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Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

PG Centre
Masters in Environmental Engineering
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
2017

Graduate Report
On

“Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering”

Submitted By
Sagar Divetiya
(170420717014)

Guided By
Prof. Hitesh Desai
SARVAJANIK EDUCATION SOCIETY

Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology


DR. R. K. DESAI MARG, ATHWALINES, SURAT – 395001
Towards progressive civilization…….
SARVAJANIK EDUCATION SOCIETY

Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology


i
Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

SARVAJANIK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY


DR. R. K. DESAI MARG, ATHWALINES, SURAT – 395001

Towards progressive civilization…….

PG Centre
Masters in Environmental Engineering
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
2017

Certificate
This is to certify that this project report is benefited work on

“Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering”

Submitted By
Sagarkumar Divetiya
(170420717014)

Student of

M.E. Environmental Engineering

It has been completed under my guidance and supervision. This work forms part of the
requirement for the award of Master’s Degree (Environmental Engineering) under the Subject
– Environmental Chemistry & Microbiology.

Conferred by the
Gujarat Technological University

GUIDE/SUBJECT PG INCHARGE HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT


TEACHER M.E (Environmental Engg.) (Environmental Engineering)

Prof. Hitesh Desai Prof. Mehali Mehta Prof. Pratima Patel

Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology


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Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

INDEX
SR PAGE
NO TITLE NO.

COVER PAGE i

CERTIFICATE ii

INDEX iii

INTRODUCTION 1
Basic Chemical Reactions and its Calculations 2-4
Environmental Engineering Applications of 5-12
Stoichiometry
Important Terms 13-14
Method Discussion 15-19
Conclusion 20

References 21

SARVAJANIKCOLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, SURAT


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Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

INTRODUCTION

Almost every pollution problem that we face has a chemical basis. Even the most qualitative
descriptions of such problems as the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, toxic wastes,
groundwater contamination, air pollution, and acid rain, to mention a few, require at least a
rudimentary understanding of some basic chemical concepts. And, of course, an environmental
engineer who must design an emission control system or a waste treatment plant must be well
grounded in chemical principles and the techniques of chemical engineering. In this brief report,
the stoichiometry have been explained with the goal of providing only the essential chemical
principles required to understand the nature of the pollution problems that we face and the
engineering approaches to their solutions.

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Basic chemical reaction and its calculation

When a chemical reaction is written down, it provides both qualitative and quantitative
information. Qualitatively, we can see what chemicals are interacting to produce what end
products. Quantitatively, the principle of conservation of mass can be applied to give information
about how much of each compound is involved to produce theresults shown. The balancing of
equations so that the same number of each kind of atom appears on each side of the equation and
the subsequent calculations, which can be used to determine amounts of each compound
involved, is known as stoichiometry. The first step is to balance the equation. For example,
suppose we want to investigate the combustion of methane (CH.), the principal component of
natural gas and a major greenhouse gas. Methane combines with oxygen to produce carbon
dioxide and water, as the following reaction suggests:

The equation is not balanced. One atom of carbon appears on each side, which is fine, but there
are four atoms of hydrogen on the left and only two on the right, and there are only two atoms of
oxygen on the left while there are three on the right. We might try to double the water molecules
on the right to balance the hydrogen on each side, but then there would be an imbalance of oxygen
with two on the left and four on the right.

So try doubling the oxygen on the left. This sort of trial-and-error approach to balancing simple
reactions usually converges quickly. In this instance the following is a balanced equation with
the same number of C, H, and °atoms on each side of the arrow:

(1)

This balanced chemical equation can be read as follows: One molecule of methane reacts with
two molecules of oxygen to produce one molecule of carbon dioxide and two molecules of water.
It is of more use, however, to be able to describe this reaction in terms of the mass of each

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Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

substance (that is, how many grams of oxygen are required to react with how many grams of
methane, and so on). To do so requires that we know something about the mass of individual
atoms and molecules.

The atomic weight of an atom is the mass of the atom measured in atomic mass units (arnu),
where one amu is defined to be exactly one-twelfth the mass of a carbon atom having six protons
and six neutrons in its nucleus. While this might suggest that if we look up the atomic weight of
carbon we would expect to find it to be exactly 12 amu, that is not the case. All carbon atoms do
have six protons, but they do not all have six neutrons, so they do not all have the same atomic
weight. Atoms having the same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons are called
isotopes. What is reported in tables of atomic weights, is the average based on the relative
abundance of different isotopes found in nature. the atomic number, which is the number of
protons in the nucleus. All isotopes of a given Hydrogen element have the same atomic number.

The molecular weight of a molecule is simply the sum of the atomic weights of all of the
constituent atoms. If we divide the mass of a substance by its molecular weight, the result is the
mass expressed in moles (mol). Usually the mass is expressed in grams, in which case the moles
are g-moles; in like fashion, if the mass is expressed in pounds, the result would be lb-moles. In
this text, all moles will be assumed to be g-rnoles. One g-rnole contains 6.02 X 1023 molecules
(Avogadro's number), while one lb-rnole is made up of 2.7 x 1026 molecules.

(2)

The special advantage of expressing amounts in moles is that one mole of any substance contains
exactly the same number of molecules, which gives us another way to interpret a chemical
equation. Consider (1), repeated here:

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On a molecular level we can say that one molecule of methane reacts with two molecules of
oxygen to produce one molecule of carbon dioxide and two molecules of water. On a larger scale,
we can say that one mole of methane reacts with two moles of oxygen to produce one mole of
carbon dioxide and two moles of water. Since we know how many grams are contained in each
mole, we can express our mass balance in those terms as well.

To express the preceding methane reaction in grams, we need first to find the number of grams
per mole for each substance. Using Table 2.1, we find that the atomic weight of C is 12, H is 1,
and ° is 16. Notice that these values have been rounded slightly, which is common engineering
practice. Thus, the molecular weights, and hence the number of grams per mole, are

Notice that mass is conserved in the last expression; that is, there are 80 grams on the left and 80
grams on the right.

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Environmental Engineering Applications of Stoichiometry

EXAMPLE 1 Combustion of Butane

What mass of carbon dioxide would be produced if 100 g of butane (C4HlO) is completely
oxidized to carbon dioxide and water?

Solution:

First write down the reaction:

and then balance it

Find the grams per mole for butane:

We already know that there are 44 grams per mole of CO" so we do not need to recalculate that.

Two moles of butane (2 mol x 58 g/mol = 116 g) yields 8 moles of carbon dioxide

(8 mol x 44 g/mol = 352 g CO2) , So we can set up the following proportion:

Thus,

X = 100 x 352/116 = 303 g of CO, produced.

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Many environmental problems involve concentrations of substances dissolved in water. In


Chapter 1 we introduced two common sets of units, mg.L and ppm. However. it is also useful to
express concentrations in terms of molarity, which is simply the number of moles of substance
per liter of solution. A 1 molar (1 M) solution has 1 mol of substance dissolved into enough water
to make the mixture have a volume of 1 L. Molarity is related to mg/L concentrations by the
following:

mg/L = Molarity (rnol/L) x Molecular weight (g/mol) x 103 (rng/g). (3)

The following example illustrates the use of molarity and at the same time introduces another
important concept having to do with the amount of oxygen required to oxidize a given substance.

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EXAMPLE 2 Theoretical Oxygen Demand

Consider a 1.67 x 10-' M glucose solution (C6H1,0 6) that is completely oxidized to CO, and
H,O. Find the amount of oxygen required to complete the reaction. Solution To find the oxygen
required to oxidize this glucose completely, we first write a balanced equation, determine
molecular weights, and find the mass of each constituent in the reaction:

Thus it takes 192 g of oxygen to oxidize 180 g of glucose. From (3), the concentration of glucose
is

mg/L = 1.67 X 10- 3 mol/L x 180 g/mol x 103 mg/g = 300 rng/L

so the oxygen requirement would be

If the chemical composition of a substance is known, then the amount of oxygen required to
oxidize it to carbon dioxide and water can be calculated using stoichiometry, as was done in the
preceding example. That oxygen requirement is known as the theoretical oxygen demand. If that
oxidation is carried out by bacteria using the substance for food, then the amount of oxygen
required is known as the biochemical oxygen demand, or BOD. The BOD will be somewhat less
than the theoretical oxygen since some of the original carbon is incorporated into bacterial cell
tissue rather than being oxidized to carbon dioxide. Oxygen demand is an important measure of
the likely impact that wastes will have on a receiving body of water..

The convenience of using moles to describe amounts of substances also helps when calculating
atmospheric concentrations of pollutants. It was Avogadro's hypothesis, made back in 1811, that
equal volumes of all gases, at a specified temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of
molecules. In fact, since 1 mol of any substance has Avogadro's number of molecules, it follows

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that 1 mol of gas, at a specified temperature and volume, will occupy a predictable volume. At
standard temperature and pressure (STP), corresponding to 0 DC and 1 atm (760 mm of mercury,
101.3 kPa), 1 g-rnole of an ideal gas occupies 22.4 L, or 0.0224 m3, and contains 6.02 X 1023
molecules. This fact was used in Chapter 1 to derive relationships between concentrations
expressed in microgram/m3 and ppm (by volume).

Let us demonstrate the usefulness of Avogadro's hypothesis for gases by applying it to a very
modem concern; that is, the rate at which we are pouring carbon dioxide into the atmosphere as
we burn up our fossil fuels.

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EXAMPLE 3 Carbon Emissions from Natural Gas

Worldwide combustion of methane CH. (natural gas) provides about 8.2 X 1016 kJ of energy per
year. If methane has an energy content of 39 x 103 k.l/m3 (at STP) what mass of CO2 is emitted
into the atmosphere each year? Also, express that emission rate as metric tons of carbon (not
CO2) per year. A metric ton, which is 1000 kg, is usually written as tonnes to distinguish it from
the 2000-lb American,or short, tons.

Solution

We first need to express that consumption rate in moles. Converting kilojoules of Energy into
moles of methane is straight forward:

We know from the balanced chemical reaction given in (2.1) that each mole of CH4. yields one
mole of CO2 so there will be 9.4 X 1013 mol of CO2 emitted. Since the molecular weight of CO2
is 44,the mass of CO2 emitted is

To express these emissions as tonnes of C per year, we must convert grams to tonnes and then
sort out the fraction of CO2 that is carbon. The fraction of CO2 that is C is simply the ratio of the
weight of carbon (12) to the molecular weight of carbon dioxide (44):

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The 1.1 X 109 tonnes of carbon found in the preceding example is about 20 percent of the total,
worldwide carbon emissions entering the atmosphere each year when fossil fuels (coal, oil,
natural gas) are burned. As will be described in Chapter 8, the main worry about these emissions
is their potential to increase the earth's greenhouse effect.

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Example 4 Sedimentation with Coagulation

Waterworks of a town treat 35 x 106 litres/day. The water is treated by coagulation-sedimentation


tank. The quantity of filter alum is consumed at 20 mg/litres of water. If the alkalinity of the raw
water is equivalent to 4.5 mg/litre of CaCO3, determine the quantity of filter alum and the quick
lime (containing 80% of CaO) required per month by the water works. Molecular weights are
given as [Ca = 40, C = 12, S = 32, O = 16, Al = 27 and H = 1]

Solution: Quantity of water treated = 35 x 106 litres/day

Therefore, Quantity of filter alum required @ 20 mg/litre

Following Chemical reactions takes place during treatment

The molecular weight shall be

From the above equation it is clear that 3 x 100 parts of CaCO3 will produce the same alkalinity
which is produced by 666 parts of alum.

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Quantity of CaCO3 required to produce the same alkalinity which is equivalent to 20 mg/litre.

The natural alkalinity available as

CaCO3 = 4.5 mg/litre (given)

Additional alkalinity required to be added in the form of the lime

= 9.009 – 4.509

=4.509 mg/litre as CaCO3

From the above equation it is clear that 100 parts of CaCO3 is produced by 56 parts of CaO.

But as quick lime contains 80% of CaO, therefore quantity of the quick lime required

Quantity of quick lime required for treating 3.5 x 106 litre/day

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Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

Important Terms

Mole

One mole is amount of any substance that contains the same number of particles as the number
of atoms in exactly 12 grams of Carbon-12.

Concentration Units

• Molarity (M) – number of moles of solute per litre of solution (mol/L)

• Molality (m) – number of moles of solute per kg of solution (mol/kg)

• Normality (N) – number of gram-equivalent solute per liter of solution (g-Eq/L)

Atomic Mass

The mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately
equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average
number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotopes.

Molecular Weight

Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule. It is calculated as the sum of the
atomic weights of each constituent element multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in
the molecular formula.

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Equivalent weight

The term equivalent weight can be defined as

EW = FW / Z

Where, FW = Formula weight or Molecular weight

EW = Equivalent weight

Z = (1) the absolute value of the ion charge, (2) the number of H+ or OH- ions a species
can react with or yield in an acid-base reaction, or (3) the absolute value of the change in
valence occurring in an oxidation-reduction reaction. One equivalent is defined as 1 mol
of a compound divided by its EW.

Avogadro’s Number

Avogadro’s number (N) is the number of atoms/molecules in one mole of a given substance

N = 6.02 X 1023

≈ 1 mole

≈ molecular weight

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Method Discussion

Using a balanced chemical equation to calculate amounts of reactants and products is


called stoichiometry. It is a super technical-sounding word that simply means using ratios from
the balanced equation. In this article, we will discuss how to use mole ratios to calculate the
amount of reactants needed for a reaction.

Balanced reactions and mole ratios

The stoichiometric coefficients are the numbers we use to make sure our equation is balanced.
We can make ratios using the stoichiometric coefficients, and the ratios will tell us about the
relative proportions of the chemicals in our reaction. You might see this ratio called the mole
ratio, the stoichiometric factor, or the stoichiometric ratio. The mole ratio can be used as a
conversion factor between different quantities.

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Problem solving:

The first and most important step for all stoichiometry problems is the same no matter what you
are solving for—make sure your equation is balanced! If the equation is not balanced, the mole
ratios will be wrong, and the answers will not be correct.

For example, the stoichiometric coefficients for the following balanced equation tell us that 1
mole of Fe2O3, will react with 2 moles of Al, l to yield 2 moles of Fe, and 1 mole of Al2O3.

If we have a known mass of the reactant Fe2O3, we can calculate how many moles of Al, we
need to fully react with the Fe2O3 using the ratio of their coefficients:

Example: Using mole ratios to calculate mass of a reactant

For the following unbalanced reaction, how many grams of NaOH will be required to fully react
with 3.10 grams of H2SO4 ?

Unbalanced Equation

For this reaction, we have 1 Na and 3 H on the reactant side and 2 Na and 2 H on the product
side. We can balance our equation by multiplying NaOH by two—so that there are Na on each
side—and multiplying H2O by two—so there are 6 O and 4 H on both sides. That gives the
following balanced reaction:

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Balanced Equation

In this example, we know the amount of H2SO4 is 3.10 grams, and we would like to calculate
the mass of NaOH. Armed with the balanced equation and a clear sense of purpose.

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We can use the following strategy to tackle this stoichiometry problem:

Step 1: Convert known reactant amount to moles.

The known quantity in this problem is the mass of H2SO, We can convert the mass of H2SO4 to
moles using the molecular weight. Given that the molecular weight of H2SO4 is 98.09 g/mol, we
can find the moles of H2SO4 as follows:

Step 2: Use mole ratio to find moles of other reactant.

We are interested in calculating the amount of NaOH, so we can use the mole ratio
between NaOH and H2SO4. Based on our balanced chemical equation, we need 2 moles of NaOH
for every 1 mole of H2SO4, which gives the following ratio:

We can use the ratio to convert moles of H2SO4 from step one to moles of NaOH:

Notice that we can write the mole ratio in two ways:

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Each format gives a different answer! However, only one ratio will allow the units of H2SO4 to
cancel out properly.

Step 3: Convert moles to mass.

We can convert the moles of NaOH from Step 2 to mass in grams using the molecular weight
of NaOH:

We will need 2.53 grams of NaOH to fully react with 3.10 grams of H2SO4 in this reaction.

We could also combine all three steps into a single calculation, with the caveat that we should
pay extra close attention to our units. In order to convert the mass of H2SO4 to mass of NaOH,
we could solve the following expression:

If we look carefully at the expression, we can break it down into steps 1 to 3 above. The only
difference is that instead of doing each conversion separately, we did them all at once.

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Conclusion

The coefficients from the balanced chemical reaction tell us the proportions of the reactants and
products. We can use ratios of the coefficients to convert between amounts of reactants and
products in our reaction. And, of course, an environmental engineer who must design an emission
control system or a waste treatment plant must be well grounded in chemical principles and the
techniques of chemical engineering. In this brief report, the stoichiometry have been explained
with the goal of providing only the essential chemical principles required to understand the nature
of the pollution problems that we face and the engineering approaches to their solutions.

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Stoichiometry for Environmental Engineering

References

1. Sawyer, C. And Mc Carty, P. And Parkin, G. 2003 Chemistry For


Environmental Engineering And Science

2. Bhatt and Thakore, Stoichiometry, Fifth Edition

3. G.S. Birdie & J.S. Birdie, Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering

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