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# Energy and Power Engineering, 2013, 5, 121-124

## Control of Unit Power Factor PWM Rectifier*

Meifang Xue, Mingzhi He
School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China
Email: xuemeifang12@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
To solve the problem of harmonic pollution to the power grid that caused by traditional diode rectifier and phase con-
trolled rectifier, the unit power factor PWM rectifier is designed. The topology structure of the rectifier circuit is intro-
duced and the double closed-loop control strategy in three-phase stationary coordinate system is analyzed. For the defi-
ciency of control strategy, the control strategy in two-phase synchronous rotating coordinate system is proposed. This
makes the independent control of active current and reactive current to be realized. The simulation model of the PWM
rectifier is built and the effectiveness of the control method proposed in this paper is verified by simulation.

## 1. Introduction tionary coordinate system is shown in Figure 2.

In this control method, the outer loop controls the DC
Unity power factor PWM rectifier has the advantages of
voltage. The difference value of the command signal and
high power factor, low harmonic content of grid side actual signal of DC side voltage is imported to PI regu-
current, energy bidirectional transmission etc, is widely lator. The output value of PI regulator is DC current sig-
used in AC drive, reactive power compensation, active nal I m , I m is proportional to the amplitude of AC input
power filter, unified power flow control, as well as unin- current. So the command signal of three-phase AC cur-
terruptible power supply, etc[1]. This paper introduces rent I a * 、 I b * 、 I c * can be obtained by separately
the topology of three-phase PWM rectifier, and describes multiplying I m by sinusoidal signal whose phase is the
the control method of the rectifier in three-phase static same as three-phase voltage. The difference value of
coordinate system. On the basis of the analysis of the command current and actual current is imported to PI
advantages and disadvantages of this control method, the regulator, and the sinusoidal modulation wave can be
control method in two-phase synchronous rotating coor- deserved. By comparing the sinusoidal modulation wave
dinate system is put forward. Then the mathematical with carrier wave, the PWM wave which can control the
model of three-phase PWM rectifier in d, q coordinates is switch can be deserved.
established and the single control of active current and
relative current is realized.

## 2. The Control Method of Three-phase

Voltage Source PWM Rectifier in
Three-phase Static Coordinate System
Figure 1. The topology of three-phase voltage source PWM
Figure 1 shows the topology of three-phase voltage source rectifier.
PWM rectifier, ea eb ec is three-phase voltage source, C is
the dc side filtering capacity and RL is the load. sin t

## In order to realize the control of input current and

output voltage, the traditional method is controlling the 2
sin(t   )
3
three-phase input current directly. The control of the in-
put current is also the control of the flow of energy, thus 2
sin(t   )
the control of the output voltage can be realized. The 3

## control method of PWM rectifier in the three-phase sta-

*
Project Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China Figure 2. The control method of PWM rectifier in three-
(51207008) phase stationary coordinate system.

122 M. F. XUE, M. Z. HE

This control method is simple, but the command cur- q) Coordinate system. In this transformation, the d-axis
rent in control system is a varying sine time-varying sig- in two-phase synchronous rotating coordinate system rep-
nal which has a certain frequency, amplitude and phase resents the active component, and the q-axis represents
angle. The effect of steady-state performance is not de- the reactive component. If we take the position of input
sirable, and the independent control of the active current voltage vector as the positive direction of d-axis, and the
and the reactive current can’t be achieved[3]. three-phase input voltage can be written as:
e  U cos wt
3. The Control Method of Three-phase  a m

Voltage Source PWM Rectifier in
Two-phase Synchronous Rotating

eb  U m cos wt  120

 (3)

Coordinate System 
eb  U m cos wt  120

In order to realize the non-static error control of three- Through coordinate transformation the power supply
phase current and independent control of active current voltage in dq coordinate system can be written as:
and reactive current, the control method of unit power
factor PWM Rectifier in two-phase synchronous rotating ed  U m
 (4)
coordinate system will be introduced. eq  0
Figure 3 shows the control method of unity power
According to the instantaneous power theory, the in-
factor PWM rectifier in dq rotating coordinate system.
stantaneous active power p and reactive power q of the
Through coordinate transformation, three-phase station-
system is:
ary coordinate system (a, b, c), can be converted to syn-
 3
 p  2  ed id  eq iq 
chronous rotating (d, q) coordinate system that synchro-
nous rotate with the grid fundamental wave[2]. The  (5)
transformation matrix is: q  3  e i  e i 
 2
d q q d
sin  
sin   120  
sin   120  
C3 s 2 r  2/3  Because eq  0 , the equation (5) can be simplified as
 cos 
 cos   120 

cos   120    3
(1)  p  2 ed id
The inverse transformation matrix is:  (6)
q  3 e i
 sin  
cos   2
d q

 
C2 r 3 s

 cos   120 
 2 / 3 sin   120  
(2)  If we don’t consider the fluctuations in grid voltage,
ed is a fixed value. So the instantaneous active power p

sin   120
  
cos   120   and instantaneous reactive power q of PWM rectifier is
proportional to id and iq . So that by controlling id
The most prominent advantage of this transformation
and iq , the active and reactive power of PWM rectifier
is the fundamental sinusoidal quantitative in (a, b, c) co-
can be controlled[4].
ordinate system can be converted into a DC variable in (d,
In three-phase PWM rectifier, the input instantaneous
value of active power in the DC side is p  udc idc , if the
loss of PWM rectifier is not considered, from equation
3e i
(6), we can know that udc idc  p  d d . When the grid
2
voltage is a fixed value and the loss of rectifier is ignored,
the DC side voltage udc is proportional to id , so that
DC side voltage of PWM rectifier can be controlled by
the control of id .
The control method shown in Figure 3 also consists of
voltage outer loop and current inner loop. Introducing
DC feedback and the non-static error control of DC
voltage can be realized. Due to the DC voltage can be
controlled by the control of id , the output value of volt-
age outer loop of PI regulator is the reference value of
Figure 3. The control method of PWM rectifier in dq rotat- current inner loop, so that the active power of PWM
ing coordinate system. rectifier can be adjusted. The reference value of reactive

M. F. XUE, M. Z. HE 123

ia ib ic

## In this control method, the PI regulator can realize non- 100

static error control. Compared with the control method in
0
three-phase static coordinate system, the steady state
performance is better. At the same time, the independent -100

## control of active current and reactive current can be real- -200

ized[5]. -300

-400
4. The Simulink Results 0.3 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4

## (a) Three-phase input current wave under the control of two-phase

MATLAB/SIMULINK is used to establish the simula- synchronous rotating coordinate system
tion model of PWM rectifier. Simulation parameters are
as follows: the voltage of power grid is 380 V/50Hz. the Fundamental (50Hz) = 284.5 , THD= 1.08%
inductance in AC side is 0.8 mH. The given value of DC
side capacitor voltage is 700 V. The resistance load is

M ag ( % o f F u nd a me n ta l)
0.6
3.72 Ω. Figure 4 shows the three-phase input current
wave and its FFT analysis of unit power factor PWM
rectifier under the control of three-phase static coordinate 0.4

## system. Figure 5 shows the three-phase input current

0.2
400
ia ib ic

300
0
200 0 200 400 600 800 1000
Harmonic order
100
(b) FFT analysis of input current under the control of two-phase syn-
0
chronous rotating coordinate system

-100
Figure 5. Three-phase input current wave and its FFT
analysis of unit power factor PWM rectifier under the con-
-200 trol of two-phase synchronous rotating coordinate system.
-300
710
-400
0.3 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4

(a) Three-phase input current wave under the control of three-phase 705
static coordinate system

## Fundamental (50Hz) = 284.2 , THD= 1.41% 700

M ag ( % o f Fu nd a me n ta l)

695
0.6

690
0.4 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4

## Figure 6. DC side capacitor voltage in two-phase synchro-

0.2 nous rotating coordinate system.

## wave and its FFT analysis of unit power factor PWM

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
rectifier under the control of two-phase synchronous ro-
Harmonic order tating coordinate system. Figure 6 shows the control
(b) FFT analysis of input current under the control of three-phase static
effect of DC side capacitor voltage in two-phase syn-
coordinate system chronous rotating coordinate system. It can be seen from
the FFT analysis of current waveform that control in two-
Figure 4. Three-phase input current wave and its FFT
analysis of unit power factor PWM rectifier under the con- phase synchronous rotating coordinate system has a bet-
trol of three-phase static coordinate system. ter steady state response than control in three-phase static

124 M. F. XUE, M. Z. HE

## coordinate system. [2] Z. Zheng, C. Wang and X. P. Jing, “Comparison of Two

Control Strategy for Three-Phase Voltage Source PWM
Rectifier,” International Conference on Computer and
5. Conclusions Communication Technologies in Agriculture Engineering,
This paper respectively introduced the control strategy of 2010, pp. 101-104.
unit power factor PWM rectifier in three-phase static doi:10.1109/CCTAE.2010.5544851
coordinate system and two-phase rotating coordinate [3] K. Wei and F. Xiao, “The Improvement of Current
system, and the two control method are compared. The- Feed-forward Control Strategy on Voltage Source PWM
Rectifier,” International Symposium on Computational
oretical analysis and simulation results show that the
Intelligence and Design, 2010, pp. 107-109.
control in synchronous rotating coordinate system has
[4] S. R. Naidu, D. A. Fernandes and K. P. Medeiros, “Sim-