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# 2.

Basics of Energy
What is Energy?
1. The energy is defined as the strength and vitality required for
sustained physical or mental activity.

3. The energy can also be defined as the power derived from the
utilisation of physical or chemical resources, especially to provide
light and heat or to work machines.

## 5. Energy, in physics, is the capacity for doing work. It may exist in

potential, kinetic, thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear, or other
various forms. There are, moreover, heat and work—i.e., energy in
the process of transfer from one body to another. After it has been
transferred, energy is always designated according to its nature.
Hence, heat transferred may become thermal energy, while work
done may manifest itself in the form of mechanical energy.
What is Energy?
Nuclear fusion deep within the
Sun releases a tremendous
amount of energy that is
slowly transferred to the solar
surface, from which it is
planets intercept minute
fractions of this energy, the
amount depending on their
size and distance from the Sun.
Units of Energy?
• James Prescott Joule (1818 − 1889) was a self-educated
British physicist whose work in the mid nineteenth
century contributed to the establishment of the energy
concept. The international unit of energy bears his name.

## • 1 Joule [J] = 1 Watt-second [Ws] = 1 V A s = 1 N m =

1 kg m2s−2.
• Energy units can be preceded by various factors,
including the following:
• kilo (k=103), Mega (M=106), Giga (G=109), Tera
(T=1012), Peta (P=1015), Exa (E=1018).

• A related unit is the Watt, which is a unit of power (energy per unit time). Power units can
be converted to energy units through multiplication by seconds [s], hours, [h], or years [yr].
• For example, 1 kWh [kilowatt hour] = 3.6 MJ [MegaJoule]. With 1 kWh, about 10 liters of
water can be heated from 20 ºC to the boiling point.
• There are many other energy units besides the International units "SI". A "ton of coal
equivalent" (tce) is frequently used in the energy business. 1 tce equals 8.141 MWh. It
means that the combustion of 1 kg of coal produces the same amount of heat as electrical
heating for one hour at a rate of 8.141 kW.
1. The Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow, a renowned psychologist developed the theory of
Hierarchy of Needs in the 1940’s. Maslow studied what he called
exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt and
Frederick Douglass, along with the healthiest one percent of his college
student population, to postulate this theory. His theory basically shed
light as to how people are motivated and also, why some struggle with
motivation, while others excel in certain conditions and situations.
Now, more than sixty years later, Maslow Hierarchy of Needs is still
used in Human Resource Management across businesses around the
world. It help to understand:

## • How motivated a person is

• What is causing motivational problems for people
• Performance and help develop individuals
The Maslow Hierarchy of Needs - Theory
The Theory:
• Each of us is motivated by the needs and in order for us to feel
happy and motivated in life, we must satisfy those needs. Maslow
studied what he called exemplary people to postulate his theory.
• The key aspect of the model is the hierarchical nature of the needs.
Maslow hierarchy of needs range in an ascending order, from level
one to level five. As individuals, we have to satisfy each level in
turn, starting with one and then moving through to the next level
and so on.
• The lower the needs in the hierarchy, the more fundamental they
are and the more a person will tend to abandon the higher needs in
order to pay attention to sufficiently meeting the lower needs.
• The needs range from simple and basic needs of water, air, shelter,
at level one, through to more complex self-actualisation at level 5.
The Maslow Hierarchy of Needs - Display
• The hierarchy is most often
displayed as a pyramid.
• The lowest levels of the
pyramid are made up of the
most basic needs including the
need for food, water, sleep,
and shelter.
• More complex needs are
located at the top of the
pyramid.
The Maslow Hierarchy of Needs - Theory
• The levels are also famously known to be split into two distinct
categories:
1 Basic (or deficiency) needs – The first four layers of the
pyramid are what Maslow called “deficiency needs”; if they are
not met, the body gives no indication of it physically, but the
individual feels anxious and tense. Maslow believed that while
the deficiency needs may be seen as “basic”, and can be met
and neutralised (i.e. they stop being motivators in one’s life).

## 2. Growth Needs – Self-Actualisation is a “being” or “growth”

need and hence can be an enduring motivation and a driver for
long-term behaviour.
The Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
• Once these lower-level needs have been met, people can move
on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security.
• People progress up the pyramid, needs to become increasingly
psychological and social.
• Soon, the need for love, friendship, and intimacy become
important.
• Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and
feelings of accomplishment take priority.
• Like Carl Rogers, Maslow emphasised the importance of self-
actualisation, which is a process of growing and developing as a
person in order to achieve individual potential.
Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs - Five levels

1. Physiological Needs
These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need
for water, air, food, and sleep.

• Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the
hierarchy because all other needs become secondary until these physiological
needs are not met.

• We've all heard the saying 'breakfast is the most important meal of the day'; one
of the primary reasons for this belief is that having breakfast gets our minds
and bodies moving and provides fuel for our day. If you were to begin your
day at 8:00 AM, but did not have the opportunity to eat breakfast and would
not have the opportunity to eat until after 4:00 PM, your need for food would
not be met, which might cause you to lose focus or not fully engage in the
tasks you need to complete for the day. Being able to fulfil your physiological
needs for food helps provide the foundation for further development in life.
Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs - Five levels

## 2. Security (Survival) Needs:

These include needs for safety and security. Security needs are
important for survival, but they are not as demanding as the
physiological needs.

## • Examples of security needs include a desire for safe environment,

safe neighbourhood, steady employment, health insurance, etc.

• When we make decisions about our lives, we try our best to ensure
our own safety. We purchase insurances, such as health and car, to
protect ourselves. We do these things to increase our sense of safety
and security and make us feel more comfortable, which is what
Abraham Maslow depicts in the second stage of the hierarchy of
needs.
Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs - Five levels
3. Belongingness (Social) Needs
These include needs for belonging, love, and affection.
Maslow considered these needs to be less basic than
physiological and security needs. Relationships such as
friendships, romantic attachments, etc. Families help fulfils
this need for companionship and acceptance, as does
involvement in social, community, or religious groups.
Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs - Five levels
4. Esteem Needs
After the first three levels of needs have been satisfied, esteem needs
becomes increasingly important. These include the need for things that
reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition,
accomplishment.

## • The third level of needs is considered psychological and is based on the

need for social connections and relationships with others. The fourth level
in Maslow's hierarchy of needs is based on emotions and the need for self-
esteem and self-respect.

• Many ambitious people can not perform or produce good work if their
interpersonal relations, either social or interpersonal are unsatisfactory.
Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs - Five levels
5 Self-actualizing Needs
• This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.This
need opens up to understanding yourself as a person, answering
questions as to what are you all about? What potential do you
have?
• It can be defined as the psychological process aimed at
maximising the use of a person’s abilities and resources. This
process may vary from one person to another. In other words, for
our purposes, self-actualisation can be thought of as the full
realisation of one’s creative, intellectual, or social potential.
• Self-Actualised people are self-aware, concerned with only
personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others, and
interested in fulfilling their potential.
• It must be noted that not everyone achieves this level of success.
In fact very few people do it!
Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs - Five levels
• As we become more familiar with the five levels, it is easy to
see how a large part of our society is stuck in the first 4 phases
– food, survival, sex, power and position.
• However, the philosophy details a method of empowering the
people towards the journey of self-discovery and self-
actualisation.
Applications of Maslow’s Hierarchy
of
Energy Needs
Application of Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs
• Human resource management is a multidisciplinary organisational
function that draws theories and ideas from various fields such as
management, psychology, sociology, etc. Aimed at developing
people human resource management includes administrative
activities that are associated with planning, recruitment, selection,
orientation, training, appraisal motivation and remuneration.

## So, the theory can be applied in the organisations to help people

and teams to improve their performance and realise their full
potential by resorting to good practices and environment.

## • Employee’s performance is an issue that has received wide

attention in literature and research due to its importance since
every organisation aims to achieve higher performance.
• Here are some peoples/employees motivation techniques for you
to try that use Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as a framework:
Application of Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs
The theory can be applied as follows:
(a) The theory can be applied in many organisations to achieve its goals
and objectives. The theory is applicable to organisational orientation
and employee motivation. The positive interaction of organisational
culture and human resource management would result in self-esteem
and self-actualisation. This is manifested through the employees’
performance which showcases the strength and reliability of their
organisation in the face of competitors.
(b) The theory can be applied to schools and class rooms. There are now
numerous theories how the Maslow’s theory can be applied to schools.
(c) The theory can be applied to correctional homes to explain the
behaviours of the inmates and evolve suitable correctional measures.
(d) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs could also be used ,in general, to explain
these people’s behaviours because it helps to explain what motivates
people to act in certain ways. Maslow argued that people have to have
their needs met on one level before they can be motivated to act based
on the factors from any of the higher levels of the hierarchy.
Thank You !