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MMUP Engineers Registration


Exam Preparation Course

Project Management Fundamentals

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The Agenda
 Project: What & Why
 Project Management: What & Why
 Project Management Context
 Project Phases
 Project Life Cycle
 Project Stake Holders
 Organizational Structures & Influence on Projects
 Lessons Learned
 Project Life cycle, Product Life Cycle
 Stake Holder
 Stakeholder management
 Organizational structure
 Matrix >> Strong, Weak, Balanced
 Functional Organization
 Projectized
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What is a project?
A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to
create a unique product, service, or result.

• Temporary
 has a definite beginning and a definite end, not ongoing
efforts.
 Ceases when objectives have been attained.
 Team disbanded upon completion.

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Why project?
 Projects are implemented to achieve Organization
Strategic Plan. Operations are ongoing and repetitive to
sustain the business.

 Projects are means to Organizational requests that


cannot be achieved by normal operations.

 Projects emerge due to:


 Market demands,

 Organizational Needs,

 Customer Request,

 Technological advancement,

 Legal Requirements.
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What is Project Management?

Skills

Knowledge Techniques

Project Activities

Project Requirements
Project management is the application of knowledge, skills,
tools and technique to project activities to meet project
requirements.
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Advantages of Using Formal Project Management
Better control of financial, physical, and human resources

Improved customer relations

Shorter development times


Lower costs
Higher quality and increased reliability
Higher profit margins
Improved productivity
Better internal coordination
Higher worker morale (less stress)
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Triple Constraints
Triple constraints are scope,
time and cost in managing
competing project requirements.
Project quality is affected by
balancing these three factors.

Changing any one factor will also change at least one other factor…

For example, shortening the Schedule will likely increase cost or reduce
scope/quality
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Project Management Context

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Portfolios and Portfolio Management
Portfolio - A collection of
projects, programs, sub-portfolios
and operations managed as a
Portfolio Management group to achieve strategic benefits

Program - A structured
grouping of related projects
Program Management
designed to produce clearly
identified business value

Project Management Project – A structured set of


activities undertaken to deliver
a defined capability based on an
agreed schedule and budget

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Programs and Program Management
 A Program is a group of related projects.
 Management is coordinated because:
 they may use the same resources,
 the results of one project feed into another, or
 they are parts of a larger "project that has been broken
down to smaller projects".
 ADVANTAGES
 Decreased risk
 Economies of Scale
 Improved Management

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Project Management Office (PMO)
 An organizational entity
that centralizes and
coordinates the
management of projects.
 Responsibility of a PMO
can range from providing
project management
support functions to
actually being
responsible for the direct
management of a project.

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Functions of a PMO
• A PMO performs a number of functions, for example:
 Managing shared resources across projects.
 Project Management Process/Methodology: Develop and
implement a consistent and standardized processes.
 Coaching, mentoring, training and oversight.
 Developing and managing project policies, procedures,
templates and other shared documentation (Organizational
Process Assets).
 Monitoring compliance with PM standards, policies,
procedures and templates.
 Project management software tools: Select and maintain
project management tools for use by employees. Also
manage the Project Management Knowledge base.

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The Project Life Cycle
 All projects are divided into phases, and all projects,
large or small, have a similar life cycle structure.
 At a minimum, project will have a beginning or initiation
phase, an intermediate phase or phases, and an ending
phase.
 All the collective phases, the project progresses
through in concert are called the project life cycle.

Construction: Feasibility > Planning > Design > Production > Turnover > Startup
IT Project: Requirement > Design > Program > Test > Implement

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Project Management Lifecycle
Starting the Project  Organizing and Preparing  Carrying Out The Work  Closing the Project

Initiating Planning Execution and Control Closing

INITIATING
G

COST AND EFFORT


PLAN
SIN
CLO

NIN
G
CO

N G
TI
N
TR

CU
O

X E
LL

E
IN

Project Charter Project Management Project Delivery


G

Project Closed
Plan Acceptance

TIME

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Typical Construction Life Cycle
Full Operation
100%
Installation
Substantially
complete
Percentage Complete

Major
Contracts
Let

Project
“GO”
decision

Feasibility Planning & Production Turnover and


Designing Start-up
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Project Stakeholders
 A stakeholder is someone whose interest may be
positively or negatively impacted by the project.
 Key stakeholders
 The project manager
 Customer
 Performing organization
 Project Team
 Project Management Team
 Sponsor
 Influencers
 The Project Management Office

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What is the Role of a Project Manager?

• Definition:
“The Project Manager is the person
assigned by the performing organization
to lead the team that is responsible for
achieving the project objectives.”

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Project Manager Responsibilities & Competencies
 Project Managers accomplish work through the project
team and key stakeholders
 Successful Project Managers balance knowledge,
experience, ethics and a number of interpersonal skills:

• Leadership • Political and Culture


• Team Building Awareness
• Negotiation
• Motivation
• Trust Building
• Communication • Conflict Management
• Influencing • Coaching
• Decision Making • Leading Without Direct
Authority

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Project Teams
 Project Teams
 The Project Team typically includes the project manager and the
group of individuals who act together in performing the work of the
project to achieve its objectives
 Traditional Project Team Roles:
 Project Management Staff

 Project Manager, Project Coordinator, PMO Staff, etc.

 Project Staff

 Tactical resources who identify and execute upon the tasks to


be completed
 Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)

 Finance, Legal, HR, etc.

 Business Partners

 Line of business managers or individual contributors

 Project team members can either be “dedicated” or “shared” to the


Project
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Forms of Organization
 PMI talks about five types of organizational structure, based
upon project manager’s level of authority.
 Organizational structure can be characterized as scanning a
spectrum from functional to projectized as follows:
 Functional Organization .
 Weak, balanced and strong Matrix Organization.

 Projectized Organization.

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Functional Organization

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Projectized Organization

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Weak Matrix Organization

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Balanced Matrix Organization

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Strong Matrix

Strong Matrix – Key Point


Power rests with the Project Manager
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Organizational Process Assets
Include any or all process related assets from any or
all of the organizations involved in the project that
can be used to influence the project’s success.

Organizational Process Assets

Completed Schedules ,
Processes and Procedures
risk data , & earned value data

Corporate Knowledge Base

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Lessons Learned (Postmortem)

what was done right, what was done wrong

The lessons learned


document
includes…

Causes of the issues the


what would be done
project has faced and
differently if the project
the reasoning behind the
could be redone
changes implemented
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Lessons Learned (Postmortem)
Lessons learned from similar projects are collected and
reviewed before starting the work on a new project
Why make the same mistakes or face the same
problems others faced?
Why not benefit from the other’s experience?
If you are going in to company database and see data
for all projects your company has worked on. How
valuable would that be for developing a project plan for
new project?

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Project Framework Management Questions

Q 1: Which of the following is not the feature of a


project?
1. Constrained by limited resources
2. Planned, executed and controlled
3. Creates unique product or service
4. May be ongoing and repetitive

Answer 4:
A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique
product, services or result. Temporary means that every project
has definite beginning and definite end.
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Q2: Project Managers have least power in which
organization structure?
1. Matrix
2. Functional
3. Projectized
4. Balanced

Answer 2:
In classic functional organization each employee has one clear
superior. Staff members are grouped by specialty such as
production, marketing, engineering. Functional organizations still
have projects but the perceived scope of the project is limited
to the boundaries of the function.
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Project Management Processes
 In 1999 Plan-do-check-act cycle was defined by
Shewhart and modified by Deming.

Initiating = Start the cycle


Planning = Plan
Executing = Do
Monitoring & Controlling = Check and Act
Closing = Ends the Cycle
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Project Management Process Groups …Key feature
Commitment to Approach to
executing project executing project

Initiating Planning
Processes Processes Coordinating
people and other
resources

Controlling Executing
Processes Processes

Monitoring, measuring, and


taking corrective action Closing
Formal product
Processes
acceptance and
end of project
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Project Management Process…Outputs
 Project Management Plan
 Scope, time, cost & other
Project Charter management plans
(Brief)  Scope Baseline
 Schedule Baseline
Initiating Planning  Cost Baseline
Processes Processes  Risk register

Product
 Status Reports Deliverables
 Progress Report Controlling Executing Change
 Quality Report Processes Processes Request
 Change Management Issues
 Issue Management
Closing Testing
Processes
 Product, Process & Vendor Evaluations Process
 Acceptance Documents
Ongoing Cross
Project Improvements
 Legal Contract & Budget Closure
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Improvement©2010-2018 All Rights Reserved
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Project Management Framework
10 Knowledge Areas

core functions

Stakeholder
Management

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Project Scope Management
Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the productsof the
project and the processesused to create them

 Product scope
 The features and functionsthat are to be included in your
products or service or result of the project.
 Completion is measured against the requirements.
 Project Scope
 The work that must be done to deliver the product scope or
product of the project.
 Completion is measured against the plan.
To ensure a successful project, both product and project
scope must be well integrated.
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Project Scope Management
Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the
project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to successfully
complete the project.

Managing the project scope is primarily concerned with defining and controlling
what is and is not included in the project.
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Defining & Controlling Scope
Scope definition is primarily concerned with, what is and
is not included in the project.

Define Scope is the process of developing a detailed


description of the project and the product.

The results, or output, is the project scope statement


which is used to manage and measure project
performance.

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Project Scope Statement
 Product scope description: Progressively elaborates the characteristics of
the product, service, or result described in the project charter and
requirements documentation.
 Deliverables: Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to
perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process,
phase, or project. Deliverables also include ancillary results, such as
project management reports and documentation. These deliverables may
be described at a summary level or in great detail.
 Acceptance criteria: A set of conditions that is required to be met before
deliverables are accepted.
 Project exclusions: Identifies what is excluded from the project. Explicitly
stating what is out of scope for the project helps manage stakeholders'
expectations and can reduce scope creep.

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Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Create WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and
project work into smaller, more manageable components.

The Work Breakdown will smooth the way for estimating project
cost, time, schedule resources, and determining quality control
later in the planning process.

Project progress will be based on the estimates and


measurements assigned to the WBS segments.

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Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Networking
Scheduling
Measurement Costing

WBS Risk
Control
Analysis

Organizational
Staffing
Structure

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Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

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Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

It’s one of the most important project management tools.

It serves as the foundation for planning, estimating and project


control.

It serves as a deterrent to scope change.


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Scope Baseline
Project Scope statement +WBS+WBS Dictionary
The approved version of a scope statement, work
breakdown structure (WBS), and Its associated WBS
dictionary, which is used as a basis for comparison,

A baseline can be changed only for the approved


changes by change control board

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Control Scope
 Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status of the project
and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.
 Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and
degree of variance relative to the scope baseline and deciding whether
corrective and preventive action is required.
 Variance analysis: Is used to compare the baseline to the actual results and
determine if the variance is within the threshold amount or if corrective or
preventive action is appropriate.
 Trend analysis: examines project performance over time to determine if
performance is improving or deteriorating.

The uncontrolled expansion to product or project


scope without adjustments to time, cost, and
resources. is referred to as -scope creep.
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Validate Scope
 Validate Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance
of the completed project deliverables.
 It happens at the end of each project phase - or as major
deliverables are created.
 This process is performed periodically throughout the
project as needed.

Validate Scope is concerned with the concerned with acceptance


of the deliverables.
Quality Control, is concerned with the
1. correctness of the deliverables
2. Meeting the quality requirements specified for the deliverables
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Validate Scope
Inspection:
 Inspection includes activities such as measuring,
examining, and validating to determine whether work
and deliverables meet requirements and product
acceptance criteria.
 Inspections are sometimes called reviews, product
reviews, and walkthroughs.
Accepted Deliverables:
 Deliverables that meet the acceptance criteria are formally
signed off and approved by the customer or sponsor.

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Importance of Project Schedules
Managers often cite delivering projects on
time as one of their biggest challenges.

Time has the least amount of flexibility;


it passes no matter what happens on a
project.

Schedule issues are the main reason for


conflicts on projects, especially during the
second half of projects.
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Time Management… critical elements to learn
 Activity List
 Network Diagram >> Arrow diagraming and Precedence
Diagramming method (PDM)
 Dependencies - Mandatory, Discretionary, External
 Schedule Baseline
 Schedule Compression - Crashing & Fast Tracking
 Critical Path – How to calculate and reduce it
 Float (slack) – Free Float, Total Float & Project Float
 Three point estimate
 Resource Levelling
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Define Activities

Define Activities is the process of identifying


and documenting the specific actions to be
performed to produce the project deliverables.

The activity list is a further definition of the


project scope since it includes only those
actions needed to complete the project scope.

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Define Activities…Tools & Techniques
Decomposition: Decomposing the Project Work Packages
Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and
subdividing the project scope and project deliverables
into smaller, more manageable parts.

What is the difference between decomposing the


project deliverables and the project work?
WBS describes the The activity list defines
components of the the actions to create the
deliverables deliverables

Typically, the project manager and the project team


work together to decompose the work package. In
some instances, its ideal to use expert judgment to
help with the decomposition.

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Define Activities…Tools & Techniques
Rolling wave planning:
 Rolling wave planning is an iterative planning technique in which the
work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while
work further in the future is planned at a higher level.

 It is a form of progressive elaboration applicable to work packages,


planning packages, and release planning when using an agile or
waterfall approach.

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Define Activities…Outputs
Activity List:
 An activity list is a tabulation of activities to be included
on a project schedule that includes:
 The activity name
 An activity identifier or number
 A brief description scope of work for each activity
 The primary output of decomposing the work is the
activity list, which is a description of each activity in
sufficient detail to ensure that project team members
understand what work is required to be completed.

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Define Activities…Outputs
Milestone List:
 A milestone is a significant point or event in a project.
 A milestone list identifies all project milestones and
indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as
those required by contract, or optional, such as those
based on historical information.
 Milestones have zero duration because they represent a
significant point or event.
 Milestones are useful tools for setting schedule goals and
monitoring progress.

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Sequence Activities

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How Network Diagram helps you?
It helps to justify your time estimate for the
project.

Shows interdependencies of all activities.

Shows workflow so the team will know what


activities need to happen in a specific sequence.

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What is a Network Diagram?
A network diagram is a schematic display of the
logical relationships among, or sequencing of,
project activities.

Two main formats are the Arrow and


Precedence diagramming methods.

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Create Network Diagram

Like PERT and CPM

Pert use 3 time estimate .


ED=(P+O+4M)/6

CPM Use 1 time estimate.

Like Precedence
Diagramming Method

Required 4 Relations
FS/SS/FF/SF

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Sequence Activities…Tools & Techniques
 Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
 ADM is a method of constructing a project schedule
network diagram that uses arrows to represent activities
and connects them at nodes to show their dependencies.
 This technique is also called activity-on-arrow (AOA) and,
although less prevalent than Precedence Diagramming
Method PDM, it is still used in teaching schedule network
theory and in some application areas.
 ADM uses only finish-to-start dependencies and can
require the use of (dummy) relationships called dummy
activities, which are shown as dashed lines, to define all
logical relationships correctly. Since dummy activities are
not actual schedule activities, they are given a zero value
duration.
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Sequence Activities…Tools & Techniques
 Arrow Diagramming
B
Method (ADM): 4
 This method of A G
3 2
constructing a project C D
network diagram is also 5 1

called … E
F
Activity-on-Arrow
4
3 ADM
(AOA) and, although
less prevalent than Rule: Only one connecting
PDM, is still the arrow between nodes.
technique of choice in The dummy ensures correct
some application areas precedent relationships.
Dummies have 0 effort.
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Sequence Activities…Tools & Techniques
1. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)

A B C

Start D E Finish

 This is a method of constructing a project network


diagram.
 This technique is also called activity-on-node (AON).
 It is the method used by most project management
software packages.
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Four Task Dependency Types

See
Following
pages>>>

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Sequence Activities…Tools & Techniques
Dependency Determination and Integration:
 Mandatory Dependencies: These dependencies are the
natural order of activity.
 Example: You can’t begin building your house until your foundation
is in place. These relationships are also called hard logic.
 Discretionary dependencies: These dependencies are
the preferred order of activities. It is defined by the
project management team.
 Example: A painting project typically allows the primer and the
paint to be applied within hours of each other. Due to the expected
high humidity during the project, however, all of the building will be
completely primed before the paint can be applied.
 These relationship are also known as soft logic, preferred logic,
or preferential logic.

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Dependency Determination .... Continues
 External dependencies: As its name implies, these are
dependencies outside of the project’s control.
 Example: The delivery of equipment from a vendor, the deliverable
of another project, or the decision of a committee, lawsuit, or
expected new law.
Internal dependencies: Internal dependencies involve a
precedence relationship between project activities and
are generally inside the project-team's control.
 For example; if the team cannot test a machine until they
assemble it, this is an internal mandatory dependency. The
project management team determines which dependencies are
internal during the process of sequencing the activities.

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Sequence Activities…Tools & techniques
Leads and Lags
A (DU=4) FINISH-TO-START (FS) (conventional) activity A
must finish before B can start
B(DU=3)
FS 0

FINISH-TO-START (FS + 3wks lag). Activity A


A (DU=4) must finish 3 weeks before B can start
The start of activity B lags the finish of A by 3 weeks
B(DU=3) The finish of A leads the start of B by 3 weeks
FS+3

A (DU=4) FINISH-TO-START (FS - 3wks lag). Activity B


can start 3 weeks prior to the finish of A.
FS-3
B(DU=3) The start of activity B leads the projected finish of A by 3 weeks
The finish of A lags the start of by B by 3 weeks

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Network Diagram…showing activity sequencing

A B C

Start D E Finish

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Estimating - Things to know
Padding is not an acceptable project management
practice.

Estimating must be kept realistic through the life of the project by re-
estimating and reviewing them periodically.

The project manager has a professional responsibility to provide


estimates that are as accurate as feasible and to maintain the
integrity of those estimates throughout the life of the project.

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Estimate Activity Durations
 The Activity Duration Estimating process attempts to
estimate the work effort, resources, and number of work
periods needed to complete each schedule activity.

 People doing the work should help create estimates,


and an expert should review them.

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Padding
 In real word you often hear from the team member the
following
I have no idea how long
it will take .
I do not even know what
I am being asked to do.
So what I do I say?
This is an example of padding. I will take my best
 Padding is a unprofessional guess and double it!

 A pad is extra time or cost added to an estimate because


the estimator does not have enough information.

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Estimation Accuracy
 The classes of estimates their accuracy % are as follows:
• Rough Order or Magnitude (ROM) (-50% to +100%)
• Order of Magnitude (-25% to +75%)
• Budgetary (-10% to +25%)
• Definitive (-05% to +10%)

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Estimate Activity Durations… Tools & Tech
Heuristics:
A heuristic mean a rule of thumb.
Example of heuristic is the 80/20 rule.
 This rule is applied to quality suggests that 80 percent of
quality problems are caused by 20 percent of potential
sources of problems.
 A schedule heuristic might be - Design work is always 15
percent of the total project length.

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Estimate Activity Durations… Tools & Tech
Three-Point Estimating:
Three-point estimates are based on determining three types of
estimates:
 Most likely. The duration of the schedule activity, given the
resources likely to be assigned, their productivity, realistic
expectations of availability for the schedule activity,
dependencies on other participants, and interruptions.
 Optimistic. The activity duration is based on a best case
scenario of what is described in the most likely estimate.
 Pessimistic. The activity duration is based on a worst-case
scenario of what is described in the most likely estimate.
 More accurate activity duration estimate is often obtained by
using an average of the three estimated durations.
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PERT Calculations
 The Optimistic Time (a):
Is the minimum time an activity
could take (the situation, where
every thing does well).

 The Mostly Likely Time (m):


Is the normal time to complete
the Job. It is the time would
occur most frequently if activity
could be repeated.

 The Pessimistic Time (b):Is


the maximum time an activity
could take (the situation, where Activity variance = [(b-a)/6]2
Variance = standard deviation squared
bad luck is encountered at every
step) Need to do exercise to clear with this concept
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Estimate Activity Durations… Outputs
Activity Duration Estimates:
 Shows how long each work package will take to complete. It
should include the range of variance.
 For example: 2 weeks +_ 2 days to indicate that the activity
will take at least 8 days and no more than 12 days.

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Schedule Development
 The difference between a time estimate and a schedule
is that the schedule is calendar based.
 The Schedule Development process means everything
you need to do to develop a finalized schedule that is
bought in to, approved, realistic and formal.

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Schedule Development…Tools & Techniques
Critical Path method:

Critical Path
The critical path is the longest duration path
through a network diagram and determine the
shortest time to complete the project.

Let us do one example in this session.

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Schedule Development…Tools & Techniques
 How the Critical Path helps the project manager?
 Helps prove how long the project will take
 Helps the project manager determine where to focus
his/her project management efforts
 Provide vehicle to compress the schedule during the
project planning
 Provides vehicle to determine which activities have
float and can therefore be delayed without delaying the
project

TIP: The easiest way to find the critical path is to identify all
paths through the network diagram and add the activity
durations along each path. The path with the longest duration is
the critical path.
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Schedule Development …Tools & Techniques
 Float (slack)
Project managers should be familiar with the concept of float.
 Total float (slack): Total float is the amount of time an
activity can be delayed without delaying the project end date
This is the key type of float.

 Free float (slack): This is the amount of time an activity can


be delayed without delaying the early start of its successor
(s).

 Project float (slack): Project float is the amount of time a


project can be delayed without delaying the externally
imposed project completion date required by the customer or
management.
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Schedule Development …Tools & Techniques
 Float (slack)
 Activities on the critical path almost always have zero float.
 Critical path activities that are delayed can result in negative
float.
 Float is an asset and extremely useful for a project manager
and project managers can use float as a way to focus
management of a project by resource balancing.

Example: if you have resource who is not experienced,


you can assign him to a activity with the most float, this
gives you some level of security and even if this activity
taken longer than expected, the project will not be
delayed

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Schedule Development …Tools & Techniques
 Float (slack)

 Float can be calculated as follows

Float = Late start – Early start or Late finish- Early finish


Example: You have a late start of 30, early start of 18 and late
finish of 34, what is the float? 30-18=12

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Schedule Development …Tools & Techniques
 Test your knowledge!
 Can there be more than one critical path?
Yes, you can have two, three or more critical paths.
 Do you want to be there?
No, it increases risk.
 How much float does the critical path have?
Generally the critical path should have zero float.
 Can there be negative float?
 Yes, it shows you are behind.
 Would you leave the project with a negative float?

No, you would compress, otherwise it increases risk.


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Schedule Compression
 Duration compression is a mathematical approach to
calculating ways the project can be done sooner than expected.
 Crashing – This involves making cost and schedule
trade offs to determine how to compress the schedule
the most for the least incremental cost, while
maintaining project scope.
 This approach adds more resources to activities on the
critical path to complete the project earlier. Crashing by
definition always results in increased cost.
 Example: Increase in labor cost due to Working in
Weekends.
 The project manager must also consider the expenses
in relation to the gains of completing on time.

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Schedule Compression
 Fast Tracking
With fast tracking, activities that would normally be done in
sequence are allowed to be done in parallel or with some
overlap.

Exam focus: In crashing or fast tracking, select the choice


or choices that have least negative impact on the project.

Question: If you have negative project float, would your first


choice be to tell the customer the date could not be met and
to ask for more time?
No, the first choice would be to analyze what could be done
about the negative float by compressing the schedule.

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Crashing Vs Fast Tracking

Crashing Fast tracking


- Increase The Project cost - Increase The Project Risk

- Can Change Critical Path - Can Change Critical Path

- Can be done by increase Resources - Can be done by changing the


in Critical Activities relation of activities
- Obtain the greatest amount of - Changing the relation from FS
compression for the least (finish to start) to SS (start to
incremental cost start) with proper Lag.

- Consider Law of Diminishing of - Fast tracking can result in rework


return
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Resource Optimization Techniques
 Resource leveling – also called the resource-based
method or resource limited schedule – is used when
resources are limited or time constrained and when
specific schedule dates need to be met.
 One of the most common methods is to ensure that
workers are not overextended on activities. This method
often extends the project end date.
 Another method for resource leveling is to take resources
off of non critical path activities and apply them to
critical-path activities to ensure the project end date is
met.

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Schedule development…Outputs
Project Schedule:
 The Project Schedule will detail the start and finish date
as well as the resource assignments for each activity.
 The project schedule should be approved and signed off
by stakeholders and functional managers.
 This assures that they have read the schedule, understand
the dates and resource commitments, and will likely
cooperate.
 The schedule can be displayed in a variety of ways:
 Project Schedule Network Diagram
 Gantt Charts/ Bar Charts
 Milestone Charts See following slides>>>
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Project Schedule Network Diagram

 To show interdependencies between activities


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Gantt Chart / Bar chart for Project X

 It is a weak planning tool, but they are effective tools for progress
reporting/ track progress and control.
 Bar Charts are not project management plans

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Milestone Chart

These are similar to bar charts, but they are only show major events.
Milestones have no duration; they are simply the completion of
activities.
Milestone charts are good tools for reporting to management and the
customer.
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Schedule Development …Outputs
Schedule Baseline:
 A schedule baseline is a specific version of the project
schedule developed from the schedule network analysis
having start and finish date.
 It is accepted and approved by the project management
team.
 The schedule baseline is a component of the project
management plan.
 Remember that schedule baseline can only be changed by
formally approved changes.
 Meeting the schedule baseline is one of the measures of project
success.
90
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Control Schedule…Tools & Techniques
Performance Reviews:
 Performance reviews measure, compare, and analyze
schedule performance such as actual start and finish
dates, percent complete, and the remaining duration for
the work in progress.
 If Earned Value Technique (EVT) is utilized the SV (Scope
Value) and the SPI (Schedule Performance Index) are
used to assess the magnitude of schedule variations.
 Other techniques such as Trend Analysis, critical path
method, critical chain method also being utilized.
 An important part of schedule control is to decide if the
schedule variations require corrective actions.
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Q1: Since you are in the preliminary stages of your project,
you estimate that your project will most probably last 1
year. However, optimistic scenario is that it will get
over within 6 months and pessimistic scenario is 18
months. This kind of estimate is also called:
1. Defensive
2. Capital Cost
3. Order of Magnitude
4. Feasibility
Answer is 3:
The classes of estimates their accuracy % are as follows:
• Rough Order or Magnitude (ROM) (-50% to +100%)
• Order of Magnitude (-25% to +75%)
• Budgetary (-10% to +25%)
• Definitive (-05% to +10%)
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Q2: The difference of a milestone chart as compared
with a bar chart when making presentation to top
management is that unlike bar charts, milestones:
1. Show activity start and end dates.
2. Show dependencies among tasks.
3. Only identify the scheduled start or completion of a
major deliverables, and not all the tasks.
4. Show supporting details.

Answer is 3:
Milestones charts as shown are similar to bar charts, but only
identify the scheduled start or completion of major
deliverables and key external interfaces.

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Q3: In schedule development, mathematical analysis
often produces a preliminary early-start schedule
that shows peaks and valleys in the resource
requirements. Resource Leveling done to take care of
this issue may result in all the following except:
1. Increase in project duration
2. Utilization of weekends, extended hours or multiple shifts
3. Productivity increases by using different technologies
and/or methodologies.
4. Reduction in project cost
Answer is 4:
As different techniques like crashing, fast tracking, resource
reallocating etc. are being considered for Resource Leveling,
there is a real potential for the costs to increase.
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Q4: Float is the amount of time an activity can be
delayed without delaying the project finish date. It
can also be called:
1. Slack
2. Free Float
3. Path Float
4. None of the above

Answer is 1:
Float : also called Slack.

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Q5: You got news that because of bad weather, your
shipment has got delayed by 2 weeks. What should
be the first step that you take.
1. Fast Track the project to ensure that the project schedule is
not delayed.
2. Review the performance reports to determine which planned
dates have not been met, and the impact on critical path.
3. Try to get additional supplies from an alternative location as
soon as possible.
4. Take corrective action to minimize the impact because of the
delay.
Answer is 2:
Performance report provide information on schedule performance, such as
which planned dates have been met and which have not. Since performance
reports are used to track project execution, they should be consulted first
when there is delay in the project to determine the potential impacts.
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Q6: If the number of critical path in the project
increases, but the duration of the project remains
same, what is the impact on the project?
1. Crashing will be required to complete project on time.
2. Fast tracking will be required to complete project on
time.
3. Risk of the project increases.
4. None of the above.

Answer is 3:
If the number of critical paths increases for the project, delay in
any one of the critical paths has the potential for delaying the
project. So, the risk of the project (in meeting the project schedule)
increases.
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Q7: All the following are benefits of fast tracking a
project EXCEPT.

1. Facilities Duration Compression


2. Reduces Risk
3. Ensure activities are done in parallel which would
be done in sequence
4. Helps shorten the project schedule without
changing the project scope

Answer is 2:
Fast Tracking can result in rework and increased risk.
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Arrow Diagramming Method Example
Arrow diagramming method (ADM) is a network diagramming technique in which
activities are represented by arrows. ADM is also known as the Activity-On-Arrow (AOA)
method. It has been used long time to determine the critical path and identify resource
problems and feasible solutions when the approximate duration and resource
requirement of all the activities of network diagram are known.

There are two main elements of the Arrow Diagramming Method(ADM) which are arrows
and nodes. One arrow represents one activity to be performed.
The tail of the arrow is the start of the activity, the head of the arrow is the end of the activity
and the length of the arrow is the duration of the activity.

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Arrow Diagramming Method Example
In the forward pass, we calculate the Start Dates of all the nodes. In the backward pass,
the end node’s Start Date will be its Finish Date and the backward pass proceeds by
subtracting the durations of the activities leading to the end node from the end node’s
Finish Date to arrive at the Finish Dates for the preceding nodes.
The following example shows a simple Activity on Arrow Diagram.

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Arrow Diagramming Method Example

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Arrow Diagramming Method Example
Step 2 : Backward Pass Calculation

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Arrow Diagramming Method Example
Step 3 : Float Calculation for Each Activity

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Arrow Diagramming Method Example
Step 4 : Identifying the critical path

The critical path is the longest path in the network diagram and total float of critical
path is zero. As shown in the schema above, critical path is marked red.

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Q8: Find the total float of activity D for the project
A. 1
B. 3
C. 9
D. 2

A (12) END
E (9)
START H (6)

F (12)

Answer is :
Forward pass determines ES & EF and backward pass
determines LS & LF.
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Q9: Activity on arrow diagram is shown below. Find the
duration of the project
A. 32 Days
B. 35 days
C. 26 Days
D. 40 Days
START
A (12) E (9)
H (6)
END

F (12)

Answer is :
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Q10: The forward pass in project network calculations
determines the

A. A earliest times an activity can begin


B. Earliest times an activity can be finished
C. The longest time that the project can take
D. Critical path of the project
E. Only A&B are correct
F. A,B and C are all correct

Answer is E:
Forward pass determines ES & EF and backward pass
determines LS & LF.
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Q11: TQM stands for:
A. Tool Quality Management
B. Test Quality Manager
C. Total Quality Management
D. Total Quality Manager

Answer is C:

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Q12: All of the followings are true about work
packages except:

A. Need resources to complete


B. Assigned a task or work package manager
C. Have medium to long duration for each activity
D. Definitive start and stop dates
E. All of the above are true

Answer is C

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Q13: If specification is in conflict with a note on the
drawings, which statement is correct?

A. Details take precedence over notes


B. Details take precedence over drawings
C. Specifications take precedence over drawings
D. Drawing notes take precedence over
specifications

Answer is C

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Q14: The advantages of design and build contractual
arrangement is

A. A reduced project duration


B. Known project cost before construction
C. Non adversary relationships among participants
D. All of the above

Answer is D

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Q15: Ashgal is

A. The Ministry of Public Works


B. The Ministry of Justice
C. The Ministry of Electricity and water
D. The Ministry of municipality and planning
E. None of the above

Answer is A

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Q16: While working on the final stages of job, you
notice that a small clause of contract has been
violated accidentally. What should you do?
A. Tell the client about the discrepancy and ask
him/her/them what to do
B. Look for a loophole in the contract that would
enable you to avoid re-doing the work
C. Don’t worry about it; let your boss or client to
worry about it later. If it is important, they will
address the subject
D. Fire the person who caused the contract
violation
Answer is A
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Q17: The following table shows the activities, durations, and their
dependency for a construction project. Select the critical path
from the following
Activity Duration Dependency A. Start-A-E-H-Finish
Start 0 None B. Start-C-E-H-Finish
A 3 Start C. Start-B-D-I- Finish
B 4 Start D. Start-B-D-G-finish

C 2 Start
D 2 B
E 5 A,C
F 1 B
G 6 D,F
H 11 E
I 8 D,F
Answer is A
Finish 0 G,H,I

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Q18: Variance from project specifications is called
A. Report
B. Requirement
C. Defect

Answer is C

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Q19: Splitting project to tasks and estimate time and
resources required to complete each task is called

A. Project scheduling
B. Project
Optimization
C. Project Control

Answer is A

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Q20: which one of the engineering characteristics can
best explain the following concept? Base your
decision on reason rather than making assumptions

A. Quantitative
thinking
B. Interpersonal skill
C. Honesty
D. Logical thinking

Answer is D

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Q21: Inspections are also called
A. A product review
B. Audits
C. Walkthroughs
D. Al answers are true

Answer is D

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Q22: Which one of the following represent an activity

A. Concreting for foundation


B. Curing of concrete
C. Setting up question paper
D. All answers are true

Answer is D

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Q23: In the activity on arrow network with durations
shown, based on end of day calculations for starts
and finishes. The early start of activity N is most
nearly
D (8)
A. 16
B. 21
C. 23 START
B (6) F (4) J (8) L (3) N (2)
D. 24

H (7)

Answer is

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Q24: Before development of any site, construction
companies work on site set up to ensure

A. Accessibility (during construction and after)


and storage (construction equipment &
materials)
B. Services (water, electricity, drainage)
C. Safety and security during construction
D. Statutory requirements
E. All the above

Answer is E

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Q25: which of the estimate listed would occur last in a
project time line?
A. Rough order of magnitude
B. Square foot estimate
C. Definitive estimate
D. Assemblies estimate

Answer is D

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Q28: Correct the following statements

A. PERT is activity oriented and adopts


deterministic approach
B. CPM is event oriented and adopts probabilistic
approach
C. PERT is event oriented and adopts probabilistic
approach
Which of the above statements are correct?

Answer is C

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Q29: Both architect and engineer make use of the cost
estimate of the project
A. For site selection
B. For designing of the project
C. For choosing alternatives
D. All answers are true

Answer is C

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Q30: The first step of scope definition is to:

A. Analyze the strategic plan


B. Analyze the current budget plan
C. Meet with team members
D. Select the team members
E. Define the major objectives to meet the
customer needs

Answer is E

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Q31: The sustainable development involves:

A. Reducing consumption, increasing efficiency and


using renewable energies
B. Larger buildings using stronger design and
materials
C. Developing better transportation by building
more roads Analyze the strategic plan
D. Using all resources at maximum rates
E. Searching for more deposits of fossil fuels

Answer is A

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Q32: Following successor relationships are available for
a project. Find the early start of activity E?

Activity Duration Successors


ID (Days)
A 6 B
B 12 C,D,E
C 6 D,F
D 12 E
E 11 F
F 4 B

Answer is
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Q33: Construction work should begin:

A. One week before the official permission from


local authority
B. After the official permission from the local
authority
C. One day before the official permission from
local authority

Answer is B
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Q34: What type of bond guarantees that if a
contractor goes broke on a project, the surety will
pay the necessary amount to complete the work

A. Bid Bond
B. Performance Bond
C. Advance payment guarantee Bond
D. Payment bond
E. Acceptance Bond

Answer is B
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Q35: A formal CPM analysis for a projects shows the
planned costs to date are $85,000 and the
accounting department reports charges to the job
of $95,000 to date is $70,000, the cost and
schedule status of the project are most nearly:
A. Ahead of schedule and over budget
B. Behind schedule and over budget
C. Ahead of schedule and under budget
D. Behind schedule and under budget

Answer is
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Q36: The process of identifying and evaluating
contractors for a bid list is called

A. Prequalification
B. Forecasting
C. Fast tracking
D. None of the above

Answer is A
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Q37: During which of the following categories, you are
more likely to find status reports, many changes,
and the creation of forecasts?
A. Concept
B. Initiation
C. Planning
D. Execution
E. Closure

Answer is D
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Q38: The highest element in the hierarchical break
down of the WBS is

A. Work package
B. Sub deliverables
C. Cost account
D. Major deliverables
E. The project

Answer is D
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Q39: Which of the following is least bothered as a
constraint to the project?

A. Time
B. People
C. Cost
D. Performance
E. Both B & D are not typical constraints

Answer is E
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Q40: Which of the following would not be classified as
an opportunity to do a project?

A. Increasing product demand


B. Lot of employees
C. Emerging markets
D. Favorable international exchange rates
E. None of these are organizational opportunities

Answer is B
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Q41: The term fast track means -----

A. Design/Build
B. Construction starts before the design is
complete
C. Cost plus fixed fee
D. None of the above

Answer is B
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Q42: Which of the following requires a change order?

A. Change in Owner’s scope of work


B. Significant change in sub surface conditions
C. Design Error or omission
D. All of the above

Answer is D
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Q43: Final as-built drawings are submitted to ------

A. Give the architect more work


B. Keep records for later maintenance
C. Prepare for later renovations or additions
Change in Owner’s scope of work
D. Both A&C

Answer is B
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Q44: which of the following characteristics is not
typical of a project manager?
A. Managing a temporary activity
B. Posses in depth technical knowledge
C. Managing a non-repetitive activity
D. Manages independently of the formal
organization
E. Provides a direct link to the customer

Answer is B
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Q45: The architect of a project visits the site and
notices a very low quality of works in the
application of gypsum board materials
A. Stop the work
B. Call the owner and inform him of this poor
quality of work
C. Tell the dry wall worker about his observations
D. Inform the general contractors superintendent
that the work has been rejected

Answer is A
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Q46: The immediate --------must be completed
before the next activity can start in the project
network
A. Critical activities
B. Burst activities
C. Predecessor activities
D. Successor activities
E. None of the above
F. All of the above

Answer is C
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Q47: What does a change order change?
1. The scope of project
2. The time of completion
3. The cost of project
4. The design of project
5. Any change in the work
Select one
A. 1 & 2
B. 2&3
C. 2,3 & 4
D. 5

Answer is D
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Q48: The municipality wishes to build an exhibition and
convention center. Which location is most
desirable?

A. Near an airport
B. Adjacent to public bus routes
C. Convenient to busy pedestrian routes
D. In a satellite location away from urban
core

Answer is B
Green International - India | Kuwait | Qatar www.greenintl.net ©2010-2018 All Rights Reserved
Q49: What is / are the most important components of
sustainability?

A. Economical
B. social
C. Environmental
D. All are equally important

Answer is D
Green International - India | Kuwait | Qatar www.greenintl.net ©2010-2018 All Rights Reserved
Q50: Which of the following choices is not one of the
stages of a project life cycle?

A. Concept
B. Initiation
C. Planning
D. Execution
E. Delivery/Closure

Answer is A
Green International - India | Kuwait | Qatar www.greenintl.net ©2010-2018 All Rights Reserved
Q51: The activity on node network shown below describes a
project consisting of 8 tasks A-H. Each node indicates
activity duration in weeks. All the relationships are finish to
start. The minimum time to complete the project is:

A. 15 Weeks
B. 16 Weeks
C. 17 weeks
D. 18 weeks
Answer is
Green International - India | Kuwait | Qatar www.greenintl.net ©2010-2018 All Rights Reserved
Q52: The critical path in a project network is the:

A. Shortest path through the network


B. Longest path through the network
C. Network path with most difficult
activities
D. Network path using the most resources
E. Network path with most merge activities
F. None of the above

Answer is B
Green International - India | Kuwait | Qatar www.greenintl.net ©2010-2018 All Rights Reserved
Q53: Of the following engineering disciplines, who would
be best suited to design and operate an automobile
factory
A. Petroleum Engineer
B. Mechanical Engineer
C. Civil Engineer
D. Chemical Engineer

Answer is B
Green International - India | Kuwait | Qatar www.greenintl.net ©2010-2018 All Rights Reserved
Q54: Of the following engineering disciplines, who would
be best suited to design and operate an automobile
factory
A. Petroleum Engineer
B. Mechanical Engineer
C. Civil Engineer
D. Chemical Engineer

Answer is B
Green International - India | Kuwait | Qatar www.greenintl.net ©2010-2018 All Rights Reserved
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