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Modernity An Introduction to Modern Societies

Edited by Stuart Hall, David Held, Don Hubert, and Kenneth Thompson

~A

.11 Publishing

Blackwell

Contents

List of Contributors

ix

Preface

x

Acknowledgments

xii

Part I

Formations 01 Modernity

Introduction

 

3

Stuart Hall

 

The Enlightenment and the Birth of Social Science

19

Peter Hamilton

 

Introduction

20

What was the Enlightenment?

24

Enlightenment as the Pursuit of Modernity

35

Revolution and Reformation

44

The Birth of Sociology: Saint-Simon and Comte

48

Conclusion

51

2 The Development of the Modern State

55

David Held

 

Introduction

 

56

ABrief History and Geography of European States

58

Become Supreme?

73

Why did Nation-States Conclusion

 

84

3 The Emergence of the

Economy

90

 

Vivienne Brown

Introduction: The Economic Formation of Modernity

91

A

Modern Economy in the Making?

93

The Beginnings of Modern Economics

107

A

Modern Economics?

114

Conclusion: Signposting the Future?

118

4 Changing Social Structures:

Class and Gender

122

Harriet Bradley

 

Introduction

123

Pre-Industrial Society

124

Class, Gender, and Industrialization

133

Industrial Society and the Growth of Feminism

143

Conclusion

146

5 The Cultural Formations of Modern Society

149

Robert Bocock

 

Introduction

 

150

Defining Culture

151

CONTENTS

 

Analyzing Culture

154

Culture and Social Change

163

The Costs of Civilization

171

Conclusion

181

6

The West and the Rest: Discourse and Power Stuart Hall

184

Introduction

185

Europe Breaks Out

189

Discourse and Power

201

Representing "the Other"

205

"In the Beginning All the World was America"

216

From "the West and the

Rest" to Modern Sociology

221

Conclusion

224

Part 11

Structures and

Processes of Modernity

229

Introduction Don Hubert and Kenneth Thompson

231

7

The State in Advanced Capitalist Societies Anthony McGrew

239

Introduction

240

The Advanced Capitalist State: Diversity and Uniformity

242

The

Formation ot the Advanced Capitalist State

249

Putting the Advanced Capitalist State in Perspective

261

Putting the Advanced Capitalist State in its Place

272

The ACS: A Review

275

8

Fordism and Modern Industry John Allen

280

Introduction

281

Ford, Fordism, and Modern Industry

282

Progress and Modern Industry

297

Conclusion: Globalization and Industry

304

9

Divisions ot Labor Peter Braham

307

Introduction

308

From a Manufacturing to a Service Economy?

309

Labor Market Segmentation

312

Gender and Labor Market Segmentation

317

Migrant Workers and Divisions ot Labor

321

A New International Division of Labor?

327

The Division of Labor and Flexible Specialization

332

Conclusion

337

10

Women and the Domestic Sphere Helen Crowley

343

CONTENTS

vii

344

 

Introduction Women and the Family: Some Theoretical Issues

348

Conclusion

360

11 The Body and Sexuality Jeffrey Weeks

363

 

What do we Mean when we Talk about the Body and Sexuality?

364

Sexuality and Sexual Norms

372

Sexuality and Power

375

Sexual Identities

380

Sexuality and Politics

388

12 Religion, Values, and Ideology Kenneth Thompson

395

 

Introduction

396

Enlightenment: The Dilemmas of Modernity

398

Secularization and Community

403

Foucault: Integration through Discourses

407

Gramsci: The Struggle for Ideological Hegemony

410

Ideological Community

412

Conclusion

420

Part 111

Modernity and its Futures

423

Introduction Stuart Hall, David Held, and Gregor McLennan

425

13 The 1989 Revolutions and the Triumph of Liberalism David Held

436

 

Introduction

437

The Triumph of Liberalism?

442

The Necessity of Marxism?

447

From Modernity to Post-Modernity?

452

The Story So Far, and the Question of the Political Good

457

Democracy: Between State and Civil Society?

459

Conclusion

463

14 AGIobai Society?

466

 

Anthony McGrew

Introduction

467

Modernity and Globalization

469

Mapping the Dimensions of Globalization

473

AGIobai Society?

480

Globalization

and the Future Political Community

488

Globalization

and a Universal Sociology

497

15 Environmental Challenges Steven Yearley

504

CONTENTS

Introduction

505

Ecological Threats to Modern Society: An Overview

507

Developing a Green Political Ideology

514

Growth, Capitalism, and Green Consumerism

523

Conclusion: Environmental Challenges and the Enlightenment

529

16 Post-Industrialisrn/Post-Fordism Jotm Allen

533

Introduction: The Economy in Transition

534

From Industrialism to Post-Industrialism and Beyond

536

From Fordism to Post-Fordism

546

Assessing Economic Transitions

555

Conclusion: Beyond the Modern Economy?

560

17 Social Pluralism and Post-Modernity Kenneth Thompson

564

introducnon

565

Post·Modernism

569

Post-Modernism as the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism

572

Rejections of Post-Modernism

578

Reconstructions in Post-Modernity or New Times

580

Post-Modernity: Consumption and Appearances 583

 

New Connections of Constructive Post-Modernism

586

Conclusion

591

18 The Ouestion of Cultural Identity Stuart Hall

595

 

Introduction: Identity in Ouestion

596

The Birth and Death of the Modern Subject

601

National Cultures as "Imagined Communities"

611

Globalization

618

The Global, the Local, and the Return of Ethnicity

623

Fundamentalism, Diaspora, and Hybridity

629

19 The Enlightenment Project Revisited Gregor McLennan

635

 

Introduction: The Post-Modern Condition

636

A

Debate: Post-Modernity versus Enlightenment

638

Lyotard: Abandoning the Metanarratives of Modernity

639

Habermas: Defending Modernity and Enlightenment

642

A Problem with Post-Modernism: Its Relativism

644

A Problem with

Enlightenment: Its Hubris

648

Post-Modernity as "Reflexivity"

651

Overview

654

Conclusion

661

Index

664