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Real-time implementation of neural optimal control and state estimation for a linear induction motor

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Neurocomputing

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/neucom

estimation for a linear induction motor

Victor G. Lopez a, Alma Y. Alanis b,n, Edgar N. Sanchez a, Jorge Rivera b

a

CINVESTAV, Unidad Guadalajara, Apartado Postal 31-438, Plaza La Luna, Guadalajara, Jalisco, C.P. 45091, Mexico

b

CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Apartado Postal 51-71, Col. Las Aguilas, C.P. 45080, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A reduced order state estimator based on recurrent high-order neural networks (RHONN) trained using

Received 23 April 2014 an extended Kalman ﬁlter (EKF) is designed for the magnetic ﬂuxes of a linear induction motor (LIM).

Received in revised form The proposed state estimator does not need the mathematical model of the plant. This state estimator is

20 August 2014

employed to obtain the unmeasurable state variables of the LIM in order to use a state feedback

Accepted 11 October 2014

nonlinear controller. A neural inverse optimal control is implemented to achieve trajectory tracking for a

Communicated by Xu Zhao

position reference. Real-time implementation results on a LIM prototype illustrate the applicability of

the proposed scheme.

Keywords: & 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Neural optimal control

Recurrent neural networks

Neural observers

Linear induction motor

Real-time implementation

Control Lyapunov function

based state estimators. In recent years, some of these neural state

Mostly nonlinear state-feedback controllers require system estimators have been implemented in real-time applications with

state complete accessibility, which is not always achievable; for successful results. In [12,13], neural state estimators are used to

this reason, nonlinear state estimation is an important topic. obtain the unmeasurable states of the system to be controlled;

Important applications for nonlinear state estimation are: deter- however, the exact parameters and the mathematical model are

ministic and stochastic control [1,2], system modeling [3], fault required. In [2,14], neural networks are employed to obtain the

diagnosis [4,5], and among others. There exists many results for uncertainties and some parameters of the system model, but not the

the design of nonlinear state estimators [6,7]; however, these system states directly; in these cases other parameters of the model

methods do not consider uncertainties [3]. Other studies have must also be known. In [15], a neural state estimator is implemented

offered results on the design of robust nonlinear state estimators which consists of a neural identiﬁer for the unknown nonlinear

[8,9], which still depend on the system model. For real-time model, and then a conventional Luenberger-like state estimator

applications, a state estimator-controller based on the model of estimates the system states. In [16] the neural network employed to

the system may not behave as desired because uncertainties estimate the system states is trained off-line; this approach has the

there are always internal and external disturbances, changing disadvantage of not being robust against parametric variations.

parameters and unmodeled dynamics. Neural networks have A different approach for a neural state estimator has been

been established as an appropriate methodology for nonlinear proposed in [11,17]. There, the state estimator is based on a

function approximation; then, they can be employed for non- recurrent high-order neural network (RHONN), which is a general-

linear system state estimation [10]. The neural network adapts its ization of the ﬁrst-order Hopﬁeld network [22]. A RHONN model is

synaptic weights in order to adjust its outputs to the system easy to implement, has relatively simple structure, is able to adjust

response [11]. its parameters on-line and allows to incorporate a priory informa-

tion about the system structure [23]. When the neural weights are

adapted, the RHONN model dynamics are very similar to the real

system dynamics, even in the presence of disturbances. Neither the

n

Corresponding author. exact mathematical model, nor the exact parameters, are needed to

E-mail address: almayalanis@gmail.com (A.Y. Alanis). implement a RHONN.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2014.10.031

0925-2312/& 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article as: V.G. Lopez, et al., Real-time implementation of neural optimal control and state estimation for a linear

induction motor, Neurocomputing (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2014.10.031i

2 V.G. Lopez et al. / Neurocomputing ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎

Neural networks can be trained by many different algorithms systems that are or can be written in the nonlinear block

[24]; however, most of these algorithms normally encounter controllable form; second, the stability proof on Lyapunov basis

technical problems such as local minima, slow learning and high for the proposed controller, then the use of a reduced order neural

sensitivity to initial conditions, among others [11]. The Extended observer to relax the full state measurement assumption. Finally

Kalman Filter (EKF) form the basis of a second-order neural the real-time implementation of the proposed inverse optimal

network training method [25], where the synaptic weights control scheme and the neural state estimator on a LIM prototype

become the states to be estimated. The EKF training algorithm in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, for a

provides a recursive optimal estimator for the neural weights. nonlinear system under internal and external disturbances which

Optimal control of nonlinear systems deals with obtaining a model, parameters and uncertainties are considered unknown and

control law for a given system such that a cost functional is with partial state measurements.

minimized [26], Dynamic programming, developed by Bellman In the following, Section 2 presents mathematical preliminaries

[27], is a solution for optimal control which leads to a nonlinear for the neural networks state estimation. Section 3 includes the

partial differential equation named as the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bell- inverse optimal control basis. In Section 4 the RHONN identiﬁer is

man (HJB) equation. Solving this equation is not straightforward: explained. Sections 5 describes the neural inverse optimal control

for systems of dimension higher than two there are no practical application for LIM. Section 6 presents the real-time implementa-

ways to solve such equation [28]. Inverse optimal control is an tion results and Section 7 exposes the respective conclusions.

alternative for optimal control synthesis which avoids the need to

solve the associated HJB equation [28,29]. For the inverse

approach, a stabilizing feedback control law, based on a priory 2. Neural networks state estimation

knowledge of a Control Lyapunov Function (CLF), is designed ﬁrst

and then it is established that this control law optimizes a cost Through this paper, subindex k is used as the sampling time,

functional. In this paper, we propose to integrate a reduced order with k A f0g [ Z þ .

RHONN state estimator and an inverse optimal control law based In this paper, we consider the discrete-time multiple-input

on a CLF for nonlinear systems. multiple-output nonlinear system

This mentioned control scheme is applied to a linear induction

χ k þ 1 ¼ Fðχ k ; uk Þ ð1Þ

motor (LIM). The LIM is a linear electric actuator on which the

electrical energy is turned into mechanical translational move- where χ k A R is the state of the system, uk A R

n m

is the control

ment; this is, a mobile element on the motor moves linearly with input and f ðχ k Þ : Rn -Rn is a smooth map.

respect to a stationary element [30]. Induction motors have been

widely studied and several control approaches have been applied

2.1. Recurrent high-order neural networks

to them [31–33]. LIMs present advantages with respect to other

types of motors. They develop magnetic forces directly between

For practical situations, the mathematical model of the system

the mobile element and the stationary element, without the need

to be controlled is usually unknown; then, a RHONN identiﬁer is

of physical contact between both elements, which would restrict

employed to obtain a neural model of the system, required for the

the system dynamics. Then, LIM can reach higher speed and

implementation of the control law. The discrete-time RHONN

reduces undesirables vibrations [30]. For these reasons the LIM

employed for identiﬁcation of a nonlinear system (1) is deﬁned as

has been employed widely in industrial applications such as steel,

textile, nuclear and space industries [34]. However, the most xi;k þ 1 ¼ wi ϕi ðxk ; uk Þ; i ¼ 1; …; n ð2Þ

extensive application for LIMs is for public transportation by

where xi is the state of the ith neuron, wi is the respective online

means of high speed trains. The idea of using linear motors for

adapted weight vector, n is the system state dimension and

mass public transportation is not new. However, the attention is

ϕi ðxk ; uk Þ is given by

focused on the LIM again due to recent developments of smart

2 3

grids. These are complex systems with unknown uncertainties and dij ð1Þ

2 3 6 ∏ yi 7

disturbances [35], which cause that the control synthesis can be 6 j A I1

j

7

ϕ i1 6 7

very difﬁcult to handle with traditional approaches, requiring the 6 7 6 d ð2Þ 7

6 ϕi 7 6 ∏ y i j 7

application of intelligent control ones [17]. 6 27 6 ij 7

ϕi ðxk ; uk Þ ¼ 6 ⋮ 7 ¼ 6 j A I2 7 ð3Þ

Control of Rotational Induction Motor (RIM) has been extensively 6 7 6 7

4 5 6 ⋮ 7

studied, which is not the case for LIM, even if driving principles of both ϕiL 6

6

7

di ðLi Þ 7

kind of motors are similar. However, recently different control

i

4 ∏ yi j 5

j

j A I Li

techniques have been developed for LIM. For instance in [18] an

adaptive backstepping-sliding mode controller is proposed, in [19] a with Li being the respective number of high-order connections,

fuzzy sliding-mode controller is implemented in a ﬁeld-programmable I 1 ; I 2 ; …; I Li is a collection of non-ordered subsets of dimension

gate array, and then in [20] a robust controller is proposed to relax 1; 2; …; n þ m, m is the number of external inputs, dij is a non-

disturbances requirements with the fusion of an integral-proportional negative integer and yi is deﬁned as follows:

position control and neural network to estimate disturbances. In [21] 2 3 2 3

is established a ﬁeld-oriented control scheme, considering the end yi1 Sðx1 Þ

6 ⋮ 7 6 7

effect. For those controllers the design is developed for continuous- 6 7 6 ⋮ 7

6 7 6 7

time and implemented experimentally for position trajectory tracking. 6 yi 7 6 Sðxn Þ 7

6 n 7 6 7

Although, those controllers are robust to uncertainties, they require yi ¼ 6 7 ¼6 7 ð4Þ

6 yin þ 1 7 6 u1 7

previous knowledge of plant model and/or plant parameters at least 6 7 6 7

6 ⋮ 7 6 ⋮ 7

their nominal values. Besides, the progresses in digital equipment have 4 5 4 5

yin þ m um

attracted considerable efforts to the design of high performance

discrete-time controllers for continuous-time plants, which has not In (4), uk ¼ ½u1 ; …; um T is the input vector to the RHONN and

been studied deeply as the continuous-time ones [18–21]. SðÞ is deﬁned by

The main contributions of the paper are: ﬁrst a novel inverse

optimal neurocontroller with control gain matrix reduction for SðxÞ ¼ tanhðγ xÞ ð5Þ

Please cite this article as: V.G. Lopez, et al., Real-time implementation of neural optimal control and state estimation for a linear

induction motor, Neurocomputing (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2014.10.031i

V.G. Lopez et al. / Neurocomputing ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎ 3

with γ a positive constant. The neural weights updated by means and ϕj are deﬁned as in (3). The output estimation error is given by

of the EKF-based training algorithm are described by the following

ek ¼ yk y^ ð13Þ

equations:

wi;k þ 1 ¼ wi;k þ ηi K i;k ei;k ð6Þ and the state estimation error is deﬁned as

x~ k ¼ xk x^ ð14Þ

K i;k þ 1 ¼ P i;k H i;k M i;k ð7Þ

The neural state estimator deﬁned by Eq. (12), trained with the

P i;k þ 1 ¼ P i;k K i;k H Ti;k P i;k þ Q i ð8Þ EKF (6), ensures that the output estimation error (13) and the state

with estimation error (14) are semiglobally uniformly ultimately

h i1 bounded (SGUUB) [17]. For a detailed analysis, see [17].

M i;k ¼ Ri þ H Ti;k P i;k H i;k

ei;k ¼ χ i;k xi;k ð9Þ

3. Inverse optimal control

where wi is the ith weight vector, ei is the neural identiﬁcation

error, P i A RLi Li is the weight estimation error covariance matrix, Li

For the reminder of this paper, let us consider the following

is the respective number of neural network weights, χ A Rn is the

afﬁne discrete-time nonlinear system

plant vector state, x A Rn is the neural network output, K A RLi n is

the Kalman gain matrix, Q i A RLi Li is the neural network weight χ k þ 1 ¼ f ðχ k Þ þgðχ k Þuk ð15Þ

estimation noise covariance matrix, R A Rnn is the measurement

noise covariance, and H i A RLi n is a matrix of the derivatives of the where χ k A Rn is the state of the system, uk A Rm is the control

network outputs with respect to all trainable weights as follows: input and f ðχ k Þ : Rn -Rn and gðχ k Þ : Rn -Rnm are smooth maps.

Without loss of generality, system (15) is supposed to have an

∂xi;k T equilibrium point at χ k ¼ 0.

H i;k ¼ ð10Þ

∂wi;k An inverse optimal control is employed in order to achieve

trajectory tracking of a position reference. For the state feedback

As additional parameter, the rate learning ηi is introduced

control synthesis, the following assumption is established:

in (6), such that 0 o ηi r 1. Usually P i;k , Qi and Ri are initialized as

diagonal matrices.

Assumption 1. The full state xk of system (15) is available. □

2.2. Reduced-order neural state estimator If the full state vector is not completely measurable, Assump-

tion 1, may be fulﬁlled by means of a state estimator considering

The characteristic robustness of the neural networks is desir- the discrete-time separation principle for nonlinear systems,

able for the design of a state estimator. With the aim of reducing which is explained in Section 3.3.

the computational complexity of this algorithm, a reduced order Let us propose a control Lyapunov function (CLF) as

neural state estimator may be employed, which uses the available

states measures in order to estimate the unmeasurable system Vðχ k Þ ¼ 12 χ Tk P χ k ; P ¼ PT 4 0 ð16Þ

states. In the following, a neural state estimator with a

in order to ensure stability of system (15), which will be achieved

Luenberger-type structure is described. This state estimator is

by deﬁning an appropriate matrix P. Instead of solving the

based on the RHONN, and then it is named the recurrent high

associated HJB equation, the inverse optimal control synthesis is

order neural observer (RHONO) [17]. Which only requires to know

based on the knowledge of V ðχ k Þ.

the system state order, without the need of a nominal system

The inverse optimal control law for system (15) with (16) as CLF

model [36].

is deﬁned as

The reduced-order neural state estimator scheme consists of a

neural identiﬁer, as in (2), for the measured system states and a 1 ∂Vðχ k þ 1 Þ

uk ¼ R 1 ðχ k Þg T ðχ k Þ

neural state estimator for the unmeasurable ones, such that a 2 ∂χ k þ 1

complete neural model of the system is obtained [17]. Let assume 1

the nonlinear system (1) can be written as 1 1

¼ Rðχ k Þ þ g T ðχ k ÞPgðχ k Þ g T ðχ k ÞPf ðχ k Þ ð17Þ

2 2

xa;k þ 1 ¼ f a ðxa;k ; xb;k ; uk Þ

xb;k þ 1 ¼ f b ðxa;k ; xb;k ; uk Þ where Rðχ k Þ ¼ RT ðχ k Þ 4 0 is a weighting matrix whose entries can

yk ¼ xa;k ð11Þ be functions of the system state or can be ﬁxed, this is, it can be

T selected as Rðχ k Þ ¼ R. Since P and Rðχ k Þ are positive deﬁnite and

where

xa;k ¼ x1;k …xp;k is the measurable-states vector, xb;k ¼ symmetric matrices, the existence of the inverse in (17) is ensured

T

xp þ 1;k …xn;k is the unmeasurable-states vector and f a ðÞ and f b ðÞ [29]. Now, the control synthesis is to obtain an appropriate matrix

are unknown nonlinear functions. The reduced-order neural state P for (17). The following theorem establishes a sufﬁcient condition

estimator is designed with the following structure [17]: for matrix P on inverse optimal control.

T

x^ k ¼ x^ a;k x^ b;k

T Theorem 1 (Sanchez and Ornelas [26]). Consider the system (15). If

x^ a;k ¼ x^ 1;k …x^ p;k there exist a matrix P ¼ P T 4 0 such that the following inequality

T

x^ b;k ¼ x^ p þ 1;k …x^ n;k holds:

x^ i;k þ 1 ¼ wTi ϕi ðxa;k ; x^ b;k ; uk Þ þ g i ek 1

V f χ k 14 P T1 χ k R χ k þ P 2 χ k P 1 χ k r χ Tk Q χ k

x^ j;k þ 1 ¼ wTj ϕj ðxa;k ; x^ b;k ; uk Þ þ gj ek 1 T

where V f χ k ¼ 2f χ k Pf χ k V χ k , P 1 χ k ¼ g T χ k Pf χ k , P 2 ¼

y^ k ¼ C x^ k ð12Þ

2g χ k Pg χ k , V χ k as deﬁned in (16) and Q ¼ Q 4 0; then the

1 T T

where xi represents the neural identiﬁer dynamics, xj represents equilibrium point χ k ¼ 0 of system (15) is globally exponentially

the reduced-order neural state estimator dynamics and wi, wj, ϕi stabilized by the control law (17).

Please cite this article as: V.G. Lopez, et al., Real-time implementation of neural optimal control and state estimation for a linear

induction motor, Neurocomputing (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2014.10.031i

4 V.G. Lopez et al. / Neurocomputing ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎

Moreover, this control law is inverse optimal in the sense that it z2k þ 1 ¼ K 2 z2k þ B2 ðχ 1k ; χ 2k Þz3k

minimizes the meaningful functional given by ⋮

1 zrk þ 1 ¼ f ðzk Þ þBr ðχ k Þuðzk Þ

r

ð28Þ

J χk ∑ l χ k þ uTk R χ k uk ð18Þ

k¼0

If the new error variables (zk) go to zero, according to Theorem

with l χ k ¼ V χ k þ 1 þ V χ k uknT R χ k unk: 1, χ 1k will converge to χ 1δ;k as desired. Then, uðzk Þ can be selected as

For the detailed proof of Theorem 1, we refer the reader to [26]. an inverse optimal control input (17) in order to stabilize (28).

For trajectory tracking, it is convenient to apply a special proce-

dure to system (15), as explained in the following section. 3.2. Neural inverse optimal control

3.1. Nonlinear block controllable form The RHONN (2) can be employed to identify the system in the

NBC form (19). Then, this RHONN has the form

A special state representation of system (15), which is referred

x1k þ 1 ¼ W 1k ϕ ðχ 1k Þ þ W 01 χ 2k

1

as the Nonlinear Block Controllable (NBC) form, can be used to

x2k þ 1 ¼ W 2k ϕ ðχ 1k ; χ 2k Þ þ W 02 χ 3k

2

decompose the control law synthesis into a number of sub-

problems of lower order. The NBC form consists of r blocks [37]: ⋮

r 1

χ 1k þ 1 ¼ f 1 ðχ 1k Þ þB1 ðχ 1k Þχ 2k xrk 1 r 1

þ1 ¼ Wk ϕ ðχ 1k ; χ 2k ; …; χ rk 1 Þ þ W 0r 1 χ rk

χ 2k þ 1 ¼ f 2 ðχ 1k ; χ 2k Þ þ B2 ðχ 1k ; χ 2k Þχ 3k xrk þ 1 ¼ W rk ϕ ðχ k Þ þ W 0r uðχ k Þ

r

ð29Þ

⋮

where and W are weight matrices and ϕ are function vectors

Wik 0i i

χ rk þ 11 ¼ f r 1 ðχ 1k ; χ 2k ; …; χ rk 1 Þ þ Br 1 ðχ 1k ; χ 2k ; …; χ rk 1 Þχ rk deﬁned as in (2).

χ rk þ 1 ¼ f r ðχ k Þ þ Br ðχ k Þuðχ k Þ ð19Þ The RHONN-model (29) can be employed to synthesize the

inverse optimal control law. Hence, the exact parameters of the

where χ k A R , χ k ¼ ½χ χ

n

χ χ A R ; j ¼ 1; …; r; nj denotes

1T

k

rT T

k ⋯ k ,

2T j nj

system (19) are not needed. This scheme is called the neural

the order of each rth block and χ ¼ ½χ j1 χ j2 ⋯χ jn j .

j

inverse optimal control in the sense that it uses the neural weights

Many systems can be represented in the NBC form after a to synthesize the corresponding control inputs [26].

nonlinear transformation [37]. In general, electromechanical sys-

tems are or can be easily written in the NBC form. 3.3. Separation principle for discrete-time nonlinear systems

For trajectory tracking of ﬁrst block in (19), let deﬁne the

tracking error as Consider a discrete-time nonlinear system (15) for which a

z1k ¼ χ 1k χ 1δ;k ð20Þ reduced-order state estimator (12) is applied. The following

proposition is established.

where χ 1δ;k is the desired trajectory signal. Taking one step ahead in

(20) we have Proposition 1. Given a dynamic system state χi, a desired trajectory

for the state χ δ;i and a state estimator output χb i , the following

z1k þ 1 ¼ f ðχ 1k Þ þ B1 ðχ 1k Þχ 2k χ 1δ;k þ 1

1

ð21Þ inequality holds [38]:

Eq. (21) is viewed as a block with state and the state χ 2k is z1k J χ δ;i χ i J r J χ i χ

b i J þ J χ δ;i χ

bi J

considered as a pseudo-control input; desired dynamics can be

where χ δ;i χ i is the state tracking error, χ i χb i is the estimation

imposed as follows:

error and χ δ;i χ

b i is the tracking error for the state estimator. □

z1k þ 1 ¼ f ðχ 1k Þ þ B1 ðχ 1k Þχ 2k χ 1δ;k þ 1 ¼ K 1 z1k

1

ð22Þ

Proposition 1, can be established because of the separation

where K 1 ¼ diagfk11 ; …; kn1 1 g is a Schur matrix such that K 1 z1k is a principle for discrete-time nonlinear systems [39]; then, the

stable dynamic. Then, the desired behavior of χ2k is calculated as trajectory tracking problem can be separated into two parts:

χ 2δ;k ¼ ðB1 ðχ 1k ÞÞ 1 ðχ 1δ;k þ 1 f 1 ðχ 1k Þ þ K 1 z1k Þ ð23Þ

Minimization of χ i χ^ i , which can be achieved by the proposed

neural state estimator trained with the EKF algorithm.

Proceeding along the same way as for the ﬁrst block, a second

Minimization of χ δ;i χ^ i , which is obtained by the inverse

variable in the new coordinates is deﬁned as

optimal control law.

z2k ¼ χ 2k χ 2δ;k ð24Þ

In order to relax the need of Assumption 1, the proposed

and the desired behavior for χ3k can be calculated. Taking these

inverse optimal controller is combined, under the separation

steps iteratively, the last new variable is deﬁned as

principle, for discrete-time nonlinear systems, with a reduced

zrk ¼ χ rk χ rδ;k ð25Þ order neural state estimator, to allow the applicability of the

proposed scheme to systems without the complete access to the

Taking one step ahead yields state variables measurements.

zrk þ 1 ¼ f ðχ k Þ þBr ðχ k Þuðχ k Þ χ rδ;k þ 1

r

ð26Þ

3.4. Reduction of matrix P dimension

Then, the control law can be selected as

uðχ k Þ ¼ u1;k þ u2;k As mentioned before, for inverse optimal control an appro-

1

r

priate selection of the matrix P is required, which is an n n

¼ Br ðχ k Þ f ðzk Þ f ðχ k Þ þ χ rδ;k þ 1 þuðzk Þ

r

ð27Þ

matrix where n is the dimension of the system state vector; then,

By means of this change of variables, system (19) can be depending on the system, the matrix P can be very large, increas-

represented as ing the calculation complexity of the control law. In order to

facilitate the design of the inverse optimal control, a reduction of

z1k þ 1 ¼ K 1 z1k þ B1 ðχ 1k Þz2k the required dimension of P is proposed.

Please cite this article as: V.G. Lopez, et al., Real-time implementation of neural optimal control and state estimation for a linear

induction motor, Neurocomputing (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2014.10.031i

V.G. Lopez et al. / Neurocomputing ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎ 5

Let us consider a system in the form (28). This system has been into account the end effects [40,41] which can be despised

designed such that the ﬁrst r 1 state blocks have stable depending on the dimensions of the LIM. This model is described

dynamics; then, the inverse optimal control law can be employed by the following equations:

to stabilize only the last state block. Then, P is a nr nr matrix, qk þ 1 ¼ qk þ vk T

where nr o n is the dimension of the rth block. This proposition is

formalized in the following theorem. vk þ 1 ¼ ð1 k2 TÞvk k3 TF L k1 T λα;k ρ1 iα;k k1 T λβ;k ρ2 iα;k

Theorem 2. Let us consider a dynamic system as in (28), to which þ k1 T λα;k ρ2 iβ;k k1 T λβ;k ρ1 iβ;k

the following inverse optimal control is applied:

1

1 1 T

uðzk Þ ¼ R þ Br P Br

T r

Br P f ðzk Þ ð30Þ λα;k þ 1 ¼ ð1 k6 TÞλα;k þ k4 Tvk ρ1 iα;k k4 T ρ1 iα;k þ k5 T ρ2 iα;k

2 2 þ k4 T ρ2 iβ;k k4 Tvk ρ2 iβ;k þk5 T ρ1 iβ;k

T

where P ¼ P 4 0 has dimension nr nr , being nr the last state block

dimension of (28). If there exists a matrix P such that the following

inequality holds λβ;k þ 1 ¼ ð1 k6 TÞλβ;k þ k4 Tvk ρ2 iα;k k4 T ρ2 iα;k k5 T ρ1 iα;k

k4 T ρ1 iβ;k þ k4 Tvk ρ1 iβ;k þk5 T ρ2 iβ;k

1

r T r T

1 T 1 1

f ðzk ÞP f ðzk Þ zrk P zrk P 1 R þ P 2 P 1 r zTk Q zk ð31Þ

2 4 2

where iα;k þ 1 ¼ ð1 þ k9 TÞiα;k k7 T λα;k ρ2 k8 T λα;k vk ρ1

T r

P 1 ¼ Br P f ðzk Þ;

T

P 2 ¼ Br P Br þ k7 T λβ;k ρ1 k8 T λβ;k vk ρ2 k10 Tuα;k

T

and Q ¼ Q 4 0; then, the equilibrium point χ k ¼ 0 of system (28) is

stabilized by control law (30). Moreover, this control law minimizes iβ;k þ 1 ¼ ð1 þ k9 TÞiβ;k þ k8 T λα;k vk ρ2 k7 T λα;k ρ1

the cost function given by (18).

k7 T λβ;k ρ2 k8 T λβ;k vk ρ1 k10 Tuβ;k ð32Þ

Proof. For proof, see Appendix A.

where

np Lsr

3.5. Control scheme ρ1 ¼ sin ðnp qk Þ ρ2 ¼ cos ðnp qk Þ k1 ¼

Dm Lr

np Lsr Rm 1

Fig. 1 represents the proposed scheme of the state estimator, k1 ¼ k2 ¼ k3 ¼

Dm Lr Dm Dm

identiﬁer and controller for the LIM position trajectory tracking.

Rr Lsr Rr

The RHONO employs the input signals of the LIM model and the k4 ¼ np Lsr k5 ¼ k6 ¼

Lr Lr

available state data (χ a;k ) to estimate the unmeasurable magnetic

ﬂuxes of the LIM to complete the state vector χk. The RHONN Lsr Rr Lsr np L2r Rs þ L2sr Rr

k7 ¼ k8 ¼ k9 ¼

identiﬁer is attached to the RHONO and acts in series-parallel with Lr ðL2sr Ls Lr Þ L2sr Ls Lr Lr ðL2sr Ls Lr Þ

the real LIM model, which is considered unknown, and calculates L2 Rs þ L2sr Rr Lr

the corresponding neural weights for identiﬁcation. The neural k9 ¼ r 2 k10 ¼

Lr ðLsr Ls Lr Þ L2sr Ls Lr

inverse optimal control (NIOC) block uses these neural weights to

synthesize the input signals for the LIM model, stabilizing the

error between the current position of the LIM and the position

reference and minimizing the respective cost functional. and λβ;k are the magnetic ﬂuxes, iα;k and iβ;k are the primary sector

currents, uα;k and uβ;k are the input voltages, Rs is the primary

sector resistance, Rr is the secondary sector resistance, Lsr is the

4. Linear induction motor identiﬁcation magnetizing inductance, Ls is the primary sector inductance, Lr is

the secondary sector inductance, FL is the load perturbation, Rm is

4.1. LIM discrete-time model the viscous friction coefﬁcient, Dm is the secondary sector mass, np

is the number of poles pairs and T is the sampling time.

The LIM discrete-time mathematical model employed in this

paper is described on the α β frame. This model does not take 4.2. RHONN model

x1;k þ 1 ¼ w11 Sðvk Þ þ w12 Sðλα;k Þ þ w13 Sðλβ;k Þ w14 ðSðλα;k Þρ1

þ Sðλβ;k Þρ2 Þiα;k þ w15 ðSðλα;k Þρ2 Sðλβ;k Þρ1 Þiβ;k

x2;k þ 1 ¼ w21 Sðλα;k Þ2 þ w22 Sðλβ;k Þ2 þ w23 wf Sðvk Þ2 þ2wf ðw21 Sðλα;k Þρ2

w22 Sðλβ;k Þρ1 Þiα;k þ 2wf ðw21 Sðλα;k Þρ1 þ w22 Sðλβ;k Þρ2 Þiβ;k

x3;k þ 1 ¼ w31 Sðvk Þ þ w32 Sðλα;k Þ þ w33 Sðλβ;k Þ þw34 Sðiα;k Þ þ w35 uα;k

x4;k þ 1 ¼ w41 Sðvk Þ þ w42 Sðλα;k Þ þ w43 Sðλβ;k Þ þw44 Sðiβ;k Þ þw45 uβ;k

x5;k þ 1 ¼ w51 Sðqk Þ þ w52 vk ð33Þ

where wij are the online adjustable network weights, exc-

ept wf ¼ 0:001, w14 ¼ 0:001, w15 ¼ 0:001, w35 ¼ 0:02178, w45 ¼

Fig. 1. Reduced order neural state estimator and control scheme. 0:02178 and w52 ¼ 0:001 which are ﬁxed weights for

Please cite this article as: V.G. Lopez, et al., Real-time implementation of neural optimal control and state estimation for a linear

induction motor, Neurocomputing (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2014.10.031i

6 V.G. Lopez et al. / Neurocomputing ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎

controllability purposes. SðÞ is deﬁned as in (5) with γ ¼ 1. Each 5.1. Change of variables

state in the RHONN model identiﬁes a corresponding state of the

LIM model: x1;k for the velocity, x2;k for the ﬂux magnitude, x3;k and The RHONN identiﬁer (33) fulﬁlls the NBC form with the three

x4;k for the currents alpha and beta respectively, and x5;k for the blocks:

system position. At this stage, it is supposed that all the states " # " #

x1;k x3;k

measures are available. x1k ¼ x5;k ; x2k ¼ ; x3k ¼ ð37Þ

x2;k x4;k

The decoupled EKF training algorithm is applied to update the

trainable neural weights. These weights are separated in ﬁve For (33), taking into account Assumption 2, the change of

different vectors according to each neural state; this is, variables can be performed so that the system with the desired

w1 ¼ ½w11 w12 w13 , w2 ¼ ½w21 w22 w23 , w3 ¼ ½w31 w32 w33 w34 , dynamics is represented as

w4 ¼ ½w41 w42 w43 w44 and w5 ¼ w51 and the EKF algorithm is

implemented for each vector. Initial values of the neural weights z1k þ 1 ¼ K 1 z1k þ W 01 2

k zk

are randomly selected. The matrices Qi and R for the Kalman ﬁlter k ðχ k Þzk

z2k þ 1 ¼ K 2 z2k þ W 02 3

3

ð38Þ

Q i ¼ 0:63759I; R ¼ 0:06729 ð34Þ where ¼ χ χ ¼χ χ χ δ;k with j ¼ 1; 2; 3 is the desired

j

z1k k k

1 1

δ;k , z2k 2 2

δ;k ,

where the dimension of the identity matrix I is equal to the dynamic for the jth state block, K1 and K2 are constant diagonal

dimension of the vector wi for which it is applied. matrices, and

" 0 #

01 02

w11 w012

W k ¼ w52 ; W k ¼

w021 w022

4.3. Neural state estimator for the LIM

w011 ¼ w14 Sðλα;k Þρ1 w14 Sðλβ;k Þρ2

In order to implement the RHONN identiﬁer (33), it is neces- w012 ¼ w15 Sðλα;k Þρ2 w15 Sðλβ;k Þρ1

sary to design a reduced order observer to estimate ﬂux dynamics.

w021 ¼ 2w21 wf Sðλα;k Þρ2 2w22 wf Sðλβ;k Þρ1

The generic RHONO (12) analyzed in Section 2.2 is applied to LIM

as follows. w022 ¼ 2w21 wf Sðλα;k Þρ1 þ 2w22 wf Sðλβ;k Þρ2

2 3

3

A neural state estimator is designed in order to obtain the f1

f ¼4 35

3

magnetic ﬂuxes of the motor. As explained above, the neural state

f2

estimator is based on the RHONN identiﬁer (33) for the available

states and the RHONO (12) for the others states. The proposed

reduced-order neural state estimator is described by the following

f 1 ¼ w31 Sðvk Þ þ w32 Sðλα;k Þ þ w33 Sðλβ;k Þ

3

equations:

þ w34 Sðiα;k Þ

xα;k þ 1 ¼ wα1 Sðγ xα;k Þ þ wα2 Sðγ iα;k Þðρ2 ρ1 Þ

f 2 ¼ w41 Sðvk Þ þ w42 Sðλα;k Þ þ w43 Sðλβ;k Þ

3

þ wα5 Sðvk ÞSðγ iβ;k Þρ2 þ L1 ek þ 0:002ρ2 iα;k þ 0:002ρ1 iβ;k þ w44 Sðiβ;k Þ

" #

w35 0

xβ;k þ 1 ¼ wβ1 Sðγ xβ;k Þ þ wβ2 Sðγ iα;k Þð ρ2 þ ρ1 Þ W 03

k ¼ ð39Þ

0 w45

þ wβ3 Sðγ iβ;k Þðρ1 ρ2 Þ þ wβ4 Sðvk ÞSðγ iα;k Þρ2 Trajectory tracking can now be achieved for the position

reference χ 1δ;k .

þ wβ5 Sðvk ÞSðγ iβ;k Þρ1 þL2 ek þ 0:002ρ1 iα;k þ 0:002ρ2 iβ;k

ð35Þ 5.2. Controller synthesis

where xα;k ¼ λ^

α;k is the estimated of the state λα;k , xβ;k ¼ λ^

β;k is the In (38) z1k and z2k will have stable dynamics if the third block

estimated of λβ;k , SðÞ is deﬁned as in (5) with γ ¼ 0:01, state z3k tends to zero when k-1 (Theorem 2). Then, a control law

L1 ¼ L2 ¼ ½0:1 0:01 0:01 0:01 and has to be designed such that it stabilizes z3k þ 1 in (38).

2 3 2 3 Control law (27) can now be applied taking f ðχ k Þ ¼ f ðχ k Þ,

r 3

e1;k vk x1;k

6 e 7 6 i x 7 Br ðχ k Þ ¼ W 03;k and uðzk Þ as in (17). Then, the inverse optimal control

6 3;k 7 6 α;k 3;k 7

ek ¼ 6 7 6 7

6 e4;k 7 ¼ 6 iβ;k x4;k 7 ð36Þ law applied to (38) is as follows:

4 5 4 5

1

qk x5;k uðχ k Þ ¼ W 03;k f ðzk Þ f ðχ k Þ þ χ 3δ;k þ 1 þ uðzk Þ

3 3

e5;k ð40Þ

1

1 1

Rþ W 03T PW 03 W 03T Pf ðzk Þ

3

uðzk Þ ¼ ð41Þ

2 2

where R ¼ I 2 , I2 is the 2 2 identity matrix, W 03 and f ðχ k Þ are

3

5. Neural inverse optimal control for a linear induction motor

deﬁned in (39) and superindex T denotes the transpose matrix.

The state estimation provided by the RHONO is employed to To this end with the three components explained above: the

complete the state vector for the feedback control law. In order to neural identiﬁer, the reduced order neural observer and the neural

design this controller, a change of variables must be done as in inverse optimal controller are integrated on a whole control

(28). scheme as the depicted in Fig. 1. The inverse optimal controller

Please cite this article as: V.G. Lopez, et al., Real-time implementation of neural optimal control and state estimation for a linear

induction motor, Neurocomputing (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2014.10.031i

V.G. Lopez et al. / Neurocomputing ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎ 7

Fig. 4. PMW driver.

Fig. 5. Linear induction motor.

(41) is synthesized based on the RHONN neural model (33); this

identiﬁer requires access to the whole state measurement. How- voltage between 12 and 15 V. This sensor presents high measuring

ever, in practice ﬂuxes are not measurable for LIM; then they are precision, small size and space saving, and high immunity to

estimated with the RHONO (35). external interference. The sensor output voltage is directly sent to

the analog-to-digital converter of the DS1104. The motor position

is measured by a linear encoder KA-800M, which send its output

6. Real time implementation signals directly to the board. The motor velocity can be calculated

by means of the position change in the sample time.

6.1. Equipment and instrumentation

6.1.3. PMW driver

Fig. 2 portrays the connection scheme between the devices for

The PMW driver (IGBT Power Electronics Teaching System is a

the control system. The computer has the necessary software to

trademark of SEMIKRONs2 ) is employed for the power stage. It is

program the control algorithm and to transmit the information to

especially designed for motor applications. It has six inputs which

the data acquisition board. The corresponding signals travel

are exited by PWMSV for sinusoidal signal reconstruction. These

through the PMW driver which transform them into the control

signals must have TTL levels and they correspond to three signals,

inputs for LIM. The position and the currents measuring are also

one for each phase, and their respective inverse. In Fig. 4 the PMW

transmitted to the board for the closed loop system.

driver employed is shown. The PMW driver has the following main

The equipment employed for the real-time application of the

devices: triphasic signal rectiﬁer, high speed IGBT (50GB123D),

proposed control scheme and its characteristics are detailed below.

polarity-change speed of 5 μs, SKHI22 drivers with high speed

CMOS excitation, isolation between the logic electronic stage and

6.1.1. DS1104 board the power electronic stage and ventilation.2

DS1104 (trademark of dSpace GmbH1) is a data acquisition and

control board. It has its own processor and memory where the

6.1.4. Linear induction motor

control algorithm is saved. In Fig. 3 the top view of the DS1104 is

The plant where the control law is applied is a linear induction

shown. This board has 6 PWMs drivers, a slave DSP, analog-to- s3

motor LabVolt model 8228 (trademark of LabVolt ). This motor

digital converter, digital-to-analog converter, incremental encoder

consists in a mobile vehicle and a stationary rail. The mobile vehicle,

and 20 digital input/outputs. It allows to download applications

which is mounted on four bearing rollers, contains what is usually

directly from Simulink.1

named as the stator of a conventional induction motor. The

stationary rail is referred to as the rotor in a conventional induction

6.1.2. State measurement motor. Each winding is independently welded to 4 mm banana

For the control algorithm, we have available motor currents jacks mounted on the moveable vehicle frame to allow connection

and position measurements. In order to obtain the currents, we in either delta or wye conﬁguration. Two thumb screws on the

employed the LEM HX-10P transducers with the following char- moveable vehicle provide adjustment of the air gap between the

acteristics: galvanic isolation between the primary and the sec- pole faces and the stationary rail surface. Fig. 5 shows the moveable

ondary circuit, hall effect measuring principle, low power vehicle in the rail, with the linear encoder above the motor.3

consumption, extended measuring range (3 I PN ) and supply

2

http://www.semikron.com

1 3

http://www.dspace.com/de/gmb/start.cfm https://www.labvolt.com

Please cite this article as: V.G. Lopez, et al., Real-time implementation of neural optimal control and state estimation for a linear

induction motor, Neurocomputing (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2014.10.031i

8 V.G. Lopez et al. / Neurocomputing ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎

Table 1

0.5

LIM Position Mean value and standard deviation for speed tracking errors.

0.4 Reference Position

Controller Mean value (rad/s) Standard deviation (rad/s)

0.3

Sliding mode 0.008358 0.09212

0.2

Neural inverse optimal 0.002468 0.04703

0.1

Position (m)

-0.1

displays the mean square error and it standard deviation of the

-0.2

proposed controller against a conventional sliding mode controller

-0.3 [42]. It is important to note that the controller in [42], requires

-0.4 previous knowledge of ﬂuxes dynamics, the parameters to design

a conventional observer and the estimation of the load torque.

-0.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 These information are not required for the scheme proposed in

Time (s) this paper due to the use of the neural observer. Besides, it is

important to note that even if the sliding mode controller is not

Fig. 7. Real-time motor position with a 50 cm sinusoidal reference.

new, for comparison purposes, both experiments are performed

using the same prototype.

real-time employing the board data and the neural state estimator

outputs as the system states. The voltage inputs computed by the A neural state estimator is designed based on a recurrent high

control program are transmitted to the board for its application to order neural network (RHONN), to estimate the magnetic ﬂuxes of

the linear induction motor. a linear induction motor. This state estimator adjusts its synaptic

For this algorithm, the sampling time is selected as T ¼ 0:0005 s weights in order to reproduce the system dynamics, without the

and the matrices Ki of Eq. (38) are deﬁned as K1 ¼0.9 and need of the parameter values or a nominal model. The proposed

K 2 ¼ 0:9I 22 . For the Kalman ﬁlter algorithm, the matrices are RHONO is implemented in a real-time application on a linear

deﬁned as in (34), and the RHONO parameters are the same induction motor prototype and achieves state tracking with a

deﬁned in (35). Finally, the matrix P for inverse optimal control is bounded error. A neural inverse optimal control is applied to the

LIM, employing the RHONO to obtain the state vector available and

15 0:1

P¼ ð42Þ a neural identiﬁer to obtain a RHONN model for the LIM. The

0:1 15

proposed scheme achieves trajectory tracking for a sinusoidal

Considering that to model the plant, in this paper the neural position reference with an amplitude of 50 cm. The results are

networks (33) and (35)) are used, knowledge of the plant para- very satisfactory.

meters is not required for control design.

The position reference is deﬁned as a sinusoidal signal with an

amplitude of 50 cm. The control law applied to the motor is shown

in Fig. 6 and the corresponding trajectory tracking result is

presented in Fig. 7. Acknowledgements

In order to establish a comparison between a conventional

discrete-time sliding mode control scheme and the proposed The authors thank the support of CONACYT Mexico, through

neural inverse optimal controller, Table 1, has been included; it projects CB-103191Y, CB-131678Y and INFR229696.

Please cite this article as: V.G. Lopez, et al., Real-time implementation of neural optimal control and state estimation for a linear

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V.G. Lopez et al. / Neurocomputing ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎ 9

1

Appendix A For system (A.1), f ðzk Þ ¼ K 1 z1k þ B1 ðz1k Þz2k ; taking this fact into

account, the following term is analyzed

1T 1

Proof. The proof of Theorem 2 is performed for a two-blocks f ðzk ÞP 11 f ðzk Þ z1T 1

k P 11 zk

T

system;

¼ K 1 z1k þ B1 ðz1k Þz2k P 11 K 1 z1k þ B1 ðz1k Þz2k

1

z1k þ 1 ¼ f ðzk Þ ¼ K 1 z1k þ B1 ðz1k Þz2k z1T 1

k P 11 zk

2

z2k þ 1 ¼ f ðzk Þ þ B2 uðzk Þ ðA:1Þ ¼ z1T T 1 1T T 1 1 2

k K 1 P 11 K 1 zk þ zk K 1 P 11 B ðzk Þzk

1T 2T 1T 1T

The general case proof follows straightforward from this case. þ z2T 1 2

k B ðzk ÞP 11 K 1 zk þ zk B ðzk ÞP 11 B ðzk Þzk

First, let suppose that the control goal is to stabilize system (A.1) z1T 1

k P 11 zk

employing a full-order matrix P for inverse optimal control. Then, T 1T T 1 1 2

¼ z1T 1

k ðK 1 P 11 K 1 P 11 Þzk þ zk K 1 P 11 B ðzk Þzk

P is selected as 1T 2T 1T 1T

" # þ z2T 1

k B ðzk ÞP 11 K 1 zk þ zk B ðzk ÞP 11 B ðzk Þzk

2

P 11 P T21 " T #

P¼ ðA:2Þ K 1 P 11 K 1 P11 K T1 P 11 B1 ðzk Þ

P 21 P 22 ¼ zTk 1T

zk

B ðzk ÞP 11 K 1 B ðzk ÞP 11 B1 ðzk Þ

1T

where P 11 ¼ P T11 A Rn1 n1 , P 21 A Rn2 n1 and P 22 ¼ P T22 A Rn2 n2 , being ¼ zTk Q P zk ðA:8Þ

ni the dimension of the ith state block. Then, the inverse optimal

control law is deﬁned as

1 Note that QP is a symmetric matrix. Substituting (A.8) in (A.7),

1 1 then

uk ¼ R þ g T ðzk ÞPgðzk Þ g T ðzk ÞPf ðzk Þ

2 2

1 2T 2

" # ! 1 2 ðf ðzk ÞP 22 f ðzk Þ z2T 2

k P 22 zk Þ

1 1h i P

11 P T21 0

1

¼ Rþ 0 B 2T

14 f

2T

ðzk ÞP 22 B2 R þ 12 B2T P 22 B2

2

B2T P 22 f ðzk Þ

2 2 P 21 P 22 B2

" #" 1 # r 12 zTk Qzk 12 zTk Q P zk ¼ 12 zTk Q zk ðA:9Þ

h i P P T21 f ðzk Þ

2T 11

0 B

P 21 P 22 2

f ðzk Þ where Q ¼ Q þQ P is a symmetric matrix. Let us select Q such that

1

Q is a positive deﬁnite matrix.

1 1 1 2 Then, if there exists P ¼ P 22 such that inequality (31) holds,

¼ R þ B2T P 22 B2 B2T P 21 f ðzk Þ þ B2T P 22 f ðzk Þ ðA:3Þ

2 2 then P 21 ¼ 0 can be selected and the control law (30) achieves

system stabilization. □

Let us consider the case of stabilizing only the last state block of

(A.1). Employing the matrix P A Rn2 n2 , the following inverse References

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induction motor, Neurocomputing (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2014.10.031i

10 V.G. Lopez et al. / Neurocomputing ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎

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on Computation Intelligence Applications in Smart Grid, Paris, France, April (CINVESTAV-IPN), Guadalajara Campus, Mexico, in 2004

2011. and 2007, respectively. Since 2008 she has been with

[18] F.J. Lin, P.-H. Shen, S.-P. Hsu, Adaptive backstepping sliding mode control for University of Guadalajara, where she is currently a chair

linear induction motor drive, IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl. 149 (3) (2002). professor in the Department of Computer Science. She is

[19] F.J. Lin, D.-H. Wang, P.-K. Huang, FPGA-based fuzzy sliding-mode control for a also a member of the Mexican National Research System

linear induction motor drive, IIEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl. 152 (5) (2005). (SNI-1). Her research interest centers on neural control,

[20] F.J. Lin, R.J. Wai, Robust control using neural network uncertainty observer for backstepping control, block control, and their applica-

linear induction motor servo drive, IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 17 (2) (2002). tions to electrical machines, power systems and robotics.

[21] G. Kang, K. Nam, Field-oriented control scheme for linear induction motor

with the end effect, IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl. 152 (6) (2005).

[22] J. Hopﬁeld, Neurons with graded responses have collective computational

properties like those of two state neurons, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81 (10)

(1984). Edgar N. Sanchez obtained the BSEE from Universidad

[23] A.Y. Alanis, E.N. Sanchez, A.G. Loukianov, G. Chen, Discrete-time output Industrial de Santander (UIS), Bucaramanga, Colombia

trajectory tracking by recurrent high-order neural network control, in: in 1971, the MSEE from CINVESTAV-IPN (Advanced

Proceedings of the Conference on Decision and Control 2006, San Diego, CA, Studies and Research Center of the National Polytechnic

USA, December 2006. Institute), Mexico City, Mexico, in 1974 and the Docteur

[24] S. Haykin, Neural Networks A Comprehensive Foundation, 2nd ed., Pearson Ingenieur degree in Automatic Control from Institut

Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2005. Nationale Polytechnique de Grenoble, France in 1980.

[25] S. Haykin, Kalman Filtering and Neural Networks, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., He was granted an USA National Research Council

New York, NY, USA, 2001. Award as a research associate at NASA Langley Research

[26] E.N. Sanchez, F. Ornelas, Discrete-time Inverse Optimal Control for Nonlinear Center, Hampton, Virginia, USA (January 1985–March

Systems, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, April 2013. 1987). His research interest center in Neural Networks

[27] R.E. Bellman, Dynamic Programming, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, and Fuzzy Logic as applied to Automatic Control sys-

USA, 1957. tems. He has been advisors of 12 Ph.D. thesis and 33 M.

[28] R.A. Freeman, P.V. Kokotovic, Robust Nonlinear Control Design. State space and Sc Thesis. Since January 1997, he is a professor of CINVESTAV-IPN, Guadalajara

Lyapunov Techniques, Birkhauser, Boston, MA, USA, 1996. Campus, Mexico.

[29] F. Ornelas, A.G. Loukianov, E.N. Sanchez, Discrete-time nonlinear systems

inverse optimal control: a control Lyapunov approach, in: IEEE Multiconfer-

ence on Systems and Control, Denver, CO, USA, September 2011.

[30] T. Wildi, Electrical Machines, Drives and Power Systems, 5th ed., Prentice Hall, Jorge Rivera received the B.Sc. degree in Electronic

Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2002. Engineering from the Technological Institute of the Sea,

[31] J. Thomas, A. Hansson, Speed tracking of a linear induction motor-enumerative Mazatlan, Mexico, in 1999, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D.

nonlinear model predictive control, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 21 (5) degrees in Electrical Engineering from the Advanced

(2013) 1956–1962. Studies and Research Center, National Polytechnic

[32] M. Feemster, P. Aquino, D.M. Dawson, A. Behal, Sensorless rotor velocity Institute, Guadalajara, Mexico, in 2001 and 2005,

tracking control for induction motors, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 9 (4) respectively. Since 2006, he has been with the Electro-

(2001). nics Department in the University of Guadalajara. His

[33] G. Rubio-Astorga, J.D. Sanchez-Torres, J. Canedo, A.G. Loukianov, High-Order research interests focus on sliding mode control, reg-

sliding mode block control of single-phase induction motor, IEEE Trans. ulation theory, discrete-time nonlinear control systems,

Control Syst. Technol. 22 (5) (2014) 1828–1836. and their applications to electrical machines.

[34] H. Toliyat, G.B. Kliman, Handbook of Electric Motors, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca

Raton, FL, USA, 2004.

[35] G.K. Venayagamoorthy, Smart grid and electric transportation, in: 12th

International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, October

2009, St. Louis, MO, USA, pp. 1–2.

[36] E. Sanchez, A. Alanis, A. Loukianov, Discrete Time High Order Neural Control,

Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2008.

[37] A.G. Loukianov, Robust block decomposition sliding mode control design,

Math. Probl. Eng. 8 (1) (2002) 4–5.

[38] B.S. Leon, A.Y. Alanis, E.N. Sanchez, E. Ruiz-Velazquez, F. Ornelas-Tellez, Inverse

optimal neural control for a class of discrete-time nonlinear positive systems,

Int. J. Adapt. Control Signal Process. 26 (1) (2012) 20.

[39] W. Lin, C.I. Byrnes, Design of discrete-time nonlinear control systems via

smooth feedback, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 39 (11) (1994).

[40] H.A. Hairik, M. Hassan, Dynamic model of linear induction motor considering

the end effects, Iraq J. Electr. Electron. Eng. 5 (1) (2009).

[41] L. Radzevicius, E. Matkevicius, The generalized model of the linear induction

motor, Electron. Electr. Eng. 190 (7) (2006).

[42] A.G. Loukianov, J. Rivera, J.M. Cañedo, Discrete-time sliding mode control of an

induction motor, in: Proceedings IFAC’02, Barcelone, Spain, 2002.

Faculty of Engineering of the Autonomous University

of Campeche, Campeche, Mexico in 2011 and the M. E.

degree from the Department of Automatic Control of

the Research Center and Advanced Studies of the

National Polytechnic Institute in Guadalajara, Mexico

in 2013. His research interests are intelligent control,

optimal control and cooperative control.

Please cite this article as: V.G. Lopez, et al., Real-time implementation of neural optimal control and state estimation for a linear

induction motor, Neurocomputing (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2014.10.031i

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