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IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON THE CONSUMPTION AND SAVING PATTERN OF

EMIGRANTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: A CASE STUDY OF PALAI MUNICIPALITY

Grace Mary
B.Ed Student ( Social Science )
Mount Carmel College Of Teacher Education For Women, Kottayam

ABSTRACT

The present article entitled “ Impact of migration on the consumption and saving pattern
of emigrants and their families: A case study of Palai Municipality,” is based on a survey
carried out with the objective to study the consumption and saving pattern of families.

The study is both descriptive and analytical in nature and is primarily based on
primary data. A sample is drawn from 23 wards.Secondary data for the study has been collected
from various published sources such as books journals.

The findings of the study indicates that the emigration is a growing phenomenon.The
main factors compelling people to emigrate from their home country land are need to provide a
supportive hand for their family, lack of employment opportunities.

INTRODUCTON

Man is a mobile creature, capable of enquiring, susceptible to suggestions and endowed


with emigration and initiative. When the resources become inadequate to satisfy his needs, he
will be forced to move a new area where the resources for his disposal are plenty. Economic well
being of a country to a great extent depends on the quality and quantity of its inhabitants.

A proper utilization of the existing population for economic development is


vital. The processes of migration plays a dynamic role in disseminating people in all areas and
create an atmosphere suitable for human development. It helps in an overall development of their
home country as well as immigrating country. This migration can be consider as a catalyst in
making the rapid growing population for the economic and social betterment of the country of
origin and at the same time ,the country of destination

OBJECTIVES

 To assess the saving pattern of migrants & their families in Pala Municipality.
 To evaluate the consumption pattern of families which receive foreign remittances in Pala
Municipality.
 To study the demographic structure of emigrants.
METHODOLOGY

The main purpose of the study is to assess the impact of migration on the utilization
pattern of foreign remittances. The study both descriptive and analytical in nature and is
primarily based on primary data. Survey method is used to collect data. A sample is drawn from
23 wards. Lottery method of simple random sampling is used to draw samples. Histograms, bar
diagrams, Pie charts are also used to express the data. Secondary data has been collected from
various published sources such as books, journals and related websites.

LIMITATIONS
 Limitations in meeting NRIs directly for collecting information.
 Time constraint.
 Partial responds from respondents.

EMIGRATION: AN OVER VIEW

The International migration is a movement of people that transcends the national boundaries. The
term emigration is normally used to connote out-migration across the international border and
someone who moves out of a territory is known as emigrant. Approximately one in seven people
today are migrants.

IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION

Immigration and emigration are related to international migration. However, immigration means
movement of people into a particular country, while emigration is movement of people from a
particular country. Thus migrants leaving India to settle down in London are immigrants to
London where as they care emigrants to India.

FACTORS CONTRIBUTED FOR THE EMIGRATION FROM KERALA

In the mildest of high density of population, and less productive agricultural sector, certain
factors also contributed for emigration from Kerala. They are:

 Low level of industrialization.


 Rising unemployment.
 Failure of economic organization to expand employment in secondary and tertiary
sectors.
 Low per-capita income.
 High levels of education.
 Due to these pushing factors , Kerala has become important manpower exporter to other
parts of India as well as to other countries. Some of the pulling factors attracting many to
different parts of the world are:
 High wages.
 Better employment opportunities abroad.
 Absence of restrictions on remittances.
 Tax relief foreign earnings.

ANALYSIS OF DATA & INTERPRETATION

Here, the study analyzes the impact of migration on the consumption and saving pattern of
emigrants and their families.

GENDER COMPOSITION OF EMIGRANTS

GENDER NUMBER OF PERCENTAGE


EMIGRANTS
MALE 38 38
FEMALE 62 62
TOTAL 100 100
The emigration is found to be female dominated. 62 out of 100
emigrants are females whereas males constitute only 38.

RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION OF EMIGRANTS

RELIGION NO.OF EMIGRANTS PERCENTAGE


CHRISTIANS 65 65
HINDUS 35 35
MUSLIMS 00 00
TOTAL 100 100
Majority of emigrants are Christians. They constitute 65 percent. Hindus who are emigrated are
35 percent.

MARITAL STATUS OF EMIGRANTS

MARITAL STATUS NO.OF EMIGRANTS PERCENTAGE


SINGLE 21 21
MARRIED 78 78
DIVORCED 01 01
TOTAL 100 100
Out of the 100 samples emigrants, 78 percent of emigrants are married.21 percent of emigrants
are married.

INCOME LEVEL OF EMIGRANTS

LEVEL OF INCOME NO.OF EMIGRANTS PERCENTAGE


BELOW RS. 50000 06 6.00
50000 - 150000 28 28.00
150000 - 250000 49 49.00
RS.250000 - ABOVE 17 17.00
TOTAL 100 100
Almost all emigrants working abroad are having a fair level of income. Out of 100 emigrants ,94
percent of emigrants earn an income above Rs 50000.

SAVINGS IN THE HOME COUNTRY

SAVINGS NO.OF EMIGRANTS PERCENTAGE


HAVE 84 84.00
HAVE NOT 16 16.00
TOTAL 100 100

84 percent of the emigrants have savings in their home country, mainly for the future needs of
the emigrants and their families.16 percent have no savings in their home country. They are
interested to save in their country of destination.

SAVINGS IN THE HOME COUNTRY

SAVINGS IN THE HOME COUNTRY


HAVES

HAVE
NOTS

84

RETURN MIGRATION

RETURN MIGRATION NO.OF EMIGRANTS PERCENTAGE


RETURNING 15 15.00
NOT RETURNING 85 85.00
TOTAL 100 100

Return is under consideration for 15 percent of the emigrants. The remaining 85 percent
are of the opinion that it is not at present under consideration.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


FINDINGS

 Emigration is a growing phenomenon.


 Middle East, Australia, Canada and UK are the main destination countries of the
emigrants.
 A vast majority of the emigrants are in the age group of 30-50.
 The main factors compelling people to emigrate from their home country land are the
need to provide a supportive hand for their family, lack of employment opportunities,
difference in the wage rate for same employment, intention to repay debts etc.
 The main attractive forces are better employment opportunities, better standard of living,
good social security measures, etc.
 The foreign remittances made by emigrants are great support force for their families in
the home country. The main areas where the remittance are used by them are for
subsistence, buying of house hold articles, repaying debts, depositing in the banks, etc.
 The investment made from foreign remittances provides indirect employment to many
people in the home country. The new enterprises started by the emigrants provide new
employment opportunities.
 The inflow of foreign remittance to the home country is an impetus for the whole
economy.
 The level of unemployment can be corrected to some extend by emigration.

RECOMMENDATIONS

 As the emigration is on the rise, the safety and security of the emigrants have to be
considered by the Government. Measures to safeguard their interest have to be given
be priority.
 Well trained and competent workforce should be created, so that they can easily
succeed in facing any sort of global competition in any fields within as well as
outside the country.
 The policy required for easy emigration including provisions for authorized recruiting
agents, prevention from foreign agents should be made possible.
 The efficient working of the home embassies in different countries along with
emigrants’ association can be a helping hand for emigrants in solving many problems
faced by them.
CONCLUSION
Emigration, which is the process of leaving the home
country to settle somewhere outside the national boundary, has become a common
phenomenon in the country. Even though employment opportunities are growing in
the country, better the high wages abroad good living conditions, provisions of
financial assistance to family in the home country, etc make people to emigrate. It can
boost the global economy by allowing the excess of labor to move towards highly
demanded countries. Another great benefit acquiring to emigration is the foreign
remittances. It showing a positive flowing trend, which is helping to individuals,
households and for the home country’s economy. The employment provided through
emigration has enabled the reduction in the level of unemployment, poverty, increase
in consumption, rise in living standards of the households, etc. it can be considered as
a productive industry, providing direct and indirect employment to many without any
hazardous repercussions.

BIBILIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
 Economic Consequences of Emigration from Kerala –K.C. ZACHARIAH
 Emigration and Unemployment - NAIR, B.A PRAKASH AND
PRABHAKARAN
 Geography of Population- BEAUJAU GARNIER

JOURNALS

 KURUP, DEVESH- “Migration and India” , Forbes India(August 28,2013)

ONLINE ARTICLES

 RAJAN.S. IRUDAYA & K.C.ZACHARIA, “Management of International


Migration in India, 2013”.
 SAHA & PRAVEEN NANGIA, “Profile of Emigration from India”.
SURVEY QUESTIONS

1. Ward number:
2. House name :
3. Number of family members :
4. Number of members emigrated :
5. Year in which he emigrated :
6. Occupation abroad :
7. Age group :

Below 15
15 - 30
30 - 45
45 - 60
Above 60

8. Marital status :

Single
Married
Devorced
9. Salary earned{ in terms of INR} :

Below Rs. 50000


Rs.50000 – Rs. 150000
Rs. 150000 – Rs. 250000
Above Rs. 250000

10. Educational qualification :

Graduation
Post graduation
Diploma
Others

11. Does the emigrants has savings in the home country :


A. Yes B. No

12. Does the emigrants make foreign remittances to families in home country :
A. Yes B. No

13. What are the end uses of foreign remittances made by the households:

Subsistence
Household consumption
Bank deposit
Others

14. Which interested areas of investment:

Real estates
Shares & bonds
Mutual funds & equity
Gold
Others

15. Is the emigrant satisfied with his working conditions :


A. Yes B. No
16. Is the emigration is aim at providing a supportive hand for family:
A. Yes B. No

17. Is the level of pleasure and entertainment a factor of emigration :

A. Yes B. No

18. Did they get employment easily after emigration :

Emigrated after getting a job


Got employment with 3 month after
emigration
No so easy to get job

19. Is there any changes in the level of households standard of living after emigration :
A. Yes B. No
20. Are the emigrants able to clear their debts soon after migration :
A. Yes B. No
21. Does differences in purchasing power attract the emigrants:
A. Yes B. No
22. Are the emigrants interested in starting new enterprises or firms in home country:
A. Yes B. No
23. Is return – migration under consideration:
A. Yes B. No