper
frequency select
J1 to J4

TCXO
EPLD EPROM 39.95 MHz
Mixer
8 kHz
:64 freq. diff.
125 Hz
8 bit
(default setting)

LLZ :128
(VCO1) GP :256 fout
clock
harmonic filter VCO
LLZ f−4 kHz
RF out
PLL low Amplifier CLR
DDS pass J6
divide by 30/12
VCO
GP
LLZ or GP
feedback loop

Fig. 3−15 Synthesizer (SYN), block diagram

3−22 SOAC Ed. 07.08


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F
3.3.3.4 Modulator Power Amplifier (MODPA)
See Fig. 3−16, 3−17, 3−18.
The Modulator/power amplifier (MODPA) assembly provides two amplitude modulated signals, the
CSB and the SBO. One MODPA unit is required for single frequency operation and two units are re-
quired for two−frequency operation.

SBO−signal (modulated with "90−150 Hz", the RF phase is


CSB−signal (modulated with "90+150 Hz") reversed at the zero crossings of the envelope curve)

Fig. 3−16 CSB and SBO, amplitude modulated signals (principle view)

The designs and operation of the Localizer and Glide Path power amplifiers are the same, differing
only in those components specific to the operating frequency bands. Consequently, the following dis-
cussion applies equally to both units. The CSB and SBO modulators, linear RF power amplifiers, and
support circuits for measurement of power output, reflected power, and associated monitoring func-
tions are constructed on a single surface mount printed wiring board. The printed wiring board is
mounted on a heat sink inserted in the power amplifier card cage within the transmitter equipment
cabinet. For the active GP−2F, a special jumper setting and external connection (SBO section) allows
the output RFcw of one MODPA to be one input path of the other that is responsible for the CSB2 path.
− CSB modulator power amplifier section
RF carrier on the selected operating frequency is input to the MODPA from the synthesizer. This signal
is routed to an initial power divider from which two outputs are obtained. One signal is routed to the
SBO section of the MODPA. The other output from the power divider is amplified in a broadband
MMIC amplifier, after which it is routed to a second power divider and split into the two channels used
within the CSB section of the MODPA.
Linear power amplifier RF out to
antenna
Phase
PIN diode Coupler
AM modulator Low pass
filter
Modulator

AM Error amplifier AM Detector Sample of


RF output
signal
MMIC Power
AMP Divider Amplitude error
control voltage

Phase Error amplifier

RF from Phase correction


frequency subthesizer control voltage
Power
J1 Divider
Carrier reference phase
RFcw out Factory Phase
Delay
J6* Phase feedback
Phase align Detector
to SOAC RFcw to SBO section
CSB Audio waveform
from Audio Generator

*LLZ: J7

Fig. 3−17 MODPA CSB section, block diagram

Ed. 07.08
01.04 SOAC 3−23
GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description
One signal which will become the modulated carrier is routed to a phase modulator (electronically
controlled phase shifter) and then to the AM modulator. From the AM modulator this signal is applied
to a linear RF power amplifier which increases the level of the low−power modulated signal to obtain
the specified output power level. The signal is next applied to a low pass filter to remove undesired
harmonics from the transmitter output. Following the filter, a directional coupler in the output line pro-
vides samples of the forward and reflected RF output signals. The forward power RF sample is used
in two feedback loops to control both the amplitude and the phase performance of the CSB MODPA.
Modulation of the transmitter and correction of any AM modulation distortion is accomplished by the
AM loop. The CSB Audio waveform consisting of a DC level, the 90 and 150 Hz audio tones and the
Ident tone is created by the audio generator and input to one side of the AM loop error amplifier. An
audio signal from a highly linear AM detector that is driven from the RF output sample obtained from
the directional coupler is also input to the loop error amplifier.

The input DC level sets the desired RF carrier power, and the detected DC level is proportional to the
actual RF carrier power. Similarly, the level of the 90 and 150 Hz tones, relative to the DC level, at the
input of the error amplifier sets the desired modulation percentage for each tone. The detected level
of these tones represents the actual modulation percentage, including the effects of modulator and
linear amplifier non−linearity. The signals are applied to the differential inputs of the AM error amplifier
where the difference between them is amplified and output as a control voltage which is applied to
the AM modulator. The result is a closed loop feedback control system which continuously detects
and compensates for any deviation in RF power or modulation percentage. It also removes any distor-
tion introduced by the AM modulator or the linear RF power amplifier. Thus, the output power and
modulation percentage are accurately determined by the digitally generated input CSB signal from
the audio generator.

The CSB phase control loop operates like the AM loop and has two primary functions. The first is to
set and maintain the phase relationship between the input RF carrier signal (from the synthesizer) and
the modulated output carrier. In conjunction with similar loops in the SBO section (which are also ref-
erenced to the input carrier), this maintains the desired phase relationship between the CSB and SBO
signals. The second function of the CSB phase control loop is to compensate for any undesired
phase modulation of the RF carrier occurring in the linear RF power amplifier. This form of phase mod-
ulation, often referred to as AM to PM conversion, commonly occurs in highly efficient linear RF power
amplifiers, and may result in undesired PM sidebands on the transmitter output.

The phase feedback loop operates as follows. A phase detector, implemented with a double balanced
mixer, provides one input to a high gain phase error amplifier, where it is compared with a 0 volt refer-
ence. The phase detector has two inputs, one is a sample of the RF output signal from the directional
coupler. This signal contains the carrier and any phase modulation components. The other signal,
obtained from the power divider at the input to the CSB section, consists only of unmodulated carrier
originating from the frequency synthesizer. Undesired phase modulation is detected by the phase
detector and output as an error voltage and amplified by the loop error amplifier. The output from the
loop error amplifier is applied as a phase correction control voltage to the phase modulator or elec-
tronic phase shifter. This signal, when applied to the modulator, counter modulates the RF carrier such
that any undesired phase modulation generated by the AM modulator or the linear power amplifier,
is canceled and does not appear at the transmitter output. To maintain the desired phase relationship
between the CSB and SBO channels, it is necessary to have the proper phase delay in the phase
reference input to the phase detector. The delay compensates for the difference in propagation delay
between the reference phase channel components and those in the modulated RF channel. Obtain-
ing the delay is accomplished by means of a fixed LC delay network, in conjunction with a variable
phase trimmer. Most of the phase delay is provided by the fixed delay network. Unit to unit variations
are trimmed out with the factory phase alignment control during a one−time adjustment and unit test.

3−24 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F
− SBO modulator power amplifier section
This section controls the SBO Power, suppresses the RF carrier, and adjusts the SBO phase relative
to the CSB phase over the full range of 0 to 360 degrees. Full 360 degree phase adjustment saves
time during system installation by eliminating the need to cut RF cables to the correct phase length.
Fig. 3−18 shows the block diagram of the SBO section. In−Phase and Quadrature modulation sig-
nals are used in a closed loop system. The RF carrier is input to the SBO section from the power divi-
der in the CSB section as discussed previously. This signal is routed to an additional power divider
to create two channels; one is the SBO modulator channel, and the other is a carrier phase reference
channel similar to that used in the CSB section. From the power divider, a CW signal is sent to the
I−Q modulator.
For the active GP−2F, the RF carrier from the CSB section is coupled out (J7) and fed as input RF
to the SBO section of second MODPA (J7) which is used to modulate the CSB2 signal.
The I−Q modulator consists of an input, 90 degree, power divider, two double balanced modulators,
and an in−phase power combiner. The 90 degree power divider splits the input signal into two signals
having a phase difference of 0 and 90 degrees. Each is applied to a balanced modulator. Each modu-
lator is designed so that an input on the control voltage port will result in an RF output phase which
is 0 degrees and proportional in amplitude to the voltage applied. Similarly, if the polarity of the voltage
is negative, the RF output phase is 180 degrees relative to the input phase, and the amplitude is again
proportional to the magnitude of the control signal.
One is used to modulate the 0 degree (I) signal, from the power divider, and the other is used to modu-
late the 90 degree (Q) signal. The two modulated signals are then summed in the in−phase power
combiner to obtain the vector summation of the 0 and 90 degree components. For example, equal
level control signals applied to both modulators will produce a vector sum of 45 degrees. Thus, any
output phase may be obtained by adjusting the relative proportion and the polarity of I and Q control
signals. The power output obtained is proportional to the magnitude of the two signals. The output
phase will be constant as the power is varied with the control voltages, provided the relative amplitude
ratio is held constant between the I and Q voltages.
I−Q Modulator

I modulation Linear power amplifier RF out to


0° I−Q antenna
modulated
90 degr. In−phase SBO RF Coupler
Power I control power
Divider combiner Low pass
filter
90°
I Error amplifier
RF carrier input
from CSB section Q modulation Sample of
Power I error voltage RF output
Divider signal
Q control
JP5
SBO "I" Audio from 0°
Audio Generator I Detector
RF in/out 0 to ±5 V peak 90 degr. In−phase
Power Power
Divider Divider
J7 SBO "Q" Audio from Q Detector
Audio Generator 90°
0 to ±5 V peak
GP−2F active only

Q error voltage I−Q Demodulator


Carrier reference phase Q error amplifier
Factory
Delay
Phase align

Fig. 3−18 MODPA SBO Section Block Diagram

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 3−25


GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description
The balanced modulators also suppress the RF carrier. Ideally, with 0 Volts on the control port, the
output from each modulator is 0. If an AC signal, symmetrical about 0 Volts, is applied, the output from
each modulator is a double sideband, suppressed carrier, or SBO, signal. By adjusting the relative
magnitude and polarity of the AC signals applied to the I and Q modulation ports, a SBO signal of
any desired phase from 0 to 360 degrees is obtainable.

In the ILS 420 MODPA units, the I−Q modulator is used in conjunction with an I−Q demodulator in
a closed loop feedback system (refer to the block diagram). RF is applied to the I−Q modulator oper-
ating as discussed above. The I and Q signals are summed and routed to the linear RF power amplifier
where the signal is increased to the desired power level. The amplified signal is low pass filtered, to
suppress harmonics, and routed to the antenna system via a directional coupler.

A sample of the modulated RF output signal, obtained from the coupler, is input to the I−Q demodula-
tor. Also input to the demodulator is an unmodulated carrier phase reference obtained from the input
power divider. As in the case of the CSB section, a phase delay network and factory set fine phase
alignment control are provided to set the reference phase input to the I−Q demodulator. Operation
of the I−Q demodulator is the reciprocal of the modulator. The demodulator provides two outputs:
an I output proportional to the in−phase modulation components of the RF signal and a Q output
proportional to the quadrature modulation components of the RF signal.

The Q channel feed back loop operates similarly. Amplitude and phase errors in the quadrature com-
ponent of the RF output sample are detected, compared with the input from the audio generator, and
fed back to control the Q modulator. In operation, the I and Q feedback loops drive the I−Q modulator
to produce SBO modulation which accurately replicates the amplitude and phase of the I and Q wave-
forms input from the audio generator. By adjusting the I and Q inputs under software control, the SBO
power and phase may be accurately set and maintained.

The I−Q demodulator I and Q outputs send to two high gain error amplifiers having differential inputs.
These amplifiers also receive the I and Q modulation signals from the SBO section of the audio gener-
ator. The I error amplifier provides an output proportional to the error between the I input audio and
the I detector output. This output controls the I modulator as part of a negative feed back loop which
drives the I modulator to cancel any difference between the desired audio input and the detected I
modulation. This closed loop system effectively removes non−linearity, distortion, or drift in the mo-
dulator or the RF power stages.

− Linear Power Amplifiers


RF Power FETs are employed in the Localizer and Glide Path power stages. FET RF power amplifiers
provide high gain, wide operating band widths, and the inherent ability to withstand open or short
circuit load conditions without damage. For added protection, the amplifiers incorporate a reverse
power sensor and fold back circuit which reduces the power output until the load mismatch is cor-
rected. Each amplifier includes forward and reverse power sensors and detectors providing power
measurement outputs to the system monitor and portable maintenance data terminal. The power am-
plifiers are conservatively designed and fully capable of continuous CW power outputs in excess of
the peak envelope power required for full modulation.
A large and conservatively designed heat sink provides cooling of the output and driver stages for
both designs. Junction temperatures are maintained below 125 °C in a +55 °C environment. This
temperature is well below the manufacturer’s rated junction temperatures for each type of power am-
plifier FET.
The location of the MODPA (transmitter 1 and 2) is shown in Fig. 3−6.

3−26 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F
3.3.3.5 PIN−Diode Transfer Switch
See Fig. 3−19.
The RF signals are distributed to the antenna system by means of the discrete PIN−diode transfer
switches. The PIN−Diode transfer switches and the attenuators/dummy loads are located on a
printed circuit board which is mounted to a heat sink. The complete assembly is mounted at the rear
of the cabinet. Components of the RF signals used for monitoring the standby transmitter are coupled
out and fed to the Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC). The components are:
− 4 PIN−diode transfer switches including attenuators/dummy load resistors
− PIN−diode bias supply (dc in: +24 V; dc out: +5 V, −120 V)
− transfer switch driver
The function of the various components is to switch the antenna system over to transmitter 1 or 2.
The signals of the transmitter which is currently switched to the antenna by the PIN−diode transfer
switch 1 to 4 (Course/Clearance) each pass through to the antenna system. The changeover signals
received from the Executive Control Unit (ECU) control the PIN−diode switches 1 to 4 for the Course
and Clearance branch. The CSB1/SBO and Clear./CSB2 (GP−active) signals of the standby transmit-
ter, which is active, but not switched to the antenna, are passed through to the Stby and On−Air Com-
biner (SOAC) by RF attenuators which are also used as dummy loads. The PIN−diode transfer switch
is supplied with two DC voltages (+5 V/2.5 A; −120 V/0.03 A) which are derived from the 24 V DC
input in the bias supply part. This voltage coming from both DCC−MV is ored at the SOAC.
The location of the PIN−diode transfer switch assembly is shown in Fig. 3−6.

to antenna system to antenna system


J10 J12 J7 J9 J4 J6 J1 J3
4 J11 3 J8 2 J5 1 J2 CSB−A1 SBO−A3 CSB−A2 CSB+SBO+Clear. CSB1+SBO SBO+Clear
J28 J27 J26 J25 A1 A2 A3
Z1** Z3** GP−2F active GP−2F standard Z1 Z3
CSB2* Clearance SBO CSB1
J5 J3 J5 J4 J6
J2 J1 J4 PAD−A J1 J2 J3 PAD−S
Driver and Bias supply
J31
Z1,3=phase shifter CSB1 SBO Clear.
rear view

6 dB/5 W** 6 dB/5 W**


CSB1 SBO Clear. CSB2*

J3 J6 J9 J12
RF Stby

20 dB/100 W 15 dB/1 W 20 dB/100 W 10 dB/1 W 15 dB/1 W 20 dB/100 W 10 dB/1 W 20 dB/100 W

Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna


changeover changeover changeover changeover
PIN−diode switch PIN−diode switch PIN−diode switch PIN−diode switch
1 2 3 4 *

−120 VDC

J1 J2 J4 J5 +5 VDC J7 J8 J10 J11


CSB/TX1 CSB/TX2 SBO/TX1 SBO/TX2 Clear./TX1 Clear./TX2 CSB2/TX1* CSB2/TX2*
changeover signals
PIN−diode PIN−diode
switch driver bias supply Transfer assembly
J31 24 VDC J26 J25 J28 J27 rear of cabinet
Control DC
Stby and On−Air Combiner
J21
J20
ECU 24V1/24V2 to INTFC and monitor * GP−2F active only
** optional

Fig. 3−19 Transfer Assembly, block diagram

Ed. 06.05
01.04 SOAC 3−27
GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description

3.3.3.6 Power Adder

The Power Adder (PAD) is used to process the incoming signals to appropriate outgoing signals
which supply the antennas A1, A2 and A3 to built a GP−2F (M−Type) system. This task is done by
individual Power Adders for the active GP−2F (PAD−A) and the standard GP−2F (PAD−S).

3.3.3.6.1 Power Adder (PAD−A), GP−2F (M−Type, active)


See Fig. 3−20.

The simple Power Adder for the active GP−2F version (PAD−A) is used to add the clearance RF signal
to the CSB1 RF signal which is fed to antenna A1 as CSB−A1, and to the SBO RF signal which is
fed to antenna A3 as SBO−A3. In the active GP−version the CSB−A2 signal is directly fed to the an-
tenna A2. The location of the PAD−A is shown Fig. 3−20 (alternatively within the cabinet or at the rear
door) and in Fig. 3−6. Optionally, phase shifters Z1 and Z3 may be installed which allow a fine tuning
of A1 or A3 phases during flight check. The default setting is 0°, mid position.

PAD−A location in cabinet PAD−A, top view PAD−A location in cabinet, rear door
rear view, right side wall including optional phase shifters
(cabling example) (cabling example)

CSB−A2 MIDDLE ANTENNA


A2
W22
J2

power adder J5 CSB−A1 LOWER ANTENNA


CSB+Clear. W21 A1
CSB2 CSB1 * adjustable
Phase Shifter* to antenna system
W26*
6 dB opt. J4  Z1 A1*
Clear. default setting 0°
power divider
6 dB opt.
SBO SBO−A3
power adder UPPER ANTENNA
A3
PIN−diode SBO+Clear.
transfer switch J3 W23 * adjustable
J1 Phase Shifter*
W26*
 Z3 A3*
6 dB
PAD−A default setting 0°

NOTE: In some installations cable W22 for A2 may be labelled as W23 or W24, and W23 for A3 as W22.
* optional: these phase shifters may be optionally installed, if the PAD−A is located in the rear door. Cables W21,W23 are fed then to the phase shifters.

Fig. 3−20 PAD−A, GP−2F (M−Type, active), block diagram and design

3−28 SOAC Ed. 06.05


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F

to J1, cabinet top (A2)


to J8, cabinet top (A1) swivel nut
adjustable part
to J2, cabinet top (A3) position indication

Z3

Ë
Ë
J1 UPPER ANTENNA

Delay
W26 Phase shifter

J2

35°

35°

Ë
Z1
J1 LOWER ANTENNA
PAD−A, GP−2F active

Delay
W25 Phase shifter
Cabinet, rear view
J2

J3 (A3) J1
W22 W23
UPPER ANTENNA SBO IN
NOTE:
Without optional phase shifters J4
RF cables W21 and W22 are fed THALES
directly to J8 (A1) and J2 (A3). CLR IN 120634−0001
Normally the phase shifters are J5 (A1) PAD−A J2
set to 0° as default.
W21
LOWER ANTENNA CSB IN

from J12, PIN diode transfer switch


INPUT INPUT INPUT
from J9, PIN diode transfer switch W19 attenuator*
from J3, PIN diode transfer switch W17
from J6, PIN diode transfer switch W18 attenuator*

NOTE: In some installations cable W22 for A2 may be labelled as W23 or W24, and W23 for A3 as W22.
* an attenuator (6 to 10 dB) may be optionally inserted in the SBO and CLR supply line.

Fig. 3−21 Power Adder PAD−A, mechanical arrangement and cabling

Ed. 06.05
01.04 SOAC 3−29
GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description

3.3.3.6.2 Power Adder (PAD−S), GP−2F (M−Type, standard)


See Fig. 3−23, 3−22.
The Power Adder PAD−S for the standard GP−2F (M−Type) is used to divide and combine the CSB,
the SBO and the Clearance RF signal to provide the appropriate feeding signals for the GP antennas
A1 (CSB+SBO+Clear.), A2 (CSB+SBO) and A3 (SBO+Clear.). Mechanically adjustable phase shift-
ers Z1 and Z3 are installed at the outputs J5 and J6, which may be used for phasing of antennas
(A1/A2 and A1/A3) during first alignment and for a fine tuning during flight check if necessary. The
default setting is 0°, mid position, the setting range +/−35°. Fig. 3−23 shows the mechanical design,
Fig. 3−22 shows the principle of operation. The location of the PAD−S is shown in Fig. 3−6.
The COURSE CSB input is the CSB signal as delivered from the transmitter with a power up to 5 watt;
it is divided in two signals. One is applied via a 180° line W1 and attenuated by about 5.5 dB to the
combiner A1 which combines the incoming signals SBO and CSB to the required A2 signal
CSB+SBO. The other is fed via a crossover circuit to combiner A4 which combines incoming signals
of CSB, SBO+Clearance to the required A1 signal CSB+SBO+Clear..
The COURSE SBO input is the SBO signal as delivered from the transmitter with a power up to 1.5
watt; it is divided in two signals. One is applied via a crossover circuit with 180° phase shift to com-
biner A1. The other is fed via a further divider to one path supplying combiner A6 which combines
incoming signals of Clearance and SBO to the required signal for combiner A4. The other path is fed
via a crossover circuit with 180° phase shift and attenuators to combiner A8, which supplies the
SBO+Clear. signal via a 90° line W2 to antenna A3.

PAD−S phase shifters, located at rear door of the cabinet


NOTE: In some installations cable W22 for A2 may be labelled as W23 or W24, and W23 for A3 as W22.
PAD−S, top view

W1 180°
J1 J4 A2
A1 W22 CSB+SBO

X1
CSB adjustable
Phase Shifter
crossover J5 W25
 Z1 A1
A4 W21
J2 CSB+SBO+Clear.
SBO to
6 dB antenna
Clear. system
A6
PIN diode transfer switch

X2

crossover
adjustable
Phase Shifter
J3 J6 W26
 Z3 A3
A8 W23
W2 90° SBO+Clear.
PAD−S

Fig. 3−22 Power Adder PAD−S, GP−2F (M−Type, standard), block diagram

3−30 SOAC Ed. 06.05


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F

to J1, cabinet top (A2)


to J8, cabinet top (A1) swivel nut
adjustable part
to J2, cabinet top (A3) position indication

Ë
Z3
UPPER ANTENNA

Ë
J1

Delay
W26 Phase shifter

J2

35°

35°

Ë
Z1
J1 LOWER ANTENNA
PAD−S, GP−2F standard

Delay
W25 Phase shifter
Cabinet, rear view
J2

W22
W21
J6 J5 J4

UPPER ANTENNA LOWER ANTENNA MIDDLE ANTENNA

W23

THALES
120609−0001
PAD−S

J3 J2 J1

CLEARANCE COURSE SBO COURSE CSB

from J9, PIN diode transfer switch W19


INPUT INPUT INPUT

from J6, PIN diode transfer switch


W18 attenuator*
from J3, PIN diode transfer switch
W17

NOTE: In some installations cable W22 for A2 may be labelled as W23 or W24, and W23 for A3 as W22.
* an attenuator (6 to 10 dB) may be optionally inserted in SBO supply line.

Fig. 3−23 Power Adder PAD−S, GP−2F standard (M−Type), mechanical design

Ed. 06.05
01.04 SOAC 3−31
GP 422 ILS 420
Transmitter Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description

3−32 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F
3.3.4 Monitor Subassemblies
The monitor section monitors the radiated signal and detects any errors or faults that might be critical
for aviation. In addition to executive tasks, the monitor data can be used to identify any deviations
or minor deficiencies in performance at an early stage, insofar as they might have a detrimental effect
on the future continuity of service or system availability (warning monitor). The response to an alarm
is a logic−controlled changeover or disconnection of the transmitters performed by the Executive
Control Unit (ECU). The monitor subassemblies thus comprise (Fig. 3−24, blocks dark grey); the
block diagram shows both active and standard version:
− Monitor Interface (INTFC)
− Monitor signal processor (LG−M)
− Executive Control Unit (ECU)
− Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC)
NF dipole (NFM), opt.)
M−Type Antennas A1, A2, A3 M−Type Antennas A1, A2, A3
from probes

Phase Shifter to antenna system


Shelter/Cabinet stby RF signal field signals
Power Adder (PAD−S)
RF OUT Power Adder (PAD−A)
RF OUT
**
CSB* SBO* Clear.* CSB A1 SBO A3 Clear. CSB A2

Stby and On−Air Combiner CW RF TX1/2


PIN−diode PIN−diode
GP−2F standard Transfer Switch Transfer Switch SOAC CRS/CLR
version
TX1 TX2
Interface Inputs
INTFC analog

TRANSMITTER 1 CSB−A1 TRANSMITTER 2

from MODPA 1/2


CW RF Modulator/ (CSB)*
f0 + 4 kHz Power Amplifier
Synthesizer MODPA 1 SBO−A3
1 (SBO)*
SYN
CW RF Modulator/ Clearance
control
f0 − 4 kHz Power Amplifier
CSB−A2**
MODPA 2

Audio Generator Audio Generator


1 Executive Control Unit
2
LG−A ECU LG−A

BITE

Integrity signals
Analog IN (spare) Monitor Monitor
1 2
SYN data LG−M RS232C LG−M
RS232C RS232C
RS232C RS232C

LRCI
MODEM***
LCI LC−CPU
LCP
MODEM***
* RF signal in GP−2F standard
** used in GP−2F active
*** optional OIO (spare) Maintenance RMMC PTT
Data Terminal

Fig. 3−24 GP−2F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power supply not shown)

Ed. 07.06
01.04 SOAC 3−33
GP 422 ILS 420
Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description

3.3.4.1 Monitor Interface (INTFC)


See Fig. 3−25.
The Monitor Interface (INTFC) is the signal interface for all configurations of localizer and glide path
facilities. It provides the necessary interface between the electronics subsystem and both the sys-
tem’s integral and field detectors. It also provides the interface for other internal and external signals
that are fed to the subsystem, including obstruction light information, voice input, temperature mea-
surement inputs.
A monitors’ primary function is to monitor on−antenna and standby sensor signals which are pro-
cessed in the Standby and On−Air combiner for aerial and standby transmitter. For CAT II/III dual−
equipment systems, there are 7 (6) navigation signal inputs from integral, far field, and internal
standby detectors for LLZ (GP). If LLZ nearfield is used in addition to farfield, then a LLZ has 8 signals.
Also, the option having two farfield (nearfield) signals can add one more signal to the LLZ (GP). Dual
field monitoring is split between the two monitors (one to each independently).
Signal inputs on the INTFC are coupled both with buffer amplifiers and with transformer coupling to
provide isolation between the system and external detectors, i.e. inputs of FFM1, FFM2 and LLZ an-
tenna cable fault input (LPD antenna). The input signals come into the INTFC down converted in the
SOAC to an IF−signal of about 8 kHz. The analog multiplexer MUX1 and MUX2, one for each monitor,
select which signal to demodulate. The demodulation produces a DC level representing the original
RF carrier level, plus AC components representing the original audio modulation frequencies 90 and
150 Hz.
A "reference detector generator" provides a stable, simulated detector calibration signal using only
a single 120 Hz modulation frequency rather than the normal 90/150/1024 Hz frequencies, as 120 Hz
is midway between the critical 90 and 150 Hz frequencies.The reference detector allows verification
of the demodulator operation and continuous compensation for changes in gain. The low−pass filter
removes 1024 Hz Morse code identification (Ident, LLZ only), since there are separate Ident envelope
detectors (1 and 2) for Ident monitoring.
For factory test purposes (with use of e.g. the PIR) a further multiplexer path is assembled which pro-
cesses the same signals as MUX1 and MUX2. Multiplexer input path selection is done by the monitor
through a set of four digital signals. This arrangement allows all detector signals to be processed us-
ing the same processing path (independent paths for each monitor). The input of the additonal multi-
plexer can also be selected manually via the hex−switch SW2.
NOTE: The INTFC 120628−0001 is backward compatible to the INTFC 120498−0001 version.
If the LLZ or GP installation shall be equipped with the INTFC board, Ref. No.
120628−0001, e.g. for replacement, it is allowed to use both INTFC 120628 and 120498
in the same system. Fig. 3−25 shows in addition to the above described INTFC
120628−0001 the block diagram of the previously used INTFC 120498−0001.
After replacement of an INTFC 120498 with an INTFC 120628 it is recommended to per-
form again the ’Calibration and Normalsiation’ procedure for Integral and Standby Moni-
tor channels (refer to correspondent Alignment Procedures in Part 2).
The location of the Monitor Interface is shown in Fig. 3−6.

3−34 SOAC Ed. 01.10


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F

INTFC 120628−0001 to Monitors LG−M 1/2


Ident peak detect (LLZ only)
keying output Ident peak
buffer/filter detector/amplfier to monitor 1
path 1 key tone
analog input
gr: key tone
Ident evaluation rd: Alarm HW MEM
from SOAC: from/to ECU (n.c.)*
(Stby and On Air Combiner) ALRM_MEM

LLZ (GP) CRS Posn.


buffer/filter detector/amplfier
keying output
to monitor 2
path2
analog input
LLZ (GP) CRS Width
integral

LLZ (GP) NFM Level detector DC, 90 Hz,


150 Hz
MUX 1 AM detector DDM, SDM, RF to monitor 1
LLZ CLR Width 10 path1 buffer
(GP CLR Width) Low pass filter detector analog input
LLZ (GP) CRS Posn. Ref. generator
calibr. signal 120 Hz 1 chopped 1 Interface clock out (120 Hz)
internal

LLZ CLR Width


CRS CLR/GP CLR DC, 90 Hz,
Level detector 150 Hz
LLZ (GP) CRS Width MUX 2 AM detector DDM, SDM, RF to monitor 2
path2 buffer Low pass filter detector analog input
(LLZ only) LLZ FFM1
T2,T3 Ref. generator squaring amplif. MODFREQ (n.c.)*
LLZ FFM2 calibr. signal 120 Hz 2, chopped 2 90 Hz and 150 Hz

Level detector TP19


Multiplexer
Test detector AM detector DDM, SDM, RF Test output ***
input selection buffer Low pass filter TP18
SW2 Input select

LOC ant cable fault T1


Antena fault to monitor 1/2**
(from LPD antenna) tone receiver 1200 Hz tone, output TTL

inside temp. amplifier for


temperature
outside temp. measurement
to LG−A 1/2
obstr. lights buffer

diverse input signals buffer to LCP


4
SW Monitor ok
Gate by HW Mon
MON1,2 OUT A,B to/from ECU (n.c.)*
4 MON1,2 IN A,B

* not used in standard version; not connected at BP Digital 120598−0002 ** not used *** factory use

INTFC 120498−0001 to Monitors LG−M 1/2


(previously used) buffer/filter detector/ to monitor 1
Ident peak detect (LLZ only) path 1 amplifier analog input
from SOAC: Ident evaluation
(Stby and On Air Combiner) path2 detector/ to monitor 2
reference detector buffer/filter amplifier
LLZ (GP) CRS Posn. generator analog input
LLZ (GP) CRS Width
integral

LLZ (GP) NFM path 1 unity gain buffer rms to dc conv.


MUX 1 low Q audio switched capacitor to monitor 1
LLZ CLR Width
(GP CLR Width) carrier bandpass 5 pole low pass detector analog input
10 antialiasing low pass
LLZ (GP) CRS Posn.
internal

LLZ CLR Width rms to dc conv.


CRS CLR/GP CLR T1...10 path2 unity gain buffer to monitor 2
switched capacitor
LLZ (GP) CRS Width
trafo MUX 2 low Q audio 5 pole low pass detector analog input
isolated carrier bandpass antialiasing low pass
(LLZ only) LOC FFM 1 input

LOC FFM 2

LOC ant cable fault to monitor 1/2**


Freq. difference 1
(8kHz) 2x SPDT Stby
Freq. difference 2 Main
inside temp. amplifier for
temperature
outside temp. measurement to LG−A 1/2
obstr. lights buffer
2 2
Battery fuse monitoring buffer
to LCP
diverse input signals buffer

DME Key/DME Lock to/from ECU (LLZ only)


(LLZ only)

Fig. 3−25 LLZ/GP Monitor Interface (INTFC), principle block diagram

Ed. 01.10
01.04 SOAC 3−35
GP 422 ILS 420
Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description

3.3.4.2 Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LG−M)


See Fig. 3−26.
Signals transmitted from a localizer or glide path station must be constantly validated to ensure safe
landings. For this purpose, the LG−M can be seen as a high precision audio frequency spectrum
analyzer which continually measures and analyzes these signals, comparing their current values to
stored alarm limits. If a measured parameter is not within limits, the monitor signals an alarm condi-
tion. The monitored parameters are evaluated for the on−antenna executive and field groups and the
"hot" Standby group. The following sections describe the functions of an individual board unless
otherwise specified.
NOTE: Monitor and Audio Generator module commonality: The same module is used for the
Monitor and Audio functions. The difference is the dedicated individual firmware used
which defines the operation of the board. The audio and monitor functions are always
completely independent. Program updates are easily accommodated (see 3.3.4.2.1 ).
3.3.4.2.1 LG−M Hardware
The design meets all monitoring requirements by combining an advanced EPLD in conjunction with
an Intel 80C196 high−performance microcontroller. The design provides for measuring all required
analog and digital signals through multiplexed input and direct port input/output (I/O). The versatile
80C196 RISC−based microcontroller provides complex I/O and an instruction set suitable for both
computational and general−purpose use. Supporting circuitry for the 80C196 includes code
(FLASH, program storage) and data (SRAM) memory as well as nonvolatile data storage (EEPROM,
storage of station specific characteristics). The EPLD provides chip−select logic, Direct Memory Ac-
cess (DMA) interface to the SRAM for automatic sampled A/D conversion, automatic D/A conversion
for audio generation, a high−speed UART, and ROM−less booting of the FLASH programming
boot−loader program. EPLD based hardware−partitioning of the programming function prevents ac-
cidental FLASH programming. A time−tested minimal multitasking OS kernel allows partitioning the
software into separate functional tasks, easing the development and testing of the design and reduc-
ing design errors.
Program updates are easily accommodated by an on−board auto−boot sequencer. This sequencer
is activated by a specific sequence of the two switches on the front edge of the board. When activated,
the sequencer looks for the uploading of special boot software which will permit the processor to be
capable of writing to the Flash memory. The processor has write capability to the flash only while in
this special boot mode. Once the special boot software is uploaded, new application code can be
uploaded and stored.
The 80C196 microcontroller was selected based on its ideal combination of features for embedded
applications, including its internal I/O peripherals and its RISC based architecture which is optimized
for both high−speed mathematical computations (e.g. DSP) and general−purpose use (e.g. inter-
rupts and multitasking). The embedded software consists of a mix of compiled "C" language routines
and, for time−critical portions, assembly language routines. Its internal peripherals include a watch-
dog timer, two 16−bit general−purpose timers, a high−speed I/O subsystem, and a hold/hold ac-
knowledge bus protocol interface (used by the DMA). The 80C196’s high−level of integrated periph-
erals and its multi−feature advanced EPLD help it achieve the system requirements. Its increased
reliability is due to its reduced part count compared to other microprocessor or microcontroller imple-
mentations.
For signal processing, up to 32 analog inputs are available for signals and 8 analog inputs for refer-
ence inputs. Selected signal and reference inputs are fed to a monolithic, unity−gain differential am-
plifier for common mode noise rejection. The reference input can also be connected to a software−
controlled 0 to +10 Volt DAC controlled DC offset adjustment circuit to minimize a signal’s DC compo-
nent, to maximize its AC portion, and to increase the signals signal−to−noise ratio (SNR).

3−36 SOAC Ed. 01.10


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F
The accurate, high−speed 12−bit A/D has a dynamic range of ±10 Volts. Weak signals may be ampli-
fied by a software−controlled DAC gain amplifier to more closely achieve the A/D’s full−scale range.
The EPLD provides the ability to automatically sample an entire block of data, in 128−sample incre-
ments up to 1024 equally spaced samples, as needed for digital signal processing. Over−sampled
DC signals are averaged to provide resolution greater than 12 bits for various calibration operations.
The EPLD also provides logic for a high−speed (19,200 bps) serial interface. The transmit/receive
lines are buffered to normal EIA RS−232/ITU−V.23 levels for communication with the LCP. By main-
taining a versatile, high−level approach, the monitor meets the requirements for monitoring the local-
izer or glide path systems. This flexible approach provides features that are not available with an all−
hardware implementation.
NOTE: The LGx 120570−0004 is backward compatible to the LGx −0003 version and can be
used with former standard Export SW kits used by the 120570−0003.
The location of the two LG−M (transmitter 1 and 2) is shown in Fig. 3−6.

UART EPLD (1) Reset out (P2/c18)


Serial communication
to LRCI Auto−boot
sequencer

CPU Normal Audio on


3.3V clock
Board personality 2
Firmware LG−M
LG−A/LG−M
Flash program LG−M program
memory 1st data
memory
Firmware LG−M
(Firmware LG−M) 4
LG−M program Digital output to INTFC (MUX)
memory 1st data buffer

used in LG−M application


8
External signals Digital input Exec. Alarm
(e.g. ANT SEL, Shut down, ...) buffer RS 422 5 Stby Alarm
Digital output Field alarm
Integr. A Alarm
Integr. B Alarm
CPU Bus
Micro−Controller
MUX 80C196KB EEPROM
8 configuration
External signals Frequency memory
(e.g. DME KEY IN, INTFC_CLK,...) measure
station data,
config. data

Reset Debug communication

used in LG−A application


CSB/SBO
20 clock 1 CSB/2 SBO (I/Q)
External signals 3
(e.g. +24 V, +48 V, obstr. light, etc.) MUX
14.7456 MHz Course to MODPA ’s
3 Analog CLR/CSB2*
External Reference measure
signals RAM Analog wave 3
Clearance
data memory generator
Internal signals (8 DAC) Ident
(not with GP)
ADCS clock 2
see Fig. 3−27 Integrity
to ECU
EPLD (2)
timing control KEY_DME
Vcc (not with GP)
3.3V
* active GP only

Fig. 3−26 Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LG−M)

Ed. 01.10
01.04 SOAC 3−37
GP 422 ILS 420
Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description

3.3.4.2.2 LG−M functional Operation


See Fig. 3−26, 3−27.
On−board automatic calibration eliminates factory or field hardware adjustment of monitor and de-
tector paths. The monitor provides the capability to fully characterize its analog signal processing
through program−controlled adjustments, using a precision 5 Volt (±0.05 %) reference. Once its A/D
subsystem is characterized, the monitors are then capable of calibrating the detector path which pro-
vides accurate system measurements without factory or field manual hardware adjustments. The pre-
cision external reference is continuously cross−verified using the A/D’s internal precision reference.
Two modes exist for acquiring a digital representation of a selected analog signal. The 12−bit A/D
may be used to acquire either a single sample of a selected analog signal, or a block of conversions
of a selected signal may be acquired with virtually no processor overhead. The hardware−assisted
data conversion control and DMA are by an EPLD. The block size is selectable in 128−sample incre-
ments from 128 to 1024 samples and two different acquisition times are available: 7.58 and 30.72 kHz.

Each sample of converted data is transferred directly in the microcontroller’s data memory (SRAM)
using the hold/hold acknowledge bus arbitration protocol. The selection of which sampling mode is
used (block or single) on a given signal is based on the signal type (periodic or dc) and the analysis
to be performed on the result. The monitor cards have a high−speed (19,200 bps) Serial input/output
communication link with the LCP for access to the following setup parameters, commands, and sys-
tem status identifiers:

− alarm/prealarm limit entry and validation


− calibration results of monitor or detectors
− current executive, field, and/or hot standby parameter readings

from INTFC Data conversion control


Detector MUX output
1 measurement
signals Sample clock
5
and
32 input DMA−Logic (part of EPLD)
Signal input Signal−MUX Out
e.g. waveform 17
DC−values, etc
Start Stop
32 Conversion Conversion
1
Calibration voltage
− variable gain
for ADC Differential
amplifier In
8 bit DAC Out In 12 bit ADC 16 bit Data
8 inputs +
Ref.−MUX Out
block conversion/single sample
to
CPU−Data bus

8 CPU data latch (RAM)

Out 0 bis +10 V


DC−Offset CPU−Data bus
8 bit DAC

Ref
high accuracy
5 V Reference

AGND

Fig. 3−27 Monitor ADCS conceptual block diagram

3−38 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F
− Monitor Stabilization Time
The monitor stabilization time is the time it takes a monitor to measure and analyze any specific critical
input signal. A hardware−assisted data acquisition subsystem allows concurrent data processing
which reduces fault detection latency. The monitor processes signals sequentially, so it is necessary
to determine the number of signals processed each monitor cycle and the time it takes to process
them. The time it takes for a monitor to acquire and process each detected signal is shown in Fig.
3−28 a) for a single signal. The three timing components are:
S Ts is the 10 ms settling time of the audio−carrier demodulator and filter path (on the INTFC),
S Ta is the 33.333 ms A/D signal acquisition sampling time and
S Tp is the digital signal processing time (i.e. converting the time samples into DC+AC components,
performing scaling and calibration adjustments, plus alarm processing).
Now, since Tp is less than Ts, by preselecting the next signal immediately after the current signal has
been acquired, the Tp of the current signal may be made coincident with the Ts of the next signal.
Thus, the effective throughput is 10+33.333 ms or 43.333 ms, as shown in Fig. 3−28 b). Note that
this pipelined method produces the fastest processing throughput achievable for a single demodula-
tor−A/D converter system. Only the very first measurement has the burden of the extra 10 ms of set-
tling time, but it occurs within the power−up transition during the system stabilization period, and so
it is transparent to the system’s normal operation.
a) single A/D acquisition Ts Ta Tp
and signal processing times

b) Pipelined signal processing Ts Ta (signal A) Tp

Ts Ta (signal B) Tp

Fig. 3−28 Acquisition and processing times

Fig. 3−29 a) lists the set of detector signals processed for a LLZ−2F and GP−2F with Field and hot
Standby configured. The integrity signal is always processed (i.e. not configurable). The temporal im-
portance of these signals varies and is used to produce the resultant cycling of signals as listed in
Fig. 3−29 b). The worst case timing is for a LLZ−2F with executive nearfield monitoring, with five sig-
nal processing slots total. The "other" slot is multiplexed depending on the station’s configuration as
listed in Fig. 3−29 b). This ordering affects the throughput of those signal groups but not the critical
Executive signal group.
a) Monitor detector processing cycle
Item LLZ GP
1 Exec Course Position Exec Path Position
2 Exec Course Width Exec Path Width
3 Exec Course Clearance Width Exec Path Clearance Width
4 (executive) Near Field N/A
5 Other Other

b) measurement cycle within the "other" slot


Configuration Measurement types cycles
No Field or Standby Integrity → ADCS autocal → Integrity…
Field only Field → Integrity → Field → ADCS autocal → Field …
Standby only Integrity → ADCS autocal → Standby → Integrity…
Field & Standby Field → Integrity → Field → ADCS autocal → Field → Standby → Field …

Fig. 3−29 Monitor detector processing cycle and measurement cycle within the "other" slot

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 3−39


GP 422 ILS 420
Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description
Thus, for the worst case configuration (LLZ−2F with NFM), there are a total of 5 signals at about
43.333 ms each for a total of 216.67 ms. However, there is an additional overhead of about 25 ms in
the total processing (due to higher−priority task and interrupt service routine interrupts), so the actual
total is closer to 242 ms, or about 4 cycles per second. Thus, if any arbitrary Executive signal became
corrupt, it would take a maximum of a ¼ of a second to detect it. Similarly, it would take a minimum
of a ¼ of a second for the monitor to "recover" from the faulty signal on an equipment transfer.

− Fault Identification

Digital signal processing techniques provide system status with minimal time delay. To fully charac-
terize the valid operation of a localizer or glide slope station, a predefined set of signals must be mea-
sured and validated. The Thales monitor extracts the value of these parameters from the detected
analog signals using Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) for the time−to−frequency domain conver-
sion of the critical 90 and 150 Hz navigation signal components. Additionally, frequency (e.g. carrier
frequency) and/or period (e.g. carrier frequency difference) measurements are performed on se-
lected digital signals.

− Fail Safe

The ILS 420 (LLZ/GP) Monitor has numerous fail−safe checks for different aspects of its monitoring
operation. In general, a fail−safe trigger could potentially impact continuity−of−service or at least
level−of−service by, for instance, causing it to switch from CAT. III to CAT. II or CAT. I, at least momen-
tarily. The high−availability mode of the ILS 420 architecture relies on dual monitors which must agree
on alarm status (i.e. alarm−AND) before any control action is taken. Therefore, momentary "glitches"
on one monitor, even those resulting in a monitor reset (see below), should not result a transfer or
shutdown, since concurrent failures on both monitors are very improbable.

3−40 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F
3.3.4.3 Executive Control Unit (ECU)
See Fig. 3−30, 3−31.
The Executive Control Unit (ECU) is responsible for performing all the control actions of the station
(e.g. transfer, shutdown, bypass, etc.). The ECU is a state−machine built primarily from three EPLD’s.
Two critical EPLD’s are semi−redundant, although each has some unique inputs and outputs. These
semi−redundant EPLD’s must remain synchronized, and this synchronisation is monitored by a
missing−clock detector. Each Monitor reports its alarm status(es) to the ECU which then decides
what type of action, if any, to take based upon that status and other internal state information (e.g.
if the transmitters are on or not, if the alarm is bypassed or not, etc.). All noise susceptible control
inputs are digitally debounced in hardware. The alarm status reporting protocol between the Moni-
tors’ exec tasks and the ECU is a dynamic protocol (i.e. not level driven) as shown in Fig. 3−30. When
the Monitor detects the rising edge of the ECU status poll input, it must output one and only one posi-
tive edge on any of the five (5) status lines going to the ECU for each status that is normal. When
no edge is generated, the respective data group is considered to be in alarm. While this poll−re-
sponse protocol may add up to a 26.7 ms latency to the alarm response time, it is not susceptible
of the failure modes associated with level or even other edge−triggered mechanisms commonly
used. All ECU status I/O is polled (i.e. not interrupt driven) by the Monitors’ exec task. Thus, if the
Monitor software has a stuck interrupt or somehow hangs (i.e. prevents an alarm status report cycle),
the ECU will interpret this as an alarm condition and respond appropriately. This Monitor/ECU "hand-
shake" cycles every 26.67 ms (i.e. the ECU detects a dead Monitor within 26.67 ms).
NOTE: If the LLZ or GP installation shall be equipped with the ECU Ref. 120571−0003, e.g. for
replacement, it is allowed to use both the −0001 or 0002 and the new −0003 version to-
gether in one system. But, to get the benefit of the −0003 (e.g. advanced MIT−test) it is
recommended to replace and use the −0003 in both LLZ and GP of a runway system.
The location of the ECU is shown in Fig. 3−6.
tpoll = 26.667 ms
t1

ECU to Monitor poll


tR
tH
Monitor to ECU response

tR = tH = 1 ’tick’ (typical) A B C A
(A) Poll cycle begins on positive edge of ECU’s poll, soliciting Monitor’s status.
(B) Monitor generates one (and only one) positive edge of response pulse to indicate that the alarm status is normal, otherwise
the ECU assumes status is alarm.
(C) Monitor must remove normal status pulse (i.e. return low) before end of t1. The result of the previous status poll takes effect now.

Fig. 3−30 ECU to Monitor Status Polling


3.3.4.3.1 Executive Control Unit Action
A poll−response alarm status protocol assures fail−safe communications between the monitor and
the ECU. The primary purpose of the monitor is to identify out−of−tolerance transmitter signals and
pass this information to the ECU for possible corrective action. The Local Control Panel (LCP) pro-
vides all alarm local and remote status information. Alarm action depends on whether the ECU is con-
figured for alarm−AND (higher continuity of service) or alarm−OR (higher station integrity). Alarm−
AND requires that both Monitors indicate the same alarm before control action is initiated, while
alarm−OR initiates control action based on only one monitor’s status. Alarm control action results
in either a transfer to standby equipment (dual−equipment) or cessation of transmission (single
equipment of hot Standby in alarm) by the ECU based on monitor alarm indication.

Ed. 01.10
01.04 SOAC 3−41
GP 422 ILS 420
Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description
For "hot" standby equipment, if ECU control action results in the shut down of Standby equipment,
the system cannot enter CAT. III operation. Once a parameter fault is detected, a programmable time
delay (0 to 100 s in 0.01−second increments) is initiated within the monitor. Separate alarm timers
exist for Executive, (LLZ) Near Field, Field, and hot Standby parameter groups.

If the corresponding delay expires before the fault condition is cleared, an alarm condition exists for
that group and its corresponding alarm status is signaled to the ECU. The monitor provides a set of
edge−triggered alarm outputs (executive, field, standby, plus Integrity A and B) which indicate the
current state of the equipment. When the ECU requests alarm status from a monitor, the ECU sends
a positive−edge poll, and it must receive a positive−edge on the monitor status outputs that are not
in alarm. The monitor acknowledgment must occur within a 26.67 ms window to indicate a ‘normal’
status, otherwise the ECU interprets the status as an "alarm" indication. Station controls, as defined
in ICAO Annex 10, are implemented in the ECU. The total time that an out−of−tolerance signal is ra-
diated (i.e. on−antenna) is computed as a function of the monitor stabilization time and ECU equip-
ment transfer time (direct shutdown time is always shorter). The monitor is designed to comply with
the ICAO recommendation of 1 s when the monitor programmable alarm time delay is set to 0.
Implementation of dynamic, edge−triggered status protocol, versus a static status, protocol between
the monitors and ECU is but one of many fail−safe design features incorporated into the equipment.
To ensure the highest level of safety, the monitor response is not generated within an interrupt routine,
but is software−polled instead. Thus a monitor with stuck−interrupts cannot respond with a "normal"
alarm status. This protocol is immune to both short or open circuits and "streaming" on the commu-
nication signals as all are interpreted as an alarm indication.
The monitor’s ECU status watchdog:
The exec task (highest priority) reports Monitor alarm status to the ECU and verifies the update rate
of the Monitor’s EXEC, FIELD, STANDBY, and Integrity data measurements. The maximum ECU sta-
tus update periods is as follows:
Signal Group Must be updated no less than every ...
EXEC 0.5 s
FIELD 1.0 s
STANDBY 6.0 s
INTEGRITY 2.0 s
If these periods are not met, then the exec task forces the corresponding group’s status into alarm
on subsequent ECU status polls, regardless of the data task’s last reported value.
The ECU includes an interface for collocation with a DME equipment. For GP this interface is not used.
− Integrity test
The purpose of the Integrity test is to verify the Monitor’ ability to measure signals and perform alarm
processing. The ILS 420 does this in a innovative way that is more comprehensive than prior methods
employed by any other ILS equipment. Each LG−A produces two special Integrity signals (A and B).
These signals are routed to the ECU. The Integrity signals from the on−antenna equipment are then
toggled between signals A and B and fed as one signal into the Monitors’ Integrity input. While the
Monitor measures only one Integrity signal input, it must apply two distinct sets of limits to this single
measurement. The signals and limits are designed so that, when the limits are applied to the current
Integrity signal input, only one set of limits has no parameters in alarm. The ECU times the re-
sponses of the Integrity signal changes sent to the Monitors, and if the Monitors do not issue the cor-
rect response within the ECU’s hard−coded time limit, then the Monitor is declared to be in Integrity
alarm. An Integrity alarm may cause the ECU to initiate executive control action, depending on
whether the ECU is configured for alarm−AND or alarm−OR operation.

3−42 SOAC Ed. 01.10


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F

Oscillator UART
RSCU Control ** FFM1
serial communication Status FFM2
Bypass On/Off toggle
to/from RSCU

UART Shutdown 1A (SYN)


serial communication LCP Control Status
Redundant Shutdown 1B (LG−A)
to/from LCP Bypass On/Off toggle
Shutdown Shutdown 2A (SYN)

Shutdown 2B (LG−A)
Oscillator
Mon 1 pres
System
TX1 pres configuration
Mon 2 pres
TX2 pres Station Control
1st Antenna Select
Bypass 1
from LG−M 1/2 via SOAC to
PIN−diode
Integrity A1 transfer switch
Integrity B1
Integrity A2 Integ. detector
Integrity B2

Field Alarm 1
Field Alarm 2
Standby Alarm 1

Standby Alarm 2
Station Control
Configuration switch Bypass 2
2nd

Main 1
Lock Bypass

OR enable Integ. detector


Hot Stby Status poll
combiner
Field enable

Field executive
Com Shutdown
DME Bypass
OR enable

Bypass 3 safety shutdown


Executive Alarm 1
Executive on
Executive Alarm 2 Off Tx1/Tx2
clck fail detect. Start clock

Status poll 1
Buffer LG−M 1
Status poll 2
LG−M 2
Integrity test signal A 1
Integrity test signal B1 Monitor 1 integrity test signal
from LG−A 1/2 Integrity test signal to LG−M 1/2
Integrity test signal A2 Monitor 2 integrity test signal

Integrity test signal B2 Antenna Select

DME Key 1/2 DME Ident* DME−Key


to/from INTFC
EXEC_OFF
DME Bypass DME Interlock* DME−Lock
DME Indep./Associated

** used for special application only * LLZ only

Fig. 3−31 Executive Control Unit (ECU), block diagram

Ed. 01.10
01.04 SOAC 3−43
GP 422 ILS 420
Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description

3−44 SOAC Ed. 01.10


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F
3.3.4.4 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC)
See Fig. 3−32, 3−33, 3−34, 3−37.
The Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC) unit processes the ILS monitor signals both for Localizer and
Glide Path. For the Glide Path, it contains the function of an integral network which combines the input
antenna sensor signals to farfield equivalent signals for position and width, and clearance. The SOAC
operates in principal with a down−conversion technique which results in 8 kHz intermediate signals
for further processing. Fig. 3−32 shows the basic functions, Fig. 3−37 the design of the SOAC.
In LLZ, the RF signal is supplied by the Integral Network (Dipole/Reflector antenna) located in the ADU
as pre−combined CRS Posn., CRS Width, CLR Width signals or CSB, SBO, CLR from DUCU (LPD
antenna). For GP, the input signals are supplied from the probes of antennas A1, A2, A3. In addition
there is the optional nearfield monitor signal (NFM). These signals become converted to 8 kHz and
output without additional processing other than a level adjustment (for LLZ) or combined to Posn.,
Width and Clear. (GP and LLZ LPD−antenna). Fig. 3−33 and 3−34 indicate the block diagram show-
ing the RF and IF processing. The Input RF signals containing Course and Clearance frequencies are
routed via a power divider to separate down conversion mixers. These are designated the "Course"
and "Clearance" mixers. For the Course down conversion, the CLR RF carrier frequency is used as
the local oscillator signal. Similarly, for the Clearance down conversion, the CRS RF carrier frequency
is used as the local oscillator signal. The RF frequency of these signals is separated by 8 kHz. The
local oscillator frequencies are derived from the same frequency synthesizer used to generate the RF
transmitter carrier frequencies. The output of the Course mixer consists of the Course RF input spec-
trum down converted to an 8 kHz intermediate frequency (IF) while the Clearance signal spectrum
is translated to an IF centered on 0 Hz. Similarly, the Clearance mixer outputs the clearance RF input
frequency to an IF centered at 8 kHz and the Course RF input is output at an IF centered on 0 Hz.
High pass filters at the output of each mixer attenuate the DC and 90 Hz and 150 Hz components of
the undesired signal and pass the desired 8 kHz IF signals. The 8 kHz IF signals are processed to
create the appropriate monitoring signals which are fed via the INTFC board to the monitor 1 and 2.
The location of the Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC) is shown in Fig. 3−6.
* and LLZ with LPD−antenna
** with LLZ and Dipole/reflector Posn./CRS
antenna GP *
Integral Network Path Width

1) Clearance

GP A1/LLZ CRS Posn. Posn./CRS via INTFC to


Antenna system LG−M 1/2
Integral Network (LLZ)** GP A2/LLZ Width Width
Integral Sensors (LLZ)* On−Air down converter
GP A3/LLZ CLR Width combiner Clearance

NFM Input NFM output

SYN TX1 via MODPA (CLR) Clearance frequency Course frequency SYN TX1 via MODPA (CRS)
(CRS L.O.) (CLR L.O.) SYN TX2 via MODPA (CRS)
SYN TX2 via MODPA(CLR)
DC supply in
DC Transfer control
from ECU

RF aerial Stby GP CRS CSB A2 Posn./CRS via INTFC to


LG−M 1/2
Stby CRS CSB/GP A1 Standby down concverter Width
RF Stby combiner
Stby CRS SBO/GP A3 Clearance
PIN−diode Transfer Switch Stby CLR CSB

Stby CLR SBO*

1) with GP−2F active

Fig. 3−32 Stby and On−Air Combiner, overview

Ed. 10.04
01.04 SOAC 3−45
GP 422 ILS 420
Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description

3.3.4.4.1 Operation of a typical Down Conversion Channel (On−air)


See Fig. 3−33, 3−34.
The following section describes the main functions of the Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC).
Hereby some functional parts used in GP applications are also described which are not used in LLZ.
The combiner consists of a number of identical down converter channels which may be configured
to monitor both the on−air and standby transmitters of a dual frequency Localizer or Glide Path. Op-
eration of all channels is essentially the same, with the major difference being that the on−air monitor
channels have more gain and dynamic range than the channels for monitoring of the standby trans-
mitter. The operation of a typical channel (example: "A3 Input") is described in the following. This
channel is used for monitoring either the A3 antenna of a Glide Path, or the CRS WIDTH Input from
a Localizer combiner. The signal routing is defined with jumper bank J19, set for GP to ’3−4’ or ’1−2’.
Signals are Input at J7 and routed to a power splitter. The power splitter is used to make a portion
of the signal available to the clearance down converter for certain applications, such as monitoring
the clearance level at A3 of an M−array (GP only). This option is selected with jumpers (JP11). After
the power splitter means are provided to adjust the dynamic range of the down converter to handle
the specified −46 to +17 dBm RF input range. Coarse adjustment of the RF level is accomplished
with two fixed 10 dB aftenuators which may be switched in or out by means of jumpers (JP7,8). In
addition, other jumpers (JP9,10) enable selection of either a −5 dB attenuator or an amplifier having
a gain of +15 dB. Thus a total adjustment range of −25 to +15 dB of gain is provided. This is sufficient
to ensure that the mixer operates well within its dynamic range under all input signal conditions.
From JP10 the signal is routed to the down conversion mixer, and converted to the 8 kHz intermediate
frequency (IF). Passing a passive RF filter the signal is fed to R43. This potentiometer provides fine
adjustment of the signal level on the output of the mixer. It enables continuous adjustment of the IF
level over a 20 dB dynamic range. From the IF gain control, the 8 kHz IF signal is routed to a high pass
active filter having a 2 kHz cut off frequency, and a gain of 20 dB. This filter rejects the undesired 90
and 150 Hz components. Next the signal is routed to a low pass filter with a 20 kHz cut off frequency.
These stages provide an additional gain of 18 dB. The combination of the 2 kHz high pass and 20
kHz low pass filters provide a band pass response which is very flat at the 8 kHz IF frequency and
which rolls off sharply at 150 Hz and 50 kHz. Attenuation of signals above 20 kHz is desirable to avoid
interference from nearby transmitters, or the transfer switch power supply which operates at 50 kHz.
From the filters, the signal is routed to a temperature compensation circuit which is required to over-
come a slight variation in conversion loss of the mixer’s with temperature. Increasing temperature re-
sults in slightly less output from the mixers. The temperature compensation circuit is simply a voltage
divider with a negative temperature coefficient thermistor connected to increase the input to the op-
erational amplifier as temperature increases.
From the temperature compensation circuit, the 8 kHz signal is routed different ways for GP and LLZ
depending on the configuration selected. For LLZ it is routed as fixed phase signal via switch S5 to
a fixed phase network and then to a adjustable phase shifter network (R166) which allows phase com-
pensation during field alignment. The signal is next fed to the output (TP53) as CRS WIDTH adjustable
via R383 and R382.
For GP applications the signal is routed to an adjustable phase shift network (not used in LLZ), which
is used in conjunction with similar networks in the A1 and A2 channels, to remove any differences in
the phase shift of the three down converter channels. To do this an initial phase shifter is introduced
which produces an adjustable lag (with R150) which is nominally 90°. This is done as part of the fac-
tory test process. Following the signal is routed to a second adjustable phase shifter which is used
to phase match the monitor signals during system installation. The phase is adjusted with R146 which
provides an adjustment range of +62° to −62°. This allows to match the phase difference of two
channels (e.g. A3,A2) to 0° measured between TP9 and TP13.

3−46 SOAC Ed. 10.04


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F
A3−RF JP36 JP37,38 fact. align. field align. TP31
JP39,40 Temp. comp. phase calibr. Phase adj. TP27
RF A3 in (GP) IF gain Filter S7 TP39
TP71 TP25 A
R286
CLR Width In mixer out
R353 R345 B

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
LLZ: only 2 kHz 20 kHz CLR Width1
J18 −10 dB +15/−5 dB
−10 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead GP CLR
control* R343
TP26

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
SBO phase inversion

TP29

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
A1−RF +/−
JP31 JP32,33 JP34,35 Filter Temp. comp. R327
IF gain TP37
LLZ only TP24
R275

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
CLR Width2 in mixer out
2 kHz 20 kHz CLR Width2
J17 −10 dB +15/−5 dB
−10 dB
control*
fact. align. field align. TP62
phase calibr. Phase adj. R377
JP7,8 JP9,10 Filter Temp. comp. B R372
TP51
IF gain
R43 TP8 TP6 out
LLZ: A
mixer S1
CRS Width In R150 R146 CRS Posn.
2 kHz 20 kHz
(GP: A3 input) −10 dB +15/−5 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead TP9 A3+A1
J7 −10 dB fixed TP60 S3
phase ctrl* TP7 A S4 S8
B A
JP11 A3 IF A
A3−RF S2 A T61 fixed phase B B
B
+/−
JP12,13 JP14,15 Filter Temp. comp. field align. A3 IF control* control*
IF gain Phase adj.
TP12
R62 S5 TP10 TP13
GP−2F only mixer B
fixed
2 kHz 20 kHz TP64 TP63
(GP: A2 input) −10 dB +15/−5 dB
phase R166
A R379
J8 −10 dB fixed
control* nom. 90° 90° lead
phase
TP11
A1 IF R383
fact. align. field align.
JP16,17 JP18,19 Temp. comp. phase calibr. Phase adj.
IF gain Filter
TP16 TP14 TP17 S6 TP65
R90 TP66
LLZ: mixer A

CRS Posn. In R189 R185 TP53


2 kHz 20 kHz B
(GP: A1 input) −10 dB +15/−5 dB
J9 −10 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead out
TP15 CRS Width
A1−RF JP20 R386
control* R382 A1+A2+A3
A1
A2
JP22 JP23,24 Filter Temp. comp. A3
IF gain
TP18 CLR TP41
R105
NFM In mixer out
2 kHz 20 kHz CRS NF
J10 −10 dB +15/−5 dB

5V J19 local oscillator transfer switch On−Air Combiner path


TP55 Ant. config. signal processing select J3
J20 Clearance SYN TX1 via MODPA (CLR)
1 2 M−Array standard JP6
frequency J1
M−Array TSIS (CRS L.O.)
JP1 SYN TX2 via MODPA(CLR)
24V1 S−Band reference
Null reference S1
24V2
Transfer control from ECU
DF LLZ det mode 5V A COM
J13
DF LLZ int width B Course SYN TX1 via MODPA (CRS)
frequency JP30
spare J11
J21 Transfer control 0V: A −− COM (CLR L.O.) SYN TX2 via MODPA (CRS)
15 16 spare S1 S3 5V: B −− COM JP25

field align.
JP44,45 IF gain Filter Temp. comp. TP77 TP74
Stby combiner path
GP−2F active only R511
mixer
Stby CSB A2 R524
2 kHz JP46
−15/−10 dB TP75 phase adj.
J47 TP1 TP47
JP2,3 TP76
IF gain Filter Temp. comp. out
Stby CRS CSB R2 TP72 CS Stby Posn.
mixer
Stby CSB A1 R123 CSB
−15/−10 dB 2 kHz R499
J2 TP2
fact. align.
CSB phase adj. out
R133
field align. TP49
CS Stby Width
SBO Phase adj. CSB2+CSB1+SBO
TP5 +/−
Temp. comp. Phase alignment:
JP4,5 Filter
IF gain R136 TP5/TP1: A1 − A3 relative phase = 0°
Stby CRS SBO R25 SBO phase TP73
mixer inversion
Stby SBO A3 −10 dB 2 kHz
TP3
J6 −10 dB TP4 fact. align.
JP26,27 Temp. comp. CSB phase adj.
IF gain Filter
TP19
R217
Stby CLR CSB mixer
R305 TP34
Stby CLR −15/−10 dB 2 kHz
J12 TP20
R312 out

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
CLR Stby
field align.
SBO Phase adj.

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
TP23 +/−
JP28,29 Filter Temp. comp.

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
IF gain R318
R240
Stby CLR SBO mixer SBO phase
(LLZ only) −10 dB 2 kHz inversion
J16 TP21
−10 dB TP22 *used for switch control

Fig. 3−33 Stby and On−Air Combiner, block diagram, active M−array configuration selected

Ed. 01.04 SOAC 3−47


GP 422 ILS 420
Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description
A3−RF JP36 JP37,38 fact. align. field align. TP31
JP39,40 Temp. comp. phase calibr. Phase adj. TP27
RF A3 in (GP) IF gain Filter S7 TP39
TP71 TP25 A
R286
CLR Width In mixer out
R353 R345 B

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
LLZ: only J18 −10 dB +15/−5 dB 2 kHz 20 kHz CLR Width1
−10 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead control* R343
TP26

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
SBO phase inversion

TP29

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
A1−RF +/−
JP31 JP32,33 JP34,35 Filter Temp. comp. R327
IF gain TP37
LLZ only TP24
R275

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
CLR Width2 in mixer out
2 kHz 20 kHz CLR Width2
J17 −10 dB +15/−5 dB
−10 dB
control*
fact. align. field align. TP62
phase calibr. Phase adj. R377
JP7,8 JP9,10 Filter Temp. comp. B R372
TP51
IF gain
R43 TP8 TP6 out
LLZ: A
mixer S1
CRS Width In R150 R146 CRS Posn.
2 kHz 20 kHz
(GP: A3 input) −10 dB +15/−5 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead TP9 A3+A1
J7 −10 dB fixed TP60 S3
phase ctrl* TP7 A S4 S8
B A
JP11 A3 IF A
A3−RF S2 A T61 fixed phase B B
B
+/−
JP12,13 JP14,15 Filter Temp. comp. field align. control* control*
IF gain Phase adj.
TP12
R62 S5 TP10 TP13 A2 IF
GP−2F only mixer B
fixed TP64 TP63 A1+A3 IF
(GP: A2 input) 2 kHz 20 kHz phase
−10 dB +15/−5 dB A R166 R379
J8 −10 dB fixed
control* nom. 90° 90° lead
phase
TP11
A1 IF R383
fact. align. field align.
JP16,17 JP18,19 Temp. comp. phase calibr. Phase adj.
IF gain Filter
TP16 TP14 TP17 S6 TP65
R90 TP66
LLZ: mixer A

CRS Posn. In R189 R185 TP53


2 kHz 20 kHz B
(GP: A1 input) −10 dB +15/−5 dB
J9 −10 dB nom. 90° lag 90° lead out
TP15 CRS Width
A1−RF JP20 R386
control* R382 A1+A2+A3
A1
A2
JP22 JP23,24 Filter Temp. comp. A3
IF gain
TP18 CLR TP41
R105
NFM In mixer out
2 kHz 20 kHz CRS NF
J10 −10 dB +15/−5 dB

5V J19 local oscillator transfer switch On−Air Combiner path


TP55 Ant. config. signal processing select J3
J20 2 Clearance SYN TX1 via MODPA (CLR)
1 M−Array standard JP6
frequency J1
M−Array TSIS (CRS L.O.)
JP1 SYN TX2 via MODPA(CLR)
24V1 S−Band reference
Null reference S1
24V2
Transfer control from ECU
DF LLZ det mode 5V A COM
J13
DF LLZ int width B Course SYN TX1 via MODPA (CRS)
frequency JP30
spare J11
0V: A −− COM

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
J21 Transfer control 15 16 spare S1 S3 (CLR L.O.) SYN TX2 via MODPA (CRS)
5V: B −− COM JP25

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
field align.
JP44,45 IF gain Filter Temp. comp. TP77 TP74
Stby combiner path
GP−2F active only R511

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
mixer
Stby CSB A2 R524
2 kHz JP46
−15/−10 dB TP75 phase adj.
J47 TP1 TP47
JP2,3 TP76
IF gain Filter Temp. comp. out
Stby CRS CSB R2 TP72 CS Stby Posn.
mixer
Stby CSB R123 CSB
−15/−10 dB 2 kHz R499
J2 TP2
fact. align.
CSB phase adj. out
R133
field align. TP49
CS Stby Width
SBO Phase adj. CSB+SBO
TP5 +/−
Temp. comp. Phase alignment:
JP4,5 Filter
IF gain R136 TP5/TP1: A1 − A3 relative phase = 0°
Stby CRS SBO R25
SBO phase TP73
mixer inversion
Stby SBO −10 dB 2 kHz
TP3
J6 −10 dB TP4 fact. align.
JP26,27 Temp. comp. CSB phase adj.
IF gain Filter
TP19
R217
Stby CLR CSB mixer
R305 TP34
Stby CLR J12 −15/−10 dB 2 kHz TP20
R312 out

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
CLR Stby Width
field align.
SBO Phase adj.

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
TP23 +/−
JP28,29 Filter Temp. comp.

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
IF gain R318
R240
Stby CLR SBO mixer SBO phase
(LLZ only) −10 dB 2 kHz inversion
J16 TP21
−10 dB TP22 *used for switch control

Fig. 3−34 Stby and On−Air Combiner, block diagram, standard M−array configuration selected

3−48 SOAC Ed. 01.04


ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F
Test point TP7 is provided to enable the installer to determine the center point of the adjustment range
of by connecting an Ohmmeter from the test point to ground. This measurement may be made with
the system powered because the wiper of the potentiometer is grounded. When the resistance from
TP7 to ground is 3.7k the wiper is at the center of the available phase adjustment range. Due to the
non linear change in phase with resistance, the electrical center of the phase adjustment range is not
the physical center of the resistance adjustment range. Each phase adjustment on the combiner bo-
ard has a similar test point to enable the installer to determine the center point of the phase adjustment
range and, by noting the resistance, approximately how much phase shift has been introduced.

3.3.4.4.2 Standby Channels


See Fig. 3−33, 3−34.
Operation of the standby transmitter monitor converter channels is similar to the on−air channels.
The notable exceptions being that less gain is required and the IF does not have a 20 kHz low pass
filter. A low pass filter is not required due to the benign interference situation resulting from the direct
connection between the Standby transmitter and the Standby combiner circuits. The arrangement
of the phase shifters in the course and clearance standby converter lF pathes are different, but the
operational concept is the same. In all cases there is a factory alignment which takes out any differ-
ence in down conversion phase tracking between channels (e.g. R123, R305) and a "field" phase ad-
justment (e.g. R136, R524*) to phase the monitor during installation. For monitoring the active Glide
Path standby transmitter, three standby down converters are required: CSB1/A1, SBO, CSB2/A2.
JP46 must be set to enable the A2 channel for active GP (not used in LLZ).
(* GP−2F active only)

3.3.4.4.3 Antenna Configuration Signal Processing Selection


See Fig. 3−33, 3−34, 3−35.
The outputs of the three on−air combiner channels are routed, either directly from the IF output, or
from the outputs of the phase shifters, by means of analog switches which send the signals to the
combining network. To simplify setup of the combiner for a particular antenna type, a single jumper
is installed between two pins of J19. This, in conjunction with the diode matrix is sufficient to set all
of analog switches to the correct position for each supported antenna configuration. Depending upon
the system configuration, Glide Path or Localizer, and antenna array type, this network is configured
to provide the required combining functions. In the case of a GP−2F (M−Type) the input signals of
A1 IN, A2 IN and A3 IN are combined to the signal CRS Width. The presence of a real diode causes
+5 V to be applied to the related switch and that causes the switch (S1 to S8) to be changed from
A− COM to B− COM. The setting for the active and standard GP−2F M−Type is shown in Fig. 3−35.
J19/3−4 "M−array TSIS" (GP−2F active or standard): J19/1−2 "M−array (GP−2F standard only):

Switch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Switch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Path A x x x x x x Path A x x x x x x x
Path B x x Path B x
GP−2F active: Diode CR10 (for S1) must not be assembled!

Fig. 3−35 J19, example switch setting for GP−2F active and standard M−Array mode

3.3.4.4.4 Local Oscillator Switching and Distribution


See Fig. 3−33.
The local oscillator signals for the mixers are obtained from output connectors on the RF power ampli-
fiers (MODPA). These signals are routed to input connectors on the SOAC. Two signals are required,
one from TX1, and one from TX2. From the input connector the LO signal is routed to a jumper which
either passes it directly to the LO transfer switch or to a resistive RF sampling network.

Ed. 10.04
01.04 SOAC 3−49
GP 422 ILS 420
Monitor Subassemblies GP−2F Equipment Description
In ILS 420, the signal is sent directly to the LO transfer switch by setting the jumpers. The expected
LO power with this connection is −5 (±5) dBrn and is not at all critical because the LO amplifier oper-
ates in saturation. The LO transfer switch is controlled by a logic signal (TRAN−1−ON−LOW). When
this signal is ’low’, TX1 is on the antenna and the TX1 LO signals are sent to the on−air combiner down
converters, while the TX2 LO signals are sent to the standby down converters. This signal may be
monitored at TP55. The LO signals are amplified to obtain the required LO power for the mixers. All
LO signals are distributed in shielded phase matched 50 Ohm strip lines run on an inner layer of the
printed circuit board. The logic signal is also fed through to the PIN−diode transfer switch.
3.3.4.4.5 DC supply for PIN−Diode Transfer Switch
The 24 V supply for the PIN−diode transfer switch is "ORed" on the SOAC board by diodes.
CAUTION
Do not accidentally ground these diodes by a scope probe ground lead or other test lead.
3.3.4.4.6 Additional Functions
Additional functions, i.e. optional phase detector operation, are implemented in the SOAC which con-
cern the GP system only. This measurement feature is selected with JP43. JP41 and potentiometer
R485 are used in this application. The phase detector provides phase measurement of A2, A3
compared to fixed phase of A1. The output signal (TP86) is a DC−voltage which is proportional to
the phase difference of the two input signals. The out signal is supplied at the BP−Digital to the moni-
tors but not evaluated as standard.
JP43 TP67 phase zero adjustment 8 kHz squaring amplifier Phase detector Phase detector out
1 2 R485 TP69
A1−IF−adj. phase
IN
A1−fixed phase TP68
CLR A1 fixed phase JP41
adjustable 90° lead
0° to BP−digital, J18:
CLR A3 fixed phase
20 Hz 25 CSC_PHS_DET_A
A3−IF adj. phase
180° 26_CSC_PHS_DET_B
A3−IF fixed phase 1 V = 10° phase difference
TP70 or relative phase change
A2 fixed phase
A2/A3−IF adj. phase
15 16

Fig. 3−36 GP phase detector application (optional)


RF connectors rear: CRS Stby CRS Stby CRS Stby
GP Nearfield A1 A2 A3 A1 CSB1 CSB A2 SBO A3 CLR Stby

LLZ Nearfield CRS Posn.. CRS Width CRS Stby CRS Stby CLR Width(2) CLR Width(1) CLR Stby CLR Stby
CSB SBO SBO CSB

J10 J9 J8 J7 J2 J47 J6 J17 J18 J16 J12

J4 R485 J14

J1 RFcwCLR TX2 J11 RFcwCRS TX2


TP67

R2 R511 R25 R240 R217


R105 R275 R286
R90 R62 R43

RFcwCLR TX1 TP69


J3 J13 RFcwCRS TX1

J5 TP70 J15
R382 JP41 R318 R305
R123 R136 R327
R353
R166 R150 R133
R189 TP68 R345 R312
R383
R372
R499 R343
R386 R185
R379 R146
1 2
TP71

J19 R524
R377

TP62 TP66 TP60 TP61 TP18 TP14 TP13 TP10 TP7 TP6 TP2 TP1 TP5 JP43 TP24 TP25 TP22 TP19

TP65 TP59 TP63 TP64 TP15 TP17 TP16 TP11 TP12 TP9 TP8 TP3 TP4 TP56 TP57 TP58 TP55 TP29 TP26 TP27 TP31 TP21 TP23 TP20
GND TP74 TP76 TP72 GND

J20 TP30 TP53 TP47 TP49 TP37 J21 TP39 TP34


TP41 TP77 TP75 TP73 TP51

Fig. 3−37 Stby and On−Air Combiner (SOAC), front view

3−50 SOAC Ed. 10.04


01.04
ILS 420 GP 422
Equipment Description LRCI Subassemblies
3.3.5 LRCI Subassemblies

The local remote communication interface functional unit (LRCI) is the focal point for communication
between the various functional groups, the local control panel (LCP) and the remote control. The LRCI
consists of the following subassemblies:

− Local Control Panel (LCP)


− Modem for dedicated line (LGM1200MD, Party Line)
− Modem for switched line (LGM 28.8)

Each installation contains an LCP, which controls the LRCI functions and is responsible for local con-
trol and the local main status of the station. In addition to the serial interfaces for communication with
the monitor and transmitter processors (LG−M and LG−A) and the Executive Control Unit (ECU), it
has RS232 interfaces for connecting locally to a standard PC that is loaded with the PC User Program
software, and it controls communication with the remote site via the modems