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6 vues24 pagesA report on stoichiometry for environmental engineering

Mar 11, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

A report on stoichiometry for environmental engineering

© All Rights Reserved

6 vues

A report on stoichiometry for environmental engineering

© All Rights Reserved

- Civl5351 Quiz 2 2012 With Solution
- Problem Solving Short Tricks of Chemistry for JEE & NEET 2019
- Lab Report(Final Editied)[1]
- Assignment Mole Concept JH Sir-2686
- Density Dry Lab
- Respuestas Termoquimica Chang
- Exp 8 oc
- Determination of Water Hardness
- Appendix-II---Review-of-Solution-Preparation_2013_Plant-Tissue-Culture.pdf
- Exp1 Oil&Fat Engineering Technology
- Ch15Stoichoimetry'07
- Stoichiometry
- the mole
- Example15.11b
- Biology Problem Set A
- Lab Manual General Guidelines
- 102B and EassignmentsWks1-6-Fall 2011
- Chemistry Notes 2 COMPLETED
- Chapt05 Lecture Css
- 5 conversions with volume

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PG Centre

Masters in Environmental Engineering

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

2017

Graduate Report

On

Submitted By

Sagar Divetiya

(170420717014)

Guided By

Prof. Hitesh Desai

SARVAJANIK EDUCATION SOCIETY

DR. R. K. DESAI MARG, ATHWALINES, SURAT – 395001

Towards progressive civilization…….

SARVAJANIK EDUCATION SOCIETY

i

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

DR. R. K. DESAI MARG, ATHWALINES, SURAT – 395001

PG Centre

Masters in Environmental Engineering

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

2017

Certificate

This is to certify that this project report is benefited work on

Submitted By

Sagarkumar Divetiya

(170420717014)

Student of

It has been completed under my guidance and supervision. This work forms part of the

requirement for the award of Master’s Degree (Environmental Engineering) under the Subject

– Environmental Chemistry & Microbiology.

Conferred by the

Gujarat Technological University

TEACHER M.E (Environmental Engg.) (Environmental Engineering)

ii

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

INDEX

SR PAGE

NO TITLE NO.

COVER PAGE i

CERTIFICATE ii

INDEX iii

INTRODUCTION 1

Basic Chemical Reactions and its Calculations 2-4

Environmental Engineering Applications of 5-12

Stoichiometry

Important Terms 13-14

Method Discussion 15-19

Conclusion 20

References 21

iii

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

INTRODUCTION

Almost every pollution problem that we face has a chemical basis. Even the most qualitative

descriptions of such problems as the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, toxic wastes,

groundwater contamination, air pollution, and acid rain, to mention a few, require at least a

rudimentary understanding of some basic chemical concepts. And, of course, an environmental

engineer who must design an emission control system or a waste treatment plant must be well

grounded in chemical principles and the techniques of chemical engineering. In this brief report,

the stoichiometry have been explained with the goal of providing only the essential chemical

principles required to understand the nature of the pollution problems that we face and the

engineering approaches to their solutions.

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

When a chemical reaction is written down, it provides both qualitative and quantitative

information. Qualitatively, we can see what chemicals are interacting to produce what end

products. Quantitatively, the principle of conservation of mass can be applied to give information

about how much of each compound is involved to produce theresults shown. The balancing of

equations so that the same number of each kind of atom appears on each side of the equation and

the subsequent calculations, which can be used to determine amounts of each compound

involved, is known as stoichiometry. The first step is to balance the equation. For example,

suppose we want to investigate the combustion of methane (CH.), the principal component of

natural gas and a major greenhouse gas. Methane combines with oxygen to produce carbon

dioxide and water, as the following reaction suggests:

The equation is not balanced. One atom of carbon appears on each side, which is fine, but there

are four atoms of hydrogen on the left and only two on the right, and there are only two atoms of

oxygen on the left while there are three on the right. We might try to double the water molecules

on the right to balance the hydrogen on each side, but then there would be an imbalance of oxygen

with two on the left and four on the right.

So try doubling the oxygen on the left. This sort of trial-and-error approach to balancing simple

reactions usually converges quickly. In this instance the following is a balanced equation with

the same number of C, H, and °atoms on each side of the arrow:

(1)

This balanced chemical equation can be read as follows: One molecule of methane reacts with

two molecules of oxygen to produce one molecule of carbon dioxide and two molecules of water.

It is of more use, however, to be able to describe this reaction in terms of the mass of each

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

substance (that is, how many grams of oxygen are required to react with how many grams of

methane, and so on). To do so requires that we know something about the mass of individual

atoms and molecules.

The atomic weight of an atom is the mass of the atom measured in atomic mass units (arnu),

where one amu is defined to be exactly one-twelfth the mass of a carbon atom having six protons

and six neutrons in its nucleus. While this might suggest that if we look up the atomic weight of

carbon we would expect to find it to be exactly 12 amu, that is not the case. All carbon atoms do

have six protons, but they do not all have six neutrons, so they do not all have the same atomic

weight. Atoms having the same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons are called

isotopes. What is reported in tables of atomic weights, is the average based on the relative

abundance of different isotopes found in nature. the atomic number, which is the number of

protons in the nucleus. All isotopes of a given Hydrogen element have the same atomic number.

The molecular weight of a molecule is simply the sum of the atomic weights of all of the

constituent atoms. If we divide the mass of a substance by its molecular weight, the result is the

mass expressed in moles (mol). Usually the mass is expressed in grams, in which case the moles

are g-moles; in like fashion, if the mass is expressed in pounds, the result would be lb-moles. In

this text, all moles will be assumed to be g-rnoles. One g-rnole contains 6.02 X 1023 molecules

(Avogadro's number), while one lb-rnole is made up of 2.7 x 1026 molecules.

(2)

The special advantage of expressing amounts in moles is that one mole of any substance contains

exactly the same number of molecules, which gives us another way to interpret a chemical

equation. Consider (1), repeated here:

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

On a molecular level we can say that one molecule of methane reacts with two molecules of

oxygen to produce one molecule of carbon dioxide and two molecules of water. On a larger scale,

we can say that one mole of methane reacts with two moles of oxygen to produce one mole of

carbon dioxide and two moles of water. Since we know how many grams are contained in each

mole, we can express our mass balance in those terms as well.

To express the preceding methane reaction in grams, we need first to find the number of grams

per mole for each substance. Using Table 2.1, we find that the atomic weight of C is 12, H is 1,

and ° is 16. Notice that these values have been rounded slightly, which is common engineering

practice. Thus, the molecular weights, and hence the number of grams per mole, are

Notice that mass is conserved in the last expression; that is, there are 80 grams on the left and 80

grams on the right.

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

What mass of carbon dioxide would be produced if 100 g of butane (C4HlO) is completely

oxidized to carbon dioxide and water?

Solution:

We already know that there are 44 grams per mole of CO" so we do not need to recalculate that.

Two moles of butane (2 mol x 58 g/mol = 116 g) yields 8 moles of carbon dioxide

Thus,

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Chapter 1 we introduced two common sets of units, mg.L and ppm. However. it is also useful to

express concentrations in terms of molarity, which is simply the number of moles of substance

per liter of solution. A 1 molar (1 M) solution has 1 mol of substance dissolved into enough water

to make the mixture have a volume of 1 L. Molarity is related to mg/L concentrations by the

following:

The following example illustrates the use of molarity and at the same time introduces another

important concept having to do with the amount of oxygen required to oxidize a given substance.

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Consider a 1.67 x 10-' M glucose solution (C6H1,0 6) that is completely oxidized to CO, and

H,O. Find the amount of oxygen required to complete the reaction. Solution To find the oxygen

required to oxidize this glucose completely, we first write a balanced equation, determine

molecular weights, and find the mass of each constituent in the reaction:

Thus it takes 192 g of oxygen to oxidize 180 g of glucose. From (3), the concentration of glucose

is

mg/L = 1.67 X 10- 3 mol/L x 180 g/mol x 103 mg/g = 300 rng/L

If the chemical composition of a substance is known, then the amount of oxygen required to

oxidize it to carbon dioxide and water can be calculated using stoichiometry, as was done in the

preceding example. That oxygen requirement is known as the theoretical oxygen demand. If that

oxidation is carried out by bacteria using the substance for food, then the amount of oxygen

required is known as the biochemical oxygen demand, or BOD. The BOD will be somewhat less

than the theoretical oxygen since some of the original carbon is incorporated into bacterial cell

tissue rather than being oxidized to carbon dioxide. Oxygen demand is an important measure of

the likely impact that wastes will have on a receiving body of water..

The convenience of using moles to describe amounts of substances also helps when calculating

atmospheric concentrations of pollutants. It was Avogadro's hypothesis, made back in 1811, that

equal volumes of all gases, at a specified temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of

molecules. In fact, since 1 mol of any substance has Avogadro's number of molecules, it follows

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

that 1 mol of gas, at a specified temperature and volume, will occupy a predictable volume. At

standard temperature and pressure (STP), corresponding to 0 DC and 1 atm (760 mm of mercury,

101.3 kPa), 1 g-rnole of an ideal gas occupies 22.4 L, or 0.0224 m3, and contains 6.02 X 1023

molecules. This fact was used in Chapter 1 to derive relationships between concentrations

expressed in microgram/m3 and ppm (by volume).

Let us demonstrate the usefulness of Avogadro's hypothesis for gases by applying it to a very

modem concern; that is, the rate at which we are pouring carbon dioxide into the atmosphere as

we burn up our fossil fuels.

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Worldwide combustion of methane CH. (natural gas) provides about 8.2 X 1016 kJ of energy per

year. If methane has an energy content of 39 x 103 k.l/m3 (at STP) what mass of CO2 is emitted

into the atmosphere each year? Also, express that emission rate as metric tons of carbon (not

CO2) per year. A metric ton, which is 1000 kg, is usually written as tonnes to distinguish it from

the 2000-lb American,or short, tons.

Solution

We first need to express that consumption rate in moles. Converting kilojoules of Energy into

moles of methane is straight forward:

We know from the balanced chemical reaction given in (2.1) that each mole of CH4. yields one

mole of CO2 so there will be 9.4 X 1013 mol of CO2 emitted. Since the molecular weight of CO2

is 44,the mass of CO2 emitted is

To express these emissions as tonnes of C per year, we must convert grams to tonnes and then

sort out the fraction of CO2 that is carbon. The fraction of CO2 that is C is simply the ratio of the

weight of carbon (12) to the molecular weight of carbon dioxide (44):

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

The 1.1 X 109 tonnes of carbon found in the preceding example is about 20 percent of the total,

worldwide carbon emissions entering the atmosphere each year when fossil fuels (coal, oil,

natural gas) are burned. As will be described in Chapter 8, the main worry about these emissions

is their potential to increase the earth's greenhouse effect.

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

tank. The quantity of filter alum is consumed at 20 mg/litres of water. If the alkalinity of the raw

water is equivalent to 4.5 mg/litre of CaCO3, determine the quantity of filter alum and the quick

lime (containing 80% of CaO) required per month by the water works. Molecular weights are

given as [Ca = 40, C = 12, S = 32, O = 16, Al = 27 and H = 1]

From the above equation it is clear that 3 x 100 parts of CaCO3 will produce the same alkalinity

which is produced by 666 parts of alum.

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Quantity of CaCO3 required to produce the same alkalinity which is equivalent to 20 mg/litre.

= 9.009 – 4.509

From the above equation it is clear that 100 parts of CaCO3 is produced by 56 parts of CaO.

But as quick lime contains 80% of CaO, therefore quantity of the quick lime required

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Important Terms

Mole

One mole is amount of any substance that contains the same number of particles as the number

of atoms in exactly 12 grams of Carbon-12.

Concentration Units

Atomic Mass

The mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately

equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average

number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotopes.

Molecular Weight

Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule. It is calculated as the sum of the

atomic weights of each constituent element multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in

the molecular formula.

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Equivalent weight

EW = FW / Z

EW = Equivalent weight

Z = (1) the absolute value of the ion charge, (2) the number of H+ or OH- ions a species

can react with or yield in an acid-base reaction, or (3) the absolute value of the change in

valence occurring in an oxidation-reduction reaction. One equivalent is defined as 1 mol

of a compound divided by its EW.

Avogadro’s Number

Avogadro’s number (N) is the number of atoms/molecules in one mole of a given substance

N = 6.02 X 1023

≈ 1 mole

≈ molecular weight

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Method Discussion

called stoichiometry. It is a super technical-sounding word that simply means using ratios from

the balanced equation. In this article, we will discuss how to use mole ratios to calculate the

amount of reactants needed for a reaction.

The stoichiometric coefficients are the numbers we use to make sure our equation is balanced.

We can make ratios using the stoichiometric coefficients, and the ratios will tell us about the

relative proportions of the chemicals in our reaction. You might see this ratio called the mole

ratio, the stoichiometric factor, or the stoichiometric ratio. The mole ratio can be used as a

conversion factor between different quantities.

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Problem solving:

The first and most important step for all stoichiometry problems is the same no matter what you

are solving for—make sure your equation is balanced! If the equation is not balanced, the mole

ratios will be wrong, and the answers will not be correct.

For example, the stoichiometric coefficients for the following balanced equation tell us that 1

mole of Fe2O3, will react with 2 moles of Al, l to yield 2 moles of Fe, and 1 mole of Al2O3.

If we have a known mass of the reactant Fe2O3, we can calculate how many moles of Al, we

need to fully react with the Fe2O3 using the ratio of their coefficients:

For the following unbalanced reaction, how many grams of NaOH will be required to fully react

with 3.10 grams of H2SO4 ?

Unbalanced Equation

For this reaction, we have 1 Na and 3 H on the reactant side and 2 Na and 2 H on the product

side. We can balance our equation by multiplying NaOH by two—so that there are Na on each

side—and multiplying H2O by two—so there are 6 O and 4 H on both sides. That gives the

following balanced reaction:

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Balanced Equation

In this example, we know the amount of H2SO4 is 3.10 grams, and we would like to calculate

the mass of NaOH. Armed with the balanced equation and a clear sense of purpose.

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

The known quantity in this problem is the mass of H2SO, We can convert the mass of H2SO4 to

moles using the molecular weight. Given that the molecular weight of H2SO4 is 98.09 g/mol, we

can find the moles of H2SO4 as follows:

We are interested in calculating the amount of NaOH, so we can use the mole ratio

between NaOH and H2SO4. Based on our balanced chemical equation, we need 2 moles of NaOH

for every 1 mole of H2SO4, which gives the following ratio:

We can use the ratio to convert moles of H2SO4 from step one to moles of NaOH:

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Each format gives a different answer! However, only one ratio will allow the units of H2SO4 to

cancel out properly.

We can convert the moles of NaOH from Step 2 to mass in grams using the molecular weight

of NaOH:

We will need 2.53 grams of NaOH to fully react with 3.10 grams of H2SO4 in this reaction.

We could also combine all three steps into a single calculation, with the caveat that we should

pay extra close attention to our units. In order to convert the mass of H2SO4 to mass of NaOH,

we could solve the following expression:

If we look carefully at the expression, we can break it down into steps 1 to 3 above. The only

difference is that instead of doing each conversion separately, we did them all at once.

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Conclusion

The coefficients from the balanced chemical reaction tell us the proportions of the reactants and

products. We can use ratios of the coefficients to convert between amounts of reactants and

products in our reaction. And, of course, an environmental engineer who must design an emission

control system or a waste treatment plant must be well grounded in chemical principles and the

techniques of chemical engineering. In this brief report, the stoichiometry have been explained

with the goal of providing only the essential chemical principles required to understand the nature

of the pollution problems that we face and the engineering approaches to their solutions.

Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

References

Environmental Engineering And Science

3. G.S. Birdie & J.S. Birdie, Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering

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