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SECTION 5.

7 Nonprismatic Beams 321

Nonprismatic Beams

Problem 5.7-1 A tapered cantilever beam AB of length L has square


cross sections and supports a concentrated load P at the free end (see B
figure on the next page). The width and height of the beam vary linearly
A
from hA at the free end to hB at the fixed end. hA
Determine the distance x from the free end A to the cross section of
maximum bending stress if hB  3hA. What is the magnitude max of the hB
x
maximum bending stress? What is the ratio of the maximum stress to the
P
largest stress B at the support?
L

Solution 5.7-1 Tapered cantilever beam


P

A B

x
L

SQUARE CROSS SECTIONS CROSS SECTION OF MAXIMUM STRESS


hA  height and width at smaller end
ds1
hB  height and width at larger end Set 0 Evaluate the derivative, set it equal
hx  height and width at distance x dx
to zero, and solve for x.
hB
3 L
hA x
4
x 2x
hx  hA  (hB  hA ) ¢ ≤  hA ¢ 1  ≤
L L MAXIMUM BENDING STRESS
1 h3A 2x 3
Sx  (hx ) 3  ¢ 1  ≤ 4PL
6 6 L smax  (s1 ) xL4 
9(hA ) 3
STRESS AT DISTANCE x
Mx 6Px Ratio of max to B
s1  
Sx 2x 3 smax
(hA ) 3 ¢ 1  ≤ 2
L sB
AT END A: x  0 A  0
AT SUPPORT B: x  L
2PL
sB 
9(hA ) 3
322 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams (Basic Topics)

Problem 5.7-2 A tall signboard is supported by two vertical


beams consisting of thin-walled, tapered circular tubes (see
figure). For purposes of this analysis, each beam may be P = 2.4 kN
represented as a cantilever AB of length L  8.0 m subjected B
Wind A
to a lateral load P  2.4 kN at the free end. The tubes have
load
constant thickness t  10.0 mm and average diameters
dA  90 mm and dB  270 mm at ends A and B, respectively. x
Because the thickness is small compared to the diameters, L = 8.0 m
the moment of inertia at any cross section may be obtained
t = 10.0 mm
from the formula I  d 3t/8 (see Case 22, Appendix D), and
therefore the section modulus may be obtained from the
formula S  d 2t/4.
At what distance x from the free end does the maximum
bending stress occur? What is the magnitude max of the dA = 90 mm dB = 270 mm
maximum bending stress? What is the ratio of the maximum
stress to the largest stress B at the support?

Solution 5.7-2 Tapered circular tube

P
B t
A

x
d
L

P  2.4 kN AT END A: x  0 1  A  0
L  8.0 m
AT SUPPORT B: x  L  8.0 m
t  10 mm
1  B  33.53 MPa
d  average diameter
At end A: dA  90 mm CROSS SECTION OF MAXIMUM STRESS
At support B: dB  270 mm
ds1
Set 0 Evaluate the derivative, set it equal to
dx
AT DISTANCE x:
zero, and solve for x.
x x 2x
dx  dA  (dB  dA ) ¢ ≤  90  180  90 ¢ 1  ≤ L
L L L x  4.0 m
2
  2x 2
Sx  (dx ) 2 (t)  (90) 2 ¢ 1  ≤ (10)
4 4 L MAXIMUM BENDING STRESS
2
2x 2400(4.0)
 20,250 ¢ 1  ≤ Sx  mm3 smax  (s1 ) xL2 
L (20.25 )(1  1) 2
Mx  Px  2400x x  meters, Mx  N  m  37.73 MPa
Mx 2400x smax 9
s1   2 L  meters, s1  MPa RATIO OF max to B   1.125
Sx 2x sB 8
20.25 ¢ 1  ≤
L
SECTION 5.7 Nonprismatic Beams 323

Problem 5.7-3 A tapered cantilever beam AB having


P = 50 lb
rectangular cross sections is subjected to a concentrated load
P  50 lb and a couple M0  800 lb-in. acting at the free end A M0 = 800 lb-in. B
(see figure). The width b of the beam is constant and equal to hA = hB =
2.0 in. 3.0 in.
1.0 in., but the height varies linearly from hA  2.0 in. at the
loaded end to hB  3.0 in. at the support. x
At what distance x from the free end does the maximum b = 1.0 in.
L = 20 in. b = 1.0 in.
bending stress max occur? What is the magnitude max of the
maximum bending stress? What is the ratio of the maximum
stress to the largest stress B at the support?

Solution 5.7-3 Tapered cantilever beam


P
M0
P  50 lb AT END A: x  0 1  A  1200 psi
M0  800 lb-in.
A B L  20 in. AT SUPPORT B: x  L  20 in. 1  B  1200 psi
x hA  2.0 in.
CROSS SECTION OF MAXIMUM STRESS
L hB  3.0 in.
b  1.0 in. ds1
Set 0 Evaluate the derivative, set it equal to
dx
UNITS: pounds and inches zero, and solve for x.

AT DISTANCE x: x  8.0 in.

x x x MAXIMUM BENDING STRESS


hx  hA  (hB  hA )  2  (1) ¢ ≤  2  (120,000)(24)
L L L smax  (s1 ) x8.0   1250 psi
(48) 2
bh2x b x 2 1 x 2
Sx   ¢2  ≤  ¢2  ≤
6 6 L 6 L RATIO OF max TO B
Mx  Px  M0  (50)(x)  800  50(16  x)
smax 1250 25
Mx 50(16  x)(6) 120,000(16  x)    1.042
sB 1200 24
s1   
Sx x 2 (40  x) 2
¢2  ≤
L

Problem 5.7-4 The spokes in a large flywheel are modeled as beams P = 15 kN


fixed at one end and loaded by a force P and a couple M0 at the other M0 = 12 kN· m B
(see figure). The cross sections of the spokes are elliptical with major
and minor axes (height and width, respectively) having the lengths A
shown in the figure. The cross-sectional dimensions vary linearly from x
end A to end B. L = 1.10 m
Considering only the effects of bending due to the loads P and M0,
determine the following quantities: (a) the largest bending stress A at
end A; (b) the largest bending stress B at end B; (c) the distance x to
the cross section of maximum bending stress; and (d) the magnitude
hA = 90 mm hB = 120 mm
max of the maximum bending stress.

bA = 60 mm
bB = 80 mm
324 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams (Basic Topics)

Solution 5.7-4 Elliptical spokes in a flywheel

M0
A B
x
L = 1.10 m

P  15 kN  15,000 N (a) AT END A: x  0


M0  12 kN  m  12,000 N  m
(80  109 )(0.8)
L  1.1 m sA  (s1 ) x0   251.5  106 Nm2
(3)(27)
UNITS: Newtons, meters  251.5 MPa
AT END A: bA  0.06 m, hA  0.09 m
(b) AT END B: x  L  1.1 m
AT SUPPORT B: bB  0.08 m, hB  0.12 m
(80  109 )(0.8  1.1)
AT DISTANCE x: sB  (s1 ) xL 
(3)(3  1) 3
x x x
bx  bA  (bB  bA )  0.06  0.02  0.02 ¢ 3  ≤  252.0  106 N/m2  252.0 MPa
L L L
x x x (c) CROSS SECTION OF MAXIMUM STRESS
hx  hA  (hB  hA )  0.09  0.03  0.03 ¢ 3  ≤
L L L ds1
Set 0 Evaluate the derivative, set it equal to
 dx
Case 16, Appendix D: I  (bh3 ) zero, and solve for x.
64
x  0.45 m
 Ix bxh2x
Ix  (bx )(hx ) 3Sx  
64 hx 2 32 (d) MAXIMUM BENDING STRESS
 x x 2
(80  109 )(0.8  0.45)
Sx  (0.02) ¢ 3  ≤ (0.03) 2 ¢ 3  ≤ smax  (s1 ) x0.45 
32 L L 0.45 3
(3) ¢ 3  ≤
9 x 3 1.1
 ¢3  ≤
16  10 6
L  267.8  106 N/m2  267.8 MPa
Mx  M0  Px  12,000 N  m  (15,000 N)x
 15,000(0.8  x)
Mx 15,000(0.8  x)(16  106 )
s1  
Sx x 3
9 ¢ 3  ≤
L
(80  109 )(0.8  x)

x 3
3 ¢ 3  ≤
L

Problem 5.7-5 Refer to the tapered cantilever beam of solid circular


cross section shown in Fig. 5-24 of Example 5-9.
(a) Considering only the bending stresses due to the load P,
determine the range of values of the ratio dB /dA for which the maximum
normal stress occurs at the support.
(b) What is the maximum stress for this range of values?
SECTION 5.7 Nonprismatic Beams 325

Solution 5.7-5 Tapered cantilever beam

P
B
A
dB
dA
x
L

FROM EQ. (5-32), EXAMPLE 5-9 (a) GRAPH OF x/L VERSUS dB /dA (EQ. 2)
32Px
s1  Eq. (1) x
x 3 L
 B dA  (dB  dA ) ¢ ≤ R 2
L

FIND THE VALUE OF x THAT MAKES 1 A MAXIMUM


1
du dy
y¢ ≤u¢ ≤ Eq. (2)
u ds1 dx dx N
Let s1    
y dx y2 D
x 3 dB
N   B dA  (dB  dA ) ¢ ≤ R [32P] 0
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 dA
L

x 2 1 Maximum bending stress occurs at the


[32Px] [] [3] B dA  (dB  dA ) ¢ ≤ R B (dB  dA ) R
L L dB
support when 1   1.5
After simplification: dA

x 2 x
N  32P B dA  (dB  dA ) ¢ ≤ R B dA  2(dB  dA ) R (b) MAXIMUM STRESS (AT SUPPORT B)
L L

Substitute x/L  1 into Eq. (1):


x 6
D   2 B dA  (dB  dA ) R
L
32PL
smax 
d 3B
x
32P B dA  2(dB  dA ) R
ds1 N L
 
dx D x 4
 B dA  (dB  dA ) ¢ ≤R
L
ds1 x
 0dA  2(dB  dA ) ¢ ≤  0
dx L
x dA 1
∴   Eq. (2)
L 2(dB  dA ) dB
2 ¢  1≤
dA
326 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams (Basic Topics)

Fully Stressed Beams q

Problems 5.7-6 to 5.7-8 pertain to fully stressed beams of rectangular


cross section. Consider only the bending stresses obtained from the B
flexure formula and disregard the weights of the beams. A
hx hB
Problem 5.7-6 A cantilever beam AB having rectangular cross sections
with constant width b and varying height hx is subjected to a uniform load x
of intensity q (see figure).
How should the height hx vary as a function of x (measured from the L
free end of the beam) in order to have a fully stressed beam? (Express hx
in terms of the height hB at the fixed end of the beam.)
hx hB

b
b

Solution 5.7-6 Fully stressed beam with constant width and varying height

hx  height at distance x AT THE FIXED END (x  L):


hB  height at end B
b  width (constant) 3q
hB  L
B bsallow
qx2 bh2x
AT DISTANCE x: M  S  hx x hB x
2 6 Therefore,  hx 
hB L L
M 3qx2
sallow   2
S bhx

3q
hx  x
B bsallow

Problem 5.7-7 A simple beam ABC having rectangular cross sections


P
with constant height h and varying width bx supports a concentrated load
P acting at the midpoint (see figure). h
A B C
How should the width bx vary as a function of x in order to have a
fully stressed beam? (Express bx in terms of the width bB at the midpoint
of the beam.) x

L L
— —
2 2

h h

bx bB
SECTION 5.7 Fully Stressed Beams 327

Solution 5.7-7 Fully stressed beam with constant height and varying width

h  height of beam (constant) AT MIDPOINT B (x  L/2)


L
bx  width at distance x from end A ¢ 0  x  ≤ 3PL
2 bB 
bB  width at midpoint B (x  L/2) 2sallowh2
bx 2x 2bB x
Therefore,  andbx 
bb L L
Px 1
AT DISTANCE x M
S  bxh2
2 6 L
M 3Px 3Px NOTE: The equation is valid for 0  x  and the
sallow   bx  2
S bxh2 sallow h2 beam is symmetrical about the midpoint.

Problem 5.7-8 A cantilever beam AB having rectangular cross sections q


with varying width bx and varying height hx is subjected to a uniform load
of intensity q (see figure). If the width varies linearly with x according to
the equation bx  bB x/L, how should the height hx vary as a function of x B
in order to have a fully stressed beam? (Express hx in terms of the height
hB at the fixed end of the beam.) A hx hB

hx hB
bx
bB

Solution 5.7-8 Fully stressed beam with varying width and varying height
hx  height at distance x AT THE FIXED END (x  L)
hB  height at end B
bx  width at distance x 3qL2
bB  width at end B hB 
B bBsallow
x hx x x
bx  bB ¢ ≤ Therefore,  hx  hB
L hB B L BL

AT DISTANCE x
qx 2 bx h2x bB x
M S   (h ) 2
2 6 6L x
M 3qL x
sallow  
S bBh2x
3qL x
hx 
B bBsallow
328 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams (Basic Topics)

Shear Stresses in Rectangular Beams

Problem 5.8-1 The shear stresses  in a rectangular beam are given by


Eq. (5-39):
V h2
t ¢  y21 ≤
2I 4
in which V is the shear force, I is the moment of inertia of the cross-sectional
area, h is the height of the beam, and y1 is the distance from the neutral axis to
the point where the shear stress is being determined (Fig. 5-30).
By integrating over the cross-sectional area, show that the resultant
of the shear stresses is equal to the shear force V.

Solution 5.8-1 Resultant of the shear stresses


V  shear force acting on the cross section
R  resultant of shear stresses 
h dy1
2
h2 h2

 
y1 V h2
N.A.  R tbdy1  2 ¢  y1 ≤ bdy1
2

h2 0
2I 4
h h2


V 2
12V h
2  (b) ¢  y21 ≤ dy1
bh3 0
4
b 12V 2h3
 3 ¢ ≤V
h 24
bh3
I
12 R V Q.E.D.
V h2
t ¢  y21 ≤
2I 4

Problem 5.8-2 Calculate the maximum shear stress max and the 18.0 kN/m
maximum bending stress max in a simply supported wood beam (see 250 mm
figure) carrying a uniform load of 18.0 kN/m (which includes the weight
of the beam) if the length is 1.75 m and the cross section is rectangular
with width 150 mm and height 250 mm.
150 mm
1.75 m

Solution 5.8-2 Wood beam with a uniform load


q  18 kN/m

h  250 mm

b  150 mm
L  1.75 m
MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS MAXIMUM BENDING STRESS
qL
V  A  bh qL2 bh2
2 M S 
8 6
3V 3qL 3(18 kNm)(1.75 m) M 3qL2 3(18 kNm)(1.75 m) 2
tmax    smax   
2A 4bh 4(150 mm)(250 mm) S 4bh2 4(150 mm)(250 mm) 2
 630 kPa  4.41 MPa
SECTION 5.8 Shear Stresses in Rectangular Beams 329

Problem 5.8-3 Two wood beams, each of square cross section


(3.5 in.  3.5 in., actual dimensions) are glued together to form a 3.5 in.
solid beam of dimensions 3.5 in.  7.0 in. (see figure). The beam
is simply supported with a span of 6 ft. P
What is the maximum load Pmax that may act at the midpoint 7.0 in.
if the allowable shear stress in the glued joint is 200 psi? (Include
the effects of the beam’s own weight, assuming that the wood
weighs 35 lb/ft3.)
6 ft

Solution 5.8-3 Simple beam with a glued joint

q
h/2
h/2

b
L/2 L/2

L  6 ft  72 in. b  3.5 in. h  7.0 in. SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:


tallow  200 psi Pmax  (3.5 in.) (7.0 in.)
3
1 ft 35 4 35
g  (35 lbft3 ) ¢ 3≤  lbin.3  B (200 psi)  ¢ lbin.3 ≤ (72 in.) R
1728 in. 1728 3 1728
q  weight of beam per unit distance
 bh  6500 lb
(This result is based solely on the shear stress.)
MAXIMUM LOAD Pmax
P qL
V    A  bh
2 2
P qL
3¢  ≤
3V 2 2 3
tmax    (P  qL)
2A 2bh 4bh
4 4
Pmax  bht  qL  bht  gbhL
3 3
4
 bh ¢ t  gL ≤
3

Problem 5.8-4 A cantilever beam of length L  2 m supports a


load P  8.0 kN (see figure). The beam is made of wood with P = 8.0 kN
cross-sectional dimensions 120 mm  200 mm. 200 mm
Calculate the shear stresses due to the load P at points located
25 mm, 50 mm, 75 mm, and 100 mm from the top surface of the L=2m
beam. From these results, plot a graph showing the distribution of 120 mm
shear stresses from top to bottom of the beam.
330 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams (Basic Topics)

Solution 5.8-4 Shear stresses in a cantilever beam


P = 8.0 kN
Distance from the y1  
h = 200 mm top surface (mm) (mm) (MPa) (kPa)
0 100 0 0
L=2m 25 75 0.219 219
b = 120 mm 50 50 0.375 375
V h2 75 25 0.469 469
Eq. (5-39): t  ¢  y1 ≤
2
100 (N.A.) 0 0.500 500
2I 4
bh3 GRAPH OF SHEAR STRESS 
V  P  8.0 kN  8,000 NI   80  106 mm4
12 0
h  200 mm ( y1  mm)
219
8,000 (200) 2
t B  y21 R  (t  Nmm2  MPa) 375
2(80  106 ) 4 469
N.A. Tmax = 500 kPa
t  50  106 (10,000  y21 )(y1  mm; t  MPa)
469
375
219
0

Problem 5.8-5 A steel beam of length L  16 in. and cross-sectional q = 240 lb/in.
dimensions b  0.6 in. and h  2 in. (see figure) supports a uniform load
of intensity q  240 lb/in., which includes the weight of the beam. h = 2 in.
Calculate the shear stresses in the beam (at the cross section of
maximum shear force) at points located 1/4 in., 1/2 in., 3/4 in., and 1 in.
b = 0.6 in.
from the top surface of the beam. From these calculations, plot a graph L = 16 in.
showing the distribution of shear stresses from top to bottom of the beam.

Solution 5.8-5 Shear stresses in a simple beam


q = 240 lb/in.
Distance from the y1 
h = 2.0 in. top surface (in.) (in.) (psi)
0 1.00 0
0.25 0.75 1050
b = 0.6 in. 0.50 0.50 1800
L = 16 in.
0.75 0.25 2250
1.00 (N.A.) 0 2400
V h2
Eq. (5-39): t  ¢  y1 ≤
2
2I 4 GRAPH OF SHEAR STRESS 
qL bh3
V  1920 lbI   0.4 in.4 0
2 12
1050
UNITS: pounds and inches 1800
2250
1920 (2) 2 N.A. Tmax = 2400 psi
t B  y21 R  (2400)(1  y21 )
2(0.4) 4 2250
1800
(  psi; y1  in.)
1050
0
SECTION 5.8 Shear Stresses in Rectangular Beams 331

Problem 5.8-6 A beam of rectangular cross section (width b and height


h) supports a uniformly distributed load along its entire length L. The
allowable stresses in bending and shear are allow and allow, respectively.
(a) If the beam is simply supported, what is the span length L0 below
which the shear stress governs the allowable load and above which the
bending stress governs?
(b) If the beam is supported as a cantilever, what is the length L0
below which the shear stress governs the allowable load and above which
the bending stress governs?

Solution 5.8-6 Beam of rectangular cross section

b  width h  height L  length (b) CANTILEVER BEAM

UNIFORM LOAD q  intensity of load BENDING


qL2 bh2
ALLOWABLE STRESSES allow and allow Mmax  S 
2 6
(a) SIMPLE BEAM Mmax 3qL2 sallow bh2
smax   q allow  (3)
S bh2 3L2
BENDING
SHEAR
qL2 bh2
Mmax  S  Vmax  qLA  bh
8 6
Mmax 3qL2 3V 3qL
smax   tmax  
S 4bh2 2A 2bh
4sallow bh2 2tallow bh
qallow  (1) qallow  (4)
3L2 3L
Equate (3) and (4) and solve for L0:
SHEAR
h sallow
qL L0  ¢ ≤
Vmax  A  bh 2 tallow
2
3V 3qL NOTE: If the actual length is less than L 0, the shear
tmax  
2A 4bh stress governs the design. If the length is greater than
L 0, the bending stress governs.
4tallow bh
qallow  (2)
3L
Equate (1) and (2) and solve for L0:
sallow
L0  h ¢ ≤
tallow

Problem 5.8-7 A laminated wood beam on simple supports is built up P


3 ft
by gluing together three 2 in.  4 in. boards (actual dimensions) to form
2 in.
a solid beam 4 in.  6 in. in cross section, as shown in the figure. The
allowable shear stress in the glued joints is 65 psi and the allowable 2 in.
bending stress in the wood is 1800 psi. 2 in.
If the beam is 6 ft long, what is the allowable load P acting at the L  6 ft
midpoint of the beam? (Disregard the weight of the beam.)
4 in.
332 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams (Basic Topics)

Solution 5.8-7 Laminated wood beam on simple supports

2 in.
2 in.
N.A. 2 in.
2 in.

4 in.

L  6 ft  72 in. ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON BENDING STRESS


allow  65 psi
M PL 72 in.
allow  1800 psi s M   P¢ ≤  18P (lb-in.)
S 4 4
ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON SHEAR STRESS bh2 1
IN THE GLUED JOINTS S  (4 in.)(6 in.) 2  24 in.3
6 6
VQ
t Q  (4 in.)(2 in.)(2 in.)  16 in.3 (18P lb-in.) 3P
Ib s  (P  lb; s  psi)
24 in.3 4
P bh3 1
V  I   (4 in.)(6 in.) 3  72 in.4 4 4
2 12 12 P2  s  (1800 psi)  2400 lb
3 allow 3
(P2)(16 in.3 ) P
t  (P  lb; t  psi)
(72 in.4 )(4 in.) 36 ALLOWABLE LOAD
Shear stress in the glued joints governs.
P1  36tallow  36 (65 psi)  2340 lb
Pallow  2340 lb

P
Problem 5.8-8 A laminated plastic beam of square cross section
is built up by gluing together three strips, each 10 mm  30 mm q
in cross section (see figure). The beam has a total weight of 3.2 N
10 mm
and is simply supported with span length L  320 mm. 10 mm 30 mm
Considering the weight of the beam, calculate the maximum 10 mm
permissible load P that may be placed at the midpoint if (a) the
allowable shear stress in the glued joints is 0.3 MPa, and (b)
30 mm L
the allowable bending stress in the plastic is 8 MPa.

Solution 5.8-8 Laminated plastic beam P


q

10 mm 10 mm
N.A. 10 mm h = 30 mm
10 mm
L/2 L/2
b = 30 mm
L  320 mm bh3 1
I  (30 mm)(30 mm) 3  67,500 mm4
W  3.2 N 12 12
W 3.2 N bh2 1
q   10 Nm S  (30 mm)(30 mm) 2  4500 mm3
L 320 mm 6 6
SECTION 5.8 Shear Stresses in Rectangular Beams 333

(a) ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON SHEAR (b) ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON BENDING STRESSES
IN GLUED JOINTS allow  8 MPa
allow  0.3 MPa Mmax
s
VQ P qL P S
t V     1.6 N
Ib 2 2 2 PL qL2
(V  newtons; P  newtons) Mmax    0.08P  0.128 (N  m) ˇ ˇ

4 8
Q  (30 mm)(10 mm)(10 mm)  3000 mm3 (P  newtons; M  N  m)
Q 3000 mm3 1 (0.08P  0.128)(N  m)
  s
ˇ ˇ

Ib (67,500 mm )(30 mm) 675 mm2


4
4.5  106 m3
VQ P2  1.6 N (  N/m2  Pa)
t  (  N/mm2  MPa)
Ib 675 mm2
SOLVE FOR P:
SOLVE FOR P: P  (56.25  106) allow1.6
P  1350allow  3.2  405 N  3.2 N  402 N  (56.25  106)(8106 Pa)  1.6
 450  1.6  448 N

Problem 5.8-9 A wood beam AB on simple supports with span length


equal to 9 ft is subjected to a uniform load of intensity 120 lb/ft acting 8800 lb
along the entire length of the beam and a concentrated load of magnitude 3 ft
120 lb/ft
8800 lb acting at a point 3 ft from the right-hand support (see figure). The
allowable stresses in bending and shear, respectively, are 2500 psi and
150 psi. A B
(a) From the table in Appendix F, select the lightest beam that will
support the loads (disregard the weight of the beam). 9 ft
(b) Taking into account the weight of the beam (weight density 
35 lb/ft3), verify that the selected beam is satisfactory, or, if it is not,
select a new beam.

Solution 5.8-9

P (a) DISREGARDING THE WEIGHT OF THE BEAM


d
q 3473
V (lb) 2753
A B
0

L = 9 ft
 6047
RA RB  6407

q  120 lb/ft (120 lbft)(9 ft) 8800 lb


P  8800 lb RA    3473 lb
2 3
d  3 ft
2
allow  2500 psi RB  540 lb  (8800 lb)  6407 lb
allow  150 psi 3
Vmax  RB  6407 lb
qL P qL 2P
RA    RB  
2 3 2 3
(Continued)
334 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams (Basic Topics)

Maximum bending moment occurs under the (b) CONSIDERING THE WEIGHT OF THE BEAM
concentrated load. qBEAM  17.3 lb/ft (weight density  35 lb/ft 3)
qd 2 (17.3 lbft)(9 ft)
Mmax  RB d  RB  6407 lb   6407  78  6485 lb
2 2
1 3Vmax
 (6407 lb)(3 ft)  (120 lbft)(3 ft) 2 Vmax  6485 lb Areq’d   64.9 in.2
2 2tallow
 18,680 lb-ft  224,200 lb-in. 8  10 beam is still satisfactory for shear.
3V 3Vmax 3(6407 lb) qTOTAL  120 lb/ft  17.3 lb/ft  137.3 lb/ft
tmax  Areq    64.1 in.2
2A 2tallow 2(150 psi)
qd 2 1 lb
M Mmax 224,200 lb-in. Mmax  RB d   (6485 lb)(3 ft)  ¢ 137.3 ≤ (3 ft) 2
s  Sreq    89.7 in.3 2 2 ft
S s 2500 psi
allow
 18,837 lb-ft  226,050 lb-in.
FROM APPENDIX F: Select 8  10 in. beam Mmax 226,050 lb-in.
Sreq’d    90.4 in.3
(nominal dimensions) sallow 2500 psi
A  71.25 in.2 S  112.8 in.3 8  10 beam is still satisfactory for moment.
Use 8  10 in. beam

Problem 5.8-10 A simply supported wood beam of rectangular cross P


section and span length 1.2 m carries a concentrated load P at midspan in
240 mm
addition to its own weight (see figure). The cross section has width 140
mm and height 240 mm. The weight density of the wood is 5.4 kN/m3.
Calculate the maximum permissible value of the load P if (a) the 140 mm
0.6 m 0.6 m
allowable bending stress is 8.5 MPa, and (b) the allowable shear stress is
0.8 MPa.

Solution 5.8-10 Simply supported wood beam


P Equate values of Mmax and solve for P:
q 0.3P  32.66  11,424 P  37,970 N
h or P  38.0 kN

b (b) ALLOWABLE LOAD P BASED UPON


SHEAR STRESS
L/2 L/2
3V
allow  0.8 MPa t 
b  140 mm h  240 mm A  bh  33,600 mm2 2A
bh 2 P qL P (181.44 Nm)(1.2 m)
S  1344  103 mm3 V   
6 2 2 2 2
  5.4 kN/m3 P
  108.86 (N)
L  1.2 m q  bh  181.44 N/m 2
2At 2
(a) ALLOWABLE LOAD P BASED UPON BENDING STRESS V  (33,600 mm2 )(0.8 MPa)  17,920 N
3 3
Mmax Equate values of V and solve for P:
allow  8.5 MPa s 
S P
 108.86  17,920 P  35,622 N
PL qL2 P(1.2 m) (181.44 Nm)(1.2 m) 2 2
Mmax    
4 8 4 8 or P  35.6 kN
 0.3P  32.66 N  m (P  newtons; M  N  m) NOTE: The shear stress governs and
Mmax  Sallow  (1344103 mm3 )(8.5 MPa)  11,424 N  m Pallow  35.6 kN
SECTION 5.8 Shear Stresses in Rectangular Beams 335

Problem 5.8-11 A square wood platform, 8 ft  8 ft in area, rests


on masonry walls (see figure). The deck of the platform is
constructed of 2 in. nominal thickness tongue-and-groove planks
(actual thickness 1.5 in.; see Appendix F) supported on two 8-ft
long beams. The beams have 4 in.  6 in. nominal dimensions
(actual dimensions 3.5 in.  5.5 in.). 8 ft
8 ft
The planks are designed to support a uniformly distributed
load w (lb/ft 2) acting over the entire top surface of the platform.
The allowable bending stress for the planks is 2400 psi and the
allowable shear stress is 100 psi. When analyzing the planks,
disregard their weights and assume that their reactions are
uniformly distributed over the top surfaces of the supporting beams. Bea
(a) Determine the allowable platform load w1 (lb/ft 2) based m
upon the bending stress in the planks. ll
(b) Determine the allowable platform load w2 (lb/ft 2) based Wa
upon the shear stress in the planks.
(c) Which of the preceding values becomes the allowable load
wallow on the platform?
(Hints: Use care in constructing the loading diagram for the
planks, noting especially that the reactions are distributed loads
instead of concentrated loads. Also, note that the maximum shear
forces occur at the inside faces of the supporting beams.)

Solution 5.8-11 Wood platform with a plank deck


Free-body diagram of one plank supported on the
beams: q
Plank

Plank
3.5 in. 89 in. 3.5 in.
3.5 in.
8 ft. (96 in.)
Load on one plank:
8 ft w (lbft2 ) wb
q B R (b in.)  (lbin.)
144 in.2ft2 144
3.5 in.
96 in. wb wb
Reaction R  q¢ ≤¢ ≤ (48) 
2 144 3
Platform: 8 ft  8 ft
(R  lb; w  lb/ft ; b  in.)
2
t  thickness of planks
Mmax occurs at midspan.
 1.5 in.
w  uniform load on the deck (lb/ft 2) 3.5 in. 89 in. q(48 in.) 2
Mmax  R ¢  ≤
allow  2400 psi 2 2 2
allow  100 psi wb wb 89
Find wallow (lb/ft 2)  (46.25)  (1152)  wb
3 144 12
(a) ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON BENDING STRESS IN (M  lb-in.; w  lb/ft 2; b  in.)
THE PLANKS Allowable bending moment:
Let b  width of one plank (in.) Mallow  allow S  (2400 psi)(0.375 b)  900b (lb-in.)
A  1.5b (in.2)
1.5 in. b EQUATE Mmax AND Mallow AND SOLVE FOR w:
S  (1.5 in.) 2
b 6 89
 0.375b (in.3) wb  900 b w1  121 lb/ft2
12
(Continued)
336 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams (Basic Topics)

(b) ALLOWABLE LOAD BASED UPON SHEAR STRESS EQUATE Vmax AND Vallow AND SOLVE FOR w:
IN THE PLANKS 89wb
 100b w2  324 lb/ft2
See the free-body diagram in part (a). 288
Vmax occurs at the inside face of the support. (c) ALLOWABLE LOAD
89 in. wb 89 wb Bending stress governs. wallow  121 lb/ft2
Vmax  q ¢ ≤  44.5q  (44.5) ¢ ≤
2 144 288
(V  lb; w  lb/ft ; b  in.)
2

Allowable shear force:


3V 2Atallow 2(1.5b)(100 psi)
t  Vallow    100b (lb)
2A 3 3

Problem 5.8-12 A wood beam ABC with simple supports at A


and B and an overhang BC has height h  280 mm (see figure).
The length of the main span of the beam is L  3.6 m and the 3P P
L
length of the overhang is L/3  1.2 m. The beam supports a —
2
concentrated load 3P  15 kN at the midpoint of the main span
and a load P  5 kN at the free end of the overhang. The wood A C h=
B 280 mm
has weight density   5.5 kN/m3.
(a) Determine the required width b of the beam based upon
L b
an allowable bending stress of 8.2 MPa. L —
3
(b) Determine the required width based upon an allowable
shear stress of 0.7 MPa.

Solution 5.8-12 Rectangular beam with an overhang

3P P

A C h=
B 280 mm

b
L L L
— — —
2 2 3
RA
RB

RA 7P qL qL
 18 P
6 3
V L  3.6 m
P P  5 kN
0   5.5 kN/m3 (for the wood)
q  bh

 11P qL  11P 5qL


 18  9
6 6
SECTION 5.8 Shear Stresses in Rectangular Beams 337

Mmax

MB

FIND b EQUATE MOMENTS AND SOLVE FOR b:


7P 4qL 10,500  1940.4b  107,150b
RA  
6 9 b  0.0998 m  99.8 mm
17P 8qL
RB   (b) REQUIRED WIDTH b BASED UPON SHEAR STRESS
6 9
11P 5qL
11P 5qL Vmax  
Vmax   6 9
6 9
11 5
7PL 7qL2 PL qL2  (5000 N)  (gbh)(3.6 m)
Mmax   MB    6 9
12 72 3 18
5
 9167 N  (5500 Nm3 )(b)(0.280 m)(3.6 m)
(a) REQUIRED WIDTH b BASED UPON BENDING STRESS 9
7PL 7qL2 7  9167  3080b (b  meters)
Mmax    (5000 N)(3.6 m)
12 72 12 3Vmax 3Vmax
t  (V  newtons)
7 2A 2bh
 (gbh)(3.6 m) 2 allow  0.7 MPa
72
7 2bhtallow 2b
 10,500 N  m  (5500 Nm3 )(b) Vmax   (0.280 m)(0.7  106 Nm2 )
ˇ ˇ

72 3 3
 (0.280 m)(3.6 m)2  130,670b
 10,500  1940.4b (b  meters)
EQUATE SHEAR FORCES AND SOLVE FOR b:
(M  newton-meters) 9167  3080b  130,670b
Mmax 6Mmax b  0.0718 m  71.8 mm
s  allow  8.2 MPa
S bh2
bh2sallow b NOTE: Bending stress governs. b  99.8 mm
Mmax   (0.280 m) 2 (8.2  106 Pa)
6 6
 107,150b