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PERGAMON Quaternary International 114 (2004) 67-86

Archaeology of the Holocene in the upper Parana River,

Mato Grosso do SuI State, Brazil

Emilia Mariko Kashimoto a ,*, Gilson Rodolfo Martins b

a Laboratory of Archaeological Research of the Dom Bosco Museum, Dom Bosco Catholic University, Campo GramlelMS, Brazil

b Laboratory of Archaeological Research of the History Department of AquidauLlna, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sui, Brazil

Abstract

The results from the Porto Primavera Archaeological Project, Mato Grosso do SuI, involving survey and rescue research
developed in the upper Parana River, are presented. The analysis discusses the environmental variables related to the implant­
ation of archaeological sites, the material culture and the correlation between archaeology and geochronology: from groups of
hunters- gatherers- fishermen (6400 years BP) to the indigenous ceramists (at least 1500 years BP).
© 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved .

1. Introduction The Porto Primavera Archaeological Project, Mato


Grosso do Sui State fitted in with the mitigation impact
The de la Plata river basin drains an area of about measurements, on the archaeological patrimony of the
2,800,000 km 2 and 3780 km in extent. It is made up, right margin of the upper Parana River, originating
potentially, of a large link axis in the centre-south from the construction of the hydroelectric plant,
direction of South America, interconnecting distinct Engineer Sergio Motta-UHESM (Porto Primavera).
landscapes such as the Cerrado, the Semideciduous This plant, together with other similar undertakings in
Seasonal Forest, the Pantanal, and the Gran Chaco. In the valley of the upper Parana River (I1ha Solteira, Jupia
this landscape multiplicity, past cultural processes and Itaipu) as well as others along tributaries, caused
developed, the analysis of which evokes observation of profound modifications in the regional landscape. The
the close connection between environment and culture. UHESM reservoir was formed in 1998, covering part of
From this perspective, the present article aims to the area, in relation to its right margin, up to 192,000 ha.
focus on the results originating from the correlation This area is demarcated by the geographical coordinates
between archaeology and geochronology of the upper 22°24'OOISj52°58'OO"W and 20 0 47'27 I Sj51 ° 37'58"W.
Parana River, especially those originating from the The PAPPMS was developed in the period from 1993
Porto Primavera Archaeological Project, Malo Grosso do to 1999, including the Survey and Rescue Phases,
Sui State (PAPPMS), with the intention of contributing originating from two technical-scientific service con­
to the analysis of the landscape and cultural dynamics in tracts agreed to between the Electricity Company of Sao
the hydrological basin of the Parana River. Paulo-CESP, responsible for the undertaking, and the
For the development of this focus, syntheses will be Foundation for Support to Research, Teaching and
presented of regional landscape, ethnohistory, archae­ Culture- F APECjMS.
ological knowledge previous to PAPPMS and results
obtained through this project. Then, the relationship
between archaeology and geochronology will be ana­ 2. Upper Parana landscape, Mato Grosso do Sui
lysed, as well as the connections between scenic
transformations and regional cultural panorama. In the correlation archaeology and landscape of the
upper Parana River, the area is divided into three
groups demarcated by state hydrographic sub-basins,
'Corresponding author. according to Governo do Estado de Mato Grosso do
E-mail addresses:labpar@ucdb.br (E.M. Kashimoto), Ipa@nin. Sul- SeplanjCrn (J 993). The area of each sub-basin was
ufms.br (G.R. Martins). considered as being composed of a sizeable tributary of

1040-61 82/03/$-see front matter © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.
doi: 10 . 10 16/ S I 040-6182(03)00043-0
68 E. Mariko Kashimolo, G. Rodolfo Marlins I Qualernary Iniernalionall14 (2 004) 67-86

the Parana River, with its respective tributaries and the alluvial quartzous sands. The vegetation cover is
tributaries of the margin of the Parana River near the dominated by herbs and palm trees, together with the
mouths of this tributary. Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial Forest (Campos and
Flowing in the general direction NE-SW, the upper Souza, 1997).
Parana River included archaeological evidence of The area of this project covered the geomorphological
distinct characteristics and differentiated landscapes compartments defined by Stevaux (1993) : the Parana
because of the latitudinal variation of its course. A River Unit (flood plain, main channel, islands and
natural frontier between two scenic contexts was defined sand bars); the Boa Vista Farm Unit (alluvial terrace
by the course of the Pardo River (approximate latitude which was delimited by a descending fracture which
21 0 S) according to the characteristics of the vegetation characterized the border (with heights above sea level of
and soils (Go verno do Estado de Mato Grosso do 244--246 m) named Boa Vista Alta Farm sub-unit); and
Sul- SeplanjFiplanjIbge, 1989), geology (Governo do the Taquaruqu Unit (colluvial covering) . In the PAPPMS
Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul-SepJan, 1990) and area, the heights above sea level corresponding to
climatology (Zavatini , 1992). these units were, respectively, 238-253, 241-249, and
The northern region, the sub-basins of the Pardo 255-300 m.
and Verde rivers, lies within the regional climate The right margin of the Parana River presented a
controlled, essentially, by equatorial and tropical asymmetric profile in relation to its left margin due to
masses. The predominant covering vegetation was the fact that structural palisades of Caiu a sandstone
formerly the cerrado, nowadays substituted in great predominated, elevated to more than 20 m above the
part by the reality of agriculture and cattle ranching. fluvial bed, with Podsolic and Latosol soils covered by
The area covered by the middle and upper courses of the the Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, now replaced by
main tributary of the Parana River is underlain by agriculture and cattle ranching . The right margin plain
Caiua sandstone, the basis for the pedogenesis of the of the Parana River was delimited to the west, with a
Dark-red Latosol and Quartz Sands . Tn the sub-basin of geomorphological compartment of heights above sea
the Verde River, there is a sharp decrease in the width of level of between 260 and 320 m of Dark-red Latosol,
the flood plain of the Parana River. The Parana riverbed developed on substrate of the Caiua Formation, and
shows abrupt inflexions and deeper incision, in the covering vegetation of Semideciduous Seasonal Forest
upstream direction, with margins elevated to more than which , in turn, formed contact with the Cerrado in the
8 m on average above the surface, resulting in an Pardo and Verde river contexts (Governo do Estado de
increase in the number of riverside archaeological sites, Mato Grosso do Sul-SeplanjFiplanjIbge, 1989).
in comparison with the southern segment.
The area to the south of the Pardo River has a climate
marked by the predominance of polar and tropical 3. Ethnohistory
masses, the transition of cerrado predominated over the
presence of the Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, latterly When the archaeology of this stretch of the Upper
replaced by agriculture and cattle ranching. Tn this Para na is considered, reflection on the regional ethnic
context, up to the confluence with the Ivinhema River, history is necessary , which, due to the environmental
the Parana River presented, in comparison to the transition already mentioned, superimposes an ethnical
northern segment, a more rectilinear outline, a decrease transition. The cerrado area, to the north of the fluvial
in the incision of its course and smaller tributaries. Tn channel, constituted the meridional Kayapo habitat. To
the meridional portion of the Mato Grosso do Sui State, the south , the landscape of the Semideciduous Seasonal
the sub-basins of the Ivinhema and Iguatemi rivers, Forest and riparian forests was Guarani territory
forest coverage developed abundantly on Dark-red (Martins, I992a, b). Nowadays , there is a marked
Podsolic soils and Dark-red Latosol , originating from presence of Kaiowas and Nhandevas in the sub-basins
Caiua sandstone. of the Iguatemi and Tvinhema rivers. The area of this
According to Souza Filho and Stevaux (1997), the sub-basin was incorporated, in the 17th century , into the
structural alignment of Guapiara marks a block Jesuit province of Guaira.
division: Lagoa Sao Paulo and Baia river compartments. At the end of the 19th century, when the Guarani
The first includes the sub-basin of the Verde River and Indian ceramists no longer existed in this region, the
part of the Pardo, while the second substantially covers Ofaie-xa vantes fished, hunted and camped along the
the sub-basins of the Pardo and Tvinhema rivers. brooks and creeks where the Combate, Tres Barras and
PAPPMS focussed essentially on the extensive fluvial Samambaia streams flow, in an extensive occupation of
terraces on the right margin of the Parana River, with an the upstream Pardo river (Ribeiro, 1951). Thus, the
elevation of 3- IOm above the river channel and up to Ofaie-xa vantes occupied practically all the space cov­
12 km wide (240-260 m a.s.l.). The terraces are formed ered by the inundation of the present area of the
by Quaternary accumulation capped by Gley soils and UHESM, probably after the disappearance of the
E. Mariko Kashimoto, G. Rodolfo Marlins I Qualemary International 114 (2004) 67-86 69

Guaranis and meridional This lJV""IVl'" to observe that the archaeological of


ethnic group dominated the context of the sub-basin of the upper Parana River in Mato Grosso do Sui was
the Pardo and Verde rivers until its extinction in the preliminary before the development of the PAPPMS.
middle of the 19th century, about 50 Indians
live on the Ofaie-xavante reserve in BrasiHindia (sub­
basin of the Verde River), 5. Results of the
the left margin of the Parana River, the
used to occupy, until the of the 20th Considering the area of influence of the UHESM,
century, the plateau between the Grande and Tiet€: practically unknown in relation to its archaeological
and the Kaiowas lived in the forests to the south content, the PAPP:"v1S aimed mainly at the construction
of the Tier€: River (Monbeig, 1952). The 1""-1111:;."-11i"" of an of the upper Parana
lived the left margin of the Parana River, based on the elucidation of the types of sites and
forest areas (Leite, 198 as well as their distribution. To understand
inhabitants of the cerrados and wooded areas the question of the in this area, a
1 The Dourados Mountain range, to the carried out. With the extension of
River, was the survey to contexts away from the
seminomadic hunter~gatherers who, around I direct area of influence of this sites were regis­
and used lithic artifacts tered from dozens of kilometres to the dam downstream.
1978), In this area of inundation of the UHESM, an
intensive archaeological survey was carried out follow­
ing two main axes: the Parana River and
4. Previous archaeological research tributaries, and roads on the inundation plain,
A selected range of environmental variables was defined
The of cultures of the pre-discovery as criteria for the definition of for prospecting
upper Parana River indicates an extensive and investigation: 350 were searched and plotted
associated with the Guarani with to archae­
of this fluvial segment. From among
the locations those which stand out are surveys in
the Samambaia River I the Rescue group was
of the of the to a total of 125 locations
south of the UHESM (Chmyz, 1974); along the left 1, Table I). From and the
of the Parana the reservoir area of the results obtained from the survey carried out in the area,
Itaipu plant (Chmyz, 1974, 1976, I 24 sites were selected for excavation,
1980), the Canuto 1 close to the confluence with the as a priority the most with
(Kunzli, 1987), and the Sao Paulo reference to the cultural remains, the environmental
1984); in the context of the Ivai diversity and the geographical distribution,
1959; Blasi, 1967; Noelli, Following variable dimensions
River (Pallestrini, characteristics of each site, trenches were
1992; Kashimoto, I of between 5 and 50 m, as well as
areas of up to 2500 m 2 , The basic
Occupation is indicated by included the removal of sediments in
remains of cobbles, predomi­ followed by observation of color,
nantly of silicate and and then sediment for the retention of archae-
artifacts such as lesmas shaping tools The
with a flat base and convex surface), planers, material was registered by means of
arrowheads, bifacial and scrapers. In many cases, metre annotation and of the
these horizons make up beneath those of in which it was contained. Geomorphological
the ceramists, such as in the Sao Paulo Lagoon site, tion, and its relation to the archaeological material, was
where level depths between 80 and 110 cm are dated carried out plani-altimetrical surveys on the
2500 ± 70 years DP by C I4 (Gif), excavated sites.
according to Pallestrini (1984). Along with the field the dating processing in
The region was the of even older occupations. In 174 collected in the researched sites was carried
the upper Sucuriu River, Mato Grosso do Sui State, to out, at a wide recognition of past
the northwest of the UHES:"v1 area, remains of occupa­ and the definition of a referential for the
tion in shelters under rocks resulted in dating of about establishment of a of the
10,000 years BP (Silva, I Thus, it is upper Parana River
70 E. Mariko Kashimoto, G. RodolJo Martins I Quaternary International 114 (2004) 67-86

ThlJNDATION AREA OF THE PORTO PlIDIAVERARYDROELECTRIC PLAlW A:\]ARCHAEOLOGICAL sms


. MATO GROSSO DO SULSTATE·

.5.3"0\1' 52"00'

! (
L-­ "" 21eoO'

_/
_~ --.....
.. ~-
• J""
J
L-­

21")\)' 21'10'

,~. "

22"00' 22'(1)'

22"JO' 22"JQ'

52"30'

10 10 20Km
U n,.
GIlAPHIC SCALE
KEY ELABORATION:
EMll.lA MARIKO KASHTMOTO
: 3 Archaeological site - Porto Primavera DOMIlOSCO CATIIOUC UNIVERSny
Project, MS (FAPECI FUf';lSIL'CDB)
GILSON RODOLI'O MAR'J1NS
FEDERAL Ul\'IVERSlTY OJ' SOUTII
' . lnunda1ion limit of reservoir area
MAroOROSSO . ,'
Urban Area CARTOGRAPlllC PRODUCTION: , '.
AIda Monteiro Barbosa ~~ :~.~; " ",
SOL'RCE L09andra Borges de Moraes til?' 1"

Hipsomctry o[Sao P,lUio Slale. sr, t982 Wagncidc Rodrigues

-­ -..
Geo·col',,;ronmcnltll MaCTo-7.oning or
South Molo GroBSO , SEPLj\~/" JPLt\N, MS, 1988
PA-SALV·SM Geoprocessing Lab ;­
Ul'G Anthropological Museum

Fig. l. Inundation are<l of the Porlo Primavera H ydroelectric Plant and archaeological siles. Mato Grosso do Sui Slate.
E. Mariko Kashim%, Rodolfo Marlins I Qua/ernary Inlemalionall14 (2004) 67-86 71

Table I
PAPPMS archaeological sites

Cl Archaeological sile Geographical I mplanlalion EV MAT


coordinates

MS-JV-06 (Caleto Stream site I-CTI) 22°25'27"S Cateto stream (r) 15 L


52° 59'00"W
2 MS-JV-07 (Caleto Stream site 2-CT2) 22°24'59"S Cateto stream (r) 16 L/C
52°58'35"W Combate lagoon (w)
3 MS-IV-08 (Custodio Lagoon site I-COl) 22°23'04/1S Custodio lagoon (w) 16, 17 L/C
52° 52'08"W
4 MS-IV-04 (Tres Barras Brook site I-TBI) 22°20'17"S Tres Barras brook (r) II C
52°5I'42"W
5 MS-IV-05 (Machado Stream site I-MCI) 22°18'IO"S Machado stream (r) 17 C
52°46'04/1W
MS-PR-06 (Anaurilfll1dia site 2-AN2) 22° 18'05"S Parana river (r) 2, 8 L
52°41'31"W
7 MS-PR-07 (Anaurihlndia site I-ANI) 22° 18'58"S QuiteroI brook (r)/Parana river (r) 1,2,8 L
52°41'00"W
8 MS-PR-08 (Quiteroi Brook site I-QTl) 22° 12'26"S Quiter6i brook (r) II, 12 L/C
52°37'41"W
9 MS-PR-09 (Quiteroi Brook site 2-QT2) II'II"S Quiter6i brook (I) 11,13 C
52° 37'36"W
10 MS-PR-IO (Quiteroi Brook site 3-QT3) 22°10'45"S Quiter6i (I) II, 13 L
52°37'51"W
II MS-PR-II (Quiter6i Brook site 4-QT4) 22°0<)l46"S Quiteroi brook (I) II, 13 C
52038,41"W
12 MS-PR-I (Quiter6i Brook site 5-QT5) 22°09'32"S Quiter6i brook (r) 13 C
52°39'38"W
13 MS-PR-13 (Quiteroi Brook site 6-QT6) 22°09/02/1S Quiteroi brook (I) II, 13 L/C
52°39'36"W
14 M8-PR-14 (Anaurilandia site 3-AN3) 22° 15'55"S Parana river (r) 2 L
52°36'19"W
15 MS-PR-15 (Lambari Stream site I-LBI) 22°07/58"S Lambari stream (r) II L
52°33'57"W
16 M8·PR·16 (Lambari 8tream site 2-LB2) 22°08/11"8 Lambari stream (r) 11, 13 L/C
52°34/13"W
17 M8-PR-17 (Upper Parana site 4-AP4) 22° 13'06"S Parana river (r) 2,8 L/C
52°30/44"W
18 MS-PR-18 (Quiteroizinho Brook site l-QZI) 22°06'47"S Quiteroizinho brook (I) II C
52°29'34"W
19 MS-PR-19 (Quiteroizinho Brook site 2-QZ2) 22°03'53"S Quiteroizinho brook (I) 13 L/C
52°3I'35"W
20 MS-PR-20 (Upper Parana site 5-AP5) 22°08'52"S Parana river (r) 2 L
52°25'27"W
21 MS-PR-21 (Quebracho Brook site 2-QB2) 22°05'58"S Quebracho brook (r)! Ariranha lagoon (w) 16, 17 L
52°23/58"W
22 MS-PR-22 (Ariranha Lagoon site l-ARI) 22°05/48"S Ariranha lagoon (w)/Quebracho brook (r) 16, 17 L/C
52°23'55"W
23 MS-PR-23 (Ariranha site 2-AR2) 22°05'30"S Ariranha lagoon (w)/Quebracho brook (r) 16, 17 L
52° 23'38"W
24 MS-PR-24 (Quebracho Brook site I-QBJ) 22°06'28"S Quebracho brook (l)/Parana river (r) I, L
52°23'42"W
25 MS-PR-25 (Quebracho Brook 3-QB3) 21°59'24"S Quebracho brook (I) 3 L
52°30'46"W
26 M8-PR-26 (Sao Louren<;o Stream site I-SLI) 22°01 ' 05"8 Sao Louren<;o stream (I) 17 L/C
52°22/37"W
27 MS-PR-27 Stream site I-CR I) 21°56'26"S Caraguata stream (I) 13, 19 L/C
52°24'58"W
28 MS-PR-28 (Caraguata Stream site 2-CR2) 21°56'24"S CaraguaUi stream (r) 12, 19 C
52°25'17"W
29 MS-PR-29 Stream site 3-CR3) 21 °55'49"S Caraguata stream (r) II L
52°26/01"W
30 MS-PR-30 (aura Branco Stream site I-OBI) 21 °53/28"8 Ouro Branco stream (r) 13, 19 L/C
52°23'22"W
31 MS-PR-31 (Ouro Branco Stream site 2-0B2) 2I 0 53'12"S Ouro Branco stream (r) 13, 19 L/C
52°23'14"W
72 E. Mariko Kashimoto, G. Rodolfo Marlins I Quaternary Iniernational1l4 (2004) 67-86

Table I (continued)

cr Archaeological site Geographical Implantation EV MAT


coordinates

MS-PR-32 (SantaTerezinha Stream site I-STl) 21°46'54"S Santa Terezinha stream (I) 6 L
52019,48"W
33 MS-PR-33 (Upper Parana site 6-AP6) 21°48'17"S Parana river (r) 2 L
52° Il'13"W
34 MS-PO-O I (Santa Rita do Pardo site I-SR I) 21°45129"S Pardo river (I)/Parana river (0 L
52° I O"02"W
35 MS-PO-02 (Bataguas;u site 3-BT3) 21°43'35"S Pardo (r) 15 L
52°14125"W
36 MS-PD-03 (Bataguas;u site I-BTl) 21°43121"S Pardo river (r) 18 L
15'07ff W
37 MS-PD-04 (Pardo River site 4-PD4) 2J037'42"S Pardo river (I) 12 L/C
52°J8'26/1W
38 MS-PO-05 (Bataguas;u site 2-BT2) 21°4O"2O"IS Pardo river (I) 13 L
52°26'30/lW
39 MS-PD-06 (Balaguas;u site 4-BT4) 21°42'II"S Pardo river (r)/Uere stream (r) 1, 12 L/C
52°30'00"W
40 MS-PO-07 (Santa Rita do Pardo site 2-SR2) 21°42'25"S Pardo river (1)/ Aroeira stream (r) I, 12 L/C
52°37'17"W
41 MS-PR-34 (Upper Parana site 7-AP7) 21°38'46"S Parana river (r) 3,6 L/C
52°03f 11"W
42 MS-PR-35 (Upper Parana site 8-AP8) 21°37'53 I1S Parana river (r) 3, 6 L/C
52°03'301f W
43 MS-PR-36 (Upper Parana site 9-AP9) 21°35'53"S Parana river (r) 6 L
52°04'19 1f W
44 MS-PR-37 (Upper Parana site 10-APIO) 21°35'24 f1 S Parana river (r) 3 L
52°04 f 40fl W
45 MS-PR-38 (Upper Parana site I I-API I) 21°35'09"S Parana river (r) 3, 6 L
52°04'58If W
46 MS-PR-39 (Upper Parana site 12-API2) 2 J032'28 f1 S Parana river (r)/Remanso stream (I) 1,4,19 LiC
52°06'2IffW
47 MS-PR-40 (Upper Parana site 13-API3) 21 °30" 14"S Parana river (r)/Parediio stream (I) 1,4, 19 L/C
52°04'25 f1 W
48 MS-PR-41 (Azul Stream site I-AZI) 21 °29' 30"S Azul stream (r)/Parana river (r) I, 19 L/C
52°04'03!1W
49 MS-PR-42 (Brasilandia site 3-BR3) 21°30'401'S Parana river (r) 3,6,9 L/C
51°59'30"W
50 MS-PR-43 (BrasiHindia site 4-BR4) 21°30'05"S Parana river (r) 3,6,9 L/C
51°58'32ffW
51 MS-PR-44 (Upper Parana site 16-API6) 21°29'07f1 S Parana river (r) 3,8,9 L
51 057'40"W
52 MS-PR-45 (Taquari Brook site 1-TQI) 21°27'15" S Taquari brook (r) II, 18 L/C
52°0I'44"W
53 MS-PR-46 (Taquari Brook site 2-TQ2) 21°25'40" S Taquari brook (r) 10,19 L/C
52°0I'06"W
54 MS-PR-47 (Taquari Brook site 3-TQ3) 21°25 /24'1 S Taquari brook (I) II, 12, 19 L/C
52°0I'06"W
55 MS-PR-48 (Taquari Brook site 4-TQ4) 21°25'00" S Taquari brook (I) II, 13, 19 L/C
52°0I'07"W
56 MS-PR-49 (Upper Parana site 17-API7) 21°25'29"S Parana (r) 8 L/C
51°55'24ff W
57 MS-PR-50 (Upper Parana site 18-API8) 21 °22"20'" S lagoon without denomination (1') 3, 16 L
51°54'37"W
58 MS-PR-SI (Upper Parana site 19-API9) 21°2I'20"S Parana river (r)/lagoon 3, 16 L/C
51°53'25"W
59 MS-PR-52 (Brasilandia site 7-BR7) 21°2O"05 11 S Parana river (r) 3,6,8 L/C
51°5I f 58"W
60 MS-PR-53 (Brasilandia site 8-BR8) 21°15'40"S Parana river (r) 6 L
51°51'34"W
61 MS-PR-54 (Upper Parana site 22-AP22) 21° J4'30"S Parana river (r) 6 L
51°5I'51"W
62 MS-PR-55 (Cabeceira Perdida site I-CPI) 21° 14'I7I1S Cabeceira Perdida (r) 13 L/C
51°58' 15"W
E. Mariko Kashimoto. Rodolfo Martins / Quaternary International 114 (2004) 67-86

Table I (continued)

CI Archaeological site Geographical Implantation EV MAT


coordinates

63 MS-PR-56 (Brasilandia site 10-BRIO) 21°13'55"S Verde island (w) 6, 10 L


S1051'47"W
64 MS-PR-S7 (Brasilandia site II-BR II) 21° I 2' 34"S Verde island (e) 6, 10 LjC
51°52'40"W
65 MS-VD-Ol (Brasilandia site 12-BR(2) 21°111/51"S Verde river (r) 6, 9 L
51°53'24"W
66 MS-VD-02 (Brasilandia site 13-BRI3) 21°11'22"S Verde river (r)/Piranha 6,16 L
51°53'42/fW
MS-VD-03 (Tres Lagoas site 2-TL2) 21°II'02"S Verde river (I) II L/C
SJ053'21!{W
68 MS-VD-04 (Tres Lagoas site 3-TL3) 21°I0'56"S Verde river (I) 6,10 L
51°55'03"W
69 MS-VD-05 (Verde River site 5-VDS) 21°11'03//S Verde river (r) 6, II L
5Jo55'31"W
70 MS-VD-06 (Verde River site 6-VD6) 21°10'57"S Verde river (1) 6, II L
51°5S'34"W
71 MS-VD-07 (Verde River site 7-V07) 21°II'02/1S Verde river (r) 11 L
Sl056'06"W
72 MS-VD-08 (Verde River site 8-VD8) 21°10'55"S Verde river (1) II L
51°56'20"W
73 MS-VD-09 (Brasiliindia site 16-BRI6) 21°10'36//S Verde river (r) 6,11 L
51°56'47/1W
74 MS-VD-iO (Verde River site 10-VDI0) 21° 10'08//S Verde river (r) 6, II, 14 L
51°57'17"W
75 MS-VD-II (Verde River site II-VDII) 21°06'29"S Verde river (I) II L
Q
SJ 59'28"W
76 MS-VD-12 (Verde River site 12-VO 12) 21°06'28"S Verde river (r) II L
52°01'17/1W
77 MS-VD-13 (Verde River ,ite 13-VOI3) 21°06"22"S Verde river (r) 6, II L
52°01'33/1W
78 MS-PR-58 (Upper Parana site 23-AP23) 21°10'15"S Parana river (r) 3,8 L
51°52'50"W
79 MS-PR-59 (Upper Parana site 24-AP24) 21°09'57"S Parana river (r) 7 L
Slo52'53"W
80 MS-PR-60 (Upper Parana site 25-AP25) 21°08'37/1S Parana river (r) L
51 0 52'56"W
81 MS-PR-61 (Upper Parana site 26-AP26) 21 °07'33"S Parana river (r) 6 L
51°5I'24"W
82 MS-PR-62 (Upper Parana site 27-AP27) 21°07'29"S Parana (r) 7, 9 L/C
51°50'18/1W
83 MS-PR-64 Limpa Island site J-1A I) 21°07'05"S Limpa island (w) 7, L/C
51°49'26"W
84 MS-PR-66 Limpa Island HA3) 21°06'56"S Limpa island (n) 6,8, 10 L
51°48'54"W
85 MS-PR-63 (Upper site 28-AP28) 21°06'54"S Parana river (r) I, 7, 9 L
51°49'26"W
86 MS-PR-6S Limpa Island site 2-IA2) 21°07' 18"S Limpa island (e) 6, 10 L
51°49'OI"W
87 MS-PR-67 (Upper Parana site 29-AP29) 21°06'28"S Parana river (r) 8,9 L/C
51°48'38/1W
88 MS-PR-68 (Upper Parana site 30-AP30) 21°06'05"S Parana river (r) 8 LjC
51°47'40"W
89 MS-PR-69 (Upper Parana site 31-AP31) 21°05'54"S Parana river (r) L/C
51°47'30"W
90 MS-PR-70 (Upper Parana site 32-AP32) 21°05'IS/IS Parana river (r) 6, L
51°47'16"W
91 MS-PR-71 (Upper Parana 33-AP33) 21°00'41"S Parana (r) 8 C
51°45'24"W
92 MS-PR-72 (Upper Parana site 34-AP34) 200 59'56"S Parana river (r) 6, 8 L
S1044'48"W
93 MS-PR-73 (Upper Parana site 35-AP35) 20°59' III/S Parana river (r) 6, 8 L
51°44'17"W
74 E. Mariko KashimolO, G. Rodolfo Marlins I QUulernary Iniernalional114 (2004) 67-86

Table I (continued)

CI Archaeological site Geographical Implantation EV MAT


coordinates

94 MS-PR-76 (Tn:s Lagoas I-TLI) 20 0 57'58"S Parana river (r) 1,6,8 L


51°42'54"W Palmito brook (I)
95 MS-PR-74 (Palmito Brook site I-PM I) 20 0 57'55"S Palmito brook (I) 6, II, 12 L
51 0 43'14"W
96 MS-PR-75 (Palmito Brook site 2-PM2) 20° 57'20"S Palmi to brook (I) 11. 12 L
51 0 42'58''W
97 MS-PR-77 (Upper Parana site 37-AP37) 20 0 57'21/1S Parana river (r) 6,8,9 L
51°41'57/1W
98 MS-PR-78 (Comprida Island I-ICI) 20 0 57'28"S Comprida island (w) 6,8,10 L/C
Sl o 41'40"W
99 MS-PR-79 (Comprida Island site 2-IC2) 20 0 58'05"S Comprida island (e) 6,8,10 L/C
51°40'54/1W
100 MS-PR-80 (Comprida Island 3-1C3) 20 0 57'52"S Comprida island (e) 6,8, JO LjC
51°391 42"W
101 MS-PR-81 (Comprida Island site 4-1C4) 20 0 57'32"S Comprida island (e) 6,8, 10 L
51°39'18"W
102 MS-PR-82 (Comprida Island site 5-IC5) 20 0 57'17"S Comprida island (e) 6,8, 10 L/C
51°39I 03"W
103 MS-PR-83 (Comprida Island site 6-1C6) 20 0 56'16"S Comprida island (w) 8, 10 L/C
51 40'18"W
Q

104 MS-PR-84 (Upper Parana site 38-AP38) 20° 56'04"S Pa rana river (r) 9 L
51°40'27"W
lOS MS-PR-85 (Comprida Island site 7-IC7) 200 55'57 N S Comprida island (w) 6,8, 10 L/C
51°39'59/1W
106 MS-PR-86 (Comprida Island site 8-IC8) 200 55'53"S Comprida island (e) 8, 10 L/C
51°37'22"W
107 MS-PR-87 (Comprida Island site 9-IC9) 200 55'II"S Comprida island (e) 6, 8, 10 L/C
51°37'22"W
108 MS-PR-88 (Upper Parana site 39-AP39) 20 0 541 58"S Parana river (r) 7 L
5l o 39'09/1W
109 MS-PR-89 (Comprida Island site 10-ICI0) 20 0 54'27"S Comprida island (w) 6,8, 10 L
SI 0 38'SO"W
110 MS-PR-90 (Upper Parana site 40-AP40) 20 0 53'19"S Parana river (r) 6, 8, 9 L/C
51 ° 38'22/1W
III MS-PR-91 (Comprida Island site II-ICII) 20 0 52'59"S Comprida island (e) 6,8, 10 L
S1 0 37'14"W
112 MS-PR-92 (Comprida Island site 12-ICI2) 20° 52'38"S Comprida island (n) 10 L
51°37'30"W
113 MS-PR-93 (Upper Parana site 41·AP41) 20° 52'30"S Parana river (r) 8, 9 L/C
51°37'50"W
114 MS-PR-94 (Upper Parana site 42-AP42) 20 0 51'15"S Parana river (r) 6, 8 L
51°38'06/1W
115 MS-PR-95 (Upper Parana site 43-AP43) 20 0 50'43"S Parana river (r) 6,8 L
51°38'IO"W
116 MS-PR-96 (Upper Parana site 44·AP44) 20°50' II"S Parana river (r) 6,7 L/C
51°38'15"W
117 MS-PR-97 (Upper Parana site 45-AP45) 20 0 48'42"S Parana river (r) 7 L
51°38'13"W
118 MS-PR-98 site I-ITI) 23°35'48"S Parana river (r) 4, 9 L/C
54°02'30"W
119 ON I (Onya Lagoon site I) 22°23"52"S Onya Lagoon (w) 16 L/C
52°55'46"W
120 MS-PR·99 (Palmi to Brook site 3-PM3) 20° 57'50"S Palmito brook river (r) II, 12 L
51°43126/1W
121 MS-PD-08 (Pardo River site 8-PDS) 21 °39' 40'IS Pardo river (I) II, 12, 19 L/C
52°12'14"W
Verde Island site I (lEI) I 12'24"S Verde island (w) 10 L/C
51°53'05"W
MS-VD-16 (Piranha Lagoon site I-PII) 21°1 [l39"S Verde river {r)/Piranha Lagoon 16 L/C
51°53'29/1W
MS-VD-15 (Verde River site IS-VDIS) 21°09'56"S Verde river (t) II, 14 L/C
51°581 11"W
Ivinhema River 9 23° 14'40"S Ivinhema river river (r) L/C
53°42'53"W
E. Mariko Kashimoto, G. Rodolfo Martins / Quaternary In lerna tional 114 (2004) 67-86 75

The dating of charcoal samples, using the l4C method, which form the Quartzitic and Agate Generations
was carried out at the Laboratoire des Sciences du according to the designation of F{tlfaro (1974) and
Climat et de I'Environnement-Laboratoire Mixte Boggiani (J 991).
CEA-CNRS UMR 1572, in Gif-sur-Yvette, France, According to the characteristics of the selected
under the responsibility of Dr. Michel Fontugne, being locations for settlement (archaeological sites), it is
here referenced by the Gif code. Samples of ceramic possible to conclude that they were protected from
fragments were dated, through the thermoluminescence normal/exceptional floods, permitted visibility of the
method, in the Glass and Dating Laboratory of the terrain, were favourable to fishing/hunting/gathering,
Faculty of Technology of Sao Paulo-FATEC, under the and constituted natural "harbors" and/or sources of
coordination of Prof. Dr. Sonia Hatsue Tatumi. lithic raw material. Table 1 shows the locations of the
archaeological sites in relation to the hydrography, on
5.1. Environmental variables and implantation oj the respective right margin (r), left (1), west (w), east (e),
archaeological sites north (n); the classes of archaeological material (mat.)
chipped/knapping lithic (L) and/or ceramic (C); and the
In the group of sites situated within the sphere of the environmental variables (EV) relevant to the location of
development of PAPPMS, most noticeable, because of the sites, described as follows:
the quantity, is the occurrence of open air archaeological
sites associated with groups of ceramists, whose 1. Tributary mouth margins (Fig. 4);
environmental insertion and profile of material culture 2. Parana River marginal levee, with accentuated topo­
allow them to be characterized as belonging, predomi­ graphy in this fluvial context (elevated to less than
nantly, to the Guarani sub-tradition. The locations 5 m from its present riverbed)-Parana River Unit;
selected by the Guaranis for their settlement were 3. Parana River terrace, more than 5 m above its
humid, along the margins of fluvial courses, bordering present riverbed;
high lands, with good visibility, fertile soils, and 4. structural terrace of the Parana River, more than
abundant food resources. 10m above its present riverbed;
Together with this type of environmental selection, 5. structural terrace of the Parana River, more than
the archaeological locations registered by PAPPMS 10 m above its present riverbed, with gravel pit;
were also located according to attributes such as 6. area of outcropping deposits of cobbles (gravel
topography, hydrography and soils. Most of the pits/conglomerates) on the fluvial margin (Fig. 5);
locations were at the borders of the more elevated 7. substrate outcrop area on the fluvial terrace (node
geomorphological areas, so they were not affected by point);
normal or exceptional floods, mainly in the intervals 8. extended beach and sediment deposits on the margin
where those borders were sectioned by perennial water of the fluvial course (fluvial bar), resulting from
courses. This being the case, the main geomorphological erosion which exposed characteristics of thickness
compartments selected by past populations were: Boa and texture of the pedological body of the margin;
Vista Alta Farm Sub-unit, Taquaruqu Unit (bordering on 9. fluvial terrace facing the island;
the water meadow), and Parana River Unit (marginal 10. margins of islands more than 5 m above the present
levee), according to the nomenclature of Stevaux (1993). fluvial riverbed;
The spatial insertion of archaeological sites in the 11. fluvial terrace without swamps, topography favour­
UHESM reservoir is illustrated in the geoarchaeological able to the watershed dislocation/channel;
sketch (Figs. 2 and 3) elaborated from the analysis of the 12. fluvial terrace (predominantly alluvial) a little
TM-LANDSAT5 images, at high water dates (10/04/91, affected by the normal floods, made up of an
outflow: 19,120 m J Is) and draining (20/08/90, outflow: accentuated concave margin;
5890 m 3 /s). The identification codes of the sites (CI) are 13. medium watershed (predominantly colluvial) of the
referenced in Table 1. tri bu tary, a little affected by normal floods;
From among the environmental variables related to 14. terrace contiguous to the fluvial canal rapids;
the establishment of archaeological sites, emphasis can 15. accentuated topographic elevation in the water
be given to the inflection points in the fluvial course meadow noticeable for having originally, arboreal/
(node points), where stretches of basalt or sandstone bushy vegetation different from its surroundings
surfaced forming locations favouring access to the river/ (Fig. 6-BT3 site);
terrace and vice versa. The relevance of these places to 16. lagoon margin (Figs. 7 and 8);
the environmental selection for human establishment 17. Boa Vista Alta Farm Unit border (Figs. 7 and 8);
increased when they were associated with deposits of 18. Taquaruqu Unit border, finishing at the water
outcropping gravel, potential sources of raw material for meadow (Fig. 6-BTI site);
the manufacture of lithic tools, mainly lithologies such 19. Taquaruqu Unit border, finishing at the water
as quartzite, quartz, flint, agate, and silicified sandstone, meadow, forming the watershed of the tributary.
76 E. Mariko Kashim%. G. Rodolfo Martins / Quaternary International 114 (2 004) 67- 86

.. ' do (PI seCO


K'EY TO GEOARCHAELOGICAL OUTLINE
(CONTEXT OF COMBATE STREAM TO QUITEROI BROOK)

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AND HYDROGRAFHY

rr=:;:l Archaeological Sires (according to table Ij - 1arboreallbushy


Topographical elevations WiOl predominant C - TAQUARUC;U UNIT
~"ArchaeologiCal Sitcs located along the High vegetation covering (sandy ~
Parana river - MS/SPIPR') cordons or isolated features), not inundated in ~ TIle TaquaDl9u Unit" !nade lip of predominantly,
10/04/9 I L....:-J colluvial-alluvial, sandy and rcddish
~
I ~:. 'IPerennial nuvial coursc sedimentation (associated with the Caiua
Formation substratc), forming scveral\agoons, It
:::,
"'"
c
is situated away from the inundation area; with
Fluvial course in area of alluvial sedimentation r-=! Present marginal dike (limited by the linc), and ~
the extraction of the Semideciduous Seasonal '"
~ non-imUldatcd area (in black) in 10/04191
with oOzing from waler table where, evcnrually,
there are topographical elevations with the
Forest, covering pasture predominates, ~
c
nowadays
predominance of arboreal/bushy species or -<>
gramineous species B -BOAVISTAFARMUN1T o
D - PORTO RICO UNIT :>;,
c
d 1Lagoon (active ordty) III Boa Vista Alta Farm Sub-unit, characterized by 1s"'""11 Porto Rico Unit, made up of predominantly. ~
~'clevated topography, sandy sedimentation of L.::..J colluvial, sandy and reddish sedimentation 'S;
c
cream tonality, vegetation covering of the (associated with lhe Caina Formation substrate),
GEOMORPHOLOGY predominantly arboreal/bushy species or fonning palisades along the Parana river, the unit ~-.
predominantly Grarnincolls/hcrb aeeo us has small fluvial courses and the absence of ~.

I)/{I LimitbetweengeomOlphologieal units vegetation associated with well drained soils and lagoons, It is situated away from the inundation

occasional occurrences of arboreallbushy area; wirh the extraction of the Semideciduous tel

species s:::

Seasonal Forest, covering pasture predominates,


X Altirnctrical measuremcnts above sea level '"
nowadays
~
A - PARANA RlVER UNIT r-ol Boa Vista Baixa Farm Sub-unit, characterized by ELAHORATION: '"
~
t:illIJlJ less elevated topography, sandy sedi mentatioll, :;­
ret The Parana river is composed of the main
Wlit,
L::..J channel of the Parana river (with islands and
sometimes swampy, gramineouslherbaceous
EMiLIA MARlKO KASHL\lOTO
DOM ROSCO CATHOLIC UNiVERS1TY
~
covering: together with isolated topographiclll
bars) and alluvial plains (with marginal dikes, elevations presenting covcring vegetation GILSON ROOOLFO MARTf\'S '~."
sandy cordons, water meadows and [,EDERAL UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH MATO GROSSO
predominantly arboreallbushy species or e..
...---­
palcocanals), ptedominantly inunda.ted in predominantly gramineous/herbaceous covering CA RTOGRAl'HJC l'R()J)UCTIO~ :
10/04/199 J. Those wich stllnd out: in well drained soils Aida Monteiro Uarbos.
Lo~andlll Borges de '"tor.e, ""'
"-'
c:.
~ Alluvial fans ill 10/04/1991 : imUldalcd or not Wagncide Rodrigues
...
c:.
~ inundatcd, PA-SALV-S\t Gcoproccssing Lab

~
UFO AnthroJlotogicat :'.luscwn

Ii'l Boa Vista Lcque Sub-unit, made up of sandy "I


o:::J scdmcntation produced by alluvial fans, SOURCE: &
r:77A Paleoislands
(inundated in 10104/91, under the individualized or coaicseent, ot by deposits of t~PE : llTh3gc't1s ("",<1,,,1 '1,,12231075 lit I: 22YQ75 S. , ..col••
~ innuencc oftllc UHEPP dam) talus, presents the predominant covering
I: 100.000 e 1:50.000 !Jata, 1010-l!91 c 20!()Si90
fotos Acn.'1IS AcrosullCruzc:i.roJlCrrafoto. ~no 1me).

vegetation of gramineons!herbaeeons species in Cub tin H,..,il [HGf~ ",cal, 1:50.000 (SF-22-Y-A-11l-3;

r:::::lFrontaJ or larcral bars (recent sedimentary well drained soils, associated with the areas of SF-'12.-V-D·JV-3; SF-22-Y-A-IIl-4; SF-22-Y-/I-0I-2:

L..::.iJ deposits in the Parana river inLlndatcd i~ covering vegetation predominantly of SF·22.-V-O-IV-2; Sf-22'''"O·V-I)

10/04/91 , in its course upslream of the Pardo DSG~Min. do EXCrc1111. tICal. I: 1()().OOO (SF.21-Y-D·I;

lrecslbnshes SF-22-V-D-TV; 8F-22·V-O-l; SF-22-V-D·]{)

river falls)

Fig. 3. Key to geoarehaeologieal outline (context of Combate Stream to Quiteroi Brook).

-J
-J
78 E. Marika Kashimata, C. Radalfo Marlins / Quaternary Int ernatianal1J4 (2004) 67-86

Fig. 4. Santa Rita do Pardo site I (MS-PD-OI), situ a ted a t the mouth of the Pardo river (seen in the back).

Fig. 5. Br a~ii<i. ndia ~ite 3 (MS-PR-42), ~ituated in front o f the Ba ndeirantes Island.

5.2. Archaeological material culture The Guarani occupation horizons present arch aeo lo­
gical materi al predominantly characterized by pottery
The classes of archaeological rem ains collected in the with clay cords with digital decoration (for example,
upper course of the Parana River included chipped corrugated or ungulated, Fig. 9) or with polychromatic
and/or polished lithics, ceramics, bones, and bonfire paintings (black a nd/or red lines over the white slip),
charcoals. Knowledge of the Gu arani presence in the including vessels such as the cambuxis (La Salvia and
valley of the Parana River occurred , in a northerly Brochado, 1989; Scatamacchia, 1990). In smaller
direction, from the sub-basin of the Iguatemi River up quantity, together with these are lithic pieces such as
to the Moeda stream in the sub-basin of the Verde River tembetas, anvils (for breaking small palm nuts) , sharp­
(Martins and Kashimoto, 1998). eners, polished axe blades, chips, and artifacts, of which
E. Mariko Kashim%, G. Rodolfo Martins / Quaternary International 114 (2004) 67-86 79

6. Regional relationship between archaeology and


geochronology

Aiming at the correlation between cultural and


stratigraphic horizons, discussion follows of the repre­
sentative profiles of these contexts, in the sub-basins of
the Ivinhema, Pardo and Verde rivers, The layers were
characterized, preliminarily, according to the archae­
ological material and the soil colour. Ceramic pieces,
chipped lithics, of which the lithic arrow-heads stand­
out, were represented, respectively, by squares, triangles
and arrowheads, repeated according to the intensity of
their occurrence in the respective layer. For the
identification of colours the classification of Munsell
Soil Color Charts (Macbeth Division, 1990) was applied
to the air-dried sedimentary samples.

6.1. Sub-basin of the Iguatemi River

Fig. 6. Context of Bataguayu site 3 and Batagua<;:u site 1 (aerial view The Itaquirai site I (MS-PR-98) archaeological
CESP, 1979). location is a witness of a Guarani settlement dated, by
the thermoluminescence method in a ceramics sample, at
480 ± 30 years BP (Fatec-196). The location is referenced
by the geographical coordinates 23°35'48"S and
54°02'30"W, indicating an occupation in the structural
terrace on the right margin of the Parana River, facing
the Sete Quedas Island.

6.2. Sub-basin of the Ivinhema River

6.2.1. Ivinhema River site 9


On the right margin of the falls of the Ivinhema River,
geographical coordinates 23°14'40"S and 53°42'53"W, a
Guarani archaeological cultural horizon was estab­
lished, referenced by dating at 355 ± 50 years BP
(Fatec-238) and 450 ± 50 years BP (Fatec-237). The
location, designated Ivinhema River site 9, presents
typical remains of that culture such as recipients in
ceramics, chopping bowls, small anvils for palm nut
breaking, and polished axe blades. A lithic arrow-head
indicates a previous occupation in the area by hunter­
gatherers.
The Ivinhema river mouth area is inserted into the
Fig. 7. Context ofCust6dio Lagoon site 1 (aerial view CESP, 1979). interface between Mato Grosso do Sui State and the
ethnohistorical Guarani area of the Paranapanema/Ivai
rivers, in the State of Parana, ancient territory of the
the planers and choppers stand out (Fig. 10). In the sub­ colonial Jesuitic village of Guaira. The region, made up
basin areas of the Pardo and Verde rivers there were of the tributaries, the Dourados, Brilhante and Vacaria
other occupations, shown by rare signs of smooth rivers, now contains a number of Guarani/Kaiowa
ceramics, indicating the presence of other groups, Indian settlements.
probably, Macro-ges, in the area. Groups of hunter­
gatherers from the upper course of the Parana River 6.2.2. Custodio lagoon site l-CDI (MS-IV-08)
used, intensively, fluvial gravel pits, leaving as evidences Custodio Lagoon site I covered an area of 10,000 m 2 ,
lithic instruments used for hitting, scraping, cutting referenced by geographical coordinates 22°23'04"S
and/or piercing, such as strikers, choppers and arrow­ 52° 52'08"W and heights above sea level of 244.50 m
heads (Figs. 10 and 11). (decapage area 2-AD2, Fig. 8). It is made up of a
80 E. Mariko Kashimotu. G. Rodolfo Martins I Quaternary InLernalional1l4 (2004) 67-86

Fig. 8. Custodio Lagoo n site I, deca page area 2.

Fig. 9. Corrugaled cera mic vessel (high Parana site 8, deca page area I).

border segment of terrace with elevated topography, research, which made possible archaeological excava­
tangential to the west margin of the Custodio Lagoon, tions, analysis of the horizons of past occupations of the
this being formed by an abandoned channel of former place, and its determina ti on of its temporal duration .
drainage on the right margin of the Parana River. Ceramic samples collected from trench I indicate the
According to the class ification of Stevaux (1993), the following results in the corresponding depths: 520 ± 60
relief of the location area was inserted in the Boa Vista (O-IOcm; Fatec-159), 835±90 (l0-20cm; Fatec-162),
Alta Farm sub-unit and the lagoon in the Parana river 950 ± 115 (20-30 cm; Fatec-163), 1.170 ± 140 years BP
unit (Fig. 7). (40-50cm; Fatec-164). At a distance of 47m from
Custodio Lagoon site I was included in the regional trench I, the AD2 (Fig. 8) spread over an area of 48 m 2
reference, due to the sequence of occupations presented. and 320 cm deep, making up the profile presented in
Its stratigraphy was virtually intact at the moment of Fig. 12.
E. Mariko Kashim%, G. Rodolfo Mar/ins I Qualernary Iniernalional1l4 (2004) 67- 86 81

Fig. 10. Choppers (tools made from the knapped cobbles).

The site was characterized by stratified sandy


sedimentation, marking a sequence of cultural horizons.
Up to 50 cm depth, there was a great concentration of
ceramic remains and sparse lithics which integrated the
Guarani ceramists horizons, evidence of occupations
which came to an end, probably, because of the
expansion of the exploration movement in the 17th
century.
In this ceramics collection, fragments of edges, walls,
bases, with distinct morphology, were prominent,
illustrating the diversity of ceramic implements pro­
duced by the Indians who lived there. The decorative
standards are identified as constituents of the Guarani
sub-tradition because of the similarity to what is found
in many other sites of the Upper Parana and nearby. In
conjunction, some lithic pieces such as corticous flakes
of pebbles, pebbles with percussion or fire marks, and
polished axe blades were found.
Beneath the ceramic level, the sequential presence of
archaeological layers with chipped lithic material
indicated that the place was occupied by groups of
hunter- gatherers who took advantage of the favourable
topography of the place and the great availability of
natural resources. The ages obtained related to these
occupations are in the range of 3140-4230 years BP.
The site stratigraphy presented changes of tone which,
associated with the distinction in the density of the lithic
material, registered environmental and cultural varia­
tions (Fig. 12). The pre-ceramic horizons presented a
larger abundance of chipped lithic material , at depths of
between 136 and 180 cm, and at depths of between 181
and 315 cm (limit of the excavation), the cultural
Fig. 11. Lithic arrow-head (Cust6dio Lagoon site }- 165 cm deep). witnesses were restricted to scattered lithic fragments.
00
IV

em MATERIAL COLOR OF DATING

SEDfMENT (YEARS BP.)

o
M

~
~
~
~
§,
c
~
c;')
_. __~~?_ ..~.~...._......................_...._...................~.·.!.~~.:J:.?9..(~f:!.~~!lL :>:J

c
liS 00 10YR4/6(darkyellowishbrown) "'­c
120 00 S;
c
130 00
....~~? ..t?'_~.~.~_ ..._........................._................~:.~~~.~1?.(gjf:!J~!!L
~
~
10YR 5/6 (yellowish brown) tC)
IS
;;;
.,:;;
~
?
;;;
6
.,....
;:,

235 6 10YR 7/6 (yellow) ~.


240 6 [
255 6
260 ts ...-..
.......

275 6 10YR 7/8 (yellow) ".0

280 6 :5
...
'--­
I OYR 7/8 (yellow) 0,
295
300
~
315 1OYR 7/6 (yellow)

Fig. 12. Decapage area 2 profile (AD2)--Cust6dio Lagoon site I.


E Mariko Kashim%, G. Rodolfo Mar/ins I Qualemary International 114 (2004) 67-86 83

The characteristics of this material follow the classic Bandeirantes Island and the mouth of the Peixe River.
standards of the lithic industry technology on cobbles of The Brasilandia site 3 was about I km in extension, in its
the Parana River. With reference to the pre­ divided into four sectors. The profile
eeramic levels found in the AD2, there was an out­ area I (ADI 2 (Fig. I
collection of remnants made by the of occupations, chronologically
the location with the presence of of samples of archaeological
chopping tools, racloirs,
lithic arrow-heads. texture soil, layers from 40 to 50 and 260
more powdery than the others,
63. Sub-basin of the Pardo River which, in turn, were super­
(50~60 and 27(}280 This
The sub-basin of the Pardo River was researched was also sccn at a depth of between 230 and
the stretch touched by its low course and by the
of the of the Parana River situated at 53 m from the AD 1, there
to its confluence. The context were remains of evidenced by of
"''''''''''-Hv,">l""al sites with indigenous horizons ceramics detected at the following depths: 6(}-80
or others characterized by smooth and pre­ and I \Ocm. From this depth, the nr"_l'p'ra
colonial hunter gatherers, according to the were delineated.
The collection of ceramic fragments was characterized
the smoothed surfaces on both faces, The lithic
6.3.1. Bataguaqu site 3-BT3 (MS-PD-02) material, originating from the chipping/knapping of
The Batagua9u site 3 location, referenced the included chippings and artifacts such as the
coordinates 21°43'35/1S 52° 1 was In the collection the large manifestation of
inserted in an accentuated topographic elevation in bonfires, at distinct depths from 20 to
the water meadow, height above sea level of 255 m, on 300cm was outstanding.
the limit of the Taquaruqu Unit border to the
designation of Stevaux, 1993) (Fig. 6). 6.4. Sub-basin of the Verde River
exploited for the extraction of sediments,
the sandy profile, a lithic horizon at a Following along the stretch downstream of
dated at 6400 ± 560 years BP the Pardo River), in this segment demarcated by the
evidence of the camping of lower course of the Verde River, the Parana River
climatic optimum. formed terraces rising between 5 and 8 m above
water level, with abundant deposits of cobbles and
at the base. Archaeological sites were
The Brasilandia site 3 with indigenous horizons, predominantly marked
coordinates 21 smooth ceramics and pre-colonial
above sea level of 259 m, covered an area of
36,400 m 2 , It occupied the of the Parana 6.4.1. Comprida Island site 7
in the terrace area elevated to more than 8 m over the Island site 7
old riverbed of that where an extensive outcrop of
conglomerate of and cobbles at the level of the that island of the referenced by
water surface was visible the geographical coordinates 51 ° 39' 59"W
With the oscillations of the level of the Parana River, and at a of 261 m above sea level, was not
the margin had been the emergence affected by normal floods,
of abundant material (chipped/knapped The fluvial formed a fluvial terrace, which
lithics) on the extensive beach of and cobbles. rose to around 8 m above the subject to
The investigation carried out on that demon­ an intense erosive process. In the area facing the
strated that the higher of remnants was found outcropping of next to the
along the strip of the terrace to the Parana water surface an of cobbles and
River, becoming less in the section whieh gently pebble conglomerates was a potential source of
descended to the water meadows and close to the raw material for which also favours fishing
lagoon in the interior of the terrace. Thus, the activities.
excavation was carried giving priority to the The profile of trench the sequence of
segment of the of the Parana River. occupations 14). The defined layers at depths of
The location was characterized as an inflexion (node 0~70, 90~\OO, 110~1 and 135-170cm had sandy and
point) of the course of the Parana River, facing texture. The other layers presented a thinner
84 E. Mariko Kashimolo, G. Rodolfo Marlins I Qualernary Inlernational Il4 (2004) 67- 86

DATING COLOR OF MATERIAL em


(yEARS D.P.) SEDIMENT
o
lOYR 413 (brown/dark brown) 10
6

10YR 4/6 (dark yellowish brown) 66 60


66 70
66 80
7.SYR 5/6 (strong brown) 66 90
................................. ................... -......................._..··..·6 is--",'100
840±40 (Gif-I 1226) 666
j"
2.240 ± (Gif·1l227)
······..·············-····--·····..'7:5VR ·516·(Stio~g·b;(;WDy· ······· ..·····....is--·· 130
2.76S ± 35 (Gif.11228) 6

Fig. 13. Decapage area I profile (AD l /sector 2}--Brasilandia site 3.

texture and clay bands were observed at depths of right margin of the Parana River and on Comprida
100-110 and 130-135cm. Island.
The excavation of this site made possible the
recognition of bonfire structures and remains of chipped
lithics in different layers of the soil. The lithics 7. Final comments
originating from chipping/knapping of pebbles/cobbles
include fragments of rocks, chippings and artifacts Several remnants of the material culture of settle­
such as the choppers. Fragments of pebbles/cobbles ments and archaeological camps, which reconstitute the
split by thermal action were seen in combustion pre-colonial period, were found in the fluvial environ­
structures, located at different layers, between 10 and ments of the upper Parana River, Mato Grosso do SuI
220cm deep. State. The preferred places for such establishments were
Fragments of ceramics were collected on the beach selected according to the attributes of the proximity of
from this site, originating from the erosion of the margin perennial fluvial channel(s) and geomorphological
of the Parana River. These pieces, dated at 570±40 compartments of elevated topography, not subject to
(Fatec-195) and 950± 100 years BP (Fatec-93) , had flooding. In these compartments, the archaeological
smooth surfaces . Throughout the archaeological exca­ sites were found, preferentially, along the borders and
vations other remains of this category were not detected , marginal dikes.
which suggests their low density, as well as the advanced The similarity of the transition which is represented
degree of destruction of the evidences of ceramist by the sub-basin of the Pardo River, between the
horizons of this site. The archaeological excavations Semideciduous Seasonal Forest to the South (associated
developed at this site permitted the clarifying of several with the Gu aranis) and Cerrado to the North (of the
lithic levels, similar to other sites in the surroundings, Kayapos) , a gradual archaeological transition was
suggesting similar occupation processes, both on the observed, with the Guarani remains extending, with
E. Mariko Kashimoto, G. Rodolfo Martins I Q;Jalernary International 114 (2004) 67-86 85

DATING COLOR OF MATERIAL cm


(yEARS B.P.) SEDIMENT

0
10
1OYR 5/4 (yellowlsb brown) 20
c"
c,,(),

IOYR S/6 (yellowish brown) c,,()'c. 50


c"c"c" 60
c.c"c" 70
1OYR 4/6 (dark yellowish 80
1.130 ± 75 (Gif-1I220) brown) c"c" 90
10YR 5/6 (yellowish brown)

1.7]5 ±35 (Gif-1I221)


-.-.-.................-.............-.....................-.--·.·..·-.···-.·-.···-.-·...·.--·.. 120
i-30--~-- --,.---

7.5YR 5/6 (strong brown)


7.5YR 6/8 (reddish yellow)
7. 5YR 6/8 (reddish yeUow)
160
7.5YR 5/6 (strong brown) 170
180
3.140± 60 (Gif-11222) 190
lOYR 516 (yellowisb brown) 200
210
7.5YR 5/6 (strong brown)
7.5YR 5/6 (strong brown) 230

Fig. 14. Trench I profile (TI)-Comprida Island site 7.

rare occurrences, in the Alluvial Semideciduous Seaso­ an intensive production of lithic tools, associated with
nal Forest of the upper Parana River, up to the context an abundant discarding of pieces, which was not
of the sub-basin of the Verde River. This is where sites observed in the locations on the margins of the lagoons
of ceramist populations are predominant, characterized where the pebbles, particularly, were chipped up to the
by sparse ceramic remnants without decoration, which end. The occupations registered reached the maximum
can be associated to the Macro-ges peoples. age of 6400 ± 560 years BP (Fatec-472; Bataguayu
Characterizing a pre-colonial ceramic period which site 1).
corresponds to different ceramist occupations in the Thus, the obtained results up to the moment, in the
upper Parana River, the essentially referenced ages are sphere of the PAPPMS, indicate that groups of hunters­
of 1600±200 years BP (Fatec-259-Brasilandia site 11) gatherers-fishermen occupied the Holocene landscape
and 500±60 years BP (Fatec-143-Cust6dio Lagoon along the right margin of the upper course of the Parana
site I). The post-discovery ceramic period includes the River, after establishing a plentiful supply of environ­
first three centuries of contact of the indigenous culture, mental resources originating from the conditions of
predominantly Guarani in the area, with the European biostasy of the climatic optimum (between 8000 or 7500
culture; the more recent dates in locations far from and 3500 years BP, according to Stevaux, 1997). The
the valley of the Parana River were observed, such as sequence of cultural evidence indicates that the area was,
the Bataguayu site 4, dated at 240 ± 30 years BP successively, reoccupied, with the presence from at least
(Gif-I0038). 1500 years ago of indigenous ceramists (when the
These indigenous ceramist peoples occupied the environmental conditions were characterized, as being
territories of ancient hunter-gatherer-fishermen in the those of the present day, according to Stevaux, 1997).
upper Parana River. Bonfires and chipped/knapped With the conclusion of the laboratory work, concerning
lithics, from among which the arrow-heads stand out, the material collected from the excavations, as well as
constitute cultural remnants from those hunters-gath­ the establishment of comparative analyses at regional
erers-fishermen from the pre-ceramic period. From the level, new data will be added to this presentation for the
analysis of the lithic remnants, from along the margins growth of knowledge related to the archaeology of the
of the Parana River, it was observed that there was upper Parana River.
86 E. Mariko KashimolO, G. Rodolfo Martins I Quaternary International 114 (2004) 67-86

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