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1

The spiritual crisis in the West,


seen through 2 heretical messianic
movements
of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Dr. Bruno PAUL, conscience-sociale.org
August 5, 2017
Monastery of Ganagobie

EN-v1.9 CC BY SA 4.0
2

For the reader and listener


• In the following pages, the text formatted as follows: link has an URL link to an
Internet page, usable if this document is viewed on a computer. These links are
made available for consultation of documentary sources.
• The author of this document is a Christian, confirmed in the faith of the Roman
Catholic Church.
• The original PDF version of this document is available on the following page, with
its MD5 signature:
in French : http://conscience-sociale.org/2017/08/
Translation in English : http://conscience-sociale.blogspot.com/2019/03/sabbateanism-and-
frankism-spiritual.html

The very notion of spiritual crisis is linked to what exists most deeply within us. This is
why reading the content of some pages can cause some confusion. It is essential to
digest this content at your own pace, ending it if possible with a gentle listening to
classical music or a walk in nature. Meditate and breathe, pray to God.
3

Preface: Pride
. and revolt.

« The spiritual warfare we have to wage during life is an unceasing struggle between good
and evil....

What we see in our own lives, we see at work on a large scale in the world. How is it that
human history is a long web of wars, violence and injustice?
When it has been stopped in a given place or time, it reappears elsewhere or later? And yet
we are all hungry and thirsty for peace, life and happiness!
We are confronted here with this mysterious presence of Satan, this angel remarkable for
the gifts he has received, but who, out of pride, rebelled against GOD, and who wants to
bring as many men as possible into his revolt. »

Bulletin of the Monastery of Ganagobie, n°31, October-December 1999, p. 2-3.


4

Preamble

Identify and discern the spiritual


crisis in the West
5

The spiritual crisis in the West


• « There has been a considerable change in recent centuries, much
more serious than any deviations that may have occurred in
earlier times of decadence, since it has even led to a real reversal
in the direction given to human activity; and it was exclusively in
the Western world that this change began. »
• R. Guénon, La Crise du Monde moderne, 1927, Chap. 2, p.21
6

The spiritual crisis in the West


• The world, and first and foremost the West, is in crisis. A crisis that is at once
financial, monetary, economic, social, geostrategic, political, scientific, energy,
and at the same time sees an erosion of morals and morals as well as an
ecological crisis.
• This great crisis is of a particular character that we call, like others long before
us, the crisis of the mind.
• We must necessarily understand the deep origin of this one in order to
overcome it. A spiritual crisis can only be fully resolved by starting with the
spiritual, that is, metaphysical, level. Guénon, then Evola, have already
explained the main supporters in a masterful way. We are part of this
continuity.
• We choose to approach the spiritual crisis in the West, studying it here from a
point of view limited to the traces in the history of certain religious movements
since the Renaissance.
7

Our approach for this study


• Our general approach is first and foremost a bibliographical compilation of
works by world-class specialists, published in FR, EN, DE, whose authors have
followed an academic historiographical approach based on works written in
Hebrew, Aramaic, Polish, Latin, Turkish, French and German, which are the
primary historical references.
– full bibliographical references are provided
• A very large part is deliberately left to quotations from excerpts from these
books.
• My own positions are systematically annotated by [NdA].
• This approach to the history of religions is necessarily complemented in
conclusion by some reflections on the philosophy of human history, and by
elements of metaphysics.
• « The Church itself not only advises, but orders Christian Doctors to call upon
philosophy for help. »
– Pope Leo XIII, Æterni Patris, (1879)
8

A pendulum between East and West

« I argued that the inequality so


long observed for the benefit of
Europe should by its own effects
gradually change into inequality
of the opposite direction. This is
what I referred to as the
ambitious fundamental
theorem. »
– Paul Valéry, The Crisis of the Spirit
(1919)
9

Where does the spiritual decline of the


West come from?
• ...or if we prefer these equivalent formulations:
• where does the loss of Western traditions come from?
• where does the domination of consumerism, materialism, the reign of quantity
come from?
• why has there been no recovery for at least a century in the West despite
Valéry, Guénon and so many others?
• why such a historical failure of our elites for so long and to this day?

• or again: what are the links between the history of the West, the mechanisms
of evolution of Western societies, and spirituality in the West?

• This conference is a general introduction to these issues, mainly from the


perspective of the history of religions.
10

Have you ever heard of them?

• Jakub Lejbowicz
1726-1791
• Sabbatai Tsevi
1626-1676
11

Our purpose
• This conference proposes to detail the history itself, the main
aspects of their very particular dogmas as well as the historical
influence on the West that 2 heretical messianic sects still far too
little known had:

– the Sabbatians (of Sabbatai Tsevi) who appeared in the 17th century

– the Frankists (of Jacob Frank) who appeared in the 18th century.

• Officially judged heretics and excommunicated several times in history by the


highest authorities of traditional Judaism, the members of these sects can in
no way be qualified as Jews. These movements are not variants of traditional
Jewish law, they are diametrically opposed to it.
12

Part 1

Introduction to mysticism
and messianic movements
within Judaism
13
The importance of historical sources
• Only authors who are specialists in these 2 religious movements, academics,
rabbis, priests and/or internationally recognized historians
• 17th century: [Nathan of Gaza] (he), Thomas Coenen (ne)
• 18th century: >12 authors [Hayon, Wehle, Eybeschütz], Jacob Sasportas, Jacob Emden,
Eléasar Fleckeles, Ber of Bolechow, Nicolaus Serra (he, po, it, lat)
• 19th century: >21 works (he, de, po, fr, eng, ru) including Peter Beer (note), Franz
Molitor, Heinrich Gräetz, [Moses Porges], Aleksander Kraushar, Abraham Danon
• 1901-1950: >21 books or articles
– Jewish Encyclopedia, Gershom Scholem, David Philippson, David Kahana, Dr. Rıza Nur, Joseph Kastein, Cecil
Roth, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Knowledge, and others authors’ works in Hebrew
• 1951-2000: >75 books or articles
– Gershom Scholem, Encyclopedia Judaica, Joseph Dan, Abraham Duker, Abbot Francesco Ricossa, Israel Shahak,
Norton Mezvinsky, Moshe Temkin, Dovid Russoff, Jan Doktór, Rachel Elior, Abraham Rabinovich, Chone
Shmeruk, David Ruderman, David Pidcock, Jacob Katz, Magdalena Opalski / Yiśraʼel Barṭal, Marvin Antelman,
Emanuel Feldman, Elisheva Carlebach, Abraham Rabinovich, Paul Arnsberg, Michael Löwy, Arthur Mandel, Meir
Benayahu, Etienne Balibar, Cengiz Sisman, Aubrey Ross, Ilgaz Zorlu, Hillel Levine
• 2001-2017: >41 books or articles
– Jerry Klinger, Ramiz Mammadov, Isaiah Berlin, Charles Novak, Shmuel Feiner, Moshe Idel, Michaël Freund,
Pawel Maciejko, Marc Baer, Frederic Miller / Agnes Vandome / John McBrewster, Sid Zalman Leiman, David
Halperin, Matt Goldish, Christoph Schulte, Eli Shai, Melila Hellner-Eshed, Orly Halpern, The YIVO Encyclopedia
of Jews in Eastern Europe, M. Goldish, R.H. Popkin, Bram Mertens, John Freely, Harris Lenowitz…
• For a complete bibliography, see http://conscience-sociale.blogspot.com/2019/03/sabbateanism-and-
frankism-spiritual.html ; Be careful when researching variations on transliterated names.
14
The importance of historical sources
• Rab. Jacob ben Aaron • Rab. Jacob Ashkenazi "Emden" (1697-1776)
Sasportas (1610-1698) • Edut be-Ya'aḳov, Altona, 1756.
• Tzitzat Novel Zvi, • Shimush, Amsterdam, 1758-62.
Amsterdam, 1737 • Shevirat Luḥot ha-Aven, Altona, 1759.
• Morocco, London, • Kitzur Tzitzat Novel Zvi, Altona, n.d.
Hamburg, Livorno, • Megillat Sefer, biographies of himself and his
Amsterdam father, Warsaw, 1897; first edition in French:
. Mémoires de Jacob Emden ou L'anti-Sabbataï
Zewi, Cerf, 1992.
• illustrious rabbinic lineage; recognized as one of
the main rabbinical authorities of the 18th
century.
• famous for his obstinate fight against the crypto-
Sabbataism of the very famous Rab. Jonathan
Eybeschütz in 1750-60, in Altona/Hamburg. The
great Rab. Landau of Prague threatened in 1752
to excommunicate anyone who accused
Eybeschütz of Sabbatianism. It was Eybeschütz
who was excommunicated in 1756.
• His father "Chacham" (Rav Tsvi Hirsch ben
Yaakov Ashkenazi) (1656-1718) and Moses Hagiz
had fought hard against Nehemiah Hayyun's
crypto-Sabbataism in 1713 in Amsterdam.
15
Our main sources for this conference are
• Aleksander Kraushar (1843-1931), Prof. Gershom Scholem (1897-1982) historian
• Frank I Frankisci Polscy 1726-1816, and philosopher
(Frank and the Polish Franks 1726-1816. • Die Theologie des Sabbatianismus im
A monograph based on archival sources Lichte Abraham Cardozos, 1928
and manuscripts), Crakow, 1895. • Majors Trends in Jewish Mysticism, 1941
• translated into he, eng, fr. • The Sabbatian movement in Poland (in 3
• A lawyer, historian and science buff, he articles), 1953 (fr)
advocated the assimilation of the Jewish • The messianic idea in Judaism and other
population. He was a member of the essays in Jewish spirituality, including
Tłomackie synagogue construction The Holiness of Sin / Redemption through
committee. Sin, 1971 (he 1937, fr. 1974)
• In 1903, after the death of his parents, • Sabbatai Sevi: The Mystical Messiah,
he and his wife converted to 1973 (en), 1957 (he), 1983 (fr)
Catholicism. • His immense work has brought the study
• Decorated Officer of the Order of the of Kabbalah into the academic field of
Polish Renaissance on August 5, 1921. the humanities.
.

• "Through his exhaustive study of the


history of Jewish mysticism from the 1ST
to the 18th century, Scholem gave us
access to an intellectual universe whose
existence almost nobody knew about.
.
16

Our main sources for this conference


Dr. Arthur A. Mandel Dr. Franz Joseph Molitor [1779-1860]
[~1907 - ~1983], Polish, doctorate in History of the Order of the Brothers
economics from Berlin in 1932, of St John the Evangelist of Asia in
emigrated to the USA in 1942, taught Europe, 1829, tr.fr. Ed. Archè, 1989
at UCLA and Stanford; * Dr. Abraham Gordon Duker [1907-
The Militant Messiah or The Flight 1987], Polish Frankism’s Duration:
from the Ghetto, 1979 ; From Cabbalistic Judaism to Roman
tr.fr. Ed. Archè, 1989 Catholicism and from Jewishness to
Polishness, Jewish Social Studies,
25:4 (1963:Oct.), Pp.287–333. This
Charles Novak (~1980-), his book (fr): major article is excerpted from a
Jakob Frank the false messiah. PhD thesis defended at Columbia
Deviance of the Kabbalah or University: The Polish 'Great Emigration'
conspiracy theory, 2012, Ed. and the Jews. Studies in political and
L'Harmattan is written from a paper Intellectual History, publication 1627
presented at EHESS, and was the (1956)
subject of a conference at the French * Dr. Harris Lenowitz, The Collection
Embassy in of the Words of the Lord [Jacob
Israel and the Frank] from the Polish manuscripts,
French University of Utah, 2004
Institute of * Dr. Pawel Maciejko, The Mixed
Israel in 2014.
Multitude - Jacob Frank and the
Frankist Movement, 1755–1816;
University of Pennsylvania, 2011
17
An intense and exacerbated messianic expectation in the Jewish world
socio-cultural influence historical background mystical&esoteric influence
∙12th c.: Moses Maimonides (1135- ∙1095-1291: Crusades in ∙2d c: Shimon bar Yohaï (Tikunei haZohar)?
1204), Averroes (1126 at Cordoba- the Holy Land ∙c.1160/80: Provençal Kabbalah
1198) ∙1208-29: crusade against ∙c.1270/80: writing of the Zohar by
∙12th and 13th c.: expulsion of Jews the Cathars Moses of Leo in Avila, in reaction to
from France, Silesia, Germany, ∙1220-1258: Mongol Maimonides' Aristotelian Judaism
England, Wales Empire destroys Persia, ∙XVIe s: Messianism of Safed: Moses
∙XIVe s: expulsion from France, Central Asia and Baghdad Cordovero (Pardes Rimonim 1548), Isaac
Hungary, Germany, Crimea ∙1588: Invincible Armada Louria & Hayim Vital & Israel Sarug
∙1391: start of anti-Jewish (Etz Hayim 1590/1660)
persecutions in Spain
∙1478/81: Establishment of the
Spanish Inquisition to investigate
heresies and unmask the Marranos.
(cf Cecil Roth, 1928).
∙1492: ~200,000 Jews are expelled
from Spain
∙XVe s: expulsion from Portugal,
Lithuania, Provence, Sardinia, Sicily,
Austria, Silesia and in the 16th
century from the kingdoms of Tunis,
Naples, Papal States and Germany.
∙1626: Sabbatai Tsevi was born in
Smyrna.
18

A few words about Kabbalah

• "Since 1540 a great Mitzvah (commandment) has been commanded to the


masses for public study [of the Zohar], for old and young... and that it is
because the Messiah will come through this, and not through any other reason.
That is why we must not be negligent."
– Rab. Abraham Ben Mordechai Azulai (1570-1643), Ohr HaChama [Light of the Sun]

• "He humbled you, he made you hungry and fed you with manna, which you did
not know and which your ancestors had not known either, in order to teach you
that man does not live by bread alone, but by all that comes out of the mouth
of the Lord." (Deuteronome 8:3)
– "everything that comes out of the mouth" is the translation of the Hebrew motzah
(mem-vav-tzaddi-aleph) which means expression or emanation, and which has as
gematria 137
– the Hebrew word Kabbalah also has as gematria 137. Sephirots are called
emanations.
19

A few words about Kabbalah


• Because the notation of the calculation was done with letters, as later in Greek,
Hebrew letters have multiple meanings: their numerical value is used by gematria
- a very common practice in Kabbalah since the Sefer Yetsirah (Book of Formation)
appeared in the 10th century in the Middle East.
• It is a "yoga" for esoteric meditation (cf. Scholem), already used by Pythagoras of
Samos (6th century BC), and in the Epistle of Barnabas (9.8) at the beginning of
the 2nd century.
• The recipes for hermeneutics in Kabbalistic studies are as follows (in summary,
because multiple sets of rules exist):
– weigh or give a numerical value to letters and words and find words of equivalent value that can
be linked together (gematria allows additions, subtractions, use of multiples, squares);
– transform, with new substitution rules; by this method we obtain new words and meanings
(temura). Thus, if the first letter is replaced by the second, the second by the third, etc., then the
so-called "abgad" rule is applied and according to this rule, for example, the tetragram (y/h/w/h)
becomes the "kuzu" (kh/w/z/w)!
– find anagrams of a word that generate new meanings of the same numerical value and therefore
have a certain affinity (notarikon or tsérouf) or acronyms.
20
A few words about Kabbalah
• In addition, the original manuscript of the Sefer Yetsirah has been lost. There is
only one set of variants: (1) Saadia Gaon's version in 931; (2) Shabbetai
Donnelo's long version of 946; (3) Donash ibn Tamim's short version of 956; (4)
Vilnus Gaon GRA modified version in the 18th century.
– Christopher P. Benton, Sefer Yetzirah, the Cube of Space, and the Emergence of the Tree of Life,
2012
21

A few words about Kabbalah


• It should be recalled that the original Torah was written in the Palaeo-Hebrew
alphabet, as shown by Ketef Innom's amulet (or in the Aramaic alphabet for the
books of the Guemara).
• The Palaeo-Hebrew alphabet was used to write the Hebrew language from the
10th century BC until its abandonment in the 5th century BC, when it was
replaced by the Aramaic alphabet. These two alphabets are ramifications of the
Phoenician alphabet. The Paleo-Hebrew also gave the Hebrew alphabet, which
later evolved into the modern Hebrew alphabet. All these alphabets have 22
letters.
• No study of gematria is based on the original (lost) text of the Torah in Paleo-
Hebrew, but is based on texts translated or written later in the Hebrew or
Aramaic alphabet.
• It is likely that, although their rank in alphabetical order has remained fixed and
all these writings have points in common, the oral or written language used at a
given time, the form of the words used, the rules of grammar and syntax, the
possible correspondence of letters with symbols remains specific to each
language system and each time.
22

Kabbalism and sophism [NdA]


• Over the centuries, we have observed a hubris, a continuous drift in the excess of gematria,
confusing doctrine and method.
• Some authors will allow themselves to find a meaning when one of these recipes gives a word
that suits them to a letter or a number, knowing that vowels do not count... or use words whose
use was not known at the time the text was written, or which exist only in another idiom, or which
refer to polemical symbols or allegories (ex: the "foot of God").
• All in all, with such a lack of rigour, reasoning and transparency, we can in all probability
make anything and everything say the opposite to any text of a certain length (*), taking
advantage of coincidences.
– (*): the Old Testament used today contains 1,159,705 Hebrew characters.
• One can imagine the use of gematria as a technique automating philosophical speculation.
But it cannot obtain a convincing metaphysical character. At best, it can only lead to an
intuition, which a traditional metaphysical reflection should necessarily develop.
• That is why, in our opinion, Sabbatian or Frankist moral philosophy is the result of a search
for truth through false deductions, from traditional sources, but which ends up being lost in
sophisms and then fully lost.
– We call here traditional sources the use of original sacred texts and symbolism; we call false
deductions the blind abuse of kabbalistic exegesis and hermeneutics which necessarily lead to
conceptions that have only the appearance of metaphysical truth.
• And belief in this appearance of truth will cause terrible disasters...
23

A personal illusion
MEMORIES OF J. CASANOVA DE SEINGALT, Written by himself.
New edition based on the text of the Leipzig-Brussels-Paris (1826-1838) princeps edition.
Variations of Schütz and Paulin-Rosez editions. Historical and critical comments.
Volume III, Ed. de La Sirène, 1926.
Introduction, pp. xxi and xxvi.
24

Aparty on meditation [NdA]


• To conclude this part: the appearance of the most profound rational deductions
or intuitions, with the most disconcerting consequences, are cases of
revelations when they rely on an integral scaffolding of previous truths. The
results of gematria recipes are not truths; they are, at best, only clues.
• Such a revelation is an experience of thought that is often compared to an
inner veil that is torn, to a space that emerges where, a moment before, there
was only a blind, confused or unconscious struggle in the mind. At this very
moment, our minds are at the forefront of exploring this new space and
pushing the void a little further.
• This type of revelation is not the one reserved for some contemplative mystics
or saints.
25

Part 2
The emergence of Sabbatianism,
and its development until 1726
26

The journey of Sabbatai Tsevi


socio-cultural influence mystical & esoteric influence background
∙ 1626: born on Saturday 9 Av (1 ∙ At the heart of the messianic expectation of history
August) in Izmir (Smyrna) to a family the Jews
of Romanitic Jewish merchants from . only reads the Zohar and Kanah in his * 1648: end of
Patras, Greece. childhood the 30-year war
∙ manic-depressive since childhood ∙ studies the Kabbalah of Luria with the Great in Europe which
Rabbin of Izmir and the Sephardic Judeo- killed millions of
Spanish Marranje community people: Germany
∙ 1644: Tsevi is recognized as a great Kabbalist went from 21M
(hakham / sage). to 13M
∙ 1651: excommunicated, he is inhabitants;
banished by the Rabbis of Smyrna ∙ 1648 meaning; messianic time = time of pain
Treaties of
∙ 1651/60: first faithful to ∙ 1648: Tsevi declares himself Machiah Westphalia
Constantinople, then Thessaloniki; following a wake-up call after news from
Ukraine * 1648-54: civil
expelled by the rabbis war, terrible
∙ 1660/62: Cairo; a rich Jew finances ∙ 1665: meeting with Nathan from Gaza (1643 pogroms in
it in Jerusalem, m.1680 in Skopje, Macedonia), who
Ukraine, 20 to
∙ 1663: Jerusalem and Cairo; its announced that 1666 would see the 100,000 Jews
popularity is growing strongly. beginning of the messianic era; received with killed
enthusiasm by the Jews of Aleppo, then
Great divisions within Jewish Smyrna in August. His power over the Jewish * 1649:
communities throughout Europe, masses became immense. He publicly beheading of
Africa and Asia. declared himself Messiah on 9/09/1665. He Charles I; return
. 1665: Marriage with Sarah, a drops off Chief Rabbi Aaron Lapapa. Other of the Jews to
prostitute from Livorno rabbis join Tsevi. England
27

The coronation of Sabbatai Tsevi

• Nathan of Gaza, Tiqqun


Qeri'ah le-khol Laylah wa-
Yom, Amsterdam (1666)
• The propaganda by the
"prophets" of Sabbatai Tsevi
plays an extremely
important role in quickly
convincing new believers.
28
Kabbalah and Messianism
• "It was Scholem himself who, as soon as he settled in Palestine, had made a connection
between Zionism and Sabbatianism, in which he saw the two political moments in the
history of the Jewish people in modern times. The "historical" character of redemption
in Judaism ([in this material world,] as opposed to the Christian idea of salvation in the
other world), associated with the hope of an end to the persecutions endured in Israel's
exile and slavery, generates a revolutionary ideology that Scholem calls "utopian" and
"apocalyptic". Resulting from an "intense messianic expectation", this ideology
represents the messianic age as the moment of a "final confrontation between Israel
and the Nations", a conflagration endowed with a cosmic meaning whose cataclysms
form the condition for the national rebirth. To this representation (which will be found
in Marxism) of the role of violence in history, identified with the suffering of childbirth,
a particular tradition from Kabbalah adds a specifically antinomic dimension: The
messianic era is not only that of the reunion within the divinity of the parts of the
"broken" world since creation, it is also, in order to "hasten the end", that of an
inversion of the law or its realization through its transgression ("it is by violating the
Torah that it is accomplished"), specific form of "activism [taking] utopia as a lever for
the establishment of the messianic kingdom" - so indecisive, moreover, that the figure of
the messiah himself remains."
• source: E. Balibar ("About Zionism: Messianism and Nationalism" (in french), Agenda of
Contemporary Thought, No. 9, Winter 2007-2008); The quotations it contains are from
Gershom Scholem,"Redemption through Sin", see hereafter.
29

Tiqqun: the restoration


• The fundamental difference between
Kabbalah and Aristotelian philosophy,
according to Cordovero, lies in "the way of
thinking about the problem of the
relationship between God and the world".
This link, impossible for Aristotelian
philosophers, becomes possible for
Kabbalists, thanks to the structure of the
emanations of God (the sephirots).

• Sevi Hirsch Chotsch, Hemdat Sevi, Amsterdam (1706)


• Siddur Sabbatian (Tiqqun), Amsterdam RBR 97:16, exemplaire de The Library of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New
York
30

Kabbalah and Messianism


• Howard Schwartz, Tree of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism, Oxford University
Press (2004), Pp 486

• The « Shattering of the


Vessels »
• « Gathering of the Sparks »
one by one
31
"Redemption through sin",
Gershom Scholem's essay

source: Gershom Scholem, : The messianic idea in Judaism and other essays in Jewish
spirituality, Schocken Books (1971) where the essay on "Redemption through Sin / Holiness
of Sin" appears.
. Original book in hebrew: 1937 ; french tr.: 1974, Calmann Lévy.
• [Note]: Sin means breaking the law (in the singular) which refers to all the civil, religious,
ethical and family laws found in the 5 books of the Pentateuch (the Torah), in particular
the 10 commandments in the book of Exodus.
32

• Reproduction published in
Eli Shai`s book, Messiah of
Incest - New and
Uncensored History of the
Sexual Element in Jewish
Mystical Messianism (in
Hebrew), 2002.
33

Tsevi at Abydos Fort (Gallipoli)

• The Great Vizier had Sabbatai Tsevi imprisoned in the fortress of Abydos as soon as
he approached the Marmara Sea with his followers on 2/6/1666.
34

Back to the wall


• 1666: Great plague and fire in London
• Thanks to the wealth of some of his followers, Tsevi is well treated in prison, and
his popularity is still growing. News of his life is exaggerated and spread among
Jewish communities in Europe, Asia and Africa. Some Jews began to sell their
possessions and prepare for a new exodus. In almost every synagogue, prayers for
him were printed and said, as well as engravings of him next to that of King David
in the prayer books.
• Only rare Jews did not believe in him.

• Tsevi summoned a prophet from Lwow who had announced the coming of the
Messiah. They met in September 1666. The interview lasts 3 days and ends very
badly. Tsevi's followers seek to assassinate the prophet, who fled to
Constantinople.
• He managed to alert the Grand Vizier to the danger posed by Tsevi. The latter
brought Tsevi in, and gave him three possibilities: either he was impaled, or he
underwent a divinity test by receiving a flock of arrows, or he converted to Islam.
• On September 15 or 16, 1666, Tsevi converted in front of Sultan Mehmet IV!
35

The "necessary" apostasy!


– The Grand Vizier proposed to Tsevi the conversion to Islam to better control the
Jewish and Sabbatian populations. But he never considered a false conversion
that would introduce the wolf into the sheepfold!

• “In summary, the five distinguishing beliefs of "radical" Sabbatianism are:


1) The belief in the necessary apostasy of the Messiah and in the sacramental
nature of the descent into the realm of the kelipot [désirs impurs].
2) The belief that the "believer" must not appear to be as he really is.
3) The belief that the Torah of atzilut must be observed through the violation of
the Torah of beriah.
• 4) The belief that the First Cause and the God of Israel are not the same, the
former being the God of rational philosophy, the latter the God of religion.
5) The belief in three hypostases of the Godhead, all of which have been or will
be incarnated in human form.”
– (G. Scholem, The Holiness of Sin, 1941)
36

After the apostasy of Sabbatai Tsevi


* Tsevi receives a dignitary position at the Sultan's court, and a rich salary
* Immense disappointment in all Jewish communities, but
the messianic expectation does not disappear! The rabbis
are recovering most of their followers....
* « Tsevi secretly continued his intrigues, playing a double
game. At times, he assumed the role of a pious Muslim
who rebelled against Judaism; at other times, he spoke
with the Jews as sharing their own faith.
* March 1668: He announces at the Jewish Passover that
he had been filled with the Holy Spirit and that he had
received a revelation. A mystical book is published,
addressed to the Jews, in which he claims to be the true
Redeemer, despite his conversion, his goal being to bring
thousands of Muslims to Judaism. At the same time he
tells the Sultan that he is trying to convert Jews to Islam,
and can thus preach in the synagogue. »
* 300 families of its followers are (supposedly) converting
to Islam. The Sabbatian worship is practiced in secret.
* Late 1672: Tsevi was discovered participating in Jewish
ceremonies; he was banished by the Great Vizier and
appointed Dizdar (guardian of the fortress) of the most
northern city of the Ottoman Empire.
• m.1676: buried in Ulcinj (Dulcigno, Montenegro).
* 1672-1676: The Ottoman Empire invaded and
devastated Podolia in Poland. • Nathan from Gaza will be buried ~200 km away.
37

The Dönmeh in Turkey (Sabbatians)


• Various crypto-Sabbatian groups appeared in 1668 and were structured after
the death of Sabbatai Tsevi.
• called "Dönmeh" (Turkish: apostate) or "Sazanikos" / "Selanikli" / "Sabetayci"
(in Turkish), "Ma'aminim" (Hebrew: "believers'), "Avdeti" (Arabic: "heretics'),
– The first branch was the Ismirli incorporated in Izmir (Smyrna) in Turkey.
– The second and largest, the Jakubi, was founded in Salonika by Jakob Leib Querido
(~1650-1690), brother-in-law of Sabbatai Tsevi, who also claimed to be the Messiah
(300 families "converted" to Islam in 1683).
• his son Baruhya / Barukhiya / Berechiah / Berokia Ruso (1676/77-1720/21),
took over the leadership of the group of Karakaş / Karakashes (in Turkish) /
Konioso / Kuniosos (in Ladino) and in turn announced his messianity in 1716
("Señor Santo"); this group is known to be the faithful of "Othman Baba"
(named after a 15th century Bektashi dervish).) / Osman Ağa / Osman Bevvap.
– and that of the Lechli, of Polish origin.
• The Dönmeh only marry each other. Community members are
mainly found in the cities of Adrianople, Istanbul, Salonika and
Izmir.
38

Sabbatianism has its roots in Europe


• Various sects formed around the Sabbatians Miguel Abraham Cardoso (1630-
1706), Mordecai Mokia (1650-1729), Löbele Prossnitz (d. 1750).

• (G. Scholem, "The Holiness of Sin", January 1971)


39

Part 3

The emergence of Frankism,


and its development until 1816

"For he who finds me has found life, he has obtained the favor of the Lord.
On the other hand, he who sins against me harms himself. Everyone who hates me
loves death."
(Book of Proverbs, 8:35-36)
40

Jacob Frank on the public side


• 1726-1791
• born in Poland; poor social background, illiterate, speaking neither Russian, French,
German
• he was knighted (baron)
• there is a very unexpected relationship between him and a King of Poland
• he was imprisoned for 13 years in Poland and released from prison by the Russian army
• some believed that Ewa (her daughter) was the hidden daughter of Empress Catherine of
Russia
• he lived at the court of the Emperor of Austria in Vienna; he had private interviews with
Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Franz Josef
• Ewa was Emperor Franz Josef's mistress
• he received the Emperor of Russia Paul I at his home near Vienna
• he maintained 1000 men in arms in Offenbach (Frankfurt) for many years
• he refused his daughter's hand to a rich Polish prince, who had to settle for marrying his
daughter's lady of honor
• his cousin ended his life in the same guillotined cart as Danton
• several years after Jacob Frank's death, Emperor Alexander I of Russia personally came to
visit his daughter Ewa in Offenbach (Frankfurt)
• ... and yet very few people only know his name today... and even fewer, since the 18th
century, have really known what he was!
41

Jacob Frank on the private side - his debut


socio-cultural influence mystical influence historical background
* Born in Galicia in 1726 in Berczany * his parents are Sabbatians * Ḥayim Malakh ben Shelomoh
* he receives Sabbatian "With Yehudah Ḥasid and Heshel
teaching from Rabbis Tsoref, among others, Malakh
Mordecai and Issachar attended the secret council of the
Sabbatian leaders in Nikolsburg
* Khlystis
(Moravia) in late 1698 or early 1699.
* Hasidism (Israel Balshem In 1699, he confronted
Tov, 1698-1760, shares the the[traditional] rabbis and
same social and geographical Kabbalists in a dispute over the
origin as Jacob Frank) claim that Sabbatai Tsevi was the
* Poor or middle class family, father * Dönmeh Messiah. The debate took place in
tavernier / tenant farmer, Jacob Vienna and, according to some
* Bektachism?
grows up uneducated sources, it ended without
* Philipovicites? conclusion and, according to others,
* People come from far away to see
* Karaism? it was a total failure on the part of
his grandmother "a very competent
Malakh's opponents. The main
astrologer, blessed by the virtues of impact of Malakh has been to
the women of the biblical transmit the teachings of the
patriarchs". Turkish Sabbatians (Dönmeh) in
* Grandfather Rabbi Jeka Tatar Europe, especially in Podolia. It is
* He spent his first 2 years in likely that many of Jacob Frank's
Korolowka then Czernowitz, Smyrna, first disciples came from the
Constantinople and Bucharest. He's communities established by
Malakh. " (YivoEnc.)
a charismatic little gang leader.
42

Jacob Frank on the front side


• 1752: He married Hannah/Hannaluba, a poor Jewish woman of Ashkenazi
origin, whose parents were from Nikopol in Bulgaria. His father-in-law would be
the Sabbatian rabbi Yehudah Levi Tova. At the wedding, 2 dönmeh, faithful to
the Karakashes of Osman Baba, were reportedly used as witnesses.
• Unsuccessful power struggle to take the lead of the Karakashes
• 1754: Jacob Frank converts to Islam and visits Nathan's tomb in Gaza in Skopje
(Macedonia)
• December 1755: he decides to return to Podolia, posing as a Jew with the
authorities, to preach and enlarge his sect, and leaving his wife and daughter
Ewa (Hawacza / Awatchka / Hawatchunja / Rachel), who has just been born.
43

Frankism and Hasidism (Besht)

disputes

source: Yivo Encyclopedia


44
Jacob Frank's traces in Europe in the 18th
century
45

Jacob Frank in Podolia - Ruthenia

Poland Ukraine

Slovakia

Moldova
Hungary

Romania
46

From dogma to Frankist doctrine


47

The instruction of silence


(Massa doyme / burden of silence)
• « The "instruction of silence" is a Kabbalistic concept and was also common
among the Khlystis. They had to swear to keep their faith to themselves and not
to disclose it to anyone, not even to the confession or under torture, "even when
you are taken to be burned alive or cut to pieces". The strength of the faithful is
not shown by revealing, but by hiding. Their Christs also demanded absolute
obedience and self-denial:
• "if you want to follow me, you must renounce yourself, and that means forgetting
all earthly things, reason, memory, knowledge, consciousness, property and all
exercises, practices and rules of virtue. Walk behind me and wherever I send you,
or whatever I order you to do, do it without thinking. Whatever I ask you who
belongs to you, give it without hesitation and do not dare to have your own
will." »
– A. Mandel, The Militant Messiah, (p. 101 of French tr.)
– see also Words of the Lord, 152, 319, 1109
48
A secret cult,
hidden inside another
• “799. Everything I have said to you to the present is only like a drop in the ocean
• compared to that which you will see with your own eyes, that there will come
forth into the world a new thing of which neither your forefathers nor their
forefathers heard. From the beginning of the world none has yet even thought of
that which will come forth into the world. Therefore I say to you that that which
you will see and hear, or which is said to you: that you should shut your mouth,
and say nothing, but only stand by and look on. If they ask you what you see, or
hear, learn to say, I don't know.
• 304. Now I cannot even reveal to you that day of revenge [against Edom, see
Isaiah 34]. I tell you, soon a certain thing will appear to you. What you will see, be
silent about it. Be careful that you do not gather anything from your guesses,
according to your reason, and be on guard that you utter not a word. Keep your
mouth closed.
• 375. Signor Santo said, "Go in great secrecy". Therefore he himself is hidden and
all those who followed him.
• 1027. On October 15, [17]84, the Lord said, "All things that have been revealed to
you, are secret." “
– (in: Words of the Lord)
49

A secret cult,
hidden inside another
• 1166. [Frank telling a parable] "Prince! We are men, not demons. We have one mountain
of which the earth is gold. We constantly make pure gold, but we have a great deal in the
world. If you will be faithful and keep the matter secret, nothing evil will happen to you,
and on the contrary you will have a great present from us; but if you reveal [it] to the
emperor or to anyone whoever, then we will kill you no matter where you are. He
promised them and rode off to Vienna. Several years passed; that one endured and kept
the whole matter secret. Then several men in the form of merchants came to him and
brought him as a gift some 15 million. Now see how good silence is.
• 1315. How did you not understand that when one comes to a new place it is necessary to
change all the ways of the first; words as well as deeds and clothes, and so on with all
things, and not to turn one's face back. Just as you, you were Truebelievers [Sabbatians] in
Poland, then you had to alter your deeds, like breaking the fasts and the Laws of Moses;
even though that was in secret, still you had to transform them."
• (in: Words of the Lord)
• see also Mandel, p.122 and Novak, p.91
50
"Frankism is a pure anti-nomism" that
depraves the whole human race
• 72. "There has not been a man yet who could tell bad from good. It may be that in that
place which seems to be bad there good is hidden, kept in secret, and likewise the
opposite."
– in: Words of the Lord
• « The new Messiah proclaims the end of all laws, not just Jewish law: "Only to wipe out all
laws, all religions, did I come to Poland, and it is my desire to bring life forth into this world.
[WoL, 130] / Do not believe that only Jews should be saved, God forbid, the whole human
race should be saved. " All social institutions must be destroyed because they stand in the
way of salvation.
• The work of destruction must be accomplished by man's descent into the lowest depths of
the abomination.
• It was a common belief that the coming of the Messiah would be the signal of the end of
evil and sin: either because there would no longer be any sin committed, or because they
would no longer be considered as sins.
• Frankist propaganda copiously referred to [the description of the "end of times" in the
Talmud] as an era of general depravity, where all houses of prayer will be brothels, where
the science of the learned will stink up to heaven and virtue will be despised; in short, the
world will be turned upside down. »
– A. Mandel, The Militant Messiah, pp. 52-54
51

"Frankism is a nihilism"
• "I have not come to elevate, I have come to destroy and belittle all things until everything is
swallowed up so deep, that it can no longer descend. / The road to the abyss is terrifying
and frightening. Even our brother Jacob was afraid of it and did not dare to set foot on the
celestial scale./ It consists of two converging parts that meet at the bottom, one part
leading down, the other up, and there is no ascent without prior descent./ So the world had
to wait for another Jacob. "
• "The path leads to the abyss, and everyone must have the heart of a lion and not fear, for I
will walk in the lead. And as I stand before you, ignorant and rude / I have been chosen, for I
am the darkness out of which light emerges! / It has been said: A star came out of Jacob. All
vile and obnoxious things are in his power, and this is the door through which I will lead
you. "
– WoL (including 164, 1116, 1266-67, 1278, 846, 1293) translated by A. Mandel, pp. 52-54.
• Jacob Frank in Skopje around 1754: "The Ran [Rabbi Nathan of Gaza] ordered that after his
death a bag of earth be placed in his coffin, thus giving a sign that he wished to convert the
spiritual world into a world of matter. But I tell you that already in this world, everything
spiritual must be transformed into something similar to our flesh. Then everyone will see,
just as all visible things are seen."
– Polish manuscript referenced by Pawel Maciejko, The Mixed Multitude, p. 16
• This spiritual regression is the perfect antithesis of man's destination in the Tradition.
52

"Frankism is a nihilism"
• "487. Why did you not wait for the names which the lips of God himself announce, and not give them to
you yourselves? For all names are secret, only, that which is respected, must be degraded and debased.
Therefore you must be degraded, so that God can uplift you from the rubbish. And nobody has that
power, only God himself. That is why you fell.
• 516. That thing to which we are going, no man has experienced anything from that place even though
the world stands more than 500,000 years and since that time it has not been possible to open that
place all at once for the world could not bear it, as I said to you, that being in darkness one cannot look
at the light all at once. […] Only then will it be possible to give you a thing in your hand so you can search
for God and reach him. Without that it is not even possible to mention the name of God and it is not
possible to reach that thing through the [Jewish] Law; and certainly he who wishes to preserve his soul
must withdraw from it.
• 553. Why could you not understand that if I raised you to the degree of Brothers, I could humble you if
you were not silent and not the lowliest of all?
• 555. The whole world is the enemy of the true God.
• 636. For even though you saw me do things which were strange and bitter in your eyes, you know that it
must be bitter at first and thereafter, sweet; and that after the light, darkness comes and then through
the darkness may be seen light. We need to go to the darkness in which is light. The herb of life is hidden
in that of death.
• 2145. The first man Adam, at every place he trod a city was built,1609 but I, wherever I only tread all will
be destroyed. Because I came only for that, so that everything would become spoiled. But then I will
build, so that it will endure forever."
• (in: Words of the Lord) [see also 805]
53

Frankism and the Great War


• The notion of the great war between European empires is taken up in the Words of the Lord and in
particular in Offenbach's Book of Prophecies:
• 56. [Lord says ca. 1759] " When two dogs bite at each other even if someone comes between them
and beats them with a stick they pay no attention to it and go on fighting; so must it be with the
extraordinary spilling of blood in this world and during this very confusion, only then will we be able to
redeem our loss, which we have been pursuing. Likewise, when the water is troubled then it is a good
time to catch fish; just so when the world is flooded with blood, then shall we be able to catch the
thing, which belongs to us."
• 1169 "[November 24, 1784] Several kings negotiate so that there be peace among the 3 emperors, but
their labor is in vain, for that thing comes straight from the mouth of God himself that war must
absolutely break out and more blood flow than has yet been since the beginning of the world. Of that
he said this verse: I will set people against people, kingdom against kingdom; and all the water will be
turned to blood. [Note: alteration of Isaiah 19:2] I told you of a great many things in Częstochowa, only
you forgot them on account of the confusions which were among you. If I had revealed one word to
you, you would have known everything that happens now and must yet happen. Your joy would have
been unbounded. The whole world will be in anguish and pain, and you will rejoice in great joy.”
• 1229. "All the wars and bloodshed which have been till now, even the raid of Chmielnitsky, what new
thing has been brought to the world? All is hidden as it was before. But now when war and bloodshed
will begin to increase, at the time of that very bloodshed, God will perform in this world, and more and
more and a new thing will come forth to this world."
• (in: Words of the Lord; see also 831, 940, 1003 and A. Mandel, p. 95)
54

Let's go back to Jacob Frank's life


course
55

Under the crossfire of the Church


and the Synagogue
• On the night of January 27, 1756, Jacob Frank and a group of people were
surprised during an orgiastic ritual in Landskron.
• September 1756: the schism rips the community apart. The "Zoharites" /
"Contra talmudists" / "Antitalmudists" (i.e. frankists) are excommunicated
(herem) by the Synod of Jewish Communities.
• The latter asked the Catholic Church to declare them heretics, which would
have condemned them to the stake. For the record around the same time:
– Kazimierz Łyszczyński, philosopher, beheaded and then burned in Warsaw on March
30, 1689 for heresy (he professed atheism).
– Gabriel Malagrida, strangled and then burned in Lisbon on 21 September 1761 for
heresy.
56

Under the crossfire of the Church


and the Synagogue
• The Frankists turned to the Catholic Church for help. Bishop Dembowski of Kamenets-
Podolsk, a notorious tormentor of Jews, ordered a religious disputation between them
and the rabbis, knowingly exceeding his legal competence (religious freedom for Polish
Jews granted in 1264), despite the rabbis' arguments.
• Bishop Dembowski : “We cannot set you apart and distinct from the whole community
of Israel until you demonstrate that the statements of the Talmud are false and contain
lies. Then you will be released from the [obligations] of the Talmud according to a verdict
we will issue. And if you demonstrate the Talmud’s hostility toward the Christian faith, it
will be possible to condemn it for burning, and you will easily obtain a royal writ of
privileges.” (Maciejko, p. 66)
• First disputation, June 20-28, 1757, on 9 theses, "4 of which are clearly outside Jewish
doctrine; none mention the name of Jesus Christ, and refer only to the Messiah who will
be God himself in human form. " (A. Mandel p. 74)
• Kuryer Polski, the largest Polish newspaper of the time, published reports of each
audience.
• Bishop Dembowski passed judgment without regard to the questions; he found the
rabbis guilty of having harmed the Frankists in their persecutions, and ordered the
Talmuds to be burned by burning them to death, which was done for 1000 of them.
57

Under the crossfire of the Church


and the Synagogue
• « Emden recommended seeking the support of ecclesiastical authorities; he
believed that once the clergy learned of Sabbatianism’s heretical character, they
would “destroy the people of Sabbataï Tsevi’s sect, both the clandestine ones
and the revealed ones.” Accordingly, Emden called upon the priests not to offer
the Sabbatians a safe haven in the Church: his strategy was to prevent Jewish
heretics from escaping rabbinic persecution by converting to Christianity.
• Yavan’s petition to the nuncio represented a radical departure from Emden’s
idea. Since the condemnation of the Sabbatians by the Christians failed to
materialize and the bishop of Kamieniec chose to support them against the
rabbis, Yavan decided to go to the nuncio over the heads of the local clergy and
to force the Frankists to choose between Judaism and Christianity.
• It was [Yavan] the shtadlan of the Council of Four Lands who first suggested—as
early as 1757—that the conversion of Jewish heretics was preferable to their
remaining within Judaism. »
• (Maciejko, The Mixed Multitude, p.133)
58
The Bishop of Kamieniec-Podolski, Mikołaj
Dembowski,
celebrating the Talmud's auto-da-fé
• A few days later, the bishop died
suddenly.
• The rabbis called on the Pope's
nuncio in Warsaw to denounce a
heresy "contrary to the Ten
Commandments, the law of the Old
[Testament], and natural law."
• Rabbinical persecutions against the
Frankists resumed; Frank took refuge
in Turkey.
• The Frankists send a request to the
Pope's nuncio, and attach their
request to the King.
– cf secret archives of the Vatican,
published in French, Italian, Latin (1864).

source: Ya'akov Emden, Sefer shimush,


Amsterdam, 1757 / 1758.
59
Under the crossfire of the Church and the Synagogue
• On June 11, 1758, King Augustus III of Poland issued a decree granting royal protection to the Zoharite
(Frankist) movement whose men are ready to recognize "the Christian knowledge of God". Frank,
protected, declared himself the reincarnation of Sabbatai Tsevi and Baruchiah Ruso, and the incarnation
of the power of God.
• Great struggle of influence between Protestants and Catholics to decide on the conversion of these
thousands of "Jews"; Frank played the bidding war.
• Second disputation from July 17 to September 19, 1759 on 9 theses; no firm conclusion.
• "Like Sabbatai Zevi before them, they should adopt, but only in appearance, a reluctant creed, in order to
continue their task without being bothered by anyone. Baptism would be the beginning of the end of the
Church and society, and they, the Frankists, were chosen to accomplish destruction from within "like
soldiers storming a city through the sewers". Absolute secrecy and the strictest discipline were now
required, as well as meticulous compliance with the commandments and practices of the Church so as
not to raise suspicion. While serving the Catholic Church in words, they should never lose sight of their
purpose or forget that they were in solidarity. “ (A. Mandel, The Militant Messiah, p. 92)
• Galinsky, ex-Rabbin and ex-Faithful of Frank, quoted him in 1776 in his denunciation: "Sabbatai Zevi had
to pass through the faith of the Ishmaelites... but I, Jacob, the most perfect, must pass through the
Nazarene faith because Jesus of Nazareth was the skin or peel of the fruit and his coming was only
allowed in order to open the way to the true Messiah. We must therefore accept this Nazarene religion
pro forma, and observe it meticulously in order to appear as good Christians as the Christians
themselves... Yet we must not marry any of them or have fun with any of their w... and in no way mix with
other nations. And although we profess Christianity and duly apply all their commandments, we must
never forget in our hearts the 3 pillars of our faith, the Lord Kings Sabbatai Zevi, Berakhya and Jacob
Frank, the most perfect of them. " (idem, p.93)
60

Vertical propagation in the social body


• Jacob Frank was baptized on (17 or) 24 September 1759 in Lwów (Lviv). The witnesses were
Count and Countess Franciszek Rzewuski and Anna Brühl.
• His baptism was confirmed with his wife on November 18 in Warsaw by Bishop Zaluski; his
witness is the King of Poland August III. A legend both Frankist and Polish specifies that the
bishop's mitre fell out of his head during the anointing (cf. Kraushar).
• In 1759, other Frankist groups were baptized in Warsaw Cathedral under the patronage of
the great Polish nobility. They changed their name and took the name of their godfather.
• Following a papal bull in 1704, the Polish and Lithuanian nobility sought a way to support
Jews who converted to Christianity. The Third Lithuanian Statute of 1588, erected by the
Lithuanian nobility, is applied. It is based on Spanish legislation: every converted person
automatically receives privileges and is rewarded with an ennoblement. This status was
repealed in 1764.
• Starting 1760, mass "conversions« happened:
– in Lvov from 17 November 1760 to December 1760, conversions would amount to 514, according
to Kraushar (156 men, 119 women, 239 children).
– But throughout Poland, some Frankists have estimated the number of conversions at about ten
thousand people, or even twenty thousand. The converts came not only from Poland, but also
from Hungary and especially from the Balkans (Budapest, Zagreb, Sarajevo, Belgrade, Skopje,
Bitola, Sofia, Berat).
– (see Novak, 2012 for a list of the best-known Frankist family names, including Brzezinski)
61

Vertical propagation in the social body


• « As we can see, the presence of great Polish aristocrats or notables during conversions
proves the obvious promiscuity between Polish aristocracy and Frankism. This will last
for several generations, since we will see not only an ennoblement of some Frankist
converts, but also a strong activity of Polish nobles, in favour of Frankists: we will see
later on, that the Bilinski, Brühl, Lubomirski, Mniznech families, will play a significant
role. Indeed, these families know the Frankist descendants very well and the marriage
unions between Frankists and nobles worshipping Frank, such as the Brühl and Mnizek
families, or the marriage unions between Frankists and Polish nobles such as a Prince
Lubormirski who will marry Eva Frank's lady of company, were more and more
numerous. »
– (Novak, 2012, p. 73)
• « This was particularly striking in Warsaw, where the vast majority of Frankists settled,
and where their number was estimated in 1780 at about 6,000; ten years later, there
were about 24,000 Frankists throughout the country. »
– (culture.pl, 2015)
• « In the Polish pamphlets and brochures published in Warsaw in the 1790s, the Frankists
were represented as neither Jews nor Christians and were described as escaping control
by both Jewish and Polish authorities, operating in a legal vacuum with a particular mix
of Judaism and Christianity. »
– source: Yivo Encyclopedia
62

(source: Duker, 1963)

Ewa Frank's lady of


honor
63

Horizontal propagation in the social body


• 2 groups are formed according to social class, training and knowledge of the sect's secrets:
• Those who convert to Christianity and will live a voluntary Marranism:
- "The aristocracy of Brothers and Sisters", that is, the true initiates (who will be separated
into Magnats and Erudits in 1820 according to Scholem following their social evolution)
- "La Ahané or la Kompania or Chewré", a group of followers or small people.
• Those who remain apparently "Jewish", some becoming great Talmudists,
therefore practice the Torah called Beriah in front of the others, but in private, they
are Frankists
– This mainly concerns Frankist families in Bohemia-Moravia (who emigrated to the United States in
1848), but also from Germany, some of whom embarked on the adventure of Reform Judaism.
• It is quite possible that two brothers, one who remained in the fold of rabbinic Judaism (or
hasid) while the other converted to Catholicism because Frank's follower, maintain a secret
and mystical bond between them.
• Resumption of the practice of the Ottoman "dversime": while one brother became a
Muslim, the other remained Christian or Jewish. The two brothers had family relationships
or one, through his new authority and new social ascension as a convert, protected the
other and his family, who remained in the old religion.
– See Novak, 2012. Domination of the Empire by this division of families with the development of the
Janissary, Dervish, or Bektaschis brotherhoods.
64

Antichrist
• As it is claimed, Frank told his disciples: « You know that the Lord Jesus will come from
Heaven for the Last Judgment, and that is true. But you do not understand the
explanation of these words of the Gospel. Who knows? Who knows? Perhaps He is
already incarnate and will reveal Himself after the end of the Antichrist's persecutions. »
• November 1759: Denunciations to the diocese, transmitted to the Pope's nuncio, by 5
Frankists who confessed their Frankist creed and acknowledged that « Frank had taught
the approaching end of the world and claimed to have seen the Antichrist in the city of
Salonika. The Antichrist would soon perform miracles and persecute Christians. The
coming of the Antichrist was a sign that the definitive unification of beliefs in the worlds
had begun and that soon "there will be one flock and one shepherd." »
– (Maciejko, p.164)
• Results of the ecclesiastical investigation:
– "Church authorities conducted an investigation that revealed that the name of Jesus
in copies of the New Testament belonging to Frank's disciples was crossed out and
replaced by the name Jacob." (Maciejko, p. 164)
– Frank believes in metempsychosis; and he was once a Muslim.
• January 7, 1760: Frank's arrest; he is interrogated (examination) in front of a Catholic
consistory in Warsaw.
• Discredited by a significant part of his Polish followers, except in Warsaw; he no longer
claims to be a Messiah.
65

In " prison ".


• February 24, 1760: Incarceration in the State Prison of
Czestochowa... which adjoins one of the most
important Marian pilgrimage sites in the world!
• ~1760: death of Jacob, son of Jacob Frank and Hannah
• January 5, 1764: Jacob Frank was severely poisoned;
he survived.
• Appropriation of the Marian cult in one's own theology
• September 10, 1764: birth of Roch
• March27, 1767: birth of Joseph
• February 25, 1770: Hannah's death
• Jacob Frank owes his liberation to the Russians who
broke the Polish confederation supported by France
since 1770. Czestochowa fell on August 19, 1772. He
was released by General Bibikov on 21 January 1773.

The Black Virgin of the Monastery


Jasna Góra à Czestochowa
66
From nihilism to revolution
• "One of the strongest factors in the development of a nihilistic mentality among the
"radicals" was their desire to deny an objective historical order in which exile continued in
its full force and the beginnings of redemption remained unnoticed by all but the
"believers" themselves. It is understandable that, during the period in question, this
antipathy towards external reality remained confined solely to the field of religion, as the
Jewish world in the ghetto was still sufficiently stable to prevent its active politicization.
Before the French Revolution, there was no link between the ideas of Sabbatians and the
growing undercurrent of discontent with the old regime in Europe. It was only when
changing times broadened the horizons of "believers" and revealed to them the existence
of more tangible ways to affect the course of history than the violation of the Torah of
Beriah that they also began to dream of revolutionizing the structure of society itself. ...]
As long as external conditions were not conducive to this, even the "radicals" remained
politically unconscious, and they could not conceive of any other method of revitalizing
Jewish life than the subversion of its most sacred values;"
– (Scholem, The Holiness of Sin, 1971)
• 2284. “On March 19, [17]86 [...] First of all it is necessary to mingle with them, to unite with
them, to embrace them, and then it will be the first degree of this ladder that Jacob saw;
and it will be necessary to cross the royal road, for they are the first gates. When one does
not pass through these gates, one never enters, and soon the True Believers [Sabbatians]
must cross this royal road. But when I enter this first degree, at that moment, all the lords of
Poland will be afraid, but the priests will be shaken and they will encounter fear. Many of
them will commit suicide." (Words of the Lord)
67
2 empires: Russian and Austro-
Hungarian
• 1773: departure for Brünn (Brno), a city with a strong Sabbatian community and led by
Prossnitz' famous Leib
• Frank went with his daughter to Vienna for hearings with Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790)
on 19 and 21 March 1775 and then on 22 March with the latter and his mother
Archduchess Maria Theresa (1717-1780) to argue the creation of a Frankist state in
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
• Ewa was the Emperor's mistress during a 4-month stay
• 7 Sept. 1776: Jacob Galinski wrote to Empress Maria Theresa to denounce Jacob Frank's
sect, his false conversion and his "immoral behaviour and acts against human nature",
then denounced them to the authorities in Brünn. On October 7, 1776, the answer was a
non-receipt, following the influence of Frank's networks at the Court.
• Emperor Paul I of Russia visited the Frank family in 1783 in Brno.
• It was in 1786 that the Order of the Brothers of St. John the Evangelist of Asia in Europe
was founded. It leaves Vienna and settles in Schleswig-Holstein, then dependent on the
Danish krone.
• 1786/88: departure for Offenbach/Main. Frankfurt has been a centre of the Lurian
Kabbalah since at least 1648 (publication of Emek ha-Melekh - "The King's Valley"),
becoming a Sabbatian, then a Frankist centre.
68

Frank's will
• In 1788, shortly after his first heart attack:
– "Christ said that he had come to deliver the world from the claws of Satan.
But I tell you, I have come to deliver the world from all laws and
commandments. Everything must be destroyed for the good Lord to
appear." (A. Mandel, p.173)
– 2142. “I tell you: As Christ, as you know, said that he came to free the world
from the hands of Satan, but I came to free it from all laws and statutes
which have been till now, for all that was the work of the hands of Satan,
and by that all fell into his hand. I must destroy all that, and only make that
which is black look utterly white. At that time the good God will reveal
himself.” (The Words of the Lord)
• Frank died on 10/12/1791.
• "The French Revolution had confirmed its predictions of the destruction of the
State and the Church, and he saw in it a new opportunity for the conversion and
establishment of the Jews. " (A. Mandel)
69
Frankism, from Warsaw to Paris
• In 1725, Louis XV, aged 15, was married to Marie Leszczynska, daughter of the deposed
Polish king Stanislas Leszczynski, seven years his senior. Louis tried to help his Polish
father-in-law recover his crown and, after the failure of this attempt, obtained
compensation from the Duchy of Lorraine.
• Stanislas reigned 28 years in the Duchy of Lorraine, which returned to France upon his
death: he created the "Royal Pologne" regiment, which gave France a Marshal aide-de-
camp of Louis XV (Wojciech Jakubowski, baptized under the name Albert, who was from a
Frankist family, arrived in France in 1732, and who worked at the Secret du Roi. The first
purpose of this service was to influence the French notables to intervene in favour of
Poland.)
• Augustus III of Poland, Jacob Frank's godfather, is, through his daughter Marie-Josèphe,
the grandfather of the kings of France Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X. In 1747, at the
age of 15, she married Louis-Ferdinand of France, the eldest son of Louis XV.
• The two national heroes La Fayette and Kosciuszko became friends in America, where
they fought together in the War of Independence in 1776. Done in 1792 as a "French
citizen" by the National Assembly, Tadeusz Kosciuszko found refuge in France after the
failure of the Polish insurrection, which he led in 1794.
• Before its restoration in 1918, only Napoleon I allowed Poland to regain its independence
briefly, between 1807 and 1815. These few years of rebirth were largely due to the
Emperor's liaison with Marie Walewska, a Polish countess he had met in Warsaw and
whose natural son he had in 1810: Alexander, Count Colonna-Walewski, who was later
Napoleon III's Minister of Foreign Affairs.
70
Bonaparte supported by the Frankists
• Pius VI had to face the events of the French Revolution:
– the nationalization of clergy property,
– the abolition of monastic vows (law of 13 February 1790) and the abolition of regular orders except those
whose activity is education and charitable works, leading to the exclusion of 100,000 religious, or two thirds of
the clergy of the time in France,
– the civil constitution of the clergy (adopted on July 12, 1790), as well as the schism situation it caused
– in 1791, he watched helplessly as Avignon and Comtat Venaissin were annexed.
• On February 19, 1797, Napoleon Bonaparte forced Pius VI to sign the Treaty of Tolentino with France of
the Directory and to cede the pontifical territories.
• Pope Pius VI was forced by the French Republic to renounce its temporal power and be content with its
spiritual power: it was deposited on February 15, 1798, when the Roman Republic was proclaimed. He
was imprisoned by the French in Siena, Florence, Parma and then in Valencia, where he died on 29
August 1799.
• In 1799, anonymous denunciation against the Bohemian Franks sent to the mayor of Prague:
• "the overthrow of the papal throne had given the Frankists’ day-dreams plenty of nourishment. They
said openly, it is the sign of the coming of the Messiah, since their main belief consists of this. Sabbatai
Tsevi was saviour, will always remain the saviour, but always under a different shape. General
Bonaparte's conquests gave nourishment to their superstitious teachings. His conquests in the Orient,
especially the conquest of Palestine, of Jerusalem [NdA: proclamation published on April 20, 1790 for
the imminent creation of a new Jewish state], his appeal to the Israelites is oil on their fire, and here, it
is believed, lies the connection between them and French society."
– source: "The Anonymous B.'s Appeal against the Prague Frankists of 1799,"
reproduced as Appendix 2 to Žáček, "Two Posts," 404. (cité par Maciejko et Duker)
• 9/11/1799: Bonaparte's coup d'état; 13 December: he becomes First Consul
• 10/12/1806: creation of the Grand Sanhedrin of France by Emperor Napoleon
71

Ewa Frank's house in Offenbach during the visit


of Tsar Alexander I in November 1813.
(Offenbach am Main City Archives)
72

Death and official disappearance of the


Frankists
• 1791: departure for Paris of Moses Dobruchka / von Schönfeld / Junius Frey,
Jacob Frank's second cousin, who was to succeed him; 1794: guillotined
• On the orders of Ewa and her brothers, three of Frank's chief lieutenants sent a
multitude of letters in red ink to the Jewish communities of Europe in 1800,
prophesying massacres to come against them, calling on them to revolt and
telling them that their salvation was the "religion of Edom". These letters
frightened the Jews and many letters were intercepted, by the Prussian services
who launched an unsuccessful investigation into the cult, and in France by
Fouché, who was afraid of them. He decided to investigate the sect without
success (cf Duker, 1963) and Napoleon gave up his dream of founding a Jewish
kingdom in Palestine.
• 1803 or 07: death of Josef Frank, son of Jacob Frank and Chana
• 1813 or 16: official death of Roch Frank, son of Jacob Frank and Chana.
• ~July 6, 1816: death of Ewa Frank, daughter of Jacob Frank and Hannah
• Kaplinski, an important member of the cult, organized an official Frankist
congress in Karlsbad in 1823; the local historian Pirazzi gathered the testimony of
the last official Frankist in 1853 in Offenbach.
73

Part 4

Some echoes of the continuity of


Sabbatianism and Frankism
from 1816 to the present day.

« As for me, I will pray to the Father and he will give you another defender so
that he will stay with you forever:
the Spirit of truth, which the world cannot accept because it does not see it
and does not know it. But you know him, because he stays with you and he
will be in you. »
(John 14:16-17)
74
Keep your mouth shut (Motus et
bouche cousue)
• « The really amazing thing is that although several important texts of the Frankist
teachings do exist, not a single attempt has been made to date to analyze their
content. The reason is simple. Graetz and A. Kraushar, two reputable researchers, one
of whom had written a long study on Jacob Frank and his Polish followers, both shared
the view that there was no such thing as a Frankist "creed", and that The Sayings of the
Lord (Slowa Panskie), which had reached them in Polish version only, was an
incoherent fad. »
• « As for lay historians, they have also been led to underestimate the role of
Sabbatianism, but for a different reason. Not only did most of the families that were
part of the Sabbatian movement in Western and Central Europe continue to remain
inside the Jewish fold afterward, but many of their descendants, especially in Austria,
reached important positions during the 19th century: renowned intellectuals, great
financiers or politicians with high connections. It was hardly to be expected that these
personalities would approve of attempts to "unmask" their "loaded" heredity ,
that goes without saying. Because of their position in the Jewish community, it is not
surprising that their wishes were heard. »
• (Gershom Scholem, Jewish Messianism. Essays on the spirituality of Judaism (tr. fr. 1974), Calmann
Lévy, where the essay on "Redemption through Sin" appears, pp. 27-40, original in Hebrew (1937), tr.
in. 1971)
75

Keep your mouth shut


Maciejko, p.261 specifies on this subject:

• "Eduard Jellinek's article on the Frankists' continued presence in Warsaw,[...]


caused considerable sensation and was published in several languages."
– [NdA: Eduard Jellinek, Descendants of Frankists in Warsaw, Das jüdische Literaturblatt,
Magdeburg Vol. XI, N.27, July 1882]

• "The grandchildren of the 1759 converts... tried to counter the spread of gossip by
creating an "official" history of the movement. In the case of Aleksander Kraushar,
there is direct evidence that the descendants of the Frankists selected him to
write a censored account of the cult, provided him with manuscripts and
sponsored his research trips to Vienna and Offenbach. Kraushar's mission was
twofold: to establish a clear line between Frank's excesses and his first supporters
and the unfailing conduct of their children and grandchildren; and to ensure that
the history of the movement would be considered over."
76

Move along, there's nothing left to see


• Moreover, Kraushar’s book [1895, p.31-32] says in its introduction: “The descendants of
the first followers of the ‘Lord’ became true and faithful Christians and citizens of their
country. In the second generation, they had already severed all ties to the tenets
proclaimed by the agitator, and today, after the passing of more than five generations,
their great-grandchildren have nothing in common and wish to have nothing in common
with their historical past.
• The historian of Frankism must not ignore this phenomenon. If he desires to take his
stand on the basis of the objective truth, he must avoid all designs to deal with this
subject in a tendentious manner and not to make attempts at a fruitless complication of
events, already finally closed and finished into the ferment of the present.”
– (quoted by Duker, 1963 and Maciejko, 2011, p.261)
• "Attempts by the cult's leaders in the 1820-30s to collect all the documents and notes of
the faithful were cited as evidence of its liquidation. "
– (Duker, 1963)
• "As for the sources of the Frankists of Bohemia-Moravia, many testimonies of true or
false Frankist repentance, returned to Judaism, have been preserved in the city of Prague.
Unfortunately, at the end of the 19th century, it was the president of the Jewish
community in Prague himself who removed these precious archives and probably
destroyed them for the sake of the families of the notables concerned. "
– (Novak, 2012, p.22)
77

In Poland
• "[Before 1790 in Warsaw], many Frankist families were able to secure their economic
position, their members becoming successful businessmen and factory owners,
effectively dominating several industries, such as breweries, distilleries and the tobacco
monopoly.
• They also played an important role in the reform efforts of Sejm Czteroletni at the time
[in 1788-1792] (Szymanowscy, Orłowscy, Jasińscy), and many of them were Polish
patriots and members of progressive Masonic organizations (Szymanowscy, Krysińscy,
Majewscy, Krzyżanowscy, Lewińscy, Piotrkowscy).
• The Frankists also allegedly dominated Warsaw's legal institutions. According to
Gershom Scholem, the vast majority of lawyers in Warsaw in the 1830s came from
Frankist families. Many of them constituted the growing Polish intelligentsia."
– (culture.pl, 2015)
• 1846 :

– (Reference 32 quoted above by Abraham G. Duker, Polish Frankism’s Duration, 1963 is: Charles
Frederick Henningsen, Eastern Europe and the Emperor Nicholas, 3e éd. vol. iii, London, 1846,
Pp. 274-75)
78

In Poland
• Russian Ministry of the Interior, 1847: « His very enemies react with the greatest praise
on the morals of the members of this sect. ...] Is there at the basis of this link with the
Sabbatians a unity of secret dogmas in common, the latter belonging to the dominant
Church, as they do in each country, without this diminishing the independence of the
sect? This is not known, because those who know are committed to preserving their
knowledge in the greatest secrecy towards the ignorant. »
– Quotation taken up by Duker, 1963 from I. Gregoriev, Evreiskiia religioznyia sekty v Rossiyi[Jewish religious
sects in Russia], Ministry of Interior Press, St Petersburg, 1847, p.203
• The great poet Mickiewicz on August 7, 1851 (quotation repeated by Duker, 1963):

• In 1934, Warsaw historians, interviewed by Duker, testified that they had met Frankists:
79

In Poland
• « The Frankist converts in Poland were large enough to form a socially autonomous group. A high
birth rate and rapid economic growth through the acquisition of Christian status with Frank's
autocratic leadership has allowed the Sect to maintain its cohesion for some time without
marriage outside the group. »
• « The Frankists were also united by less positive aspects, namely the aversion to Jews who forced
them to transform themselves and separate them from their loved ones and the hatred of the
Catholic clergy who participated in this drastic step. Difficult was the ambivalence of the
sectarians, between yesterday's Judaism and the new Messianism to be realized quickly, clinging
to many aspects of the old, while pretending to play the roles of pious Christians. The task of
raising a new generation under such a condition of dual marranism was indeed difficult and
required a lot of cooperation and hard work. Kinship and close social relations have transformed
Frankism to a large extent into a family religion, which has always been strengthened by
marriages and by the economic ties obtained through concentration in certain professions.
In short, it is good to consider Frankist Catholics from a sociological perspective as a well-
established, autonomous and closely linked group. »
• « Polonization most likely also presented obstacles to unions between the two groups, as
extremist Sabbatians had most likely been concentrated among the "Germans" rather than
among converted Polish sectarians. The common practice of marriage between Wolowski's
cousins and other families may have been due to the decrease in the cohesion of the Sect as well
as the separation between rich and poor. »
– Duker, 1963
80

In Poland
• Duker, 1963
81

In Poland
• culture.pl,
16/04/2015,
11/01/2014

• Olga Tokarczuk.
Księgi Jakubowe
“an attempt at writing an unorthodox history of Poland ” (Jacob's manuscripts),
historical novel,
Oct. 2014, 900 p.,
“a skillful politician and a possible religious charlatan” +70,000 copies sold

• Daas film, by
Adrian Panek, 2011;
3 appointments to
Polish prices

• Zygmunt Krasiński
Nieboska komedia (The
Non-Divine Comedy),
1835
82

Yes, I am a Thessaloniki
• Ilgaz Zorlu, Evet, ben Selanikliyim (Yes, I'm a Salonikan), Istanbul: Belgian (1998)
83

The Dönmeh and the "Young Turks"


• On Atatûrk's dönmeh orgiastic practices, see Dr. Rıza Nur, Hayat ve Hatıratım,
Paris (1929, 1st edition), Pp.1318-1321 ;
– Other editions: Hayat ve Hatıratım, Altındağ Yayınları, İstanbul (1967) ; Hayat ve
Hatıratım 1-2-3, Haz. Abdurrahman Dilipak, İşaret yayınları (1992), ISBN:9753500203
• The dönmeh were thus very present among the initiators of the genocide of
Armenian Catholics.
– Rabbi J. Prinz, "The Secret Jews", 1973, p.122

• It is possible to envisage a continuity between the secret practices and networks


of the Dönmeh on the one hand, and on the other hand the development of
secret political networks in the 20th century, which the Turkish President and
Prime Minister designated as the Deep State from 1996 onwards.
• Read B. Paul's articles on this subject:
– Deep politics and the deep state, (2014/03);
– The Network-Centric War reveals the era of ultimate and planetary totalitarianism
(2016/04);
– The key to modern history (2017/05)
84

Rothschild and the Franks


• Jacob Emden mentioned in his autobiography (Chapter XII; source) the
extremist Sabbatian militancy of 'Jacob Rothschild', a disciple of Eibeschuetz in
Altona in 1755.

• The Rothschild family of Frankfurt bankers is also mentioned as Ewa Frank's


financier in the memoirs of Moses Porges (1781-1870), second son of Morenu
Raw Gabriel Porges of Prague, written towards the end of his life:
– "In that year [1798], Mr. Salomon Zerkowitz also came to Offenbach. He had been very rich
and he brought with him all the rest of his fortune, which he was ordered to abandon. His
wealth consisted of Austrian government securities that I brought to Frankfurt for old
Rothschild to exchange for money."
• A. Mandel, The Militant Messiah or The Flight from the Ghetto, p. 260

(The Words
(source: ofofthe
Words theLord)
Lord)
85

Frankism and the Order of the Brothers of St


John the Evangelist of Asia in Europe
Dr. Franz Joseph
• First created by the Baron brothers von Ecker und Eckhoffen in Molitor
1781, with the contributions of (1779-1860)
philosopher,
– the Franciscan monk Bischoff, in Vienna, who was allegedly initiated during his
History of the
years spent in Jerusalem by Sabbatians Order of the
– of Ephraim Hirschfeld Brothers of St John
– by von Schönfeld, Frankist, cousin of Jacob Frank the Evangelist of
Asia in Europe,
• The Order was only open to personalities who were already Masons and/or 1829, tr.fr. aux
enlightened. He counted as members: the Prince of Liechtenstein, the Ed. Archè (1989)
Austrian Minister of Justice, the Earl of Westenburg, Count Joachim von .
Thun und Taxi, Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick (future "loser" of the Battle of
Valmy), General Dumouriez (future "winner"), State Councillor Schäffer, the
future King of Prussia Frederick William II, bankers of Jewish origin such as
Isaac Oppenheimer or Eskeles, as well as the Rabbi of Ukraine Barush Ben
Jacob of Skhlov, former Rabbi of Minsk, and the very mystical Prince
Landgrave Charles of Hesse. The role of financier and trusted man of the
latter was held by Rothschild father & son.
– see also Charles Novak, Jacob Frank the false Messiah (2012)
• See Schönfeld's life, from Frankism to Jacobinism as described by Mandel and
Scholem.
86

Frankism and Bavarian Enlighted


• On May 1, 1776, Weishaupt founded the Circle of Perfectibilists, a philosophical
club, with students.
• "It was precisely around this time [1777] that an officer named Ecker [Heinrich
von Ecker und Eckhoffen] created a lodge in Burghausen that poured into
alchemy and began to spread strongly. A member of this lodge came to
Ingolstadt to preach and find the best students. Unfortunately, his choice was
based on those I had identified. The idea of having lost such promising young
people in this way, of seeing them also contaminated by the corrupting
epidemic of alchemy [Goldmacheren] and other similar follies, was for me
atrocious and unbearable. I went to take advice from a young man [Baron Franz
Xaver von Zwack] in whom I had placed the greatest trust. He encouraged me to
use my influence on students to counter this scourge as much as possible in an
effective way: the creation of a society. " (A. Weishaupt, Pythagoras..., 1790,
pp. 663-666)
– This passage, which explains the lack of original influence of Frankism towards Enlightenment,
has remained practically ignored by researchers to this day.
– But later on some Frankists also became Illuminated (cf. the entourage of Prince Carl of Hesse,
Schönfeld...). This compatibility is explained because there are similarities in the approach of
the revolutionary social movement.
87

Overview of the spiritual crisis


in the news

• Let us travel through the West to the present day.


• In the following pages, brief elements from recent books or press articles are
presented.
• The reader is left to judge to what extent these elements are determined by
the spiritual crisis of the West, and in particular by the elements that have just
been presented so far.
88

From Frankfurt to the Royal Courts


• Heinrich Heine (1797-1856), one of Germany's greatest poets, a Freemason, a
Jew converted to Protestantism: "Money is the god of our time, and Rothschild
is his prophet. " - Lutetia. Part One, 1854
– tr.fr. 1972. Volume 6, page 378

• The Rothschild dynasty, its links with the Hesse-Kassel dynasty and the
development of the City as an international political and financial centre:
– see : The strange case of the Union Jack and Mr. Hide: the slow decline of London's
financial hegemony (2016/03)

• The links between Hesse-Kassel's family and the courts of Russia, Denmark, and
England:
– see Novak, Jacob Frank the False Messiah (2012), Pp. 130
89

In England
• The Fabian stained glass window designed by Shaw,
featuring the Company's founders - HG Wells, Sidney
Webb and Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) himself - who
are helping to build the "new world
– "Reshape it closer to the desires of the heart" /"Pray devoutly,
hammer vigorously"
• The Fabian Society was founded in 1884; its name
comes from the Roman general Fabius, famous for
inventing the attrition war against Hannibal. It has
provided all English Labour Prime Ministers until
2010, as well as the first Heads of State and
Government in India, Pakistan and Singapore.
• The Fabian Society founded the Labour Party and the
London School of Economics and Political Science in
1895 "for the betterment of society", which is now
one of the leading institutions in the world.
• HG Wells : The open conspiracy - Blue Prints for a
World Revolution (1928).
• BBC (2006) summary: "Bernard Shaw was delighted
to subvert the company's standards. ”
90

The coat of arms of the Fabian Society

• Beware of the so-called prophets! They come to you in sheep's clothing,


but inside they are voracious wolves. (Matthew 7:15)
91
The Balkans :
Nathan of Gaza, Sabbatai Tsevi, Jacob Frank, Daesh

• Can we analyse in depth


the politics of the Balkans
since the 18th century
without taking into
account the Sabbatian
dimension?

source: Sputnik, 2/3/2017


92

The Weimar Republic, during the inter-


war period
• "The defeated Germany gave the impression that on its territory you could do anything
but take yourself seriously. Idols were broken, statues debunked, faith professionals
defrocked, sacred was laughed at and laughter was sacred.... The capital, in constant
turmoil, recalled the sinful cities of the Bible. The Talmudist in me blushed and looked
away. Prostitution, pornography, disturbance of the senses and mind, sexual
perversion and others; the city undressed itself, carded itself, humiliated itself without
embarrassment, displaying its degeneration as an ideology. A few steps from Chez
Blum, in a private club, men and women, or women among themselves, danced naked.
Elsewhere, people took drugs, whipped each other, crawled in the mud, pushed back all
the limits; it reminded me of the Sabbatian mores. Values were reversed, taboos were
lifted. Did people feel the approach of the storm coming? ”
"Berlin seemed to be dominated by Jews... Newspapers and publishing houses, theatres
and banks, department stores and literary salons.... Science, medicine, the arts: it was
the Jew who set the tone, who imposed it. ".
(Elie Wiesel, The Testament of a Murdered Jewish Poet, 1980; Ed. Seuil (Points), 1995,
Pp. 124-126).
93

Germany, 1969-70

sources:
• bz-berlin.de, 2/12/2016
• Sputnik, 2/12/2016, 7/12/2016,
16/12/2016
94

Sabbatians in Israel

• « 2 men and 2 women from a group qualified by the messianic cult police were
arrested on charges of kidnapping young women. The group controlled young
women with combinations of drugs, alcohol and heavy brainwashing
techniques to convince them to prostitute themselves, often under the
influence of drugs.
• According to the police, attempts were made to persuade these girls that "lying
to non-Jews would hasten the redemption" of the Jewish people and that by
having sex with non-Jews, girls would make them pure and bring their "holy
sparks" back to Israel. The group worked in the streets trying to force young
women to join them and become more religious. He was active throughout the
country. »
– Times of Israel, 7/09/2014
95

Yisrael is the descendant of


Rabbi Shmuel Abuhatzeira,
disciple of Hayyim ben Joseph
Vital, who was the main disciple
of Isaac Luria

• sources: TheDailyBeast, 01/07/2016; wikipedia


96

• Jerusalem Post, 24/12/2015


97

USA: Wehle's will

• Gottlieb Wehle, born in 1802, emigrated in 1849 from Prague, died in 1881 in
New York. In his will, according to Scholem, « far from being ashamed of the
Sabbatians, he enjoins his children not to forget their noble ancestry. »
• His daughter, who died in the 1920s, « still considered Ewa Frank a saint, by the
power of tradition. »

• The rich Frankist families of Bohemia-Moravia, the Bondi, the Brandeis, the
Mauthner, the Dembitz, the Goldmark, the Wehle, the Schwabacher, the
Lichtenberg, the Landsopher, the Petschosch etc. emigrated to the United
States in 1848 / 49.
• Louis Dembitz Brandeis (1856 - 1941) was a judge, a member of the United
States Supreme Court (1916-1939) and a major supporter of the American
Zionist movement. One of the chief economic advisors to Presidents Woodrow
Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, he was involved in the creation of the
U.S. Federal Reserve.
98
US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright
• Born Marie Jana Korbelová on May 15, 1937 in Prague from Jewish parents who
had converted to Catholicism. UN Ambassador 1993-1997. Secretary of State
1997-2001.
• Her father Josef, a professor at the University of Denver in international
relations, will have Condoleezza Rice as a student, who was then Secretary of the
Department of State from 2005-2009.
• « I was raised in Catholicism, became a faithful member of the Episcopalian
Anglican Church and later discovered that my family was Jewish. I stand ready to
declare myself a Muslim out of solidarity. »
– Aaretz, 25 January 2017
• - Question: "[Since 1991 and the blockade of Iraq] we know that 500,000 Iraqi
children have died. That's more dead than in Hiroshima. You know... is this price
worth it? »
- Albrights answered: « I think it's a very difficult
choice. But we think the price is worth it. »
– TV interview, May 12, 1996
99

• SeattleTimes/AssociatedPress, 10/08/2016 and 12/10/2016


100

The USA hosts Jacob Frank's "spiritual heir"


“Following in the footsteps of the 17th and 18th century Jewish Avatars Sabbataï Zevi and
Jacob Frank, respectively -- as well as the 19th century Hindu Avatar, Sri Ramakrishna
Paramahamsa -- all of whom he seeks to emulate, Reb Yakov Leib HaKohain over the course of
his 71 years has studied, converted to, practiced and spiritually integrated the four major
religions of the world (Judaism, Catholic Christianity, Islam and Hinduism) in order to perform
the Kabbalistic Tikkun of "Repairing the Face of God" -- which means the intentional spiritual
reconciliation, in one's own person, of all religions so that God may again be one and His
Name, one.
For the past thirty years, he has been the acknowledged spiritual leader of the Neo-Sabbatian
Kabbalists of the West and spiritual heir to the legacy of the 17th century Jewish Avatar,
Sabbataï Zevi and his 18th century successor, Avatar Yakov Leib Frank, after whom he is
believed to have been named by his Orthodox Jewish family of hereditary Levitical priests, the
maternal side of which originally came to America from Istanbul, Turkey where the Sabbatian
movement began in the late 17th century.
Reb Yakov Leib haKohain [born Lawrence G. Corey in 1934] founded Donmeh West: A Center
for the Study & Practice of Neo-Sabbatian Kabbalah in 1972 [et son site internet depuis 2004].
For a number of years he was the non-ordained but elected Rebbe ("spiritual leader") of
the South Bay Kehillah, a small congregation of overtly Orthodox but covertly Sabbatian Jews
in Hermosa Beach, California.” (source)
He teachs publicly a « virtual anti-nomism »: he claims that “The purpose of intentionally
committing a sin in the ‘Heart-Mind’ isn't actually to ‘commit’ it, but to transform it [par l’imagination]… I
don't mean to suggest that the only way to redeem evil is by thought.” (source)
101

"Eliminate religions"
• Dr. Rab. Marvin (Moshe)
Shlomo Antelman • Dr Rabbi Antelman summed up major works on mondialist
Chief Justice of the 13 members of elites by Pr. Robison [Proofs of a conspiracy against all the
the Supreme Rabbinical Court of
America, since its inception in
religions and governments of Europe Carried on in the secret
1974; U.S. coordinator of the meetings of Free Masons, Illuminati, and reading societies (1797)],
Jewish Survival Legion Pr. Quigley [The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to
• To Eliminate the Opiate, Cliveden (1981)] et Pr. Sutton [Western Technology and Soviet
vol1:1974, vol2:2002
Economic Development (3 vol. 1968, 1971, 1973) ; Wall Street
• B'chor Satan, 1992, about
Rab. Eybeschütz
and the Bolshevik Revolution (1974) ; Wall Street and the Rise of
• Excerpts from Minister Hitler (1976) ; Wall Street and FDR (1976) ; Trilaterals over
Kissinger in 1976, Chomsky Washington (2 tomes: 1979, 1981)] by extending them with
and hundreds of members of the ideological dimension of Sabbatianism and especially
the Marxist New Jewish
Agenda in 1982
Frankism resulting from the historical work of Professor
Scholem.
• Its contribution lies in the description of the internal conflict
since the 18th century between Orthodox Jews and other
currents of Judaism influenced by Frankism.
• A month after the release of Volume 1, Antelman began to
face 20-year legal harassment: 18 trials (all won),
particularly against the Jewish Community Council in
Boston.
Tiqqun in France
102

• Since 1999, a collective called "Comité Invisible/Tiqqun" has been writing


openly nihilistic and neo-frankist articles in French, translated and distributed
in several languages. It was immediately denounced as such: Dominique Caboret,
Philippe Garrone, Avant-garde et Mission - La Tiqqounnerie (published in February 1999), Ed. Chez
l'Auteur, 2000. Alain C. published a commentary on "L'INSURRECTION QUI VIENT" Construction
Identitaire et Alternative Existentielle, (2009).
• However, passages from Tiqqun describe with some relevance the
contemporary socio-political situation (security situation...): see the
presentation made by the philosopher Giorgo Agamben, several of whose
philosophical concepts are explicitly included in Tiqqun.
• This ability to amalgamate disparate doctrines and to defend them all in turn with
conviction is one of the characteristics of Frankism. Anthony Le Cazals testified in 2014
that Julien Coupat knew the Lurian Kabbalah. He studied it in Hebrew in Israel for 6
months in 1998;
• J. Coupat: born June 4, 1974. Since 15 November 2008, he has been suspected of having
formed an "invisible cell" - to use the prosecutor's expression - to which the sabotage of
a TGV line catenary is attributed (Tarnac case; the qualification of terrorism was
annulled by the Court of Cassation on 17/01/2017)
• "To destroy the void"
• see "it is forbidden to prohibit"
103

The spiritual crisis of the West as seen by Russia


• « Another serious challenge to Russia's identity is related to world events. Here,
a distinction must be made between foreign policy and moral aspects. We can
see how Euro-Atlantic countries are currently rejecting their roots, including
the Christian values that form the basis of Western civilisation. They deny
moral principles and all traditional identities: national, cultural, religious and
even sexual. They implement policies that equate large families with
homosexual relationships, faith in God with belief in Satan.
• The excesses of political correctness have reached the point where people are
seriously talking about allowing political parties whose purpose is to promote
pedophilia. People in many European countries are embarrassed or afraid to
talk about their religious affiliation. Religious holidays are abolished or even
renamed in a different way; their essence is hidden, as is their moral
foundation. And people are trying hard to export this model all over the
world. I am convinced that this opens a direct path to degradation and
primitivism, leading to a deep demographic and moral crisis. »
– Vladimir Putin, 19/9/2013, International Conference at the Valdai Club (video).
104

The spiritual crisis of the West as seen by Russia


• “In his State of the Nation speech in mid-December [2013], Mr. Putin also
represented Russia as a strong defender of "traditional values" against what he
described as the morally bankrupt West. Social and religious conservatism, the
former KGB officer insisted, is the only way to prevent the world from falling
into "chaotic darkness". “
• Who’s ‘godless’ now? Russia says it’s U.S. ; The Washington Times, 28/01/2014
105

Western Messianism as seen by Russia


• « According to Lavrov, supporters who claim to "messianically impose their
own ultra-liberal values, change the political systems of sovereign countries,
including through ideologically motivated operations to overthrow unwanted
regimes", have won the upper hand in the West for some time [NdA: see ncw
concept]. "The failure of these attempts is obvious, but they will face the
consequences for a very long time." »
• "We believe that all internal reforms should be carried out in a peaceful and
progressive manner, while their forms and pace should not run counter to
existing traditions. In other words, people should determine their own
destiny. ”
• “Lavrov warns West will have to pay dearly for stoking revolutions in Middle East” (TASS,
25/01/2017)
106

Summary of the history of the West


• The Sabbatian/Frankist tumor has progressed by historically taking
advantage of several vectors:
– its establishment in Turkey and its branches in Central Europe, then its massive
introduction into the Polish aristocracy following the false "conversions" to
Catholicism accompanied by ennoblement
– its diffusion in the great bourgeoisie and then in the Austrian and Prussian
aristocracy, initially by secret societies and then by marriages with Polish Frankists
– the acceleration of its development (including financial) by the French Revolution and
the Napoleonic Wars
– its spread in the English aristocracy and in most European countries, as well as its
gradual takeover of the United States and Turkey from the 19th century onwards.

• It is no exaggeration to say that the history of the West and the Near and Middle
East, from the 19th century to around 2013, bears the imprint of
Sabbatianism/Frankism to a very large extent.
• ... but since the wind of history began to turn...
107

Part 5
Provisional conclusion

« History has a meaning, towards life. »


B. Paul, in 1984.
108

The fundamental question


nowadays
• « The fundamental question of our time is whether the West has
the will to survive. Do we trust our values to defend them at all
costs? Do we have the desire and courage to preserve our
civilization from those who subvert and destroy it?
• We may have the largest economies and deadliest weapons on
Earth, but if we do not have strong families and strong values, we
will be weak and we will not survive. »
– Speech by President Donald Trump in Warsaw on 6/07/2017;
source: whitehouse.gov
109

Philosophy of History
• According to historian Arnold J. Toynbee (1889-1975), the decline of a
civilization is usually the result of its inability to respond to moral and
religious challenges rather than physical and environmental challenges.
• It is opposed to Spengler's deterministic theory exposed in The Decline of the
West (1918-22), according to which civilizations grow and die according to a
natural cycle. Toynbee says "Civilizations die by suicide or murder, not by
natural causes"
– (Editor's Note in an edition of Toynbee's A Study of History, 1947)
• Toynbee presents the history of each civilization in terms of challenges and
responses. Civilizations are bouncing back in response to some extremely
difficult challenges when "creative minorities" design solutions to reorient the
entire society. When a civilization succeeds in meeting challenges, it grows.
Otherwise it declines.
– "The nature of the decline of civilizations can be summarized in 3 points: a failure of the
creative capacity of the minority, which now becomes a only "dominant" minority, with in
response a decrease in mimetic behaviours on the part of the majority, and consequently a
loss of social unity in society as a whole. »
– (Toynbee, A study of History, Vol. 4 (1948), part B, p. 6)
110

Philosophy of History
• "Hope for the 20th century lies in the recognition that war and
crisis are man-made and useless creations. They can be avoided in
the future by turning away from the characteristics of the
nineteenth century that we have mentioned (materialism,
selfishness, false values, hypocrisy, and secret vices) and returning
to the other characteristics that our Western society has always
considered virtues: generosity, compassion, cooperation,
rationality and foresight, and by finding an increased role in
human life for love, spirituality, charity, and self-regulation."
• - Carroll Quigley, Tragedy and Hope, 1966, Pp. 1310-1311.
111

Philosophy of History
• « The soldier is convinced that he will be given a certain time limit that can be extended
indefinitely before he is killed, the thief - like the traitor, the corrupt, the murderer - before
he is caught, the statesmen before they are caught by history, the men in general before
they have to die.
• This is the amulet that protects individuals - and sometimes peoples - not from danger but
from fear of danger, in reality from belief in danger, which in some cases allows them to
brave it without having to be brave.
• In all other cases, this is the mark of madness that loses individuals - and sometimes peoples
- and justifies repeating this famous word that Sophocles put in the mouth of the people
2500 years ago:
• The one whom a god pushes to his downfall often takes evil for good, and he is
only guaranteed ruin for a very short time. »
– B. Paul (2015/12), freely inspired by Marcel Proust, In search of lost time.
• Toynbee predicted that "at the end of this century [20th century], the world would be
dominated by the West, but that in the 21st century "India will conquer its conqueror.
– quoted by Swami Prabhavananda, The Spiritual Heritage of India: A Clear Summary of Indian
Philosophy and Religion (1979).
• See 2 of my articles on conscience-sociale.org :
– The inevitable counter-revolution of the American people (2013/03)
– The key to modern history (2017/05)
112

Fortes in fide
« It is the quality of our theological faith that will enable all, abbot and community, to advance together
towards the Kingdom of Heaven.
The abbey motto I chose in 1997, engraved on the ring I wear on my finger, is in Latin: "Fortes in fide".
It is taken from the First Letter of St. Peter: "Brothers, be sober, be vigilant! Your opponent, the demon,
like a roaring lion, comes and goes in search of its prey; resist it with the strength of faith, for you
know that all your brothers throughout the world are facing the same sufferings. "
The period in which the apostle wrote was marked by a climate of paganism that quickly overshadowed
the expansion of the Christian faith and responded with persecution.
The religious persecutions of the 20th century had nothing to envy to those of the Roman Empire.
And throughout the past two millennia, spiritual warfare has remained a constant for every disciple
of Christ, even in the absence of open persecution.
The liturgical time of the Passion and that of Easter remind us of this.
The expressive image of the roaring lion must resonate in us with all the terrifying force it carries for the
people living near the desert where it lives!
The mysterious drama of Satan's rebellion against God, his Creator, hardened him into an inexplicable
jealousy against humans called to adopt God's children despite their weaknesses and miseries!
Let us come a little closer every day to the Lord Jesus, from whom we receive in abundance his Word of
truth and the sacraments of his love and forgiveness!
May her life grow in us, so that it may touch through us a great number of people who are thirsty for
it!»
On APRIL 20, 2007, Dom René-Hugues de Lacheisserie, Ganagobie
113

Metaphysics and History


• « According to ancient traditions, Typhon, an enemy entity of the Solar God, was
the father of the Hebrews; Heronimus, as well as various Gnostic authors,
likewise consider the Hebrew god as a typhoon creature. These are allusions to
this demonic spirit of incessant agitation, obscure contamination, latent revolt of
the lower elements, which acts, in Hebrew substance, much more clearly than in
other peoples, when it returned to the free state, detached itself from the
"Law", from the tradition that had given it a form, moreover using, in a
degraded or inverted manner, certain themes belonging to its more or less
unconscious heritage. Thus was born one of the main sources of forces which, if
only by instinct, often acted in a negative direction during the last phases of the
cycle of the "Iron Age". »
– J. Evola, Revolt against the modern world, 1934, tr.fr. 1972, Chap. 8, Pp. 325
• Evola refers here to the emergence of Christianity from the origins within Judaism (cf.
chapter 10) but it seems to us that these remarks apply infinitely better to Sabbatianism
(mentioned in half words in conclusion). It focuses mainly (chapters 12 and 13) on the
causes from "above" that determined the fall of the last remnants of medieval civilization
in the West. Decadence can be defined by the progressive forgetting of the orientation
towards transcendence.
114

The spiritual crisis and the fate of the West


• René Guénon: 3 main hypotheses about the fate of the West.
• The first, "the most unfavourable, is the one where nothing would replace this
civilization, and where, as it disappears, the West, left to its own devices, would
find itself plunged into the worst barbarity. "
• The second would be the one where "the Eastern peoples, in order to save the
Western world from this irremediable decline, would assimilate it by will or by
force, supposing that the thing was possible, and that moreover the East agree
to it, in its totality or in one of its component parts...; only, the West would have
to renounce its own characteristics and would be absorbed purely and simply.
• That is why it is necessary to consider a third case as much more favourable from
the point of view of all terrestrial humanity... the effect would be to make the
Western anomaly disappear, by returning to true and normal intellectuality; but
this return, instead of being imposed and constrained, or at most accepted and
suffered from outside, would then be made voluntarily and as spontaneously. "
– René Guénon, General Introduction to the Study of Hindu Doctrines (1921) quoted by Michel Vâlsan, La
fonction de René Guénon et le sort de l'Occident (1951)
115

The spiritual crisis and the fate of the West


• ...[to achieve this third case in all its scope], "it is necessary to be able to rely on
a highly constituted organization, which does not mean that partial results,
already appreciable, cannot be obtained before this point has been reached.
• However defective and incomplete the means at your disposal may be, you
must begin by implementing them as they are, otherwise you will never be
able to acquire more perfect ones; and we would add that the slightest thing
accomplished in harmony with the order of principles virtually carries within
itself possibilities whose expansion is capable of determining the most
prodigious consequences, in all fields, as its repercussions extend to them
according to their hierarchical distribution and by way of indefinite
progression."
– René Guénon, Orient et Occident (1924) quoted by Michel Vâlsan, La fonction de René Guénon
et le sort de l'Occident (1951)
116

Back in 1939

• « To educate these hearts and minds, to awaken them instead, is


the modest and ambitious task of the independent man. We must
stick to it without looking any further. History will or will not take
these efforts into account. But they will have been made. »

These are the last lines of an article by Albert Camus that was to appear on November
25, 1939 in "Le Soir républicain". It had been censored, and lost. It was found and
published by Le Monde on 18/3/2012.

In the same spirit as Guénon in 1924,


this is the purpose of this study.
117

Afterword :
To lose your mind is to lose
consciousness, to faint.

• « Knowledge begins with the fear of the Lord. You have to be crazy
to despise wisdom and instruction. »
• « To fear the Lord is to hate evil. Arrogance, pride, the way of evil
and perverse mouth, that's what I hate. »
– Book of Proverbs, 1:7 and 8:13

source: bible Segond 21


118

Acknowledgements
• to my family, for their patience and understanding. This work for 10
years is dedicated to them;
• to my late uncle Jean;

• to the community of the Benedictine Monastery of Ganagobie which


welcomes us today.

THE DEBATE IS OPEN


119

Annex

• Daniel Tollet, La connaissance du judaïsme en Pologne dans l'œuvre de


Gaudencjusz Pikulski "La méchance des Juifs" (Lwow 1760) in M. G. Bartolini, G. B.
Bercoff (Eds.), Kiev e Leopoli: il "testo" culturale, Bibliotheca di Studi slavistici vol.
4, (Firenze University Press 2007), p.37-46.
120

Annex: “War is a Racket”, Major General


Butler, 1935
• “It is possibly the oldest [racket], easily the
most profitable, surely the most vicious. It is
the only one international in scope. It is the
only one in which the profits are reckoned in
dollars and the losses in lives.
• A racket is best described, I believe, as
something that is not what it seems to the
majority of the people. Only a small "inside"
group knows what it is about. It is conducted
for the benefit of the very few, at the expense
of the very many. Out of war a few people
make huge fortunes.”
– Chap. 1
121

Annex
• Thanks to an American law on the declassification of CIA files, we can now discover a report entitled "France: the defection of
left-wing intellectuals", submitted to the Agency in December 1985. It is said that, "in the post-war period, French intellectuals
contributed significantly to creating international hostility to American politics, both in Europe and in the Third World. From
Beirut to Lisbon and Mexico City, the intellectual elites have listened to and reproduced the thinking and preconceptions in vogue
among coffee experts such as Régis Debray.
• During the 1950s and 1960s, the CIA underhandedly financed the Congress for the Freedom of Culture, a Paris-based
organization that supported intellectual and magazine journals (including the "Paris Review"). "Liberal Conspiracy", as
Australian writer Peter Coleman put it, was based on the idea that the cultural defeat of Marxism would be achieved by
creating a new left rather than by supporting the right.
• The main thesis of the 1985 report is that the French battle has been won. A "new intellectual climate" in Paris, embodied by
Bernard Henri-Lévy, will now work without knowing it for the United States. American spies credit this to a "coterie of young
agitators who, for more than a decade, have converted with great noise in militant circles, attacking the French left, seen as
dangerous and intrinsically totalitarian": the New Philosophers.
• Described as former communists who renounced "the Stalinist sophisms taught at the Ecole Normale Supérieure", led by
Bernard-Henri Lévy and André Glucksmann, they are popular and "compensated for their abstruse prose by becoming
sensational media personalities", thanks to the "television and radio programmes with an intellectual content that the French
love".
• A reason to be pleased: "Lévy became collection director at Grasset - one of the largest publishing houses in France - from where
he was able to ensure that the opinions of the New Philosophers found easy access to the public". According to the Agency, their
growth was made possible by "a general decline in intellectual life in France that undermined the political influence of left-
wing thinkers".
• This "new left" should, according to the CIA, accomplish several works: "They will support the moderate socialists who are
struggling to create a broad centre-left alliance", and they will "oppose any effort by extremist socialists to revive the "union of
the left" with the PC". Above all, it "should aggravate disputes between left-wing parties and within the SP, which will probably
increase the defection of socialist and communist voters". Clearly, the CIA prophesies the advent of irreconcilable lefts and
"permanent non-revolution"
• Search for a platform of expression for writers attached to the country's Christian - or even pre-Christian - roots, in "demand for
cultural renewal", convinced that "French culture has been corroded by external influences".
• Le Nouvel Observateur, 01/05/2017
122

Annex : Videos about Sabbatai Tsevi

• duration 1h : https://wn.com/shabtai_Tsevi
• duration 7 mn :
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLjc7AvtRWo
123

Attributions and licences

• This document is under CC BY SA 4.0 license


• Author: Dr Bruno PAUL

• The images belong to their respective authors


– URLs present in the previous pages, as well as :
• http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Frankism
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabbatai_Zevi
– https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expulsion_of_Jews
124

Conscience Sociale
With science, with humanities, on the path of Tradition.

• Conscience-sociale.org as a laboratory of Traditional Studies


• A previous practice of the transdisciplinary approach to complex systems....
– Geo- and macro-economics; tax havens
– Financial system and international monetary system
– Human and social sciences (sociology, philosophy, history, history of religions)
– Political science, geopolitics, international relations, political anticipation
– Governance of digital technical systems (security, cloud, information systems, model
engineering, Agility, EA, etc.)
• ... applied to the major socio-political transformations of 2000-2050
– Global ecological crisis; Global systemic crisis; Scientific crisis; Spiritual crisis
– Democratization vs. erosion of democracy
– Eurasian aggregation; disintegration of the Anglo-Israel-American empire
• ... with a European Christian Catholic point of view and a commitment to
Guenonian Tradition and metaphysics
125

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