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The urinary system plays several major roles in
homeostasis Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret
it, and send out appropriate commands
 Nephrons
 Functional units of the kidneys  The nervous system
 Extract a filtrate from the blood  Obtains sensory information
 Refine the filtrate to produce urine  Processes sensory information
 Urine  Sends commands to effector cells
 Ureters drain the kidneys (muscles) that carry out appropriate
 Stored in the urinary bladder responses
 Expelled through the urethra

 The central nervous system (CNS) consists

 Brain
 Spinal cord (vertebrates)
Overview: The key processes of the urinary  Contains fluid-filled spaces
system are filtration, reabsorption, secretion,  In ventricles of the brain
and excretion  In the central canal of the spinal
Filtration – Blood pressure forces water and  Surrounding the brain
many small solutes into the nephron  Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Reabsorption – Valuable solutes are reclaimed  Located outside the CNS
from the filtrate  Consists of:
 Nerves (bundles of fibers of sensory
Secretion – Excess H+ and toxins are added to and motor neurons) – cranial
the filtrate nerves and spinal nerves
Excretion – The final product, urine, is excreted  Ganglia (clusters of cell bodies of
the neurons)
Vertebrate nervous systems are highly
centralized and cephalized
 Works with nervous system to regulate
body activities
 The nervous system also Communicates,
Regulates, and Uses electrical signals via
nerve cells
 Comparing the endocrine and nervous
 Nervous system reacts faster
 Endocrine system responses last longer
Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose

Peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is a  The pancreas secretes two hormones that
functional hierarchy control blood glucose
 Insulin — signals cells to use and store
 Two functional components of the PNS glucose
 Somatic nervous system – mostly  Glucagon — causes cells to release
voluntary stored glucose into the blood
 Autonomic nervous system (ANS) –
mostly involuntary

Chemical signals coordinate body functions

 Hormones
 Chemical signals
 Usually carried in the blood
 Cause specific changes in target cells
 Secreted by Endocrine glands and
Neurosecretory cells

 The endocrine system

 Consists of all hormone-secreting cells
D. IMMUNE SYSTEM The acquired immune response counters specific
 INNATE IMMUNITY – Set of inborn, invaders
fixed general defenses against infection
 Our immune system – responds to foreign
 ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY – Set of immune
molecules called antigens
defenses tailored to specific pathogens
 The acquired immune system
encountered by an organism during its
lifetime  reacts to antigens
 and “remembers” an invader
Both invertebrates and vertebrates have innate  Infection or vaccination triggers active
defenses against infection immunity
 We can temporarily acquire passive
 Innate defenses—first line of defense
immunity by receiving premade antibodies
 Found in all animals
 Includes
 Skin
 Mucous membranes
 Phagocytic cells
 Antimicrobial proteins

 Both sexes in humans have
 A set of gonads where gametes are
 Ducts for gamete transport
 Structures for copulation
Reproductive anatomy of the human female Reproductive anatomy of the human male

 Testes (singular testis) produce sperm and

male hormones
 Epididymis stores sperm as they develop
 Several glands contribute to semen are
Seminal vesicles, Prostate, and