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service of summons and other coercive

due process upon him.
It is the authority to hear and
decide cases. It does not depend
upon the regularity of the exercise 4.
of that power or upon the
Jurisdiction of the court over the
rightfulness of the decision made
subject matter of the action is
(Lim, et al. v. Hon. Felipe
determined by the allegations of the
Pacquing, et al., G.R. No. 115044,
complaint. An exception to this rule is
September 1, 1994).
where the real issues are evident from
the record of the case, jurisdiction over
the subject matter cannot be made to
depend on how the parties word or
phrase in their pleadings.
The requisites for valid exercise of
jurisdiction are as follows:
PARTIES Jurisdiction of the court over the
ii) JURISDICTION OVER THE subject matter is conferred by law which
SUBJECT MATTER maybe either the Constitution or a
RES 6.

The exception to the general rule that

“lack of jurisdiction over the subject
3. matter of an action cannot be waived by
The court acquire jurisdiction the parties and maybe raised at any
over the person of the plaintiff when the stage of the proceeding” is ESTOPPEL BY
action is commenced by the filing of the LACHES by failure to object to the
complaint. This presupposes payment of jurisdiction of the court for a long period
the docket fees. Jurisdiction is acquired of time and by invoking its jurisdiction in
over the person of the defendant by his obtaining affirmative relief.
voluntary appearance in court and his
submission to its authority, by valid
The court may acquire jurisdiction rightfulness of the subject matter,
over the res either by: decision made the resolution of
(Lim, et al. v. Hon. all other
questions arising
Felipe Pacquing,
in the case is but
1. Seizure of the property under legal et al., G.R. No. an exercise of
purposes 115044, jurisdiction
September 1, (Herrera v.
1994). Baretto, 25 Phil.
2. As a result of the institution of 245; Palma v.
legal proceedings, in which the Q&S, Inc., G.R.
power of the court is recognized No. L-20366, May
16, 1966).
and made effective.
Error of Error of
3. The court by placing the property
Jurisdiction Judgment
or thing under its custody.

Error of Judgment
4. The court through statutory
One where the One that the court
authority conferring upon it the
court, officer or may commit in the
power to deal with the property of
quasi-judicial exercise of
the thing within the court’s
body acts without jurisdiction; it
territorial jurisdiction. Example:
or in excess of includes errors of
Suits involving the status of the
jurisdiction, or procedure or
parties or suits involving the
with grave abuse mistakes in the
property in the Philippines of non-
of discretion. court’s findings
resident defendants.
Correctible by Correctible by
extra ordinary writ appeal
8. of certiorari

Jurisdiction Exercise of
Jurisdiction 9.
It is the authority It is any act of
to hear and decide the court
cases. It does not pursuant to such
authority, which
depend upon the
includes making
regularity of the decisions. If there
exercise of that is jurisdiction over
power or upon the the person and