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© Cyril Hughes, 1997

First published in Great Britain 1997

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 1-85978-136-5

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise, without the prior written permission' of
LLP Limited.

Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that the information.
contained in this book is correct neither the author nor LLP
Limited can accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions
or for any consequences resulting therefrom.

Text set 11 on 13pt Palatino by

Selwood Systems, Midsomer Norton
Printed in Great Britain by Headway Press Ltd, Reading

This dictionary was written to fill a void in the current selection

of technical works of this nature and it covers all the many recent
developments in the mainly technical side of shipping, although allied
subjects have also been included to give the reader a background to
the reason for some of the developments.
Each item included has been carefully researched and a definitive
rather than an inconclusive explanation offered in most cases. Readers'
attention is drawn to other LLP publications, for example the Dic-
tionary of Shipping Terms and The Marine Encyclop~dic Dictionary which
give more detailed information on the allied non-technical items
included in this work.
Thanks are extended to all those who contributed to the compilation
of the data and special thanks are extended to Claire and David

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

ABS American Bureau·of Shipping

AC Air Conditioning
AC Alternating Current
AC Anti Corrosive Paint
ACV Air Cushion Vehicle
AF Anti Fouling Paint
AF Anti Friction Bearings
AFRA Average Freight Rate Assessments
AIMS American Institute of Merchant Shipping
ALERT Automatic Life-Saving Emergency Radio
AMD Advanced Multi Hull Designs
AMECRC Australian Maritime Engineering Co-operation
Research Centre
AMRIE Alliance of Maritime Interests in Europe
AMSA Australian Marine Safety Agency
AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue
AP Aft Perpendicular
API American Petroleum Institute
APS Advanced Propulsion Systems
ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency
ARPA Automatic Radar Plotting Aids
ASD Allowable Stress Design
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ATOMOS Advanced Technology to Optimise Manpower-
Aboard Ship

BC Bulk Cargo Code

BCH Bulk Chemical Code
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

BCLU Code of Practise for Safe Loading/Unloading

Bulk Carriers
BHP Brake Horse Power
BIMCO Baltic and International Maritime Council
BM Bending Moment
BSI British Standards Institute

CA Controlled Atmosphere
CAD Computer Aided Design
CAES Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service·
CAP Condition Assessment Programme
CCA Chemical Carriers Association
CCAI Calculated Carbon Aromacity Index
CESS Committee for the Elimination of Substandard
CFC Chlorofluorocarbon
cn Cetane Indicated Index
CLT Contracted and Loaded Tip Propeller
CM Construction Monitoring
CODAD Combined Diesel and Diesel
CODELAG Combined Diesel Electric and Gas Turbine
CODOC Combined Diesel or Gas Turbine
COFR Certificate of Financial Responsibility
cas Chamber of Shipping
COW Crude Oil Washing
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
CPP Controllable Pitch Propeller
CRINE Cost Reduction Initiative for the New Era
CRIS Common Rail Injection System
CRP Contra Rotating Propeller
CRS Corporate Research for Ships
CSA Canada Shipping Act
CSC Convention for Safe Containers
CSR Continuous Service Rating
CST Centis tokes
CV Calorific Value
CYMERA Cyprus Marine Environmental Protection

DC Direct Current
DFT Dry Film Thickness
DIN Deutsche Industrienormen
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

DNV Det Norske Veritas

DP Dynamic Positioning
DR! Direct Reduced Iron
DSC Digital Selective Calling
DSC Dynamically Supported Craft
DWT Deadweight

EC Engineering Council
ECCTO European Chemical Coastal Tanker Owners
E MAIL Electronic Mail
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
ESP Enhanced Survey Programme
ETS Emergency Towing System
EU European Union

FDA Fatigue Design Assessment

FEA Finite Element Analysis
FEU Forty Foot Equivalent Unit
FOBAS Fuel Oil Bunker Analysis
FOC Flag of Convenience
FP Forward Perpendicular
FPSO Floating Production Storage and Offshore Unit
FSA Formal Safety Assessment
FWPCA Federal Water Pollution Control Act

GA General Average
GESAMP Group of Experts-Scientific Aspects of Marine
GL Germanischer Lloyd
GMDSS Global Marine Distress and Safety System
GMT Greenwich Mean Time
GPS Global Positioning System
GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic
GT Gross Tonnage

H&M Hull and Machinery (Policy)

HCM Hull Conditioning Monitoring
HELMEPA Hellenic Marine Environmental Protection
HFO Heavy Fuel Oil
HNS Hazardous and Noxious Substances
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

HP Horse Power
HSC High Speed Craft
HSS High Sea-Service Speed
HTS High Tensile Steel
HVF High Viscosity Fuel
H2S Hydrogen Sulphide

lACS International Association of Classification

IBC International Bulk Chemical Code
IBIA International Bunker Industry Association
IBS Integrated Bridge Systems
ICR Intercooled and Recuperated (Gas Turbines)
ICS International Chamber of Shipping
lEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IFP Integrated Fire Protection Systems
IFR Interim Final Rules
IFSMA International Federation of Ship masters
IG Inert Gas
IGC International Gas Code
IHP Indicated Horse Power
ILLC International Load Line Convention
ILO International Labour Office
ILU Institute of London Underwriters
IMDG International Marine Dangerous Goods Code
IMO International Maritime Organisation
INMARSAT International Marine Satellite Organisation
INTERCARGO International Cargo Owners Association
INTERTANKO International Association of Independent Tanker
IOPP International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate
IP Institute of Petroleum
IPTA International Parcel Tankers Association
IRCS Integrated Radio Communication Systems
ISF International Shipping Federation
ISGOTT International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and
ISID International Ship Information Database
ISM International Safety Management Code
ISMA International Ship Managers Association
ISO International Standards Organisation
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

ISU International Salvage Union

ITF International Transport Workers Federation
ITOPF International Tanker Owners Pollution
IWL Institute Warranty Limits

JIS Japanese Industrial Standards

LASH Lighter Aboard Ship

LBP Length Between Perpendiculars
LIB Length Breadth Ratio
LCB Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy
LDC London Dumping Convention
LLL Low Location Lighting
LNG Liquid Natural Gas
La Lubricating Oil
Loe Letter of Compliance
LOOP Louisiana Offshore Oil Port
LOT Load On Top
LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas
LQS Lubricant Quality Scan
LRFD Load and Resistance Factor Design Concept
LRS Lloyd's Register of Shipping
LSA Life Saving Appliances

MAIB Marine Accident Investigation Branch

MARAD Marine Administration
MARIS Maritime Information Society
MARPOL Marine Pollution Convention
MARS Marine Accident Reporting Scheme
MCR Maximum Continuous Rating
MEIF Mandatory Excess Insurance Facility
MEPC Marine Environment Protection Committee
MES Marine Evacuation Systems
MKS Metre Kilogram Second
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
MPA Marine Preservation Association
MSA Marine Safety Agency
MSC Marine Safety Committee
MSCR Marine Spill Response Corporation
MSIS Marine Safety Information Systems
MTBF Mean Time Between Failure
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

MTBO Mean Time Between Overhaul

MTD Marine Technology Directorate

NAABSA Not Always Afloat But Safely Aground

NAMAS National Measurement Accreditation Service
NAVIC Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular
NDT Non Destructive Testing
NI Nautical Institute
NLS Noxious Liquid Substances
NMD Norwegian Marine Directorate
NOX Nitrogen Oxide
NPRM Notice of Proposed Rule Making
NPSH Net Positive Suction Head
NRC National Research Council
NRC National Response Corporation
NSA Norwegian Shipowners Association
NTSB National Transportation Safety Board
NYPE New York Produce Exchange

OBO Ore Bulk Oil Carrier

OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine Forum
ODMC Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control System
ODS Operational Differential Subsidy
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
OOW Officer of the Watch (Bridge)
OPA90 Oil Pollution Act 1990
OPRC Oil Pollution and Preparedness Response and
Cooperation Treaty
OSPREY Ocean Swell Power Renewable Energy
OSRL Oil Spill Response Limited
OTIS Offshore Tidal Information Systems
OWS Oily Water Separator

PCB Polychlorinated Biphenyls

PCC Pure Car Carrier
PIRO Petroleum Institute Response Organisation
P&I Protection and Indemnity (Club)
PLT Protectively Located Tanks
PMAX Maximum Pressure
P MEAN Mean Effective Pressure
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

PREP Preparedness for Response Exercise Programme

PROBO Product Oil Bulk Ore Carrier
PSC Port State Control
PSIX Port State Information Exchange
PTI Power Take In
PTO Power Take Off

QA Quality Assurance
QMS Quality Management System
QRA Quality Risk Assessment
QS Quality Standards

RCD Recreational Craft Directive

RDF Radio Directional Finder
REG NEG Regulatory Negotiating Committee
RES Rapid Evacuation Systems
RINA Registro Italiano Navale
RINA Royal Institute of Naval Architects
ROPME Responsible Organisation for Protection of the
Marine Environment
RORO Roll On Roll Off

SAE Society of Automotive Engineers

SAN Strong Acid Number
SAR Search and Rescue
SATCOM Satellite Communication
SATNAV Satellite Navigation
SBT Segregated Ballast Tanks
SCM Screwshaft Condition Monitoring
SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction
SDC Selective Digital Calling
SEA Ship Event Analysis
SEMT Societe d'Etudes de Machines Thermiques
SERS Ship Emergency Response Services
SES Surface Effect Ship
SI Statutory Instruments
SI Systeme International
SIRE Ship Inspection Report
SMM Shipbuilding Machinery and Marine Technology
SNAME Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
SOlAS Safety of Life at Sea Convention .
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

SOPEP Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan

SOX Sulphur Dioxide
SPC Self Polishing Copolymer
SPM Single Point Mooring
SPMH Semi Planing Monohull
SRB Sulphate Reducing Bacteria
SSC Special Service Craft
STCW Standards of Training Certification and
STL Submerged Turret Loading
SWATH Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull
SWBM Still Water Bending Moment

TAN Total Acid Number

TBN Total Base Number
TBT Tributyltin
TCS Turbo Compound System
TEU Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit
TLV Threshold Limit Value
TMCP Thermo Mechanical Control Processing
TPC Tonnes Per Centimetre
TSCF Tanker Structure Cooperation Forum
TSL Techno Super-Liner
TSPP Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention
TSS Traffic Separation Schemes
TVEL Tank Vessel Examination Letter

UCC Ultimate Container Carrier

ULBC Ultra Large Bulk Carrier
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier
VMS Unmanned Machinery Spaces
USCG United States Coast Guard
UTS Ultimate Tensile Strength
UV Ultra Violet (Steriliser)

VAN Variable Area Nozzle (Gas Turbine)

VDR Voyage Data Recorder
VDU Visual Display Unit
VECS Vapour Emission Control Systems
VI Viscosity Index
VIT Variable Injection Timing
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

VLBC Very Large Bulk Carrier

VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
VR Virtual Reality
VRP Vessel Response Plan
VTIS Vessel Traffic Information System

WAN Weak Acid Number

WMU World Maritime University
WPC Wave Piercing Catamaran

Ablative paint Ablative or self-polishing paint was especially for-
mulated to be applied to the underwater surfaces of the hulls of those
ships employed in trades where performance is critical. It is applied
with a greater film thickness than that used with conventional under-
water paints and a typical thickness would be perhaps 850 microns,
against 650 microns for a conventional paint. It has various toxic
ingredients dispersed in its formulation, and as the vessel proceeds
through the water the friction at the boundary layer slowly abrades
the paint surface, thus exposing fresh toxic ingredients to any possible
organisms intending to attach themselves. Ablative paint also has the
property of becoming smoother as the paint surface is slowly abraded
away, and the joint action of this coupled with its anti-fouling property
is ideal in both extending drydock intervals and reducing fuel con-
sumption. Ablative paint containing tributyltin (which see) is subject
to environmental control.
Abrasive particles These are occasionally found in bunker fuels and
exist in various forms, the most important being those associated with
catalyst fines. These fines are used in the oil refining process and
consist mainly of aluminium silicon. It is not unknown for these
extremely abrasive particles to be carried over in the fuel from the
refinery and to be delivered along with the bunker fuel. Sand, rust,
iron and scale are other abrasive particles sometimes delivered along
with the bunker fuel, and it is very important that all these potentially
harmful substances are removed from the fuel oil by purification and
filtration methods before they reach the engine. It has been found that
abrasive particles are very difficult to remove from fuel oil containing
used automotive lubricating oil surreptitiously dumped in the fuel by
dubious suppliers as.a convenient means of disposal.
Accelerometer An accelerometer is a device used to measure the
force exerted on a body by virtue of its acceleration. The emphasis on

ship safety has recently been highlighted and means to measure the
effect that severe weather has on the ship's structure have formed part
of an ongoing investigation, mainly on account of the large number
of vessels disappearing whilst in heavy weather. The use of acceler-
ometers plays an important part in this investigation, and they are
useful in determining such information as slamming forces at the fore
end. Force is the product of mass and acceleration, and knowing the
acceleration makes it possible to determine the actual force. In the case
of large vessels having the bridge located aft it is difficult for the bridge
watchkeepers to judge the effect that heavy seas are having at the bow
area, and the use of accelerometers is seen as a useful tool in giving
them such information.
Acceptance sea trials Before a new vessel is delivered to its owner
it is normal practice for sea trials to take place at a sheltered location
near to the shipyard which built the vessel. The following tests are
then carried out usually with a classification surveyor in attendance:
Progressive speed trials;
Endurance test, including fuel consumption;
Crash stop astern;
Number of air starts for main engine;
Turning circle trials;
Minimum RPM of main engine;
Steering gear test;
Unmanned engineroom endurance test;
Vibration measurement of structure;
Torsional vibration measurement of engine;
Noise measurement;
Anchoring tests.
Depending on the type of vessel other tests may also be undertaken.
The progressive speed trials are arguably the most important from the
owner's point of view and results obtained usually form part of the
shipbuilding contract (MOA), a document which defines the ships
contractural speed.
Access to tank spaces Access to tank spaces has recently become an
important factor, mairily so that the usually voluminous areas
involved can be kept under close scrutiny. In the case of large tankers
of VLCC size, not forgetting that many of these are now built with a
double hull, the areas to be kept under close inspection are not only
large but extremely difficult to access. Because of this it is now a
classification recommendation to provide both fixed and portable
Acid attack

access equipment in the form of platforms, ladders and even power

operated lifts in order to facilitate close inspection of the more inac-
cessible regions. Inflatable rafts have also been used to inspect the
underdeck structures of large cargo oil tanks which are particularly
difficult to access.
Accidental damage Most accidents involving the hull of a vessel or
its machinery are covered by the owner's insurance policy if the
accident was caused by an insured peril and damage above the deduct-
ible amount was sustained. The'most important issues on the technical
side are to keep a factual record of the events surrounding the incident
and, if appropriate, to ascertain the actual cause of the damage if this
is not patently obvious. Heavy weather damage and damage caused
by fire, grounding or collision is usually accepted by underwriters
without question, always providing log book entries confirm the
events and state of weather if appropriate. However, in the case of
machinery damage it is very important that the cause is investigated
and presented to underwriters. Unless a cause covered by the owner's
policy is proven the cost of the damage will not be recovered.
Accommodation ladder All cargo ships are provided with accom-
modation ladders, usually located on each side of the accommodation
block to form a safe means of access between ship and shore. A modern
accommodation ladder will be constructed entirely of aluminium or a
combination of aluminium and timber. Steps will either be of fixed
curved design or will have a levelling arrangement. The stowage of
the ladder whilst at sea is usually in a recess formed by the bulwarks,
and a motorised davit is usually provided to permit one man oper-
Acid attack Probably the main source of acid attack aboard ships is
from sulphur contained in the fuel oil. During the combustion process
both sulphur dioxide (502) and sulphur trioxide (503) are formed.
These substances are generally neutralised by the alkaline salts present
in the cylinder oil, so that corrosive wear on the cylinder liners by acid
attack is kept at an acceptable level. It is only when unfavourable
conditions arise that acid attack takes place, for example if water is
present in the fuel or too low jacket water temperatures are employed.
(See also Dew point corrosion.) In the case of sulphur carried as
cargo or of high sulphur content coal cargoes then acid attack on the
steelwork forming the cargo holds can take place. For this to happen
water also has to be present, and it is therefore most important that
water is kept out of the cargo holds and it should never be allowed to
Acid attack

come into direct contact with the cargo. Sulphur is present in most
crude oils carried as cargo and in certain circumstances this can also
become acidic. The practice of inerting cargo oil tanks has allegedly
contributed to steelwork corrosion within the cargo tanks especially
on horizontal surfaces where water, oil and sulphur deposits can lie
leading to the development of a corrosive compound.

Acoustic cleaning This is a method used to clean the gas sides of

boilers and economisers by the emission of sound waves. The system
is aimed at preventing soot particles from depositing on the heating
surfaces, thus enhancing heat transfer. Soot particles can also lead to
the development of soot fires (which see). Acoustic cleaning is par-
ticularly useful in preventing soot particles from lodging between the
gills or fins of extended surface exhaust gas economisers, the tubes of
which tend to account for a fairly high incidence of soot fires. The
acoustic cleaning system can be operated either continuously or
periodically depending on the degree of fouling.

Adaptive auto pilot This is a device used to enhance the steering

qualities of a ship and it is complementary to the automatic pilot
(which see). The device takes into account the prevailing sea conditions
and a ship's seakeeping characteristics in steering a course with
minimum steaming distance between ports. Early models incor-
porated a manual input which was set to match the prevailing sea
state, but more recently self-adaptive devices using a microprocessor
have been introduced.

Admiralty charts Are, in the case of UK registered ships, published

by the Hydrographic Office. They are printed on high quality paper,
allowing multiple courses to be plotted over a period of many years
by the bridge watchkeepers. The charts are corrected by the issue of
weekly Admiralty Notices to Mariners and the necessary alterations
annotated by the navigating officer onboard. More recently Admiralty
charts have been produced on compact disc (CD) in digital form and
marketed as the Admiralty Raster Chart Service (ARCS) which is
fully corrected by inputting the weekly notices also on CD. (See also
Electronic charts.)

Admiralty constant Is a method used to measure the performance

of a ship and is expressed as

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)

where D is the displacement tonnage, V is the ship's speed and BHP

the developed horsepower. The Admiralty constant draws attention
to the penal effect of speed on performance, in that a doubling of
speed requires an eightfold increase in power. By incorporating this
cube relationship into the above equation the performance of similar
vessels can be shown to be broadly linear over their operational speed
range. The relationship between displacement and performance can
be shown to be at around two-thirds power, and by incorporating both
speed and displacement at their respective integers a tool exists to
compare the performance of different ships over various speed ranges
within the capability of their power plants. Typical values range
between 40<H>00,and generally it has been found that the larger the
ship the higher the Admiralty constant.
Advanced multi-hull designs (AMD) AMD is a prominent Aus-
tralian ship design company primarily involved in the design of
modem very high speed catamarans. These so called High Sea-service
Speed (which see) ships are entering service in ever increasing numbers
and AMD is one of several design consultants specialising in the multi-
hull versions. One of the AMD designs for a passenger car ferry has a
top speed of 53 knots and is one of the fastest such ferries in service.
Four turbocharged high speed diesel engines driving waterjets form
the propulsive needs of this ship and the total power is around 22,000
KW (29,500horsepower).
Advanced propulsion systems (APS) APS were a series of steam
turbine propulsion systems proposed by Stal Laval of Sweden in the
1970s as a last-ditch effort to combat the emergence of the diesel
engine, then sweeping the board with propulsion units for both large
tankers and container ships previously dominated by steam turbines.
To improve the rather low thermal· efficiency of the steam turbine
various means were proposed including re-heating between high pres-
sure and intermediate stages, multi-stage feed heating, bled steam air
heating and epicyclic gears to increase rotor speeds. In the event the
exercise was doomed to failure as the diesel engine designers could
easily match these efficiency measures without adding the com-
plexities introduced by the APS programme.
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) A USA based agency
forming part of the Department of Defense which, through its associ-
ation with MARAD (Marine Administration), is funding research into
both futuristic and standard ship designs to promote the com-
petitiveness of US shipyards, having regard to the advanced tech-
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)

nology available. As well as such vessels as HSS (High Sea-Service

Speed) ships, the agency will also fund such projects as Integrated
Bridge Systems (IBS) and shipyard production techniques.
Advanced technology to optimise manpower aboard ship
(ATOMOS) ATOMOS is a European Union (EU) research project
relating to the application of advanced technology in order to make
more efficient use of manpower aboard ship. The ATOMOS project
was co-ordinated by the Danish State Railways with experience gained
aboard their own ships, and it has partners from other European
countries, for example Greece, Germany and the UK. It has specifically
targeted integrated ship control systems with the intention of har-
monising all the various sub-systems employed aboard ship. One
successful outCome of the ATOMOS project was the introduction of
the Integrated Bridge System (which see).
Aerodynamics Although mainly concerned with the aircraft indus-
try and its relationship with the study of air movement, aerodynamics
does have marine connotations. This is mainly associated with sailing
ship performance and design, and as such is not the subject of this
study. High-sided vessels such as Pure Car Carriers (PCC) and Con-
tainer Ships offer considerable air resistance and the aerodynamic
effect must be taken into account when determining the power output
of bow and stern thrusters, for example. The performance of these
vessels is also affected by the aerodynamic effect more so than that of
a conventional vessel, and the powering requirements to overcome air
resistance must be considered when designing the main propulsion
unit. Exit gas flow from passenger ship funnel uptakes should also
be aerodynamically tested in a wind tunnel if passenger complaints
resulting from soot particles on clothing are to be avoided. Recent
projects involving extremely fast ships travelling just above the surface
of the sea will also follow aerodynamic rather than hydrodynamic
principles. (See also Ekranoplans, Loflyte and Wing in ground.)
Aframax tankers The precise definition of an Aframax tanker is one
of 79,999 deadweight tonnes, but in the oil trade they are generally
those tankers in the range of 50,000 to 100,000 tonnes deadweight.
Aframax size tankers dominate oil shipments from the secondary
exporting areas, and in the import trade North America uses Aframax
tankers for almost half its oil imports. AFRA is an acronym for Average
Freight Rate Assessments, and is a scheme administered by the
London Tanker Brokers' Panel Ltd.
Afterbody The design of a ship's afterbody or the aftermos.t part
Air conditioning (AC)

recently received attention from hydrodynamicists, mainly to improve

performance without incurring unwarranted expense by fitting costly
alternative arrangements. The concept is to optimise the flow of water
into the propeller, and the propeller duct was a prime example of
accomplishing this, albeit at the provision of a costly structure not
exactly troublefree in operation. Nowadays a similar water flow to
that accomplished by the duct can be obtained by paying special
attention to the lines of the afterbody, not forgetting that too fine lines
could result in less cargo revenue earning space.
Aft peak tank In the past the aft peak tank was usually arranged to
carry fresh water to satisfy the needs of the crew, but most flag state
administrations have stopped this practice on account of the number
of pollution incidents occasioned by its very location at the aftermost
end of the ship. In recent years the lower end of the aft peak tank has
been plated over to form what is called a stem tube cooling water tank
so that the upper part of the tank can be pumped empty of ballast
water as thought necessary without fear of overheating the stem tube
now located underneath in the permanently full cooling tank.
Aft perpendicular (AP) Is the point at which the aft side of the
rudder post, or the centre line of the rudder stock, crosses the Summer
Load Waterline (SLW). It is used to determine the Length Between
Perpendiculars (LBP),and as such forms the basis of many important
calculations in classification society regulations affecting the longi-
tudinal strength of a ship. LBP is sometimes referred to as the rule
length (see also Forward perpendicular).
Air compressors Are used aboard ship mainly to supply the starting
requirements for the main and auxiliary diesel engines which are
invariably started by means of compressed air. Classification society
rules for the capacity of the main air compressors are generally based
on a specified number of engine starts (usually 12) the air storage
receivers are capable of achieving and the time taken by the com-
pressors to recharge the depleted receivers, usually in the region of
one hour. Most air compressors are of the reciprocating piston type,
and in recent years fresh water has superseded sea water as the cooling
medium. Auxiliary air compressors are also provided for various
duties, for example, control functions, initial start-up and recharging
Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus (CABA) air cylinders.
Air conditioning (AC) It is now fairly standard practice to
encompass air conditioning systems serving crew and accommodation
spaces into what is collectively called heating, ventilation and ail:
Air conditioning (AC)

conditioning (HVAC) as the systems are intricately linked. These vary

in complexity from the straightforward as provided aboard a cargo
ship having 20 or so crew members to the highly complex system
needed aboard a large cruise liner with upwards of 3,000 passengers
and crew. The recent change to more ozone friendly refrigerants has
generally led to larger compressors being required because replace-
ment refrigerants are less efficient than those previously in use. There
are two basic HVAC systems in use, namely those using either single
or twin ducts. In the single duct system pre-humidified and con-
ditioned air is circulated around the duct and electric reheating is
provided. In the twin duct system cool conditioned air and warm air
are circulated around their respective ducts and mixed to meet the
desired climatic conditions at the various locations.
Air cooled turbochargers These are a comparatively recent develop-
ment and in many respects they are considered to be superior to the
previously used water cooled design. Water cooled turbochargers can
suffer from premature failure of the rather high thermally stressed
castings surrounding the exhaust gas inlets and outlets. The fairly
recent introduction of ductile cast iron for these castings may now
allow for a simple repair rather than complete replacement as was
previously the case in many instances. Air cooled turbochargers do
not have these vulnerable castings and have the added advantage of
a higher exhaust gas exit temperature leading to enhanced exhaust
gas recovery schemes. See also entry under turbochargers.
Air coolers These are used to cool the air delivered by the turbo-
chargers before it is admitted as combustion air into the engine cyl-
inders, the main reason behind cooling the air being to supply a greater
weight of air. Air coolers are usually extended surface heat exchangers
circulated by seawater from the main cooling system and so arranged
that the air temperature can be controlled independently of the jacket
water and lubricating oil temperatures. It is rather important that the
temperature of the air is such that condensation of any moisture it
might contain cannot take place. If this does occur then the water
droplets thus formed can reach the cylinder liner walls and interfere
with the lubricating oil film in this critical area. Some engines are
provided with automatic controls whereby the air temperature is
maintained at its correct level by recirculating the appropriate amount
of seawater around the cooler. Some modern coolers also have inbuilt
chemical cleaning systems enabling deposits to be removed from the
heat transfer surfaces without the time-consuming activity of dis-
mantling the cooler.
Air pollution

Air cushion catamaran This novel arrangement comprising, in a

recent application, of four propulsion gas turbines of 6,800 horsepower
each and two high speed diesel engines of 2,800 horsepower each to
provide the necessary lift. This machinery is destined for a unique
vessel to be named Gentry Eagle in an attempt to break the transatlantic
speed record presently held by Destriero, a sn:eamlined monohull at
an average speed of around 50 knots.
Air cushion vehicles (ACV) The definition of this type of craft is
one the weight of which can wholly or mainly be supported by a
cushion of air whilst in motion or at rest. The hovercraft is the arche-
typal ACV first developed by Sir Christopher Cockerell who was
responsible for the first regular commercial ACV, named SRN-4, to
enter service in 1968. In the original version four gas turbines drove
both the propulsion air screws and the centrifugal fans which provided
the necessary lift to give a sea speed of up to 55 knots. Although
many other larger ACVs have subsequently been built they have not
maintained their initial promise. This could be due to their inability
to maintain service when high wave heights are being generated by
gale force winds, they are also rather expensive to build, fairly noisy
and not as manceuvrable as conventional craft.
Air draught Is the distance of the highest fixed part of a vessel from
the waterline. It is very important to know the air draught of any
vessel likely to pass under a bridge as part of its scheduled voyage,
for example the Huey P. Long bridge in the River Mississippi. For
those vessels engaged in trades where frequent bridges are met it
is usual to provide means to reduce air draught. These include a
hydraulically activated wheelhouse which can be lowered before
passing under a bridge and then returned to its seagoing position
afterwards. Hinged masts can also be provided on these vessels which
are typically those engaged in such trades as that on the River Rhine.
In the case of deep sea trades air draught can be reduced by partially
flooding cargo holds providing the necessary equipment has been
Air pollution Air pollution from ships has recently been targeted by
IMO (International Maritime Organisation) who are expected to add
a new regulation to the MARPOL (Marine Pollution) Convention
before the end of the century. This new regulation is likely to form
Annex VI, and five areas giving rise to air pollution from ships have
been targeted as follows:
(1) Main and auxiliary engine exhaust emissions;
Air pollution

(2) Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC);

(3) Emissions from shipboard incinerators;
(4) Fuel oil quality;
(5) Release of chloroflurocarbons (CFC) and other ozone deplet-
ive substances.
See individual entries for each of these subjects.
Air preheaters Are usually in the form of tubular heat exchangers
and are used to preheat combustion air prior to its being admitted to
the boiler furnace, particularly those boilers associated with steam
propulsion plants. The heating medium can be either flue gas leaving
the furnace or bled steam from a turbine stage. Regenerative pre-
heaters have also been used whereby a slowly rotating element
receives heat from the exiting flue gas and rejects it to the incoming
combustion air. Fuel used in marine boilers usually has a high sulphur
content, and if water is allowed to come into contact with the gas side
of air preheaters an acidic substance can be produced leading to the
possibility of severe corrosion of the tubes or elements. (See also Dew
point corrosion.)
Airless injection Is the standard method of injecting fuel oil into a
diesel engine's combustion space via an independent fuel pump and
fuel injection valve, or valves, for each cylinder. Previously air or blast
injection was the preferred method, in which extremely high pressure
compressed air was used to both atomise the fuel and overcome the
resistance offered by the air being compressed in the engine cylinders.
Improvements in fuel pump and fuel valve design made it unneces-
sary to use compressed air, with all its complications, for this purpose
and airless injection can now satisfactorily perform this function by
the use of high pressure fuel oil alone.
Air vent pipes Each tank must be provided with an air vent pipe to
equalise the tank pressure with that of the atmosphere whilst the tank
is being emptied or filled. In the case of tankers the outlets from the
air vent pipes are provided with a pressure/vacuum (PV) valve preset
to ensure that acceptable positive or negative pressures for which the
structure was designed are not exceeded. In addition all tanks used
for the carriage of oil must be fitted with a device to prevent the
propagation of flame. Many instances of structural damage to tanks
have been recorded and it has been found that in most instances a
restriction has occurred in the air vent pipe or its fittings.
Aldis lamp This is a hand-held electrically operated signal lamp

which uses mirror enhancement to send a concentrated beam of light

to whoever is receiving the message. The signals so transmitted are
usually in the form of morse code (which see) and the system is judged
to be rather archaic by modern standards although it is still used
particularly in naval-circles.
Alignment In the case of hull structures it is very important that
discontinuity of component parts contributing to the strength of a
vessel is not allowed to take place. This manifests itself when the
alignment of such parts is not correct when assembled blocks are
joined together on the shipbuilding berth. If these are not in perfect
alignment extremely high stresses can arise and over a period fatigue
fractures will probably occur. Shafting alignment is also very import-
ant, and the advent of aft machinery has made it more difficult to
achieve correct alignment. This is mainly because less scope exists for
losing any discrepancies due to the lack of the previously existing large
number of intermediate shafts in the machinery midships vessels.
Installation techniques have improved in recent years and shafting
alignment problems now only rarely occur.
Alkalinity Alkalinity exists when the pH (Hydrogen-ion
concentration) is measured as above seven. To combat acidic attack it
is desirable to have a measure of alkalinity in many of the systems in
general use aboard ships. These include boiler water and associated
feed water, engine cooling and lubricating oil systems. They all have
a propensity to become acidic in normal service and this can usually
be neutralised by the introduction of alkaline substances in various
forms. In the case of lubricating oil these alkaline substances are added
by the manufacturers to obtain a TBN (Total Base Number) matching
the intending duty of the oil. For example cylinder oil will have a
somewhat high TBN of around 70, whereas a crankcase oil intended
for crosshead engines will have a TBN of perhaps 7. Boiler and feed
water and also engine cooling water, have their alkalinity maintained
at the required level by the addition of various chemicals and con-
trolled by regular tests undertaken onboard.
Alleyway Is a nautical term for what would be referred to as a
passageway or corridor in land-based circles. An alleyway is any
corridor aboard ship the purpose of which is to convey crew members
or passengers from one part of the accommodation to another part.
The importance of alleyways has been denigrated by the reduced
length and increased height of accommodation blocks and the lengthy
alleyways of yesteryear are now a thing of the past.
Alliance of maritime interests in Europe (AMRIE)

Alliance of maritime interests in Europe (AMRIE) A European

Union research programme aimed at introducing Information Tech-
nology (IT) into the marine sector. Marine Safety is at the forefront of
AMRIE's research, and it will involve the generation of a database of
information relating to ships and any dangerous cargoes they may be
carrying. Communication Technology (CT) will also form part of the
research programme, and the final outcome could well be a system
embracing all aspects of marine activities via Electronic Data Inter-
change systems already in use.
Allowable stress design (ASD) Ships' structures have for many
years been based on what have been referred to as prescriptive rules
published by the main classification societies and based on relatively
simple but well tried formulations. Prescriptive rules have no explicit
safety factors relating to the stresses likely to be imposed on the
structure in service. In recent years there has been a move by the major
classification societies to identify these stresses, and as a first step
direct calculations were introduced into their rules. One of these
methods was that of the ASD which takes into account fatigue and
buckling limits when designing a ship's structure.
Alternating current (AC) Alternating current (AC) replaced direct
current (DC) for shipboard electrical systems in the early 1960s, AC
having been used in shoreside industries for many years previously.
AC is generally based on 60 cycle frequency for ships' systems but
many countries (including UK) use 50 cycle frequency. This can lead
to problems when ships under repair hook into a shore system having
a different frequency from their own and motor speeds are not then
at designed revolutions. The main benefit of using AC aboard ships is
the improved reliability of various motors and alternators on account
of fewer working parts and the considerably reduced amount of main-
tenance necessary.
Aluminium The use of aluminium in shipbuilding was mainly con-
fined to the superstructure of passenger ships and ferries, usually as
a weight saving exercise and also to increase stability on the multi-
deck high-sided modem versions. More recently aluminium has been
used for the entire structure in the emerging breed of fast ferries
now becoming popular. Aluminium is less than half the weight of
shipbuilding quality steel and has a much improved resistance to
corrosion. Its mechanical properties can be improved by the addition
of various elements, for example manganese, silicon and copper. Also
there is a possibility of sandwich-type plate construction leading to
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS)

further improvements in panel strength. Constructional facilities

when using aluminium usually require spacious draught free
assembly halls having temperature control. Specialist welders are also
required to deal with the techniques now employed which are some-
what different from those for welding steel. It would appear unlikely
that aluminium will ever replace steel in the conventional cargo ship
sector with the exception of the cargo spaces on certain gas carriers.
Aluminium anodes Anodes made of aluminium or aluminium alloy
are used cathodically to protect tanks aboard ship as an alternative to
the more commonly used zinc anodes (which see). They are of course
much lighter than zinc anodes and more easily handled in the confines
of a ship's tank. If used in the cargo oil tanks of oil tankers they have
various restrictions placed on their use, for example their height above
a horizontal surface and their potential energy. This is to avoid the
possibility of an incendiary spark occurring should the anode fall in
the tank and cause an explosion. They consist simply of blocks of
aluminium attached to the steel structure by bolts or welded tabs.
Aluminium silicon Both these elements are present in most heavy
fuel oils and are usually associated with carry over from catalytic
converters in the refinery where they are used as a catalyst. Only
recently has the ISO (International Standards Organisation) in its 8217
fuel standard included limits for the contents of these elements and
these have been set at 80mg/kg for the combined content and
30mg/kg for aluminium alone. (See also Abrasive particles.)
Ambient conditions The design of ships' machinery has to take into
account the ambient conditions expected in the geographical area of
operation. For ships with unrestricted service it is usual to base the
barometric pressure as being 1,000 millibars, an engineroom tem-
perature of 45 degrees centigrade, a seawater temperature of 32
degrees centigrade and a relative humidity of 60 per cent. The machin-
ery also has to operate with acceptable angles of pitching and rolling
when the ship is in heavy weather, and this is usually around 22
degrees athwartship and 10 degrees fore and aft depending on statu-
tory requirements and whether the machinery in question is for emerg-
ency purposes, for example an emergency fire pump or alternator.
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) A member of the International
Association of Classification Societies (lACS) ABShas also joined with
Lloyd's Register (LRS)and Det Norske Veritas (DNV) to implement a
joint scheme to strengthen the effectiveness of classification societies
in promoting marine safety. Included in their joint efforts will be.
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS)

an attempt to strengthen transfer of class activities by unscrupulous

owners and to lay down standards for the qualifications required
for both exclusive and non-exclusive surveyors. ABS has recently
introduced various measures to move away from traditional pre-
scriptive rules for ship construction to those based on loads and
stresses actually expected in service. It is more or less mandatory for
US built and flagged vessels to be classed with ABSin order to receive
financial aid under MARAD (Marine Administration) regulations.
American Institute of Merchant Shipping (AIMS) The national
association representing US shipping interests, which is closely associ-
ated with both MARAD (Marine Administration) and the USCG
(United States Coast Guard). AIMS, in similar fashion to other national
shipping organisations, put forward its constituent members' views
on impending legislation affecting their interests. It was actively
involved in lengthy discussions when OPA legislation was being for-
mulated by the USCG.
American Petroleum Institute (API) This organisation is probably
best known for introducing the API degree method of determining
the density of oils used extensively in the petroleum industry. API
degrees are given by the formula:

API is also recognised as the leading organisation used for designing

and constructing fixed offshore production platforms through its
International Standard API RP 2A "Recommended Practise for Plan-
ning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms", now in
its twentieth edition. API also produce many tables and booklets
associated with the petroleum industry.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A recognised
authority dealing with test methods appropriate to the marine indus-
try, although ASTM test methods are used extensively in many other
fields of activity. ASTM also lay down standards under which test
methods are to be conducted and it publishes numerous handbooks
giving full details of its extensive activities. Some ASTM tests appro-
priate to the marine industry are;
ASTM 092 and D93. Flash point of petroleum products;
ASTM D665. Corrosion test relating to lubricating oils.
While these selected methods are still in international use they. are

more frequently used in the US. The European market tends to use
either ISO (International Standards Organisation) or IP (Institute of
Petroleum) test methods, if available.
Amidships This is a nautical term which refers to the longitudinal
centreline of a ship. In the days when a helmsman was positioned at
the steering wheel, amidships was a command given to him to place
the rudder in line with the longitudinal centreline of the ship so that
the ship steered a straight course. In ship construction terms amidships
was the longitudinal centreline where what was called the change of
frames took place.
Ammonia Is a refrigerant gas making a comeback into marine
refrigeration and air conditioning plants mainly on account of restric-
tions imposed on other refrigerants by both the Montreal Protocol and
the EC (European Community). Ammonia (NH3) is not classified as
ozone depletive and is therefore outside the bans shortly to be intro-
duced on such substances. It is classified as R717 and is rather toxic;
under certain conditions it can also become inflammable. In spite of
these disadvantages ammonia is a more efficient refrigerant than any
other currently available and has an additional advantage in that it is
not miscible with lubricating oil and can tolerate small amounts of
water. Rather importantly it is also much cheaper than alternative
acceptable refrigerants presently under review.
Anchors The system used to anchor ships has barely changed over
many decades and little development work in this overlooked area
appears to be taking place, although dynamic positioning (DP) equip-
ment has recently been provided on a cruise liner as an alternative to
anchoring whilst off port limits. The weight or mass of anchors and
the diameter of anchor cables are determined by a vessel's Equipment
Number which is derived by the classification society from a formula
using the dimensions and displacement tonnage of the vessel con-
cerned. Nowadays stockless anchors of the High Holding Power
(HHP) type are frequently used and, providing they have been tested
at sea, a 25 per cent reduction in weight (mass) is allowed by Lloyd's
Register for vessels classed by them.
Anemometers Are propeller driven devices used to measure wind
speed and direction relative to that of the ship. Todecide the true wind
speed and direction it is necessary to take into account the ships
heading and speed. They are very useful when berthing high-sided
ships in windy conditions, which in turn can decide the number of
tugs thought necessary.
Angle of repose

Angle of repose The angle of repose is the angle between the hori-
zontal and the slope which a stockpile of a dry substance will assume
when being formed, and in the shipping industry it specifically refers
to dry cargoes such as grain when chute loaded into the holds of a
bulk carrier. Each type of dry cargo has its own natural angle of repose
which is a function of its internal frictional resistance, which can be
affected by the presence of moisture. Cargoes with angles of repose
thought to be conducive to cargo shift in severe weather conditions
are usually trimmed to form a horizontal surface, so that the angle of
repose is not then a factor affecting the stability of the ship.
Aniline point The aniline point of a fuel oil is defined as the lowest
temperature at which it is completely miscible when homogeneously
mixed with the organic liquid, aniline. It is an important factor in
determining what is called the diesel index of an oil, itself an indication
of a diesel oil's ignition quality. The diesel index is a calculated value
having a similar relationship to that of the cetane number when defin-
ing the ignition quality of essentially distillate fuels. The trend away
from distillate fuels in the marine industry has made the aniline point
of only academic value nowadays.
Anti-corrosive paint (AC) Most, if not all, paints could be described
as being anti-corrosive but in the marine environment the term is
usually reserved for the paint coating applied to the underwater sur-
faces of the hull in order to combat the acidic nature of seawater.
Modern paint formulations have improved over the years and a typical
paint system underneath the anti-fouling (AF) paint would nowadays
comprise the following paint system: complete blasting of the steel to
Sa 2! standard and the application of a 15 micron inorganic zinc silicate
shop primer. This is intended to protect the steel during storage prior
to erection at the berth. At the berth any damaged area of primer
would be repaired and a 200 micron coat of tar epoxy applied, followed
by 100 coat of vinyl tar paint. This is normally considered to be an
adequate base for the application of the AF paint. It is important that
ambient conditions are checked during paint application and any salts
found present between coatings are washed away with fresh water.
The AC system described would adequately protect the underwater
hull against corrosion between drydockings.
Anti-fouling paint (AF) This is applied over the anti-corrosive paint
system mentioned earlier, the prime object of AF paints being to
dissuade the attachment of marine organisms onto the underwater
surfaces which would have a dramatic effect on a ship's performance
Anti-pollution measures

if allowed to accumulate. By definition they are inherently toxic, and

it is here that AF paints have' come to the attention of the environ-
mentalists. The toxicity of AF paint is generally by the addition of
metallic compounds; these unfortunately have also attacked non-tar-
geted organisms, for example inshore fish farms and oyster beds. Tin
is the most widely used metallic compound in AF paint, and many
countries have already banned paint with tin in its formulation. Alter-
native AF paints without tin are, for example, non-stick silicon coat-
ings such as room temperature vulcanising silicones (RTV) which are
presently being evaluated. Ships engaged in comparatively cold water
temperature operations, for example North Atlantic, do not require a
highly toxic AF paint, and the ban on tin-based products is not seen
as a serious problem as it would be to those ships operating in the
Arabian Gulf, to give an extreme example.
Anti-friction bearings (A/F) These are more usually referred to as
those in the rolling friction group of bearings as opposed to those in
the sliding friction group. AIF bearings are generally of the ball or
roller type which each have several derivatives, for example self-
aligning, thrust and taper bearings. AIF bearings are primarily used
in electric motors and auxiliary machinery, and have yet to make an
impact on main propulsion machinery with the possible exception of
the re-emergent gas turbine. The efficiency of an AIF bearing com-
pared with a sliding friction bearing using the coefficient of friction as
a guide is quite remarkable. The coefficient of an AIF bearing is
nominally 0.0012 whereas a sliding bearing is perhaps 0.15, an exceed-
ingly good improvement based on friction alone.
Anti-pollution measures These became increasingly widespread in
their implications after the horrendous pollution caused by the Exxon
Valdez incident in 1989. They mainly concern preventing the escape of
oil into the sea, whether it be cargo oil or oil from fuel bunkers. In
the case of oil fuel bunkers the USCG (United States Coast Guard)
formulated anti-pollution measures many years ago which included
inter alia the provision of savealls under oil fuel tank air vent pipes.
Other countries placed a restriction on the amount of fuel oil bunkers
allowed to be taken in each tank, nominally fixed at 95 per cent tank
capacity to avoid the possibility of an overflow whilst bunkering.
Some authorities even ask for an oil boom to be placed around a vessel
taking fuel oil bunkers. The current attention is focused on cargo oil
pollution, and OPA 90 (Oil Pollution Act 1990) and MARPOL Annex 1
regulation 26 address this matter by the introduction of anti-pollution
plans which have to be carried aboard. (See also Vessel response plans
Anti-pollution measures

VRP and Shipboard oil pollution emergency plan SOPEP).

ARGO system A closed cycle diesel engine system specially

designed with submarine propulsion and offshore operations in mind.
The ARGO system involves recycling the exhaust gas through the
removal of CO2 by absorption in seawater. Argon is added to restore
efficiency after replacement oxygen has been added from liquid stored
onboard. The ARGO system is only one of several closed cycle systems
available for underwater operation.

Aromatics One of the main types of hydrocarbon found in crude oil

sources throughout the world. Aromatics have a comparatively low
boiling point and are used extensively in the chemical industry
especially in the manufacture of solvents. Aromatic crudes are also
desirable in the production of petrol (gasoline) in that they have high
octane numbers. However, they are associated with low cetane
numbers and are not suitable as fuel for marine diesel fuels but could
be suitable for gas turbines.

Asbestos Is a naturally occurring fibrous mineral found to be a very

good heat insulator and fire-proofing material and also an excellent
brake and clutch lining material. In marine engineering applications
it was mainly used as a heat insulating material as lagging on steam
pipes, turbine casings and boilers and also diesel engine exhaust
systems. Within accommodation spaces it was used as a fire retarding
material for bulkhead linings and occasionally sprayed direct onto
bulkheads in what was called sprayed limpet asbestos. Because of its
health danger in contributing to death from mesothelioma, asbestos
is not now used in applications which pose a risk from exposure to
escaping dust, although many older ships are still in service with
asbestos insulation and well-publicised precautions must be taken
when it is disturbed for maintenance work.

Astern power Astern power is not normally considered an import-

ant factor when designing a ship's machinery except for those ships
engaged in frequent harbour operations or similar activities. Classi-
fication rules are generally vague about the percentage output of
diesel engines when operating astern, although Lloyd's Register, for
example, ask for 70 per cent of ahead revolutions on steam turbines
when operating astern. During acceptance sea trials a crash stop astern
is invariably included to demonstrate the ability of a diesel engine and
propeller to bring the ship to rest from full ahead speed, although no
set limits on time or distance are currently specified.
Attached pumps

Asymmetric sections These are used in many parts of a ship's struc-

ture and a typical asymmetric section, for example a longitudinal shell
frame, will have its face plate (standing flange) positioned with the
web plate towards one edge instead of being centrally located, as with
a symmetrical section. Trouble was first experienced with side shell
longitudinal frames in certain second generation Japanese-built Very
Large Crude Carriers (VLCC) at the beginning of 1990. It was then
standard practice for many shipyards to use asymmetric sections at
this location to enhance the cleaning efficiency of COW (crude oil
washing) techniques in that sludge residues are much less than when
using symmetricallongitudinals. It was found that asymmetrical sec-
tions made of high tensile steel (HTS) had high fatigue stresses leading
to cross bending and eventual failure. Classification rules were
amended and special attention paid when submitting plans containing
HTS asymmetrical sections in fatigue prone areas.
Asymmetrical stems An arrangement whereby the afterbody lines
of a ship are offset rather than in the symmetrical configuration used
in normal shipbuilding practice. The principle of the asymmetrical
stem is to compensate for the side thrust generated by a propeller
whilst turning and make a more equal water flow into the propeller.
It was first proposed when fuel costs where pitched at a high level,
but the idea does not appear to have caught on.
Atriums Modem cruise liners invariably include an atrium
(sometimes called a centrum) as a showcase area rising through deck
levels and featuring such items as glass sided elevators, fountains and
grand staircases to spectacular effect, all as a measure to impress
passengers. Atriums do however pose special problems to the design-
ers of passenger ships, notably those of temperature control and also,
more importantly, those of fire safety and emergency means of escape.
These problems have been addressed by SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea)
regulations, and smoke detection, sprinkler systems and additional
means of escape are now included in the appropriate section of the
Attached pumps Pumps attached to and driven by the main engine
were very popular in the stearn era, and reciprocating stearn engines
were then invariably provided with lever driven pumps serving a
variety of services, for example bilge, sanitary and the air pump. Early
diesel engined ships also were provided with attached pumps and the
so-called economy Doxford had all essential services (jacket water,
lubricating oil and seawater) provided by engine driven pumps. Scav-.
Attached pumps

enge pumps or blowers were also driven by the engine prior to the
arrival of the exhaust gas turbocharger. Nowadays only auxiliary
diesel engines supplying electricity are provided with attached pumps
and then usually only for lubricating oil.
Auris Reputed to be the first merchant ship in the world powered
by a gas turbine the Shell tanker, Auris was originally built with four
diesel engines providing the power for the electric propulsion motor.
In 1951 one of her four diesel engines was replaced by a gas turbine
of similar output for experimental purposes which were adjudged to
be satisfactory. Then in 1958 all the existing machinery was removed
and a 5,500 horsepower gas turbine provided in its place. The per-
formance of the gas turbine when operating on residual fuel oil was
not considered to be satisfactory and for a combination of technical
and commercial reasons it only operated for around 5,000hours before
the ship was scrapped.
Australian hold ladders Are angled ladders introduced many years
ago at the insistence of the Australian Waterfront Workers' Union
whose members objected to the increasing lengths of vertical hold
ladders as the size of ships increased. The vertical lengths of hold
ladders between rest platforms are now limited, leading to much safer
operation for those whose occupations require them to enter hold
spaces. If not arranged properly they can be damaged when discharge
grab operations are taking place.
Australian Maritime Engineering Cooperative Research Centre
(AMECRC) An organisation whose prime aim is to improve the
safety both of existing ships and future designs. A recent project
concerned Capesize bulk carriers, many of which visit Australian
ports. AMECRC are involved with classification societies, ship-
builders, terminal operators and shipowners in a joint research pro-
gramme relating to structural overload of vessels on account of faulty
loading techniques at terminals and operational practices at sea. A
cargo weight and hull stress monitoring system forms part of this
programme which will give ship's staff guidance as to the stresses
placed on the structure during cargo operations and whilst in heavy
weather at sea.
Australian Marine Safety Agency (AMSA) AMSA is the Australian
agency charged with conducting port state control (which see) inspec-
tions aboard non-Australian flag ships when visiting Australian ports
for loading or unloading cargo. AMSA has the authority to detain any
ship found to have faulty safety equipment, structural or mechanical
Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA)

deficiencies or to be manned by a crew found to be incapable of

performing basic safety tasks. AMSA is very active in this area and
will detain any ship found with deficiencies until they are corrected.
AMSA is also responsible for all safety and environmental aspects
relating to Australian registered ships.
Automated mutual assistance vessel rescue system (AMVER)
AMVERis a USCG (United States Coast Guard) plotting system which
enlists the voluntary services of vessels throughout the world which
submit sailing plans, position and arrival ports to the USCG, which
enters this information into its AMVER computer located on Gov-
ernor's Island, New York. The basis of the AMVER system is that if a
vessel gets into trouble the system can provide search and rescue
authorities with a list of vessels in the immediate area. AMVER first
started in 1958and has been credited with saving hundreds of lives at
sea since its inception.
Automatic life-saving emergency radio transmitter (ALERT)
ALERTis a radio device used to quickly locate a person who has had
the misfortune to fall overboard from a ship whilst at sea, and it is
particularly useful for those performing tasks on the open deck. It
consists of a comparatively small radio transmitter which is self-acti-
vated when in contact with seawater. It then transmits a radio-signal
to a receiver located in a suitable position aboard ship which sounds
an alarm. ALERT can also be connected to the Global Positioning
System (GPS) so that when the device is activated its position is
immediately known, leading to a speedy recovery of the person
Automatic pilots Automatic pilots are now fitted on all vessels as
standard equipment, and a helmsman is now only required to steer
the ship whilst it is in close waters. Automatic pilots are connected to
the gyro compass, and other equipment can also be connected in
what has become a rather specialised operation. Additional equipment
available includes adaptive steering modules to enhance steering qual-
ities by the use of microprocessors. Rate of turn indicators and course
recorders are now standard equipment supplied with an automatic
Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA) ARPA radars are extremely
useful navigational aids when used in an anti-collision mode. Latest
versions enable up to 30 targets to be monitored either manually or
automatically. Guard zones can be selected to identify either imminent
or distant dangers and an alarm function gives an indication of
Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA)

immediate danger. ARPA radars can nowadays be integrated with

Global Positioning Systems (which see) and terrestrial navigation
systems such as Decca and Loran (which see).
Automation In ships was first introduced in the 1960sand has now
reached a rather high level. Apart from the automatic pilot mentioned
earlier, automation is mainly employed in the machinery spaces. Auto-
matic control of refrigerated storerooms and cabinets by thermostats
was in use many years ago and it was only a question of time before
thermostatic control of other systems followed this example. Main
engine cooling and lubricating oil temperatures are usually controlled
by three-way valves operating on a by-pass flow system around the
cooler, so avoiding any controls on the cooling medium (seawater).
Fuel oil temperature and viscosity are usually controlled by ther-
mostats in the steam supply to the heaters or by viscotherms. Other
systems within the machinery space are also automated to such an
extent that the machinery can be operated unmanned for long periods.
(See also Unmanned machinery spaces (UMS).)
Average adjuster An average adjuster fulfils a similar role in the
shipping sector to that of a claims or loss adjuster as used in other
insurance markets. The average adjuster acts in an independent
capacity and receives all the numerous documents, survey reports
and invoices associated with a claim against the ship's underwriters
usually several years after the actual event. It is the function of the
average adjuster to apportion all the expenses to either the underwriter
or the shipowner, having regard to the terms of the Hull and Machin-
ery insurance policy. The average adjuster also has to be satisfied that
the casualty was in fact the result of an insured peril.
Axial vibration A phenomenon found in the shafting systems of
main propulsion diesel engines. The excitation of axial vibratory
forces in shafting systems is partly due to torsional vibrations,
harmonic radial components of the gas, mass forces on the crank
throw and forces transmitted from the propeller blades. Axial
vibrations are not considered to be harmful to the engine but they
can excite hull vibration, for example fifth order axial vibrations
with a lO-cylinder engine. The excitation can be reduced considerably
by the fitting of an axial detuner at the free end of the crankshaft.
The detuner comprises a hydraulic piston and cylinder supplied
with lubricating oil from the main lubricating oil system and is
completely self-sufficient.
Azipod thrusters These are podded thruster units located where a
Ballast system

conventional propeller would normally be and are capable of being

rotated through 360 degrees and are gaining a foothold as the main
source of propulsion for an ever increasing size of vessel with a thrus-
ter developing 14 Megawatts (187760 Horsepower) currently avail-
able. Azipods are invariably driven by electric motors and the
unidirectional propeller can quickly be rotated through 180degrees to
obtain astern power. A major advantage of the Azipod is that a rudder
and its associated steering gear system are not required, manceuvring
characteristics are reported as being superior to those using con-
ventional propulsion systems and the stopping time during a crash
astern stop is also reported to be good. They also reduce the size of
space required for the engineroom.
Ballast In the days of sailing ships, ballast was usually in solid form
but nowadays it predominantly consists of seawater located in various
tanks throughout a vessel. A minority of vessels have been provided
with permanent ballast in the form of concrete or even pig iron when
for various reasons the stability of the ship was unsatisfactory. A
modem ship requires ballast water to ensure that the propeller is
fully immersed and that seakeeping capabilities are at a suitable level
especially during periods of severe weather. Ballast tanks form a
natural barrier between the sea and the cargo, and most modem oil
and chemical tankers are built with ballast tanks completely sur-
rounding the cargo spaces in what is called the double hull design.
Seawater is a corrosive substance and tanks which contain ballast
water must be protected against corrosion if the steelwork is to be
protected. De-ballasting operations have recently been held respon-
sible for spreading organisms from polluted sea areas to environ-
mentally sensitive and previously unpolluted areas, for example the
Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Australia. In this regard IMO
(International Maritime Organisation) has recently issued Resolution
774 (18) which controls the discharge of ballast water possibly con-
taining unwanted organisms into estuarial waters and recommends
mid ocean ballast changes.
Ballast system All ships are provided with a ballast system to enable
the designated ballast tanks to be filled or emptied as quickly as
possible. Crude oil tankers have very considerable ballast water
capacities of perhaps 30 per cent of their cargo deadweight and are
provided with commensurately high-capacity ballast pumps. Bulk
carriers also have large ballast water capacities which they have to
discharge quickly when loading at a high loading rate terminal. Two
main ballast pumps and a stripping eductor are usually provided on
Ballast system

a modern ship and the tank valves are provided with remote operation
using hydraulic controls especially on the larger sized ships.
Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO) BIMCO is a
commercial shipping trade organisation headquarted in Copenhagen
with members drawn from over 100 countries, and it is truly Inter-
national in its many spheres of operation. Its members include ship-
owners, ship managers, brokers, agents and many others with interests
in the shipping sector. BIMCO is represented on many of the com-
mittees of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and it also
publishes various booklets on practical issues affecting ship operation,
impending legislation and other such matters of valuable use to those
in the shipping industry. Charterparty documents are also included
in BIMCO's many activities.
Bar Is a unit of pressure used extensively in the marine industry and
is equal to a column of mercury in vacua of 750 mm. For the convenient
measurement of atmospheric pressure the bar is split into 1,000 mil-
libars making it more suitable to identify isobars on weather charts.
The bar is not an approved SI (Systeme International) unit of pressure
and will eventually be replaced with, for example, Kgf/ cm2 to take
into account gravitational acceleration, although this is hardly appro-
priate in marine activities.
Barge The barge in marine terminology is usually a non-propelled
craft towed or pushed by a tug, either singly or in groups. In certain
parts of the world, for example the Mississippi and Rhine rivers,
barges are still used extensively. Ocean-going barge-carrying ships
such as the See bee (which see) and Lash have been developed in recent
years, as also has the Integrated Tug Barge System (which see).
Barge stern Is only one of a new range of sterns aimed primarily at
improving the flow of water into a propeller. The concept is aimed
at the enhancement of propulsive efficiency without the need for
expensive additions to the end structure by avoiding the cost of pro-
viding such items as fins, ducts or any other expensive appurtenances.
The barge stern is an extremely simple but effective design as befitting
its original choice for the stern end of river barges.
Barograph An instrument usually located in a vessel's wheelhouse
which gives a continuous trace of the prevailing atmospheric pressure
on a clockwork driven drum normally revolving at one revolution per
week. The mean atmospheric pressure is adjudged to be around 1,015
millibars and deviations from this figure can easily be obsetyed by
Beam knees

studying the trace from the barograph, and therefore future weather
predictions can more easily be ascertained by those so trained in the
art of meteorology.
Barred speed range When the torsional vibration stresses and
torques of the main propulsion shafting system are found to exceed
classification rule limits at certain revolutions of the main engine it
is usual to place a restriction against running the engine at these
revolutions. This is called the barred speed or critical speed range
which has to be clearly marked in red on the revolution tachomet~rs.
Notice-boards must also be provided at each main engine control
station drawing attention to the barred speed range and stating that
the engine must not be run continuously between the limiting rev-
olutions. A well-designed shafting system will have the barred speed
range at revolutions above that at which the engine is normally run.
Bauer Wach Bauer Wach was a German propriety system of utilising
the energy contained in the exhaust steam leaving the low pressure
(LP) stage of a reciprocating steam engine by passing it through a
steam turbine. The steam turbine was connected to the propeller shaft
via a hydraulic clutch arrangement, thereby allowing it to be dis-
connected during low speed operations when the steam supply was
insufficient to drive the turbine. Gains in thermal efficiency were
claimed to be in the region of 5 per cent by using the Bauer Wach
turbine, but neither it nor the reciprocating engine could survive the
onslaught of the diesel engine when it arrived on the scene.
Beam The beam of a ship is a measurement of its width. It can
be measured either as extreme (overall) or moulded, which is the
measurement taken over the shell frames. Beam is an important par-
ameter when conducting strength calculations for classification pur-
poses and also when the trading patterns of a ship are under
consideration. One of the most important and often used references
to beam is that of the Panama Canal which has a beam restriction of
closely 32.2metres. Beam is also a term used to describe the supporting
structural members attached to the underside of decks and which are
then known as deck beams.
Beam knees Are one of the most versatile structural components
used both in the shipbuilding and the steel fabrication industries and
are of a triangular plate design. Beam knees were used primarily to join
side transverse frames to deck beams in order to increase transverse
strength and reduce the possibility of racking mainly in general cargo
ships. Current construction techniques and modem ship design pre-
Beam knees

elude wholesale use of beam knees, and they are only infrequently
used nowadays, mainly in sub-structures.

Bearing pads Bearing pads are used partially to support the weight
of hatch covers and prevent their full weight from resting on the rather
soft packing material forming the watertight joint between the cargo
holds and the open deck. The pads are located at fixed positions
around the perimeters of the hatch covers and consist of rectangular
steel blocks welded to the hatch cover skirt which align and are in
contact with similar blocks welded to the hatch coaming. Bearing
pads are particularly useful on container ships carrying heavy ondeck
containers and are instrumental in preventing contact between the
cover skirt plating and the coaming.

Beaufort scale A system used to indicate the force of the wind in

digital form named after Sir Francis Beaufort, a former Hydrographer
of the Royal Navy in the 19th century. A brief description of .the scale
is appended;

Beaufort Scale Wind Speed-Knots

0 0- 1
1 1- 3
2 4-6
3 7-10
4 11-16
5 17-21
6 22-27
7 28-33
8 34-40
9 41-47
10 48-55
11 56-65
12 ABOVE 65

The Beaufort scale is still in general use over 100 years after its incep-

Becker rudder A novel arrangement which incorporates a link

driven flap situated behind the main rudder. This arrangement gives
extremely quick response to course alteration signals and the steering
qualities are reportedly superior to those of conventional rudders. By
using a Becker rudder the torque, hence power, of the steering gear can
be somewhat reduced compared with that required for conventional
Bilge systems

rudders. It also allegedly has superior course-keeping characteristics

leading to less distance steamed between ports.
Bedplate The bed plates of large bore two-stroke main propulsion
diesel engines have been made from fabricated steel plates for many
years and their primary purpose is to house the crankshaft (which see).
Previously they were of cast iron construction which gave rise to
certain problems, although many small bore engines are still made in
this material. The fabricated steel large engine bed plates are con-
structed of longitudinal side girders with transverse girders sup-
porting the main bearing housings sometimes made of cast steel for
additional strength. Strict control of the welded joints used in the
fabrication process has made a modern bed plate extremely reliable
befitting its important duty of attaching the engine to the ship's struc-
ture via holding down bolts and chocks.
Bending moments (BM) A ship lying in still water can be considered
to be a simple beam supported by the upthrust of the water. It can be
shown that the bending moments under this condition are zero at the
extreme ends of the ship and are at a maximum closely amidships.
When a ship is at sea the action of waves passing along the hull alters
the pattern of support as the upthrust becomes somewhat chaotic and
the resultant wave bending moments non-uniform. The allowable still
water and wave bending moments are prescribed in classification
society rules and are an important factor in determining longitudinal
strength. Each vessel must have a loading instrument and a loading
manual which gives allowable bending moments under a variety of
cargo loading and ballast conditions.
Bilge keels Bilge keels are fabricated plate structures attached to the
underwater hulls of ships in the turn of the bilge area. They are
provided to reduce the amount of rolling whilst a ship is in bad
weather. They must be very carefully constructed according to classi-
fication society rules and any repairs found necessary in service must
also be approved by classification surveyors. This is because unsat-
isfactory repairs in this critical area can precipitate fractures in the
ship's side shell plating, a contributory cause of a vessel called Kur-
distan breaking in two some years ago.
Bilge systems All compartments on a ship must have means of being
pumped out in the event of flooding. In the case of machinery spaces
this is accomplished by the bilge system connected by piping to two
or more pumps, and in addition to an emergency direct suction to
the largest capacity appropriate pump in the engineroom. The cargo.
Bilge systems

spaces of dry cargo ships and the watertight compartments of pass-

enger ships must also be connected to a bilge system. The bilge system
must be so arranged that in the event of a vessel suffering structural
damage the bilge piping system cannot cause flooding between com-
partments. This is arranged by the provision of non-return valves at
strategic locations within the system. In the case of compartments
provided with water sprinkler fire fighting systems the capacity of the
bilge pumps must be capable of dealing with the water discharged
through the sprinklers in the event of fire.

Bilge water separators Under MARPOL regulations every ship must

be provided with an approved bilge water separator in order to obtain
an International Oil Pollution Prevention Equipment Certificate
(lOPPe). This certificate is valid for five years and the equipment is
surveyed annually by a flag state surveyor or an approved classi-
fication society acting on its behalf. Bilge water separators generally
work on the gravity principle using the density difference between
oil and water as the method of separation. Modem fuel oils having
densities approaching that of water are therefore difficult to separate
using this method. It has been found that certain detergents used in
the engineroom can also interfere with the separation of oil from water.
Coalescers and membrane-type separators have been found to be
suitable in these circumstances. Bilge water separators must be fitted
with an oil content alarm set to operate at 15 ppm (parts per million)
and initiate a bypass valve so prohibiting water with above 15 ppm
oil from being discharged into the sea.
Biocides Bacterial infection of lubricating oil, fuel oil and certain
cooling water systems appears to be on the increase in recent years.
Biocides are usually effective in killing off the bacteria responsible but
it is important to identify the strain causing the infection. Biocides also
have various side effects which should be taken into consideration
before they are used. For example their use can lead to the generation
of a sludge formed by the killed-off bacteria and the associated prob-
lems of its disposal without polluting the environment. Modem think-
ing is to keep the relevant systems clean, and, in the case of lubricating
oil and fuel oil, free from water so that resort to biocides is avoided.
Bitter end This refers to the end connections of the anchor cables in
the chain locker and their function is to prevent the inadvertent loss
of anchors and cables by improper operation or by the combined
failure of the windlass brakes and chain stoppers. The bitter end is
usually a shackle connection whose breaking strength is oooholll;d by
Block assembly

classification regulations, and in the case of Lloyd's Register of Ship-

ping (LRS)the working strength is set at 6.5 tonnes or 10 per cent of
the breaking strength, whichever is greater. It is recommended that
means are provided to slip the anchor cable from the bitter end from
a position outside the chain locker.
Black box recorders These have been variously described as voyage
data recorders or voyage event recorders when used in a marine
application, but are invariably referred to as black box recorders in the
aviation industry. Their use in the marine sector has recently been
the subject of a_recommendation by IMO (International Maritime
Organisation) for bulk carriers above 20,000 DWT (deadweight
tonnes). This was no doubt influenced by the number of such vessels
lost without trace. A typical black box installation would comprise an
accelerometer (which see) located at the bow to provide slamming
information and perhaps four long-base strain gauges to measure
bending moments along the main hull girder. More complicated ver-
sions enabling hull torsional and other stresses at vulnerable positions
are also available and, if thought necessary, stresses induced by cargo
handling operations can be included.
Blast injection This was the original method of injecting fuel oil into
a diesel engine cylinders. The fuel oil, usually diesel oil, was "blasted"
into the combustion space by means of compressed air at a pressure
of around 60 Bar to overcome the then somewhat low compression
pressure (P Comp) of perhaps 30 Bar. The blast air was normally
supplied by means of a three-stage air compressor driven by the main
engine crankshaft usually located at the free end. The complexities of
the blast injection system were solved by the introduction of solid
(airless) injection, now standard. It is unlikely that the blast injection
system could be used in conjunction with the high fuel temperatures
now in use.
Blended fuel oil The use of blended fuel oil was a step up the
learning curve from the previously used straight run distillate fuels to
the ultimate choice of residual fuel in diesel alternators for auxiliary
power supplies aboard ships. The extremely high cost of straight run
distillate fuel in the 1970s promoted research into alternative fuels or
other methods to produce auxiliary power. Blended fuel was one of
the results of this research and it consists of blending a mixture of
straight run and residual fuels purely as a cost saving exercise.
Block assembly Most of the world's shipyards now employ the
block assembly method of ship construction, whereby the ship is.
Block assembly

divided into a number of blocks or units fabricated in spacious

assembly halls and then joined together by welding in a building dock.
In many instances all the pipework, electric wiring and associated
machinery is installed within the blocks prior to erection at the berth
leaving only the joining welds or erection butts, as they are called,
to be completed. Final paintwork, pressure testing of the various
compartments and test running of the machinery and equipment are
all that is then required prior to acceptance sea trials before the ship is
handed over to her owners.
Block coefficient Is a term used to denote the finess of a ship's
underwater lines. It relates to the actual volume of the underwater
hull compared with that of a rectangular block having the same overall
dimensions. A large tanker will have a high block coefficient befitting
the emphasis on its cargo-carrying ability whereas a fast cruise liner
will have a low block coefficient relating to its speed and ascetic
appearance. The difference between these extreme examples being in
the order of perhaps 0.8 for the tanker and 0.65 for the liner.
Block loading This is a practice resorted to when loading heavy
bulk cargoes in adjacent holds, but it is not to be compared with
homogeneous loading (which see) whereby all holds are loaded with
cargo. The usual form of loading heavy cargoes is by using alternate
holds, which was introduced many years ago in a combined effort to
reduce the GM, thereby leading to improved conditions onboard when
in heavy weather and also to speed up cargo hold cleaning operations
after discharge of cargo. Block loading can lead to excessive stresses
being imposed on the hull structure and should be resorted to only
after the agreement of the relevant classification society has been
given. Most bulk carriers are nowadays strengthened for the carriage
of heavy cargoes in alternate holds but block loading can impose even
higher stresses if not carefully arranged.
Blue Riband An unofficial trophy awarded to a ship making the
fastest north Atlantic crossing either westbound or eastbound. Because
of the prevailing weather patterns in the north Atlantic the eastbound
crossings are invariably taster, probably in the region of one knot.
Numerous passenger liners held the Blue Riband trophy, which was
first awarded in 1838 and was last held by a full sized liner by United
States in 1952 at a speed of around 34.5 knots westbound and 35.6
knots eastbound. More recently the prestige of the Blue Riband has
been somewhat denigrated by the acceptance of small unconventional
craft into the contest. It was first held by Hoverspeed Great Britain a
Bonjean curves

wave piercing catamaran (WPC) primarily built for this purpose which
held it by achieving an eastbound speed of around 37.5 knots in
June 1990. More recently it was held by Destriero, a fast streamlined
monohull ship.

Boilers Oil fired boilers are the standard means of supplying steam
aboard the majority of ships, the alternative being a small group of
vessels with thermal oil heating systems whereby heated oil at low
pressure fulfils the duty of the somewhat higher pressure steam. Large
oil tankers of VLCC size usually have extremely large capacity boilers
to drive the steam driven cargo pumps having total installed horse-
powers approaching 10,000 in certain instances. Conversely the steam
boilers on an average bulk carrier will have only a low capacity suf-
ficient to supply the heating needs of fuel oil and accommodation
heating. On these vessels the steam demand at sea is met with an
economiser (which see) and the oil fired boiler is either shut down or
simply used as a steam reservoir for the economiser depending on the
system installed. Smaller capacity boilers are usually of cylindrical
design whereas the larger boilers are invariably of the watertube type.

Boil off gas Is a gas generated by heat leaking through the cargo
tank containment insulation of gas tankers. In the case of LNG (Liquid
Natural Gas) tankers this gas is led to the furnaces of the steam boilers
and used as fuel to supply steam for the propulsion turbines. On LPG
(Liquid Petroleum Gas) tankers it is not allowed to use boil off gas as
fuel and it is re-liquified and led back to the cargo tanks in liquid form.

Bollard Pull The standard method used to ascertain the effectiveness

of the propulsion system of tugs and other such vessels. In order to
measure the bollard pull the vessel is moored to a bollard with a strain
gauge or similar type of instrument shackled into the mooring line.
The strain induced when the main engines are running at full torque
is converted into tonnes of KN (Kilo Newtons) and the figure used to
indicate the pulling or pushing power of the tug.

Bonjean curves These were introduced by a French naval architect

of that name at the beginning of the 19th century. Bonjean curves are
mainly used to obtain the area of the immersed portion of each chosen
transverse section throughout the ship's hull at any selected waterline.
They are curves representing the transverse sectional area and are
traced with the ship's draught forming the vertical axis and the frame
stations forming the horizontal axis. Bonjean curves are useful when
a ship has a somewhat irregular trim or waterline, for example when
Bonjean curves

being launched from a slipway or when being supported by a confused

wave pattern.
Bore cooling Bore cooling is a technique used to maximise heat
transfer in the high temperature regions of a diesel engine and it
results in a lower metal temperature of those parts directly exposed
to the combustion process. Bore cooled cylinder covers manufactured
from forged steel plates are now standard on modem two-cycle
(stroke) diesel engines with the cooling water passageways accurately
drilled through the cover in close proximity to the combustion space.
The upper ends of the cylinder liners are similarly provided with
bored passageways; a lower metal temperature is the end result and
with it a reduced thermal load.
Bottle screw (turnbuckle) These are used to secure moveable parts
of a ship's equipment making it safe when a ship is at sea. Typical
parts of a ship's equipment secured by means of a bottle screw would
be derricks and crane jibs. The bottle screw consists of a cylindrical
body with internal threads, one end with right-handed the other left-
handed threads. Threaded rods also with opposite handed threads
are screwed into the cylindrical body. These rods are provided with
hooked or shackled ends enabling them to be attached to the equip-
ment being secured. When the body is turned by means of a bar the
ends are drawn together by the action of the opposing threads.
Bottom plugs Each tank or compartment situated adjacent to the
bottom shell of a ship has to be provided with a screwed-in plug
mounted in a reinforced plate welded into the plating. The purpose
of the bottom plug is to allow complete drainage of the tank or com-
partment when the ship is in drydock and it is positioned accordingly.
Oil and water tanks have different shaped sockets in the plugs for
identification purposes and the removed plugs are kept under strict
security on board. The rudder is also provided with a drain plug, in
this case to check the watertightness of the rudder plating.
Bow designs There are various designs of bow in general use but
most vessels now adopt the bulbous bow, the exceptions being the
latest breed of HSS (High Sea-service Speed) ships and cruise liners.
Bulbous bows are used on· tankers and bulk carriers priIp.arily to
increase buoyancy forward and reduce pitching motion in high seas.
They also reduce the size of the bow wave and its contribution to the
total resistance of the ship.
Bow doors These are large fabricated steel structures provided

mainly on ro-ro passenger car ferries to facilitate rapid

loading/unloading of accompanied cars and trucks. Attention has in
recent years focused on the vulnerability of bow doors following the
Herald of Free Enterprise and Estonia tragedies. As a result of the Herald
of Free Enterprise incident various safety measures were introduced,
namely means to ensure that the bow doors were closed prior to
departure and "remained watertight throughout the sea passage. Fol-
lowing the Estonia incident the strength requirements and securing
arrangements of bow doors were improved and more frequent inspec-
tions introduced. Those vessels provided with stern doors also have
to comply with these additional safety measures.
Bow loading Oil tankers are usually loaded while safely moored
alongside an oil terminal with chicksans supporting the flexible cargo
hoses. When a tanker is loaded from a floating buoy or similar offshore
device it must have arrangements to assist in supporting the cargo
hoses. This is' arranged for by the provision of a bow loading winch
usually provided with a moment free coupler to compensate for the
vessel's movement. It is normal for tankers using such loading
methods also to be provided with a dynamic positioning (DP) capa-
bility to reduce the chance of high stresses developing in the cargo
hoses during inclement weather conditions.
Bow stopper This is a device mounted on the forecastle deck the
purpose of which is to secure the anchor cables (chains) whilst the
ship is either at anchor or at sea. When the bow stopper is engaged
the weight of the anchor plus the cable is taken by the stopper and is
prevented from being transmitted to the windlass machinery or brake.
Bow stoppers typically consist of a fabricated steel channel-shaped
guide through which the cable runs. A hinged bar engages into a
suitable space between the cable links and the whole device made
very strong and the deck underneath reinforced.
Bow thrusters Are a device used to exert a sideways thrust at the
bow of a ship to assist in berthing operations. They can be cost effective
in that they can help reduce the number of tugs needed to berth a
ship. Bow thrusters usually consist of an electrically driven propeller
mounted in a cylindrical housing just above the base line of a ship.
Thrust control and direction are usually exercised by the use of either
a uni-directional controllable pitch propeller or a system of adjustable
vanes. Many vessels also have stern thrusters provided to further
reduce reliance on tugs.
Braer The oil tanker Braer grounded and sank off the Shetland

Islands in January 1993 and lost her 84,500 tonnes of crude oil cargo.
The incident which led to the grounding was caused by a complete
loss of power, itself caused by seawater entering the fuel oil service
tanks via an air vent pipe damaged by an unsecured piece of equip-
ment breaking loose on deck in bad weather. The loss of oil was so
large that the UK government set up an enquiry led by Lord Donaldson
which published in May 1994the Safer Ships Cleaner Seas report (which
Brake horsepower (BHP) The power of a diesel engine when mea-
sured with a dynamometer or water ,brake at a position immediately
adjacent to the crankshaft flywheel is referred to as the brake horse-
power, BHP is usually measured, during shop trials of a newly con-
structed engine using the enginebuilder's equipment although some
engines have their own torsionmeters mounted on the thrust or inter-
mediate shaft enabling the BHP to be derived from the degree of
shaft torsion so measured in service. Horsepower is not a 51(5ysteme
International) unit and is gradually being replaced by the Kilowatt
(KW), one kilowatt being equal to approximately 1.36 horsepower.
Breakwater Breakwaters are fabricated steel structures usually pro-
vided on large vessels having somewhat reduced freeboards and large
open deck spaces, for example tankers and bulk carriers. They are
located on the upper deck towards the forward end and run athwart-
ships but in a slightly angled direction, so that seas breaking over the
bow are directed towards the gunwhale scuppers. They are extremely
useful in giving protection to crew members working on the open
deck during inclement weather conditions.
Breathing apparatus There are several types of breathing apparatus
used aboard ships mainly to assist firefighting operations, but also to
enter a space containing insufficient oxygen to support life. The main
breathing apparatus is that using compressed air usually referred to
as compressed air breathing apparatus (CABA) in which cylinders of
highly compressed air are strapped to the crew member's back and
reduced pressure air fed via a flexible hose to a face mask. The other
breathing apparatus is the smoke helmet, which consists of a light-
weight hood fed with air from either a bellows-type air pump of
compressed air supply via a flexible hose from outside the space filled
with smoke. Each type has its advantages depending on the location
and evaluation of the hazard involved.
Bridge officer of watch (OOW) A term applied to the watchkeeping
officer in charge of the bridge during his allocated period at sea,

usually of four hours' duration. It used to be common practice for the

bridge watchkeeping officer to be assisted by a helmsman steering the
ship and also a lookout, especially in periods of darkness and during
poor visibility. The advent of automatic pilots made the duties of the
helmsman redundant and the current move towards sophisticated
navigational techniques has questioned the need for a permanent
lookout. Some administrations permit a single OOW to be present on
the bridge except during darkness and in poor visibility when an
assistant is mandatory. The ~hole subject of bridge occupancy is
currently under review at IMO (International Maritime Organisation).
Bridge The bridge or wheelhouse on a typical ship forms the upper-
most deck of the accommodation block from where there is good all
round visibility for safe navigational procedures. The bridge contains
all the numerous and varied navigational aids and equipment now
provided on the modern ship and also the rudder and main engine
controls. Such items as Radar, Positioning Fixing Devices, Echo Soun-
ders, Compass and all manner of other equipment are housed within
the bridge enclosure. Because of its height above the main deck the
bridge structure has to be stiffened against vibration and the bridge
windows made from strengthened glass as protection against the
weather. (See Integrated Bridge Systems.)
Bridge control The majority of ships are nowadays provided with
equipment which enables the main engine to be controlled from the
bridge. In this system the officer on the bridge has a manreuvring
lever marked in similar fashion to the formerly used telegraph (which
see). When the officer places this lever in the required position the
main engine automatically follows the order given. Bridge control
obviates the need for the ship's engineers manually to start and stop
the engine. It is particularly useful in emergency situations such as if
the ship has to stop quickly, and reliance on contacting the duty
engineer is avoided.
Brinelling Is a phenomenon found usually in ball or roller bearings,
but also occasionally in conventional whitemetallined bearings. The
cause of brinelling is related to high levels of localised vibration which
manifests itself by a hammering (brinelling) action between the sur-
faces of the bearing. In the case of ball or roller bearings this can shatter
the extremely hard contact surfaces, and in conventional bearings lead
to spreading of the whitemetal. It usually occurs when the machine is
at rest and therefore devoid of proper lubrication and can be reduced
in severity by ensuring the lubricant used has suitable properties or

lubrication is arranged during these rest periods. A typical location

aboard ship likely to suffer from brinelling is the steering compartment
where vibration levels are usually high.
Britannia The Royal yacht Britannia was built at John Brown's ship-
yard on the River Clyde in 1954 and is approaching the end of her
useful life from an economic point of view. Powered by steam turbines
but burning distillate-type fuel in her boilers, Britannia is expensive to
run and repair/refurbishment costs are approaching critical levels
leading to an impending decision either to find some other use for her
facilities or, build a replacement ship. The eventual decision will be
probably be based on political rather than economic factors.
British Standards Institute (BSI) In marine circles the BSI was best
known for the introduction of the first recognised marine fuel oil
standard, BS MA 100, introduced in 1982. This has now been super-
seded by ISO (International Standards Organisation) 8217 introduced
in 1990 which is now the internationally recognised standard in use,
usually in conjunction with CIMAC requirements which are aimed at
engine manufacturers rather than shipowners. The original ground-
work undertaken by BSI led to the 8217 ISO standard. It is accepted
practice that national standards organisations such as BSIhave eventu-
ally to hand over control to ISO in order to receive international
Brittle fracture A phenomenon thought to have been responsible for
the loss of many Liberty ships, which sank without trace during and
immediately after the Second World War (1939-1945). It was also
thought to be the cause of the loss of the Kurdistan, which broke in
two whilst in ice several years ago. The mechanics behind brittle
fracture in the case of Liberty ships were thought to be the incorrect
welding sequence used when joining shell plates together which gen-
erated locked-in stresses exacerbated when operating in colder climes.
The Kurdistan incident was adjudged to be because of a faulty repair
to the bilge keel which propagated into the bottom shell plating whilst
the ship was in ice.
Buckling Expressed in the simplest terms buckling of certain parts
of a ship's structure is its deformation because it cannot remain in a
stable condition under service loads. Some large oil tankers built in
the late 1960s and early 1970s suffered from buckling of the bottom
shell plating and transverse bulkheads due to the large plate areas
involved and the increased bending stress, with an associated axial
stress, as the size of these vessels gradually increased. Modem tech-
Bulk Chemical Code (BCH)

niques using finite plate element analysis have largely eliminated the
buckling problem mainly by the simple expedient of increasing the
plate thickness.
Bulbous bow There are many types of bulbous bow in general use
and the majority of cargo ships are nowadays provided with one.
The function of a bulbous bow is to increase buoyancy forward and
therefore reduce pitching motion in periods of bad weather. It also
reduces the size of the bow wave and therefore lowers the resistance
from this source. It also increases the area of the underwater hull
which leads to increased frictional resistance.
Building docks Most shipyards, especially those building the larger
ships, now construct them in building docks, a large excavated area
lined with concrete, where completed prefabricated blocks are
assembled in the dock. The building docks are served by massive
cranes capable of handling the completed blocks and lowering the
main engine into position, and crane capacities of 1,000tonnes are not
uncommon. The blocks are prefabricated in covered assembly halls
unaffected by prevailing weather conditions, leaving only the joining
together operation to be completed in the usually uncovered building
Bulk Cargo (BC) Code This is more properly the Code of Safe Prac-
tice for Solid Bulk Cargoes and is published by the International
Maritime Organisation (IMO). It is recommended by IMO that the BC
code is used as a guide for national administrations, shipowners and
ships' masters as to the standards which should be applied for the
safe stowage and carriage of solid bulk cargoes. Grain is not included
as it is covered in the International Grain Code (which see), but other
bulk cargoes posing dangers, such as becoming liquified when wet or
possessing chemical hazards, are included. Also included are test
procedures to determine the characteristics of the cargoes included in
the code.
Bulk Chemical Code (BCH) The full title of this IMO (International
Maritime Organisation) code is the Code for the Construction and
Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk and the
code was first published in 1971.The BCH code applies to all chemical
tankers built before 1986 and it recommends design criteria for the
construction and safe operation of these vessels regardless of size. A
list of chemicals which can be carried is included in the code giving
the appropriate ship type, tank type and other vital safety information
appropriate to the dangers involved in their carriage.
Bunker "c"
Bulkheads Bulkheads are steel structures used to separate com-
partments aboard a ship. The number of transverse watertight bulk-
heads required on ships is governed by both classification rules and
also Safety of Life at Sea regulations. All ships have to be provided
with a collision bulkhead (which see) and a bulkhead at each end of the
machinery compartment. The number of transverse bulkheads within
the cargo space depends on the ship's length, and ideally they should
be s-paced at reasonably uniform intervals to enhance longitudinal
strength. The number of transverse bulkheads is also governed by
subdivision and stability requirements, and in the case of tankers also
by the Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention.
Bulkhead. penetration Bulkheads have an important function in
separating the adjacent watertight compartments of a ship, and it is
occasionally necessary for various pipes and electric cables to pass
through these bulkheads. In order to maintain the integrity of a water-
tight bulkhead the penetrations made through them for the passage
of pipes or cables must be approved by the relevant classification
society. Methods used include spool pieces, sleeves and cable glands,
and if watertight decks also have to be pierced then similar arrange-
ments must be provided.
Bulwarks Bulwarks are primarily used to prevent personnel who
are present or who are working on the upper deck from being swept
overboard whilst a ship is at sea. They are usually made from com-
paratively thin steel plate and are connected to the upper deck by
brackets so arranged that any stress cannot be transmitted between
the upper deck and the brackets. As an alternative to bulwarks open
guard rails can be provided to serve the same purpose. Plated bul-
warks must be provided with freeing ports (which see) to prevent water
from accumulating on the upper deck. In general bulwarks and guard
rails are around one metre high, and bulwarks are stiffened where
fairleads are attached to them.

Bunker "c" Bunker "C" was the standard fuel oil used by oil
burning steamships and it formed the major product of the ships'
bunker industry prior to the arrival of the diesel propelled ship.
Bunker "C" had few, if any, limiting specifications, as it was generally
accepted that marine boilers could tolerate fuel oil of the poorest
quality. Although it was standard practice to drain off free water and
pass the fuel oil through a strainer or filter, no other form of treatment
was carried out onboard and all the contaminants which were anath-
ema to diesel engines were simply digested by the boilers. On rare
Butterfly valves

occasions excessive vanadium content in the fuel oil caused slagging

in the superheater tube banks. (See Superheater slagging.)

Bunkers The quality of marine bunkers has, in the eyes of many,

deteriorated in recent years and has generated much discussion in
the shipping industry. Probably the main contributory cause of this
alleged deterioration was the introduction of what are called sec-
ondary refining techniques when it was feared that crude oil supplies
were under threat. The purpose of introducing secondary refining was
to extract more product from the barrel which led to an inevitable
deterioration of the residual fuel destined for marine bunkers. The
main change in bunker quality resulting from secondary refining con-
cerned the density of both residual and distillate fuels. The former
rose from about 0.96 to 0.99 and the latter from 0.85 to 0.90 and this
represented a reduction in heat content and in many instances led to
combustion problems.

Buoyancy Buoyancy can be defined as the vertical component of

hydrostatic pressure acting in an upward direction that keeps a ship
afloat, and its discovery is generally attributed to Archimedes. Buoy-
ancy forces vary throughout the length of a ship's hull due to the
weight distribution of cargo, ballast, bunkers and the ship itself includ-
ing its machinery. These weights act in a downwards direction and
the net result is equilibrium, in that the ship floats at a particular
draught. However the unequal distribution of buoyancy and weight
results in variations in shear force and bending moments (both of
which see).

Burmeister and Wain One of the original manufacturers of marine

diesel engines, this famous Danish-based engineworks was taken over
by MAN, another original diesel engine manufacturer, some years
ago. The shipyard of the same name was separated from the engine-
works many years ago and it is credited with building the first ocean
going diesel engined ship, Selandia, in 1912. Burmeister and Wain
engine designs still head the list for crosshead two-stroke engines with
about 60 per cent of total worldwide market.

Butterfly valves Butterfly valves are used aboard ship in such appli-
cations as cooler control and flow regulation. They are ideally suited
for this as they offer minimum resistance to flow and require little
effort to operate. They consist of a cylindrical flap housed in a short
bobbin-shaped body into which is fitted a circular disc centrally
mounted on a spindle. When the spindle is rotated through 90 degrees
Butterfly valves

the flow is regulated from zero to full capacity in an extremely fast

operation. The disc is provided with "a" rings to form an effective
seal when the valve is closed.
Calculated carbon aromacity index (CCAI) This index was devised
by Shell to identify the combustibility of essentially heavy viscosity
fuel oil using only the density and viscosity. These figures are
invariably given on the oil supplier's delivery note although it must
be said that they must not be taken at face value and they should be
checked with a test kit by an independent source. Armed with the
correct figures it is a comparatively easy matter to calculate the CCAI
using either a nomogram or programmable computer. It can also be
calculated using the formula: CCAI = D - 81-141 Log Log (V50 +
0.85) where D = density at 15 degrees C. and V50 = viscosity in cst @
50 degrees C. It would appear that a CCAI of 840 and below should
give trouble-free operation. Conversely a CCAI of 870and above could
lead to problems when using this fuel. Some engine builders give
recommended values of CCAI for their engines which should be
Calorific value (CV) This is the heat value of a fuel nowadays ex-
pressed in megajoules per kilogram but previously as K cals/Kg or
BTU's/Lb depending on whether Metric or Imperial units were pre-
ferred. The calorific value can be expressed either as gross or net, the
latter normally being used as it discounts the contribution from any
water in the fuel. CV is normally obtained by using a bomb calorimeter
under laboratory controlled conditions but can also be calculated
using the formula: CV = (46.423- 8.792d) 1 - (x + y + s) + 9.425.Where
d = density, x = water content, y = ash content, and s = sulphur content.
The composition of fuel is approximately 85 per cent carbon, 12 per
cent hydrogen and 3 per cent sulphur. It can be shown that the higher
the hydrogen content the higher the CV,because hydrogen has by far
the highest heat value and is also t~e lightest component. It follows
that the lower the density of the fuel the higher the heat value.
Calorifiers These are hot water boilers provided aboard ship to
supply hot water throughout the accommodation spaces for washing
and cleaning purposes. They are cylindrical pressure vessels of around
2 cubic metres capacity and heat the water to perhaps 70 degrees
centigrade. Both steam and electric heating is usually provided, the
latter as a back up facility, and the unit is adequately insulated.
Camber Camber is a curvature transversely built into the upper
exposed decks of a ship, mainly to prevent seawater from collecting

on the decks and to induce it to flow to the scuppers (which see) where
it is drained overboard. The degree of camber is measured as the
vertical distance that the centreline of the deck is above that at the
side shell. A modern ship will have a deck camber of perhaps 200
millimetres, and the tendency is to make it as a flat rather than a
curved surface to reduce construction costs.
Camshaft drive There are two main types of camshaft drive in use
on modern diesel engines, the camshaft being a line of shafting on
which cams for driving the fuel pumps and cylinder valves are
mounted. The drive mechanism is by either gears or chains and each
manufacturer has his own preference. There are disadvantages in both
systems, the chains being susceptible to stretch and with it an incorrect
timing function and gears are vulnerable to damage if small loose
particles are allowed to enter between the teeth. In the foreseeable
future it is expected that electronic controls will take over the function
of the camshaft, and several engines are already provided with elec-
tronic valve and fuel pump actuation (see Electronic controls).
Canada Shipping Act (CSA) This Act applies to all ships operating
in Canadian territorial waters and is administered by the Canadian
coastguard. In general terms the CSA follows IMO (International Mari-
time Organisation) SOlAS and MARPOl conventions with the excep-
tion that it has followed the USCG (United States Coast Guard) in
allowing only double hull designs for new tankers and will not con-
sider equivalent designs as allowed for in MARPOl regulations.
Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service (CAES) A Canadian
Government agency which monitors weather conditions by appoint-
ing weather observational ships who send in regular weather reports
on a voluntary basis.
Canberra Canberra was arguably the first large prestigious passenger
liner to move away from the then standard arrangement of placing
the propulsion machinery amidships. Canberra had her machinery
located aft which then made the midship spaces available to fare-
paying passengers and their needs. This arrangement was sub-
sequently followed by the majority of passenger ships and cruise
liners. Canberra is one of the last remaining passenger ships still using
steam propulsion machinery and is due to retire in 1997after 36 years'
cruise and liner service, including valuable duties during the Falkland
Capstan A Capstan is a piece of deck machinery used for mooring a

ship or handling the anchor. Capstans perform a similar duty to a

windlass but are not as popular. The difference between them is that
the capstan has a vertical shaft on which the barrel and cable lifter are
mounted, whereas the windlass has a horizontal shaft and attach-
ments. A modern capstan, like the windlass, is either electrically or
hydraulically driven.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) Is a gas produced in the combustion process
both in diesel engines and steam boilers. Because of the high carbon
content (about 85 per cent) of fuel oil and the amount of oxygen
needed for complete combustion each kilogram of fuel oil burnt
produces about 3.2 kilograms of CO2• CO2 is classified as a global
warming gas by virtue of its contribution to the so-called greenhouse
effect. It cannot be removed from the exhaust gas of diesel engines or
the flue gas from steam boilers, and the only way to reduce CO2
emissions is to burn less -fuelby increasing the efficiency of the plant.
CO2 is also extensively used as a total flood fire extinguishing medium
in both the machinery spaces and cargo holds of many ships.
Carbon residue Is a measure of the carbon-forming potential of a
fuel oil. There are two test methods used to determine the carbon
residue in a fuel. The first relates to that used for distillate fuels which
is ISO 4262 (International Standards Organisation), usually known as
the Ramsbottom method. The second relates to residual fuels and the
method used here is ASTM 4530 (American Society for Testing and
Materials) known as Determination of Microcarbon Residue. The
range of allowable carbon residue varies from 0.2 per cent for a dis-
tillate fuel to a maximum of 22 per cent for a 700cst viscosity residual
fuel oil.
Cargo planning Cargo planning activities are generally related to
those involving cargo and ballast operations mainly on bulk carriers
but also on crude oil tankers. The issue has been the subject of recent
research by Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS)amongst others, and it
was found that in the case of bulk carriers as much as 30 per cent more
cargo than that shown on the stowage plan had been loaded in several
holds. Several crude oil tankers have suffered structural failure during
poorly planned cargo and ballast operations. Such activities impose
increased bending moments and shear forces on the ship's hull, and
it is important that the sequence of loading and ballasting and the
quantities involved are carefully planned. Terminal operators are co-
operating in an investigation to avoid overstressing the hull.
Cargo pumps These are the pumps provided on various types of

Tanker and are used to discharge the cargo. They are by-passed when
loading the cargo as this is accomplished by either gravity or external
pressure from the shore. A typical large crude oil tanker will have four
main cargo oil pumps located in a separate pumproom. The steam
turbines driving the cargo pumps will be located in the engineroom
and their drive shafts will pass through glands in the divisional bulk-
head. Smaller oil or chemical tankers and gas tankers will usually be
provided with a deepwell pump (which see) located in each cargo tank.
The pumps themselves can either be centrifugal or screw-type to
match the characteristics of the intended cargoes.

Cargo securing manual All dry cargo ships which carry cargoes
other than those traditionally carried by bulk carriers when employed
in the dry bulk trades will have to be provided with a cargo securing
manual under forthcoming amendments to the Safety of Life at Sea
Convention (SaLAS). The cargo securing manual will cover the
loading, stowage and securing of all non-bulk cargoes such as con-
tainers, vehicles and general cargo. It is estimated that around 30,000
ships on a worldwide basis will be involved, and the anticipated
regulations are expected to enter force in 1997. Each ship type will
have to be provided with a manual suitable for the cargoes expected
to be carried and the production of such manuals is seen as a major

Cargo tank coatings Prior to the introduction of MARPOL regu-

lations relating to Segregated Ballast Tanks (SBT) it was not standard
practice to coat the cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers, but modern
thinking is now to coat these tanks mainly to prolong the ship's useful
life. The choice of coating for crude oil tankers is fairly straightforward
as the properties of crude oil are widely known and are generally of a
uniform nature. A coating such as polyamine expoxy has been found
to give suitable protection for tank surfaces when carrying crude oiL
The tank coatings for product and chemical tankers pose a much more
difficult choice and a product giving protection against the many likely
cargoes is the obvious choice. One of the coatings found to give suitable
protection against a large number of cargoes is epoxy phenolic, but of
course there are so many others.

Carlings These are component parts of a ship's structure mainly

used as an additional support to a section of deck plating. They are
typically used under heavy machinery when it is mounted on a deck
or platform. Carlings are usually of flat plate construction and are

welded in a fore and aft direction between transverse deck beams to

prevent distortion of the plating by the machinery.
Catalyst fines These are composed of silica/ alumina particles used
as a catalyst in the refinery catalytic cracking process and they
occasionally end up in the bunkers delivered to a ship. The presence
of these harmful abrasive particles in a fuel is most undesirable and
can lead to excessive wear of sensitive parts within the fuel injection
system. The total allowable limit for these particles is 80 ppm (parts
per million) for residual fuels and they can prove to be difficult to
remove from a fuel if it contains certain other contaminants, such as
used automobile lubricating oil.
Catamaran In its original form a catamaran was a simple ship having
an outrigger to stabilise rolling motion. More recently is has been at
the forefront of an array of HSS (High Sea-Service Speed) passenger
ships of ever increasing size, usually built with twin identical hulls.
Modern catamarans are invariably built of aluminium with the pass-
enger area supported above the twin hulls. The twin hulls usually
house the propulsion machinery which can be either high speed
diesels or gas turbines driving either super cavitating propellers or
waterjets. The modern catamaran is usually of the wave piercing type,
but others have been built, for example the air cushion vehicle (ACV),
(which see).
Cathodic protection Is a system employed to protect a ship's steel-
work from corrosion by introducing an electrolytic circuit to combat
the active corrosion cells. In a typical system blocks of zinc or a similar
material are attached to the underwater hull and form anodes which
corrode away, and in so doing protect the steel hull and bronze pro-
peller. The steel and bronze act as cathodes and the zinc anodes
complete the circuit by being immersed in the electrolyte, in this case
seawater. This technique is also applied to protect the steelwork in
ballast tanks and is often used in sea chests and cooler casings for the
same purpose.
Caustic embrittlement This is a form of attack occasioned by main-
taining too high a level of alkalinity in the water spaces of usually
cylindrical types of marine boilers. Prior to the adoption of soph-
isticated boiler-water treatment techniques it was common practice
simply to dose the water spaces of these boilers with copious amounts
of lime and soda usually to neutralise the inevitable entry of seawater
from a leaking condenser. If a high level of alkalinity was allowed to
continue for a period of time and was accompanied by a leak in a stay,
Centistokes (Cst)

tube or boiler joint it could result in caustic embrittlement attack,

whereby the boiler plating is infested with numerous hairline frac-
Cavitation Cavitation is a physical phenomenon caused by a col-
lapse of aqueous vapour or air bubbles due mainly to a too-high
relative velocity between seawater and an adjacent metallic surface.
Typical examples of cavitation occur on the propeller blades usually
of high revolution propellers or on the impellers of rotary pumps. The
collapse of these bubbles allows the surrounding seawater to impinge
directly onto the metallic surface, resulting in cavitational attack. Pro-
peller ducts and rudder nose plating. can also be affected by cavi-
tational attack which manifests itself by numerous cavities in the
affected surfaces.
Ceiling This is a form of wood protection laid down as thick planks
on various parts of a ship's structure that are likely to sustain damage
or to protect cargo against damage from the structure. Ceilings were
in former times extensively used to protect the tank top and margin-
plates (both of which see) forming the lower parts of the cargo hold
spaces. It would protect these parts against damage, for example if
steel products were being carried, and protect such cargoes as paper
rolls against damage from the steelwork. Modem practice is to increase
the steel plate thickness of these vulnerable parts instead of using
wood ceilings which frequently had to be repaired as a result of
damage. If ceilings are used then the underneath steelwork must be
protected by anti corrosive paint.
Cell guide systems Cell guide systems of fabricated steel are
installed on container ships invariably below deck in the cargo hold
and more recently above deck on so-called coverless container ships
(which see). The forces emanating from the containers while a ship is
in a seaway have to be absorbed by the cell guide structure, and the
level of these forces is laid down' in classification rules. Cell guide
systems are not normally allowed to form part of the integral structure
of the ship and be so designed that stresses in the hull cannot be
transmitted to the cell guides. They also have to be provided with a
tapered entry arrangement for directing a container being loaded into
the cell guides.
Centistokes (Cst) Centistokes is the SI (Systeme International) unit
now used almost exclusively to indicate the viscosity of marine fuel
oils. Previously each country had its own favourite unit, for example
Redwood in the UK, Saybolt in the USA and Engler in Germany. The
Centistokes (Cst)

international adoption of the SI centistoke viscosity unit has made the

previously tedious exercise of converting one viscosity into another
now redundant. The centistoke is a kinematic viscosity equal to
mm/ second in absolute terms. The unit was named in honour of Sir
George Stokes a physicist who fully investigated viscous flow in the
19th century . .
Centralised cooling water systems These are used with the prime
purpose of reducing the amount of seawater in circulation through
the various heat exchangers in the machinery space. Fresh water is
used instead of seawater as the cooling medium and the only heat
exchanger cooled by seawater is the central cooler itself. From the
central cooler the fresh water is circulated around all the other heat
exchangers in the machinery space, thus minimising the amount of
sei,lwaterpiping usually a source of trouble as ships age. Latest think-
ing is to arrange two freshwater systems, one being a high temperature
and the other a low temperature system.

Certificates All ships have to carry an array of certificates to present

to port officials in order to obtain port clearance. A typical cargo ship
will have the following certificates kept onboard;

Hull and Machinery Classification;

Cargo Ship Safety Construction;
Cargo Ship Safety Equipment;
Cargo Ship Safety Radio;
International Load Line;
International Tonnage;
International Oil Pollution Prevention;
Suez Canal Tonnage;
Panama Canal Tonnage;
Deadweight Certificate;
Builder's Certificate;
Deratting Exemption.

Other ships are also required to carry further certificates relating to

their special activities, for example Passenger Ships and Tankers.

Certificate of financial responsibility (COFR) COFRs are part of the

legislation introduced as a direct result of the Exxon Valdez disaster,
and they now form part of the US OPA90 (Oil Pollution Act 1990)
regulations. This requires that all vessels operating in US waters must
produce evidence in the form of a COFR that funds are available to
Chain locker

satisfy liability claims for removal costs and damages in the event of
oil pollution.
Certificate of fitness Chemical tankers built before 1986 must
possess a Certificate of Fitness for the carriage of dangerous chemicals
in bulk. Chemical tankers built after 1986 must also possess such a
certificate, but in this case the certificate is prefixed International to
identify it with the IBC (International Bulk Chemical) Code. The cer-
tificate is usually issued by the flag state and contains full details of
the cargoes which have been approved for carriage by virtue of the
ship type and equipment provided. Prior to the certificate of fitness
initially being issued an examination of the ship is carried out to
ensure it complies with all aspects of the mc code.
Cetane Indicated Index (CII) Was devised for similar reasons as
CCAI and also uses only the density and viscosity figures to arrive at
the cn. The numerical values of cn are somewhat lower than those
of CCAI and instead of using 840 and 870 as the determining figures
29 and 37 should be substituted. Thus, a cn of 29 and below is a good
reading and 37 and above a poor reading. Again some engine builders
give recommended values of cn for fuel to be used in engines of
their manufacture. The formula for deriving cn is: CCI = (270.795 +
0.1038T) - 0.2545650 + 23.708Log Log (Vk + 0.7) where 0 = density
at 15 degrees C and Vk = viscosity in cst at T C.
Cetane number A method used to determine the ignition properties
of a distillate fuel oil by measuring its ignition delay. It is carried out
in a laboratory test engine in which a reference fuel with a known
ignition delay is compared with the fuel being tested. The results
obtained from the test are converted into a cetane number between 0
and 100 using published data. Because of the time and expense taken
for this test it has been superseded by the Cetane Index, a calculated
value determined from known particulars of the fuel which gives
similar numerical values to the Cetane number. A typical Cetane
number/index for a good quality distillate fuel would be about 60.
The minimum recommended value given by CIMAC is 35 for the
heaviest grade distillate.
Chain locker The chain locker is located at the forward end of the
ship, usually within the forecastle space abaft the collision bulkhead,
and its purpose is to house the anchor cables (chains). It is a watertight
divided compartment and its capacity must be such that there is
sufficient space to permit a direct lead for the cables to enter the
spurling pipes at the upper end of the locker. Access and drainage
Chain locker

arrangements must be provided to enable routine inspection and

cleaning. Self-stowing chain lockers with a conical base are sometimes
provided as an added feature.
Chamber of Shipping (CaS) cas is a London based organisation
which represents the interests of subscribing UK shipowners in all
manner of subjects. cas attends all meetings of the International
Maritime Organisation (IMO) and it submits many discussion docu-
ments relating to the technical, operational and commercial aspects of
shipping. It also publishes many authoritative booklets relating to the
safe operation of ships and it is actively involved in the training of
seafarers. There are very few shipping matters in which the cas does
not have an active interest.
Charpy V notch Is an impact test generally used on steel intended for
steel structures or pressure vessels, and it demonstrates the materials
resistance to fracture when shock loaded. In the Charpy V notch test
a specimen of 10mm square section has a V-shaped cut in one face.
An impact induced on the opposite side to the notch by a swinging
pendulum is used to fracture the specimen and the energy needed
then converted to give a result in Joules. The Charpy V notch test is
very useful for steels intended for use in low temperature conditions.
Chemical Carriers Association (CCA) An association of shipowners
in the chemical tanker sector whose interests are protected when ~ew
legislation is introduced which may affect their sphere of operation.
Because the chemical tanker trade is effectively self-regulated by virtue
of the expertise of its constituent members, it is rare for the CCA to be
in conflict with the authorities.
Chemical tankers Chemical tankers vary in size from those
employed in coastal waters of perhaps 500 DWT to the average sized
ocean-going tanker of around 30,000 DWT. There appears to be no
concerted move to adopt the economy of scale concept in this special-
ised area. There are four basic types of chemical tankers, as reflected
by the degree of danger and categorisation of the cargoes they are
allowed to carry. Category A chemicals are the most dangerous, and
tankers carrying these cargoes have the most stringent safety features
as expressed by the cargo containment arrangements. Chemicals of
categories B, C and D are progressively less dangerous and their cargo
containment measures similarly less onerous.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) These substances are used as refriger-
ants aboard ship and are noted for having a high Ozone Depletive
Classification societies

Potential (ODP) and also a high Global Warming Potential (GWP).

Both these unwelcome characteristics have recently been associated
with the ozone hole in the antarctic stratosphere and the so-called
greenhouse effect. CFCs were first introduced as a refrigerant when
R12 (Dichlorodifluoromethane) replaced ammonia and CO2 in the
1930s.After being in general use for about 20 ye<}XS R12 was replaced
with R22 (Chlorodifluromethane) which is designated an HCFC and
as such has a slightly lower ODP and GWP than CFC. CFCs have
already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol and HCFCs will
be phased out by the year 2000. The search for a replacement refriger-
ant is continuing with ammonia and CO2 being suggested which
would effectively turn the clock back 70 years or so.
Chocks Chocks are used in order to ensure that a diesel engine is in
correct alignment with its shafting or alternator as the case may be.
Chocks permit the diesel engine to be raised or lowered to its correct
position by either increasing or reducing the height of the chocks. Cast
iron used to be the preferred material for chocks because of its high
compressive strength; more recently resin chocks have found favour
with a majority of shipyards. Resin chocks are less labour intensive
than the cast iron variety and the resin is simply poured into a mould
after the engine has been correctly aligned to its correct height using
temporary wedges or jacks. Side chocks are also used to ensure that
lateral movement of the engine is prevented by absorbing the internal
forces generated by the engine or to prevent movement in the event
of a collision.
Chronometer An extremely accurate clock used by mariners to
determine a ship's position with respect to its longitude. Knowing
the exact time enabled the navigator to determine the longitude by
comparing local time with GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) in associ-
ation with celestial sightings. Chronometers have a device which
retains their accuracy over a range of temperatures, always useful
in the marine environment. The chronometer's usefulness has been
degraded by the introduction of radio time signals and satellite navi-
gation systems (Satnav) and it now only has a curiosity value.
Classification societies Are essentially non-profit-making organ-
isations originally introduced to protect the interests of shipowners
and cargo owners and their insurers to ensure that the ship and its
cargo will safely reach their destination. Classification societies
approve the design of the ship and its machinery and supervise their
construction. Thereafter they inspect the ship and its machinery on
Cla~sification societies

a regular basis to ensure that they are maintained in a satisfactory

condition. There are over 40 classification societies in existence and 11
of the larger societies have formed themselves into what is called lACS
(International Association of Classification Societies). Their joint aim
is to improve standards of classification in certain areas which have
come in for much criticism of late, for example the high loss rate of
bulk carriers.
Clear view screens These are provided on one or more bridge front
windows at the forward end of the wheelhouse. They consist of a
revolving disc of transparent material driven by an electric motor, and
they are used in periods of poor visibility, for example when rain or
spray is depositing itself on the windows making visibility rather
restricted. The centrifugal force generated by the rotary movement of
the screen throws any moisture from the revolving disc making visi-
bility that much improved.
Closed gauging The carriage of many dangerous cargoes aboard
chemical tankers has to be arranged in such a manner that personnel
must not come into contact with the cargo. In the case of tank sounding
operations to determine the amount of cargo in a tank this has to be
accomplished with a closed gauging system whereby the tank contents
are not likely to be released and cause injury to the person taking the
sounding. There are many closed gauging systems on the market, such
as those operating on the radar principle, and systems working on
either a resistance tape or pressure transducer arrangement.
Close-up surveys The periodical classification surveys of the upper
hold and tank spaces especially of large ships have proved to be rather
difficult to carry out in service. This is mainly because of the lengthy
distances involved and the lack of suitable access arrangements, and
because of this it was felt that certain critical areas were being over-
looked by the surveyors. All surveys of vulnerable parts of the ship's
structure in these spaces have now to be held at a close distance
nominally fixed at being within hand's reach, and the International
Association of Classification Societies has incorporated close-up
surveys into their requirements.
Cloud point The cloud point of a distillate fuel oil or a lubricating
oil is the temperature at which a cloud or haze appears when the
subject oil is cooled under prescribed laboratory test conditions. Cloud
point is an indication that any wax present in most paraffinic based
oils is about to crystallise. When this happens serious problems can
occur, for example the wax may block filters and cut off fuel or lub-

ricating oil supply in extreme cases. The cloud point indicated in

CIMAC requirements for the highest grade distillate fuel oil is given
as minus 16 degrees centigrade as a maximum value.
Coal as cargo One of the highest volume movers in the dry bulk
carrier sector is coal. Coal falls into two distinct categories, the first
being metallurgical or coking coal as used in the steel making industry.
The second category is steaming or thermal coal used in the power
generation industry. Coal is listed in the IMDG (International Marine
Dangerous Goods) code and is also included in a code of safe working
practice issued by IMO (International Maritime Organisation). There
are various dangers associated with the carriage of coal aboard ship,
the most dangerous is that relating to fire and explosion, usually by
the production of methane gas. Coal can also produce sulphurous acid
particularly if it is allowed to come into contact with water and the
resultant liquid then attacks the hold steelwork.
Coal as fuel Ships propelled by steam engines using coal-fired
boilers were the only means of sea transport, apart of course from sail,
at the beginning of the 20th century. Oil gradually replaced coal in
steam ships and diesel eventually replaced steam, and there are cur-
rently only a handful of coal fired steamships in service. These were
built when fuel oil costs reached around $200 per tonne and, with coal
pitched at around $40 per tonne, several shipowners thought coal was
a reasonable alternative to fuel oil. The main problem to be resolved
before any large scale return to coal could be considered is the for-
midable logistics necessary to arrange worldwide continuity of sup-
Coalescers Coalescers in this context refer to equipment used to
facilitate the separation of oil from water in oily water separating
devices. They are usually made of olephillic or porous material which
has the property of combining or coalescing the small droplets of oil
into larger globules. This makes them easier to separate from water in
the gravitational separation process or by recycling them through
the coalescer further to enlarge the globules before the gravitational
Coaming In marine terminology a coaming is a protrusion formed
around an opening whose purpose is to prevent water from running
into the opening. Coamings are also used to compensate for the loss
of strength due to cutting the opening in the plating. They are much
in evidence on the upper decks of ships where they are used around
the cargo hold openings and then referred to as hatch coamings (which

Coamings are also used around many other openings, for example
access hatches serving cargo tanks and rope lockers.
Code of Practice for Safe Loading and Unloading Bulk Carriers
(BCLU) The BCLU code is expected to be introduced by the Inter-
national Maritime Organisation (IMO) in 1997 and it is primarily
aimed at avoiding problems during in port periods when a ship is
loading or discharging bulk cargoes. Loading plans and discharge
patterns are addressed in the Code and the need for close liaison
between ship's staff and the terminal operators is given emphasis.
Improper loading and discharge procedures can lead to excessive
stresses being imposed on the ship's hull and the Code gives useful
advice on how to prevent this. The separate responsibilities of ship's
staff and terminal operators are addressed and a model ship/shore
safety checklist is included.
Code of Safe Working Practices Is a document issued by the UK's
Department of Trade (DOT) specifically aimed at merchant seamen,
more specifically those employed on UK registered ships. It covers all
aspects of ship operations and the dangers it poses to ship's personnel
when being carried out. The International Labour Office (ILO) also
publishes a similar document focused on accident prevention aboard
ships applicable to all ships whatever their port of registry.
Cofferdam Is a void space arranged between vulnerable com-
partments on a ship to serve as a protective barrier mainly to prevent
explosion or fire. Probably the best known application of a cofferdam
is on oil tankers, where they are provided at the forward and aft ends
of the cargo tank section. Cofferdams are also required between cargo
oil tanks and any adjacent accommodation spaces or compartments
containing electrical equipment. Pumprooms, ballast tanks and oil fuel
tanks are usually accepted in lieu of cofferdams by most classification
Collision bulkhead A large number of marine accidents causing
structural damage are as a result of a collision with another ship
invariably involving the bow area of one of the ships involved. It is
for this very reason that every ship must have a collision bulkhead,
usually but not necessarily the forepeak tank bulkhead. The collision
bulkhead is so positioned that in the event of bow damage the free-
board deck will not become submerged or result in unacceptable loss
of stability. On passenger ships having lengthy superstructures the
collision bulkhead is usually extended upwards above the freeboard
deck to next weathertight deck.
Combined diesel electric and gas turbine (CODELAG)

Collision Regulations These are known as COLREG 1972, an IMO

(International Maritime Organisation) Convention which entered
force in 1977. Previously they were referred to as the Rules of the Road
and, as the name implies, were directed at the conduct of approaching
ships under a variety of operating scenarios. Navigation lights dis-
played and sound signals made are also included in the COLREG
Convention, all in an attempt to avoid ship c011l~ions. More recently
the Convention has been extended to include traffic separation
schemes in high traffic density routes for example the English channel.
Coloumbi egg tanker Is one of several alternative designs which
emerged as an alternative to the double hull tanker (which see) more
or less demanded by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) for tankers
trading to the US. The coloumbi egg design of tanker has a mid-deck
oiltight division extending across the ship but has no double bottom.
The upper side tanks are reserved for ballast water and are used as a
protection against side collision damage, and the mid-deck division is
a protection against bottom damage. At present the coloumbi egg
design has not been approved by the USCG as an alternative to the
double hull tanker.
Combi ferry Combi ferries are in general those ships which carry a
mixture of road and rail freight vehicles plus buses and cars, as well
as passengers. They are mainly employed in the Baltic Sea area but
have also been used in Canadian coastal trades. The road vehicle decks
on these vessels are of conventional design with access to the quayside
via linkspan or similar equipment. The rail wagons are in some appli-
cations accessed by a train lift or similar device to line up with the
quayside tracks.
Combined boiler incinerator An arrangement whereby the auxili-
ary oil-fired boiler provided aboard most ships has an incinerator
section integral to the boiler furnace. This enables oily sludge and
solid garbage to be incinerated without the need to provide a separate
incinerator. The advantage of the combined boiler incinerator is that
it extracts useful heat from the waste products being burned by con-
verting it into steam, unlike the conventional incinerator, in which the
heat generated in the combustion process is simply discharged into
the atmosphere. The emissions from incinerators are expected to be
controlled by MARPOL regulations in the near future.
Combined diesel electric and gas turbine (CODELAG) This rather
complicated ship propulsion system has only a very limited appli-
cation and would probably be tailor-made to suit a specific purpose.
Combined diesel electric and gas turbine (CODELAG)

In a retrofit of a large Baltic ferry originally built with geared gas

turbine propulsion, diesel electric power was added to combat the
high fuel costs of the gas turbines. This first refit allowed either the
gas turbine or the diesel electric mode to be selected, but they could
not be used together. A second refit concerned the provision of new
gearboxes enabling all possible combinatigps of power sources to be
employed either together or independently. The CODELAG pro-
pulsion system is also used in the UK's type 23 Frigate.
Combined diesel or gas turbine (CODOG) This propulsion
arrangement is currently very popular in satisfying the needs of the
world's navies. In its standard form gas turbines supply the power for
full power operation, and somewhat smaller powered diesel engines
are used in the cruising mode. There are various combined power
plants in general use for example CODAD (Combined Diesel and
Diesel) which could describe many of the power plants provided on
modern cruise liners. In general terms these acronyms are only used
in the naval sector.
Combustion process The heat released in the combustion process
which takes place within the cylinders of a diesel engine, the com-
bustion chamber of a gas turbine or the furnace of a steam boiler can
be determined by using the chemical heat values of the constituents
of the fuel in use. Fuel oil is essentially a hydrocarbon containing
approximately 85 per cent carbon, 12 per cent hydrogen and 3 per cent
sulphur plus small amounts of impurities. Knowing the chemical
heat value of the combustible constituents of the fuel it is a fairly
straightforward calculation to determine the heat available in the fuel.
From this can be deduced the thermal efficiency of the power source
using the heat in the fuel as·a basis.
Committee for the Elimination of Substandard Ships (CESS) CESS
is an international organisation with members mainly drawn from the
world's leading shipbuilders whose primary aim is to remove unsafe
ships from the world's trade routes. CESS are also active in the field
of ship demolition and have advocated the introduction of modern
scrapping facilities, for example in India. They also support the recent
amendments to the STCW convention (which see) but are against the
so-called grandfather clauses seen by them simply as a means of
allowing obsolete ships to continue trading.
Common rail injection system (CRIS) Common rail fuel injection
systems were pioneered by Doxford (which see) diesel engines many
years ago. Most modern diesel engines use independent fuel pumps
Composite boiler

working on the Bosch principle whereby a scroll in the fuel pump

plunger is used to control the amount of oil injected into the cylinder.
The Doxford engine used mechanical means for fuel valve actuation,
but modern CRrS systems will use electronically controlled solenoid
valves. Recent research has concluded that CRrS is superior to inde-
pendent fuel pumps in many applications. ,;,.

Compactors Are used to reduce the volume of garbage produced on

a ship by compacting it under pressure, so enabling it to be con-
veniently stored while the ship is in a special sea area, as defined in
MARPOL regulations, in which it cannot be discharged overboard.
Compactors are mainly used aboard cruise liners which generate con-
siderable amounts of garbage, and the use of a compactor enables the
volume to be reduced to perhaps 15 per cent of its free state, making it
more conveniently storable until the ship reaches a port with disposal
facilities. Modern compactors employ ultra violet sterilisation tech-
niques to destroy germs and a carbon filtration system to reduce smells
in what is usually an unhygenic activity.
Compass The compass is the primary means used to navigate a ship
and exists in two basic forms. The magnetic compass has been in use
since time immemorial and depends on the earth's magnetic field to
attract a magnetised needle. Corrections are needed mainly because
the earth's magnetic North is not coincident with the true North
and the magnetism of the ship itself has to be neutralised. Although
magnetic compasses are still provided aboard ship they are not nor-
mally relied upon to give accurate navigational information, and the
gyro compass (which see) is the preferred method in use.
Compatibility Compatibility is usually related to fuel oils in the
marine industry. Because of the various crude oil sources available,
for example naphthenic, paraffinic and aromatic, it is inevitable that
problems will occur if fuels from different crude sources are mixed.
The oil majors will ensure that only compatible fuels will be delivered
to a ship, except for isolated incidents when perhaps refinery pro-
cedures have been violated. Shipowners on their part must ensure
that, as far as possible, fuels from different bunkerings are not mixed
together onboard. If this occurs it gives rise to the possibility of incom-
patibility, which usually manifests itself by the formation of sludge
and is to be avoided at all cost.
Composite boiler This is a novel arrangement which combines an
oil fired boiler and an exhaust gas boiler within the same unit. The oil
fired section is typically of the vertical, cylindrical smoke tube type
Composite boiler

and the exhaust gas section comprises a bank of tubes through which
the hot exhaust gas passes. The oil fired section is used in port and the
exhaust gas section at sea when the main engine is running. It is usual
to provide an exhaust gas by-pass pipe with the composite boiler
arrangement for safety reasons.
Compressed air systems On diesel engme-propelled ships the com-
pressed air system is primarily for starting the main engine. Most
classification societies ask for a total of 12consecutive starts of the main
engine in alternate directions (ahead and astern). This requirement
determines the volume of the compressed air reservoirs of which two
are usually required. It is also a classification requirement that these
reservoirs can be recharged from atmospheric pressure to designed
operating pressure within one hour. This requirement determines the
capacity of the starting air compressors of which there must be at least
two. An initial start arrangement must also be provided, so that from
a dead ship situation compressed air can be provided from an inde-
pendent power source to start a diesel alternator.
Computer aided design (CAD) CAD techniques are used exten-
sively in all the many aspects of ship and machinery design. In the
case of classification societies most of those in the lACS (International
Association of Classification Societies) group use such applications
as three-dimensional finite element techniques as standard. Fatigue
performance of a ship's structure under operational conditions can
also be achieved using CAD which gives an insight into high stress
areas. Shipbuilders also make extensive use of CAD for all the many
calculations involved in ship construction, not forgetting that in
general terms no two ships are completely alike and a simple change
in design can involve many calculations made easy by CAD. Diesel
engine designers also make extensive use of CAD techniques in the
development of their engines and such ancillary equipment as turbo-
Computers aboard ship Most ships now make extensive use of
computers to perform a variety of tasks previously undertaken by
laborious manual methods. Communications is one area in which
messages can be sent using a PC (personal computer). Other appli-
cations for which computers are ideally suited include planned main-
tenance, condition monitoring, stock control, crew lists, ship
performance and, of course, word processing. Most ships have a dedi-
cated loading computer as required under classification regulations,
and it is possible to use other programs in this infrequently used
Condition monitoring (CM)

instrument to limit the number of computers carried. Inter-depart-

mental flexibility is also a prerequisite for reducing the number of
computers needed.
Concentrates Concentrates carried aboard ships are those typically
made from crushed lead and zinc ores and loaded near to a mine site
and then discharged at a processing plant. The maifrdanger in carrying
these concentrates aboard ship is if seawater enters the cargo spaces
and the cargo partially liquefies, which has the effect of reducing the
flow moisture point and the distinct possibility of stability problems
arising. The subject of such cargoes has recently been addressed by
the international Maritime Organisation (IMO) which has introduced
a Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes (BC Code) which gives
advice on problems arising from the carriage of those bulk cargoes
having dangerous properties.
Condensers Condensers are cylindrical shell and tube heat
exchangers and are used to convert exhaust steam from various con-
sumers aboard ship back into water and thence back to the boiler as
feed water in what is a closed system. Actually a truly closed-feed
system is only used aboard the few remaining steam-turbine propelled
ships whereby air is removed from the condensate by a variety of
means to avoid serious problems developing in the high pressure
boilers. A modem diesel propelled ship having only limited steam
consumers using low pressure steam will only have a small condenser
or in many instances a drains cooler to convert the exhaust steam back
into water.
Condition assessment programme (CAP) This is an initiative by
three of the leading classification societies, namely Det Norske Veritas,
American Bureau of Shipping and Lloyd's Register of Shipping, to
introduce a harmonised rating scheme primarily aimed at older oil
tankers. Although each of these three classification societies had a
condition assessment programme in existence they were not har-
monised from a procedural point of view and each had a different
numerical rating system. The CAP is a voluntary system which gives
a detailed assessment of a tanker's actual condition at the time of
inspection and is available to both charterers and owners.
Condition monitoring (CM) Monitoring the condition of machinery
was for many years carried by the ship's watchkeeping engineers
using only their senses of sight, touch, hearing and smell. It was in
fact their prime function in keeping the machinery in running order.
The routine watchkeeping tasks of recording temperatures and pres-
Condition monitoring (CM)

sures have largely disappeared with the introduction of automated

monitoring and control techniques. A further development is the use
of condition monitoring in functions unrelated to pressures or tem-
peratures. These include the use of vibration analysers to monitor the
performance of rotating machinery and lubricating oil analysis to
monitor propeller shaft oil systems. Other- systems include diesel
engine fault identification and operational trends as a result of mal-
Constant pressure turbocharging The standard method now
adopted for slow speed two-stroke marine diesel engines. Constant
pressure turbocharging reduces the thermal shock on the turbo-
chargers when compared with the previously used impulse tur-
bocharging system. In the constant pressure system each exhaust valve
discharges the products of combustion into a common exhaust receiver
running the length of the engine. From this receiver branch pipes lead
to the gas inlets of the turbochargers where exhaust is delivered at
a steady pressure and temperature making for a thermally stable
arrangement, unlike the impulse system previously used (which see).
Container securing arrangements Containers aboard ship are
mainly stowed under deck in fixed cellurised guides constructed of
fabricated steel which secure the containers against the forces gen-
erated by ship movement and also permit their easy handling by
dedicated shore cranes. Containers stowed above deck have two dis-
tinct securing methods, one the use of fixed ondeck cell guides in
similar fashion to that used under deck. The more popular method is
a system of loose fittings comprising twistlocks, stacking cones, bridge
fittings, lashing rods and lashing wires, all comprising an approved
classification system carefully designed to withstand forces generated
by the ship's motion.
Continuity In this context continuity relates to that of the primary
members of a ship's structure. Early causes of severe structural failure
in large oil tankers were found to be due to the non-contiimity of
longitudinal frames where they passed through transverse bulkheads.
This generated extremely high stresses and resulted in fatigue frac-
tures at the point of non-continuity. Modern construction techniques
are designed so that continuity of strength is more easily arranged and
abrupt changes in the size or section of adjoining members avoided.
Continuous service rating (CSR) The CSR is related to the output
of main propulsion diesel engines and refers to the percentage of the
Maximum Continuous Rating (which see) that the shipowner intends
Controllable pitch propellers (CPP)

to operate the engine. In fixing the CSR many considerations have to

be taken into account, for example the level of maintenance employed,
the expertise of the operating personnel and the conditions under
which the ship operates. The figure chosen is in the range of 85 to 90
per cent of MCR for the majority of owners. Derated engines use the
derated MCR when fixing the CSR, not the fullypted MCR.
Continuous surveys Continuous surveys were introduced by classi-
fication societies to spread special surveys over a five-year period in
an approved sequence so that each surveyable item was seen at a five-
year interval and 20 per cent of the total number of items were dealt
with during each calendar year. Many ships still have their machinery
surveys dealt with on a continuous basis which avoids interference
with a ship's schedule. Because of problems found with the condition
of vulnerable structural parts of bulk carriers and tankers many classi-
fication societies do not allow hull surveys to be performed on a
continuous basis.
Contracted and loaded tip propeller (CLT) This is a Spanish design
of propeller in which tip plates are provided on the propeller blades
in order to maximise pressure distribution across the blades. By
arranging the tip plates in the direction of fluid flow, viscous resistance
is maintained at a level only slightly above that of a conventional
propeller. Propulsive efficiency of the CLT propeller is allegedly 10
per cent higher than that of a conventional propeller, but previous
attempts to adopt tip plates on ships' propellers were not successful,
and it remains to be seen if the CLTpropeller will prove commercially
Contra-rotating propellers (CRP) The contra-rotating propeller was
first used in the aviation industry many years ago and was first pro-
posed in the marine sector in the late 1960s when VLCCs (Very Large
Crude Carriers) made their debut. In recent times a CRP was fitted to
a Japanese car carrier in 1988, then in 1993 the first VLCC, also built
in Japan, to be provided with a CRP was delivered and subsequently
another VLCC with a CRP was delivered by the same shipyard. CRPs
are coaxially mounted in opposing directions using a complicated
gearing system. Energy savings of around 15 per cent are claimed, but
the complexity may not suit all shipowners.
Controllable pitch propellers (CPP) CPPs are capable of moving
the blade positions from full ahead to full astern without the need to
reverse the main engine, and the pitch can be set at any intermediate
angle to suit the operating conditions. They are mainly used on pass-
Controllable pitch propellers (CPP)

enger ferries because of their fast response to engine movement orders

and the avoidance of the need to start, stop and reverse the main
engine. CPPs have been used on deep-sea ships in an attempt to match
the required pitch with the amount of hull fouling or the deeper
draught of a ship, but are not frequently specified .
Controlled atmosphere (CA) CA relates to the carriage of certain
perishable refrigerated cargoes whose condition deteriorates in the
presence of atmospheric air containing oxygen. To obtain the CA
classification society notation various features have to be provided
which in the main relate to the positioning of the inlet and outlet
ventilation openings. A stored or manufactured inert gas is usually
introduced into the refrigerated spaces to control the oxygen content.

Control of discharged oil The control of oil discharged into the sea
from ships for operational reasons is strictly regulated by MARPOL
1973/8 Annex I of the IMO (International Maritime Organisation)
Convention. Oily water mixtures retained in engineroom bilges can
only be pumped into the sea outside special sea areas if they have an
oil content of less than 15 ppm (parts per million). Oil in other spaces,
mainly relating to the cargo and ballast tanks of oil tankers, can only
be pumped into the sea with a limit of 30 litres per nautical mile
steamed. The equipment needed to control the discharge at this limit
is extremely complicated and not altogether reliable. In the ca:s~. of
special sea areas such as the Baltic, Mediterranean and Red Seas it is
prohibited to pump any oil into the sea.

Construction monitoring (CM) A procedure now adopted by many

of the major classification societies to ensure that individual com-
ponents of a ship's structure are in accordance with the design par-
ameters included in their construction rules. In addition to the usually
manual control of such activities as alignment and fit up of main
strength members, CM techniques extend. to computer-based pro-
cedures relating to fatigue strength in critical high stress areas.

Copas-Sarsat Is a polar orbiting satellite operating in the 406 Mhz

(Megahertz) and 121.5 Mhz bands. The system has global coverage
and it is essentially used for transmitting distress alerts from EPIRBs
(Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons). These are devices
which float off a sinking ship and begin transmitting signals so
enabling search and rescue operations to begin. Under GMDSS (Global
Marine· Distress and Safety System) regulations currently in force
every ship has to be provided with an EPIRB device.
Corrosion margins

Copolymer paint Copolymer is defined as a substance having a

large number of giant molecules. It is normally associated in marine
applications with anti-fouling underwater paint systems and is an
ideal candidate for use as a binder system. This holds the metallic
poisons used as biocides in suspension while they are slowly abraded
away. Future legislation may place a restrictio~JID this type of anti-
fouling paint in view of its alleged damage to the environment.
Cordless irons An extremely effective fire prevention measure is the
cordless iron used as a laundering appliance. In this arrangement the
electricity supply is connected to a thermostatically controlled and
fully insulated base on which the cordless iron is placed. Electrical
short circuits due to chaffed flexible leads are eliminated and fires due
to leaving hot irons on inflammable surfaces essentially avoided.
Corporate Research for Ships (CRS) The Corporate Research for
Ships consortium is an international project comprising the major
classification societies, the world's navies and many shipbuilders.
It is primarily concerned with research and development into the
emerging breed of High Sea-service Speed (HSS) ships and the speCial
problems they give rise to. High on the list is the slamming effect that
the hulls of these ships are exposed to at high speed especially when
operating in bad weather conditions. Innovative designs leading to
improved seakeeping qualities at high speed are also being inves-
tigated by the CRS consortium.
Corrosion Many metallic elements and alloys used in ship con-
struction will eventually corrode if not protected. Steel of course is the
major alloy used in shipbuilding and it is only in recent years that
steel in vulnerable locations has to be protected under classification
rules. This requirement was mainly aimed at the steelwork within
ballast tanks, the cause of many structural problems aboard ships. The
main areas of corrosive attack take place in acidic seawater such as
in ballast tanks, and of course the outside hull. Corrosion normally
manifests itself in the form of rust and scale underneath which develop
pits and cavities. Corrosive attack is probably the most influential
factor in determining a ship's economic life.
Corrosion margins All structural strength members of a ship's hull
are designed with a margin to allow for corrosion especially in vul-
nerable locations. In recent years the emphasis has been to concentrate
on these parts and to introduce anti-corrosive coatings or alternatively
to increase the corrosion margins, which are typically 2 mm above rule
thickness as calculated by the classification society. Ballast tanks are a
Corrosion margins

case in point, and it is now a classification requirement to apply and

maintain effective anti-corrosive coatings. The holds of bulk carriers
which are likely to carry aggressive and corrosive cargoes have had
their corrosion margins increased as it is impractical to apply coatings
to these spaces.
Corrugated bulkheads Are constructed orfabricated steel plates to
form corrugations and are invariably used for the transverse and
longitudinal bulkheads on oil tankers. The main reason for their
introduction many years ago was to dispense with the numerous
stiffeners needed to support the plain bulkheads previously in use.
Corrugated bulkheads present a smooth surface to the cargo in contact
with them and greatly facilitate cargo space cleaning operations.
Steelweight is also reduced by using corrugated bulkheads and weight
for weight they are stronger than plain bulkheads with conventional
stiffening arrangements.
Cost reduction initiative for the new era (CRINE) CRINE is an
initiative led by the UK offshore industry aimed at reducing capital
expenditure and operating costs in the now mature North Sea sector in
order to remain competitive with other younger oil and gas producing
areas in the world. One of the most important aspects of the CRINE
project is in the area of documentation, and the use of image processing
and transmission systems allows the vast amount of documentation
to be handled electronically. Accessibility is improved and material
traceability greatly enhanced by adopting CRINE systems.
Counter This is the arch-shaped part of a ship situated above the
propeller leading from the stern frame to the stern proper. The counter
stern was popular until quite recently but the design had certain
shortcomings mainly because in a seaway the counter presented a
large almost horizontal area for the seas to react against. This could
cause excessive pitching and could also lead to structural damage in
the steering flat area. Transom and cruiser sterns have nowadays
largely replaced the counter stern design.
Covered berthslbuilding docks Covered berths or building docks for
ship construction represent only a small fraction of the total world ship-
building industry. They are particularly useful in geographical areas
where climatic conditions cannot be guaranteed if coupled with pass-
enger ship or ferry construction. They are generally confined to North
European countries and their use enhances production levels by reason
of fewer delays due to weather conditions. Greater protection is
afforded to passenger ship furnishings, and aluminium welding

techniques are improved if carried out in the confines of a covered

Coverless container ships A fairly recent development is the cov-
erless container ship designed primarily to avoid the labour intensive
and somewhat dangerous activity of securing those containers stowed
above deck. The trend in this coverless design isto retain hatch covers
on one or two 6f the forward holds so that dangerous cargoes can be
carried therein. The remaining holds have cell guides extending above
the upper deck so that containers above deck are restrained without
the need for complicated lashing systems. The coverless design calls
for high capacity bilge pumps to deal with seawater shipped on deck
or ,rain water from tropical storms. Portable rain shelters can be
arranged for those vessels trading in high rainfall areas. The expense
of handling hatch covers is drastically reduced and the cost of main-
taining the reduced number of covers similarly reduced.
Cracking Is 'the process of reducing the large molecules in heavy
crude oils into lighter fractions and comprises several separate oper-
ations within a refinery. Thermal cracking is by means of heat and
pressure jointly applied; catalytic cracking is when heat is applied in
the presence of a catalyst. Hydrocracking is another process whereby
hydrogen is brought into the contest. All these methods are in general
use in a modem oil refinery, as also are viscosity breakers and other .
processes all in a measure to obtain more product from the crude
Crankcase explosions Crankcase explosions are generally associ-
ated with diesel engines, particularly propulsion engines, although
any engine with an enclosed crankcase can suffer from an explosion.
All enclosed crankcases accumulate inflammable vapours generated
by the agitation of the moving parts in a high temperature lubricating
oil environment. The source of ignition to promote an explosion is
typically from a hot bearing or, in the case of four-stroke (cycle) trunk
piston engines by the passage of sparks or hot gases through the piston
ring pack. The provision of oil mist detecting devices has largely
reduced the incidence of crankcase explosions aboard ships.
Crankshaft Usually the largest single component of a diesel engine
and the main factor in determining a licensee's ability to build the
largest size of engine. The crankshaft converts the reciprocating
motion of the pistons into rotary motion via connecting rods and
crosshead guides. Crankshafts for the large two-stroke crosshead
engines are usually built up from steel forgings made into webs,

crankpins and journals, all joined together, after being machined,

using a heat shrinkage process. Crankshafts fabricated by welding
these components together were introduced several years ago but
have not proved popular. The crankshafts of smaller diesel engines
are usually made of integral forgings. Crankshafts of the larger two-
stroke engines can weigh up to 200 tonnes .. .,.-
Crankshaft deflections Are used to determine the alignment of a
diesel engine's crankshaft in relation to the main bearings located
in the bedplate. Crankshaft deflections are obtained by accurately
measuring the spread between the crankwebs, as the engine is slowly
turned by means of the gear so provided. The amount of deflection
recorded is compared with limits recommended by the engine
licensors. Readings outside these limits have to be corrected if excess-
ive stresses are to be avoided in the crankshaft. They can be corrected
either by adjusting the thickness of whitemetal in the bearings causing
the high reading or by adjusting the height of the chocks on which the
engine is mounted.
Crossheads The main difference between the slow speed two-stroke
diesel engine and the medium speed four-stroke is the crosshead. The
crosshead comprises a block running in guides supported by the
engine frames. It ensures that the reciprocating motion of the piston
rod in a two-stroke engine is kept in alignment and also absorbs the
sideways thrust generated by the obliquity of the connecting rod.
Four-stroke engines do not have crossheads and these functions are
performed by the gudgeon pin and piston skirt.
Cross ties Cross ties are used to support the longitudinal bulkheads
of oil tankers against hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads. In con-
ventional single hull tankers they are generally located in the wing
tanks and are placed between the side shell and longitudinal bulkhead.
In double hull tankers they are usually located between the longi-
tudinal bulkheads forming the cargo tank boundaries. They are
usually fabricated plate structures with horizontal and vertical com-
ponents supported by stiffeners and brackets to add strength. The end
brackets connecting the cross ties to the transverse webs in the side
tanks of double hull tankers have to be carefully designed to avoid
peak stresses in what is a critical area.
Crude oil Occurs in many parts of the world under the earth's crust
and can be placed into three main categories, namely light, medium
and heavy crude oil. Each of these groups can be further categorised by
placing them into the fractions that they produce during the refinery
Cube law

process. Paraffinic-based hydrocarbons usually contain a high per-

centage of the lower boiling point fractions and are therefor.e suitable
for refining into light products and lubricating oil. Naphthenic hydro-
carbons are more volatile than the paraffinic compounds and are also
suitable for refining into light fractions and lubricating oils. Aromatic
hydrocarbons are generally of poor quality anq..jlre usually refined
into black oil products. This is a very simple explanation of what is an
extremely complex subject.
Crude oil washing (COW) Is the standard method now used to
remove sludge and other deposits from the surfaces in the cargo tanks
of crude oil tankers. In the COW system each cargo tank is provided
with a number of washing machines whose trajectories have been
determined by prior calculation. The area covered by each machine is
so arranged that at least 85 per cent of all tank surfaces are impinged
upon by crude oil. The COW system is put into operation when the
crude oil cargo is being discharged, and as the level in the cargo tank
drops so the washing machines fed with crude oil from the cargo oil
pumps dislodge the sludge and deposits, which are then pumped
ashore along with the crude oil cargo. Prior to the introduction of COW
in the early 1980s it was common to find sludge deposits upwards of
one metre deep in the bottom of cargo tanks.
Crutch A crutch is used to secure a derrick or crane jib whilst a ship
is at sea. It is usually located on the upper deck and consists of a
tubular upright stayed to the deck with a semi-circular crutch at the
upper end. The derrick or jib is lowered into this crutch and a semi-
circular clamp then secured in position which effectively prevents any
movement. Crutches can also be fitted on a mast, and in this case the
derrick or jib is secured in the vertical position.
Cryogenics Is a branch of physics concerned with the phenomenon
of extremely low temperatures, and in the marine sector this is usually
associated with the carriage of LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) and LPG
(Liquid Petroleum Gas) in dedicated gas tankers. The carrying tem-
perature of LNG is around minus 163 centigrade and that of LNG
around minus 42 degrees centigrade and the materials in contact with
these temperatures must, of course, have cryogenic properties. While
it is possible to use alloy steel for the tanks and fittings on LPG tankers
this is not possible on LNG tankers, and in the case of cargo tanks it is
usual to use an aluminium alloy.
Cube law Is also known as the propeller law and it concerns the
relationship between the speed of a ship and the propulsive power
Cube law

needed to obtain this speed. It is widely held that this relationship

between speed and power is to the third power, in that a doubling in
speed requires an eightfold increase in power for a given ship. When
measured at acceptance sea trials during progressive speed runs this
relationship has been measured as high as the fifth power between
points on the speed/ power curve. It is therefore rather unwise to place
too much emphasis on a cube relationship when attempting to define
powering requirements.
Cycloconvertors Are electrical devices used to convert the constant
input voltage and frequency of the power source of electrically pro-
pelled ships into the variable voltage and frequency required as speed
control for the propulsion motors. Cycloconvertors are only one of a
number of means available to control the output of the propulsion
motors, so enabling effective control of propeller revolutions. Many
of the recently built cruise liners use electric propulsion and the cyclo-
convertor is particularly well suited for this application.
Cyclical operating pressures These relate to the variations in pres-
sure recorded in the combustion chambers of diesel engines. The most
important cyclical pressure is arguably the maximum pressure (P
Max). This occurs at approximately top dead centre when fuel oil is
injected and the trend is to ever increase P Max as a means of enhancing
performance. During the power or expansion stroke the heat energy
in the fuel is converted into mechanical energy. In the case of tW'O-
stroke diesel engines the products of spent combustion are exhausted
at about bottom dead centre by the introduction of scavenge air which
is then trapped in the cylinder and compressed on the upstroke, where
fuel is injected and the cycle repeated. On four-stroke engines the
products of combustion are driven out by the upward movement of
the piston and combustion air then drawn or blown into the cylinder
on the next down stroke. (See also Indicator diagrams.)

Cylinder lubricators These are provided to supply cylinder lub-

ricating oil to the main engine cylinders and thence to the piston rings.
The flow of cylinder oil can be regulated at each point in the cylinder
liner by means of the cylinder lubricators. They usually consist of a
series of small piston pumps located in a box-type container mech-
anically driven from the camshaft. The oil is pumped through small
bore pipes and what are called quills into the cylinder and timed to
arrive between the top two piston rings. Automatic filling of the boxes,
automatic temperature control of the oil and no flow alarms are now
Deadweight (DWT)

Damage stability Is the ability of a ship to survive hypothetical

damage to the side shell or bottom leading to the flooding of certain
compartments. Each basic type of ship, for example passenger, tanker
and bulk carrier, has separate damage criteria specified in the SOLAS
(Safety of Life at Sea) convention. In the case of oil and chemical
tankers it is assumed that damage penetrating a cargo tank containing
liquid cargo will result in an exchange of the cargo with seawater. In
the case of bulk carriers carrying heavy cargoes such as iron ore it is
assumed no cargo will be lost and seawater will enter the hold. The
position of the ship after sustaining this hypothetical damage must be
such that the waterline is below any openings which would permit
further flooding.
Data logger The advent of automation in the 1960s led to the intro-
duction of data loggers in ships' machinery spaces. A typical data
logger will incorporate a scanning device whereby all the essential
pressures, temperatures and tank levels are scanned at frequent inter-
vals. Should a signal from one of these points be outside its pre-
determined operating range the data logger will alert the duty
engineer and print out the time of the malfunction and the out-of-
limit reading. Data loggers are invariably used in conjunction with the
UMS (Unmanned machinery Space) classification society notation.
Data recorders These are used to record data other than those
included in the data logger (See Black box recorders).
Davits Are the standard method used to secure lifeboats on board
ship and are so designed that the lifeboat can be quickly lowered to the
disembarkation position, thereby allowing the crew and passengers to
leave a ship in serious danger. Early davits were of the radial type
which usually required much effort to manhandle the lifeboats into
their disembarkation position. More recently so-called gravity davits,
whereby one crew member can control the lowering of the lifeboat,
are now in general use.
Deadweight (DWT) Is the weight (or mass) of cargo, fuel, fresh
water and stores that a ship can carry when at the relevant draught
marks. For example the charterparty description of deadweight is
usually when the vessel is at its summer load line draught. Dead-
weight is sometimes referred to as either total or cargo, the former
being everything on board and the latter just the cargo. The dead-
weight of a ship at various draughts can be determined by reference
to the deadweight scale which has a facility for making adjustments
due to differing seawater densities.
Deadweight check

Deadweight check This is sometimes asked for by charterers to

determine the weight of cargo on board. Very careful soundings of all
tanks are taken and the weight of their contents determined. The
draught marks are similarly carefully checked, as is the density of
the seawater. The deadweight scale is then consulted and the total
deadweight deduced, from which is deducted the weight of fuel and
water as shown by tank soundings. The weight of stores, lubricating
oil and what is called the ship's constant is also deducted, and what
remains is the weight of cargo.

Deadweight scale A drawing produced by the shipbuilder from

information gained by accurate measurement of all material used in
the construction of a ship and confirmed by an inclining experiment
to give the lightship weight. Knowing the lightship weight at the
relevant draught the displacement weight is readily available. The
displacement and deadweights at all other draughts are then cal-
culated and the results included in the deadweight scale sometimes
incorporated into the capacity plan.

Decca navigator A terrestrial navigation system employing a chain

of shore-based stations which transmit radio signals picked up by the
Decca receiver on board the ship. The position of the ship can be
accurately determined dependent on the degree of Decca coverage in
the sea area the ship is in. Other terrestrial navigational systems 'are
also available, and it is for the shipowner to decide which system
is best for him, having regard to his probable geographical area of

Deck cranes Deck cranes are used to load and discharge cargo and
they have largely replaced conventional derrick systems for cargo
handling duties on general cargo ships, and so-called geared bulk
carriers usually of the smaller deadweight sizes. A typical deck crane
of the jib type will slew by mean of a toothed ring on which the cab
and crane structure is mounted. Hoisting and jib luffing or topping
operation are accomplished by means of hydraulic motors driving
drum mounted wires. Various types of deck crane are available apart
from the standard fixed jib type, for example traversing gantry cranes,
twin cranes and team cranes.

Deckhead This is a nautical term used to signify what would be

called a ceiling in shore-based circles. It has no real technical sig-
nificance and in classification terminology it would probably be
referred to as the underside of the deck.
Deltic engine

Deck houses Deck houses are nowadays provided only on a small

number of ships and it is unusual for tankers and bulk carriers to be
so provided. General cargo and similar types of ship are usually
provided with deck houses which are used to store such items as cargo
gear or to house CO2 fire extinguishing cylinders. They can be located
at the base of the mast structure and used as winch platforms, and are
then referred to as mast houses. They are invariably located on the
upper deck and their plate thickness and scantlings are much less than
the underwater parts of the ship's structure.
Decks These are the horizontal platforms used to divide a ship in a
vertical direction and their main purpose is to form a watertight
enclosure for the cargo spaces. The majority of ships are now built as
single deckers, which means that the main deck continues right
through the ship from bow to stem. The accommodation block is also
provided with perhaps four or five decks to facilitate distribution of
the crew and also give sufficient height to the bridge for navigational
purposes. Any openings cut in the main deck, sometimes called the
strength or freeboard deck, for hatch openings or accommodation
blocks must be carefully radiused to avoid fractures developing. In
addition the hatch openings must be provided with a coaming (which

Deep tanks Deep tanks are those tanks which extend from the
bottom of the ship to a height usually level with a tweep. deck, if fitted,
or somewhere below the main deck on a single deck ship. They can
be used for the carriage of fuel oil bunkers, cargo oil, dry cargo or even
ballast water depending on the type of ship. Nowadays one of their
prime functions is for use as fuel oil bunkers and they are preferred to
double-bottom tanks which can prove troublesome when used for this
purpose. Multi-purpose ships (which see) often use deep tanks for the
carriage of small parcels of vegetable oils and they can also be used
for dry cargo if large hatch openings are provided.
Deepwell pumps Deepwell pumps are usually associated with
parcel tankers, chemical carriers and gas tankers where separation
between cargo grades is very important. In a typical installation each
cargo tank will have its own deepwell pump located with its suction
in a well set into the tank top so that stripping the tank of most of its
cargo is achievable. Deepwell pumps are usually driven by either
hydraulic motors or flame proof electric motors located on the upper
Deltic engine The Napier Deltic diesel engine was very popular
Deltic engine

several decades ago mainly as a means of propulsion for high speed

craft such as patrol boats. The Deltic engine was so named because of
its triangular arrangement of cylinder banks in the form of the Greek
letter Delta. Each of the three pairs of pistons forming each cylinder
bank operated on the opposed piston two-stroke (cycle) principle and
the three crankshafts geared to a single output shaft. The power to
weight ratio of the Deltic engine was extremely high and exceeded any
other form of propulsion then available with the possible exception of
the gas turbine.
Demulsibility Demulsibility is the ability of a lubricating oil to resist
forming an emulsion when water enters the relevant system oil.
Should this occur the lubrication properties of the oil will suffer and
the parts being lubricated could experience mechanical damage. The
demulsibility of an oil can be determined by conducting a laboratory
test in which steam is introduced into a sample of the oil which leads
to the formation of an emulsion. The resultant emulsion is then placed
in a cooling bath and the time in seconds for the oil to separate
from the emulsion is recorded, which gives an indication of the oil's
Derating An approach adopted by the leading two-stroke slow
speed diesel engine licensors as an energy saving measure. The pro-
cedure adopted is to run the engine at reduced output (power) whilst
still retaining the maximum combustion pressure (P Max) for which
the engine was designed. It is a well known thermodynamic principle
that the higher the P Max with relation to the mean effective pressure
(P Mean) the higher the thermal efficiency of the engine. Derating
takes advantage of this principle, but it must be said that the price
paid is not currently attractive to most shipowners because a fully
rated engine is much cheaper that a derated version when expressed
on a $ per horsepower basis.
Derbyshire The United Kingdom built and registered bulk carrier
Derbyshire sank while in a typhoon south of Japan in September 1980.
The loss of the Derbyshire was arguably the single most important
factor in drawing attention to the loss rate of large bulk carriers when
carrying heavy cargoes. The wreck ofthe Derbyshire was located by an
underwater surveillance team in June 1994 and further expeditions
are planned to conduct more detailed examinations of the wreck in
the near future. A sister ship of the Derbyshire was found to have a
structural defect in the region of the engineroom's forward bulkhead
and representatives of the families of those lost aboard Derbyshire are
Desulphurising equipment

actively seeking the reason for the loss of the Derbyshire.

Derrick A derrick is a tubular-shaped spar attached at its lower end
to a mast or swivel and used to load and discharge general cargo
aboard ship. Derricks are nowadays made of steel tube and can be
used either in a fixed or swinging mode. Derricks can also be used to
handle stores or heavy machinery parts, and many oil tankers also use
derricks to handle the flexible cargo hoses used to load and discharge
cargo. Cranes have largely replaced derricks as the most common
form of cargo-handling equipment with the possible exception of
Stulken type heavy lift derricks (which see).
Desalination Expressed in simple terms, desalination is the process
of removing salt (sodium chloride) from seawater and thereby con-
verting it to fresh water suitable for domestic purposes onboard. Evap-
oration is the most common practice employed and was originally
achieved by the use of evaporators fed with live or bled steam from a
turbine stage, but this method proved rather expensive. More recently
the jacket water of diesel engines is used as the heating medium
instead of steam, a process made possible by reducing the pressure in
the evaporation chamber, hence its evaporation temperature, a system
exemplified by the fresh water generator (FWG). Reverse osmosis is
another popular desalination process in general use which involves
passing seawater at high pressure through a membrane filter.
Design draught Is the draught at which a ship is expected to operate
when in the loaded condition. It is not necessarily the same as the
scantling draught which is the deepest draught for which the ship's
structure was designed and on which the strength calculations are
Desulphurising equipment Also known as gas scrubbers, desul-
phurising equipment is located in the flue gas ducts between boiler
and the deck seal on inert gas plants, their purpose being to remove
sulphurous products contained in the flue gas before they reach the
cargo oil tanks. They are basically used to prevent steelwork corrosion
occurring within the cargo tanks by eliminating acidic attack by sul-
phurous products. Gas scrubbers are constructed of steel plate and
have an arrangement of water jets through which the flue gases are
constrained to pass, effectively washing out the sulphurous products.
The drains from the scrubber must be protected against severe acidic
attack and led to an underwater location from which they cannot be
drawn into water circulating systems. Gas scrubbers can also be used
to remove sulphurous products from the exhaust gas of diesel engines
Desulphurising equipment

in an attempt to reduce the S02 (Sulphur dioxide) content. S02

emissions are expected to be controlled by a MARPOL annex in the
Detail design It has been found that many structural problems
aboard ship have initiated from lack of attention to detail, usually in
the connections between various steelwork members, especially those
carrying heavy loads. Mainly involved are the connections between
primary and secondary members supporting the outer shell envelope
and bulkheads. The hydrodynamic and hydrostatic loads on the shell
and the bulkheads are transmitted to these primary and secondary
members, and paying attention to how these connections are made
has been shown to reduce the incidence of failure. Misalignment and
discontinuity are two typical areas where attention to detail design
has led to an improved structure.
Det Norske Veritas (DNV) This Oslo based Norwegian classi-
fication society is a member of lACS (International Association of
Classification Societies) and has also joined up with Lloyd's Register
and American Bureau of Shipping in a scheme aimed at improving the
role of classification societies in marine safety matters. This powerful
group has also laid down minimum standards for the qualifications
and experience requir~d in the appointment of both exclusive and non-
exclusive surveyors. It is also committed to outlawing class shopping
activities which lead to a reduction in safety standards.
Deutsche Industrienormen (DIN) A prominent German standards
organisation widely used in all aspects of industrial activity including
that of the marine sector. As with many other standards organisations,
for example British Standards Institute (BSI) and American Society
of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the trend is away from national
institutions such as these towards internationally accepted associ-
ations. The International Standards Organisation (ISO) is perhaps the
ultimate into which all other such organisations will eventually be
Deviation Under the terms of many charterparties ships must pros-
ecute their voyage with utmost despatch, and any deviation is nor-
mally considered to be off hire starting from the point of deviation
and finishing when the ship effectively resumes her voyage at an
agreed time and position. With regard to insurance cover it is import-
ant that owners receive prior permission from underwriters and the
P&I club if a ship is deviated purely for commercial not safety reasons.
If a ship suffers an incident to itself or its cargo while on a deviation

course for which permission has not been granted then problems may
be encountered over the recovery of costs.
Dew point corrosion Is a phenomenon caused by the condensation
of acidic laden vapour present in flue and exhaust gases as a result of
its being in contact with a relatively cold surface. One of the main
sources of dew point corrosive attack occurs on the surfaces of econ-
omiser tubes when an engine is operating at low output and exhaust
temperatures fall to a level below the dew point. Dew point corrosion
can also occur on diesel engine cylinder liner walls if jacket water
temperatures are at too low a level, compounded if the engine is
operating at low output. When steam propelled ships were popular
the air preheaters were also liable to corrosive attack, mainly in areas
of high rainfall when rain water reacted with the sulphurous vapours
in the flue gas.
Dezincification Is a galvanic action between the copper and zinc
particles in alloys from which these metals are made, notably brass,
and the zinc is simply eaten away. The reaction between these particles
was exacerbated when the brass was immersed in seawater which
formed the electrolyte leading to the classical form of galvanic action
when dissimilar metals are present. Nowadays brass is never used in
such applications and the problem has largely disappeared.
Diagnostic techniques These are in the main directed at the early
detection of incipient faults in a diesel engine by monitoring pressures
and temperatures known to be sensitive to the development of such
faults. The diagnostic computer program will have predetermined
limits for these parameters inputted and deviations will be screened
with a selection of options known to give the symptoms based on
artificial intelligence techniques. Typical examples of the program
would be to diagnose a choked air cooler when the pressure drop
across the cooler exceeded the predetermined limit, or a faulty fuel
valve if the exhaust exit temperature from an individual cylinder fell
when compared with the other cylinders.
Diaphragm In this context a diaphragm is the division between the
scavenge belt and crankcase of a two-stroke crosshead type diesel
engine. It is a horizontal fabricated plate holding the piston rod scraper
box whose main purpose is to ensure that no acidic products likely to
be present in the scavenge can enter the crankcase and attack the
highly polished crankpins and journals. The diaphragm is one of
the main distinctive features of the two-stroke crosshead engine not
shared with the medium speed four-stroke engine. The lack of a dla-

phragm on these four-stroke engines is in many instances the reason

for acidic attack in the crankcase area.
Diaphragm tanker An alternative design to the double hull tanker
proposed by Diatank, a Canadian transport consultancy. The dia-
phragm consists of a large horizontal steel plate guided to move in a
vertical direction by a series of hydraulic cylinders. The diaphragm
plate is sealed against the tank boundaries by means of an elastomeric
skirt attached to its periphery. Cargo oil is carried above the dia-
phragm, and in the event of bottom damage seawater entering the
tanker will be separated from the cargo by means of the diaphragm.
When the oil cargo is discharged, ballast seawater is carried beneath
the diaphragm so that the tanker essentially operates in the SBT
(segregated ballast tank) mode, in that cargo and ballast are never in
contact. It is not known if the USCG (United States Coast Guard) will
accept this design as an alternative to the double hull it favours.
Diesel electric propulsion Although they have been in occasional
use for many years, diesel electric propulsion systems have recently
been specified for a number of large cruise liners and consist of mul-
tiple diesel engines driving alternators. They are in most instances
more expensive than geared diesel propulsion systems of equivalent
size, but one reason for their choice in cruise liners is a somewhat
lower noise level occasioned by the more effective use of resilient
mounts. Also, load sharing between propulsion and hotel demands
are more easily controlled and the level of redundancy rather high.
Gearboxes do have a history of failure and many operators feel that
diesel electric propulsion is the answer to this problem.
Diesel, Rudolf Was the German engineer who invented the internal
combustion engine which bears his name and is now the form of
propulsion used by the vast majority of merchant ships. He was born
on 18 March 1858 in Paris where his father was working at the time.
The first successful diesel engine was built at Augsburg in 1894 and
the first diesel propelled ocean-going merchant ship Selandia (which
see) was completed in 1912 at Burmeister & Wain, Copenhagen. Dr
Diesel was plagued with financial problems and disappeared on 30
September 1913 while on passage from Antwerp to Harwich aboard
Digital selective calling (DSC) A technique devised to identify a
ship by electronically monitoring its existing GMDSS (global maritime
distress and safety systems) VHF radio signals. The DSC technique
can also be used to identify ships violating traffic separation schemes
Direct current (DC)

and identify a particular ship for a variety of other reasons.

Diminution Is a term generally used by classification society sur-
veyors to describe the amount of wastage and corrosion suffered by
structural members of a ship. The diminution allowance is not nor-
mally published in classification rules and regulations but is included
in guidance notes to their surveyors. The magnitude of diminution
allowed is dependent on the role the structural member plays in
the overall hull section modulus. Ships built with optimised design
criteria in recent years have a somewhat reduced diminution allow-
ance compared with ships before optimisation techniques became
fashionable . As a rough guide the diminution allowance for ships
built before optimisation design would be in the order of 30 per cent
and ships with optimisation perhaps 12 per cent. In every' case the
experience of the classification surveyor usually dictates the course of
action relating to the extent of steelwork renewal required.
Dioxin Is an extremely toxic substance found in the exhaust emis-
sions from diesel engines which are thought to originate from con-
taminants present in the fuel oil reacting with sodium chloride drawn
in with the combustion air supply to the engine. One identifiable type
of dioxin is chlorinated hydrocarbon which most probably can be
removed from the exhaust emission by the use of SCR (selective cata-
lytic reduction) techniques (which see).
Direct calculations Many of the major classification societies now
use direct calculations to determine the scantlings of major structural
components of ships as defined in their new construction rules. Direct
calculations represent an improved assessment of the hydrodynamic
and hydrostatic loads imposed on the structure under various oper-
ational scenarios. The principal aspects of direct calculation pro-
cedures include finite element analysis, permissible stress, buckling
factors and diminution allowances. They have largely replaced the so-
called prescriptive rules previously in general use.
Direct current (DC) The original method used to distribute electrical
power to the various consumers onboard a ship. It was replaced by
alternating current (AC) in the 1960s and DC is now only used in
low power applications such as those associated with battery-driven
emergency circuits. DC propulsion motors have recently been sug-
gested for use on cruise liners with diesel electric systems. DC machin-
ery required a high level of maintenance to keep the commutators
and brush gear in good order, an activity made redundant by the
introduction of AC.
Direct reduced iron (DR!)

Direct reduced iron (DR!) Direct reduced iron (DR!) is essentially

iron ore which has been subject to a partial process towards its final
form of becoming iron or steel products. It is listed in the IMDG
(International Maritime Dangerous Goods) code, and if carried as
cargo aboard ships must be protected by an approved fire extinguish-
ing system such as a nitrogen or total flood CO2• DR! is particularly
susceptible to spontaneous heating and many shipowners are reluc-
tant to carry it as cargo.

Displacement Is the actual weight or mass of a ship and all its

contents at a given draught. It could also be described as the sum of a
ship's lightship weight plus its total deadweight. Displacement
tonnage is used in many hydrodynamic calculations especially those
relating to performance. Most of the world's navies use displacement
tonnage when referring to the size of their ships.

Distillate fuels Distillate fuels are those which have been through
the refinery's distillation process and have had many impurities
removed during their passage. Distillate fuels have their own separate
specifications as laid down in the International Standards Organ-
isation 8217 (ISO 8217), which has four grades listed namely DMX,
DMA, DMB and DMC. These have a range of recommended vis-
cosities, densities and levels of impurities which in general are aimed
for use in those auxiliary engines aboard ship which do not have th,e
necessary equipment installed to bum residual fuels.

Distress messages The International Maritime Organisation (IMO)

has recently introduced amendments to the Safety of Life at Sea
(SaLAS) Convention which requires the master of a ship in receipt of
a distress message from another ship in the vicinity to proceed with
all possible speed in order to render assistance. The master of the ship
requesting assistance can requisition the attending ship to stand by
until other ships arrive at the scene, when it may be released if con-
sidered appropriate to do so by either the rescue service or the master
seeking assistance.

Doppler logs These are extremely accurate speed logs used aboard
ships when precise speed measurement is essential. Large laden vessels
approaching a jetty at too fast a speed can cause considerable damage
and Doppler logs are very useful in circumstances such as these. They
work on the doppler effect principle in which the wave lengths of
moving objects appear to shift in relation to the observer. This shift can
be converted to speed thereby giving a very accurate result.
Douglass scale

Double acting engines Are reciprocating engines in which power is

developed both sides of the pistons. All steam reciprocating engines
used in the marine industry were double acting, but double acting
diesel engines are nowadays never used. Prior to and immediately
after the Second World War (1939-1945) double acting diesel engines
were popular, especially on ships with high powering needs but
having a somewhat confined space allocated for the machinery. These
requirement are nowadays easily met by the current range of high
powered single acting engines without adding the complexity of the
double acting type.
Double-bottom tanks Double-bottom tanks are located between the
bottom plating of a ship and the tank top or inner bottom, and they
usually run the full length of the ship from the collision bulkhead to
the aft peak bulkhead. They form the primary barrier between the sea
and the inside of the ship's cargo spaces so that in the case of grounding
seawater will not enter the cargo or machinery spaces. They are also
used to carry ballast seawater to allow the ship to sink lower in
the water and therefore enhance its seakeeping qualities when not
carrying cargo. It is only comparatively recently that oil tankers have
been provided with double bottom tanks. (See Double hull.)
Double hulls Double hull ships are those provided with an inner
and outer skin around the cargo containment area. They have been
around for many years, for example in many chemical tankers, con-
tainer ships and bulk carriers of the fully open type. They have recently
been in the news mainly because the US authorities have decreed that
all oil tankers trading in US waters must in future be built with double
hulls. There is a possibility that other ship types such as bulk carriers
and ro-ro ferries may also have to be built with a double hull con-
figuration in the not too distant future.
Double sheathed fuel pipes These are employed as a fire prevention
device on high pressure fuel pipes located in a ship's machinery
spaces. An investigation into the cause of machinery space fires some
time ago concluded that the majority were a result of leakage from
high pressure fuel pipes on diesel engines. Such leakages in many cases
resulted in high pressure hot fuel oil impinging onto an extremely
hot exhaust pipe and invariably a fire was the result. To obtain an
unmanned machinery space (VMS) classification notation all high
pressure fuel pipes have to be double sheathed with a leakage device
between inner and outer pipes to give immediate warning.
Douglass scale The Douglass scale is a method used to measure sea
Douglass scale

state and swell in a similar fashion to that of the Beaufort scale used
to measure wind force. With respect to sea state the Douglass scale is
in the numerical range of 0 to 9 with 0 being a clam sea, 4 relating to
a rough sea with a wave height of 5-9 feet and 8 being a precipitous
sea with a wave height of over 36 feet. Swell is also represented in
numerical fashion, with 0 being no swell and 8 a heavy long swell. In
both cases (see State and swell) 9 relates to a confused sea and swell
Down flooding angle The down flooding angle is a term used to
describe the progressive flooding of a ship when its angle of heel
exceeds 40 degrees. All openings in the hull, superstructure or deck-
houses which would be immersed if the angle of heel exceeded 40
degrees or less must be provided with a means of watertight enclosure,
or alternatively must be repositioned so that progressive flooding
cannot occur. It is usual when defining the down flooding angle to
consider that the ship is at its summer load waterline.
Doxford engine The Doxford diesel engine was one of the world's
leading crosshead type diesel engines in the 1950sbut had completely
disappeared by 1980.The Doxford engine was unique in that it oper-
ated on the opposed piston principle, which needed a rather com-
plicated three-throw crank for each cylinder unit. This feature led to
problems with the crankshaft and several suffered from premature
failure. The Doxford engine was much longer than its competitors. of
equal output, and because it used lower combustion pressures it was
also at a disadvantage with its competitors. Doxford engines were
extremely well balanced and rather popular during their heyday but
could not compete with conventional designs having superior thermal
Draught Is the distance from the keel of a ship to the waterline.
Draught marks are provided at the forward and aft ends of a ship and
also amidships. It is of course very important accurately to know the
draught of a ship, especially when operating in shallow waters and
the underkeel clearance is critical. Knowing the draught of a ship
enables the displacement tonnage and deadweight to be calculated by
reference to the deadweight scale, a drawing provided on all ships.
Draw cards Draw cards are superimposed on an indicator diagram
(see Indicated horsepower) and are taken out of phase to the main
diagram. The object of the draw card is closely to observe that part of
the combustion cycle which takes place prior to and immediately after
fuel injection takes place. The draw card clearly shows the magnitude
Dry film thickness (DFT)

of both the compression pressure (P Comp) and the maximum pres-

sure (P Max), and also indicates if any irregularities are being experi-
enced with the fuel itself or with the fuel injection equipment.
Dredgers Are typically self-propelled craft which are provided with
various mechanical means to excavate water channels or remove spoil
from harbours or seabeds. One particular design of dredger uses a
continuous chain of buckets which scoop up the spoil and then transfer
it to a waiting barge. Suction dredgers employ powerful pumps to
suck the spoil from the seabed through a suction pipe, and yet another
type employs a powerful cutter to dislodge rock formation allowing
it to be removed by bucket-type dredgers.
Drip proof enclosure A term used in electrical engineering circles
to describe the type of enclosure used to protect electrical apparatus
from expected ambient conditions. Drip proof enclosure is probably
the most commonly used and is sufficient to meet most conditions
encountered onboard ship. Electric motors and control equipment
located in exposed locations, for example on the exposed deck, will
use a watertight enclosure. Further up the scale, motors and electrical
equipment located in vulnerable spaces onboard tankers will have
flameproof or explosion proof enclosures as required by classification
Drop valves In this context are valves located at the lower ends of
topside tanks in the larger sized conventionally designed bulk carriers.
Drop valves are an extremely useful method of dumping the ballast
seawater contained in these tanks rather quickly and independently
of the main ballast system. They are particularly useful when loading
cargo at a berth with high capacity loading chutes which in some
instances can exceed the capacity of the ballast pumps connected to
the main system.
Drydocking plan An extremely useful plan produced by the ship-
builder and referred to by the ship repairer each time a ship drydocks.
The drydocking plan gives valuable information relating to the pos-
ition of keel and side chocks and their loads. All shell openings
together with a full list of valves and sea connections located under-
water are also listed. Paint systems, rudder clearances and much other
useful information can be included depending on the needs of the
Dry film thickness (DFT) This is the standard method of measuring
the thickness of a film of paint after it has been allowed to dry and is
Dry film thickness (DFT)

taken by means of a specially designed measuring instrument. The

unit used is the micron or one millionth of a metre and the term is
abbreviated to OFT (micr). OFTs are usually in the range of 50 to 400
microns although special coatings such as Glassflake (which see) can
have a OFT of around 750 microns.
Dry fired Dry fired is an expression used to describe the situation
whereby an oil fired boiler is operated with insufficient water to
cover those parts of the boiler exposed to the furnace combustion
temperatures. If dry firing is allowed to continue for even a few
minutes then serious mechanical damage will almost certainly be
suffered by the boiler, and in severe cases the boiler may even be
destroyed. Duplicate low water level alarms and a fuel shut off device
are required to be fitted under classification society rules, and it is
nowadays rather rare for a boiler to be dry fired.
Dual fuel engines Dual fuel engines are diesel engines who can
operate either on boil off gas from the cargo of LNG (Liquid Natural
Gas) tankers or residual fuel oil either together with fuel oil only. They
could also refer to a small group of tankers equipped for using crude
oil or residual fuel oil that were built several years ago, but the idea
was not repeated. Many diesel engine licensors have designed fuel
systems that can use LNG or residual fuel oil, but to date no LNG
tankers have been ordered with diesel engine propulsion. All LNG
tankers are provided with steam turbine propulsion and use LNG and
fuel oil in their boilers.
Dual pressure boilers Also known as double evaporation boilers,
the dual pressure boiler was primarily designed to obviate the risk of
serious damage in the event of a boiler having too Iowa water level.
In a conventional boiler the result of having too Iowa water level will
inevitably lead to overheating and with it a risk of serious damage. In
the dual pressure boiler such a possibility is extremely unlikely in that
the primary section of the boiler operates in a closed cycle and virtually
no water is lost through leakage or evaporation. Loss of water in the
secondary section of the boiler is more likely to happen, but it would
not result in damage because it only acts as a heat exchanger, has no
furnace, and overheating therefore not an option.
Duct keel Sometimes referred to as a pipe tunnel, a duct keel is a
space located within the double bottom of a ship through which all the
service pipes and electric cables are led. It is usually quite congested as
classification rules restrict its width for structural strength reasons,
and on the larger ships the space is difficult safely to ventilate. Various

precautions have to be taken to protect those likely to have to work in

the space. These include adequate access and escape routes as well as
sufficient ventilation and lighting.
Dump condenser A dump condenser is a heat exchanger used to
condense surplus steam being produced by a boiler which is not fired
entirely by fuel oil. Such an application is aboard Liquid Natural Gas
tankers (which see) which use a dump condenser to remove surplus
steam from the system when steam produced by boil off gas from the
cargo exceeds steam demand. The alternative in this case would be a
Reliquefaction (which see) plant which is extremely expensive. Dump
condensers can also be used to control steam demand on ships fitted
with a large exhaust gas boiler and they are then used as an alternative
to an exhaust gas by-pass.
Dynamically supported craft (DSC) Dynamically supported craft
are those ships whose hulls are wholly or partially supported by the
lift introduced by the ship's forward motion, and they invariably
fall into the High Sea-service Speed (HSS) ship classification. The
archetypal DSC is the hydrofoil, (which see) in which foils or fins fitted
beneath the hull lift the ship's hull clear of the water, thereby reducing
frictional resistance and greatly improving the hydrodynamic per-
formance of the ship.
Dynamic positioning (DP) DP is a system used to keep a ship in
position using such means as azimuth and bow/stem thrusters. It is
mainly used in the offshore oil exploration industry on the various
ship types in this sphere of operation. More recently DP has been used
on large cruise liners as an alternative to dropping anchor to keep on
station when waiting off port limits. The DP system is usually con-
nected to the GPS (global positioning system) and can also be
connected to weather sensing equipment if appropriate to the ship's
Dynamometer Also referred to as a water brake, a dynamometer is
used to measure the output of usually a diesel engine. They are a
fixture on the test bays of most engine manufacturers' works. The
dynamometer consists of a rotor having a number of water scoops
rotating within a housing. When the rotor is revolved by the engine
under test it offers a hydraulic resistance which is measured and
converted into horsepower or kilowatts as the case may be. Diesel
engines intended for electricity generation can have their outputs
measured by means of a water cooled resistance tank as an alternative
to the dynamometer.
Earthing device

Earthing device It is recommended that an earthing device be pro-

vided on the intermediate shafting of all diesel propelled ships. The
purpose of the earthing device is to prevent electrical currents gen-
erated by the rotation of the propeller from causing what is called
spark erosion pitting on the white metal surfaces of both main and
bottom end bearings. It was found that on certain engine installations
an indiscriminate attack had taken place on the surfaces of these
bearings and the provision of an earthing device ensured that the
spurious currents responsible were safely led to earth.
Echo sounder Is a navigational instrument which records the depth
of water under the hull of a ship. Echo sounders are located on the
keel of a ship and work on the SONAR principle whereby a transducer
located on the underwater hull at its lowest point emits a vertical
pulse of high frequency sound waves. These waves bounce off the
seabed and are returned to a receiver which accurately measures the
time interval between transmission and return and converts this into
water depth. Most echo sounders are provided with recorders which
trace the seabed contours. An alarm which indicates too Iowan under-
keel clearance is also more or less standard.
Economisers Are heat exchangers used to extract useful waste heat
from the exhaust gases of diesel engines. Economisers are usually
located in the funnel casing and comprise a nest of tubes over which
the exhaust gases pass, and in doing so pass heat to water circulating
within the tubes. This forced circulated water is led to a steam receiver,
usually but not necessarily the steam drum of the oil fired boiler,
where it is circulated to the various steam consumers. Economiser
tubes are occasionally of the extended surface type to increase heat
transfer between the exhaust gas and the circulating water. This type
of tube has a tendency to attract carbon particles and with it the risk
of what is called a hydrogen fire, whereby the steel tubes are consumed
along with the carbon. Most economisers are now provided with
efficient sootblowing equipment and high temperature alarms to
reduce the possibility of a fire occurring.
Economy fuel pumps Economy fuel pumps are used on diesel
engines and were developed as an energy conservation measure some
time ago when fuel costs peaked. They effectively advance the fuel
injection timing in order to increase the maximum combustion pres-
sure (P Max). Economy fuel pumps are only effective at reduced
engine output and by increasing the P Max to that usually associated
with full output of the engine the thermal efficiency is improved. It is
Electrolytic action

well known that the higher the P Max when compared with the mean
effective pressure (P Mean) so the thermal efficiency is improved and
the economy fuel pump does just this. An extension of the economy
fuel pump concept is the VIT (variable injection timing) system now
used by most two-stroke diesel engine licensors.
Ekranoplans This is a Russian so-called surface plane which has
apparently been under development for many years. It is similar in its
concept to the Wing in Ground and Loflyte projects (both of which see)
under development elsewhere in the world. These novel craft skim
over the surface of the water at extremely high speeds, and their
commercial introduction would revolutionise passenger transport and
perhaps recapture much of this business lost to the airlines starting in
the 1950s.
Electric propulsion There are various means of propelling a ship by
electricity and many of the first such applications were related to
icebreakers, naval ships and passenger ships. One of the most popular
examples of electric propulsion was the T2 tanker, built in numbers
during the Second World War (1939-1945). Either diesel or steam
turbine alternators are the usual methods of providing the electric
power to drive the propulsion motors attached to either conventional
or controllable pitch propellers. In recent times electrically propelled
passenger ships have been becoming popular which use four or more
medium speed diesel engines as the propulsive power. There is also
under development a direct electro magnetic propulsion system (which
Electro-hydraulic systems Electro-hydraulic systems are increas-
ingly being used as power sources aboard ships for various systems.
In the first instance they offer an exceedingly good measure of speed
or output control when compared with alternating current control
systems usually at a lower total cost. Steering systems, deck machinery
and cargo oil pumps are all examples where electro-hydraulic systems
have overtaken the previously used steam or electric power source.
Electrolytic action When two dissimilar metals or alloys are
immersed in an acidic liquid an electric current flows through the
liquid from the metal with the lower electrochemical value to that
with the higher. In this typical example of electrolytic action seawater
becomes the acidic liquid normally referred to as the electrolyte. The
metal or alloy with the lower electrochemical value becomes the anode
and that with the higher value the cathode. During electrolytic action
the material forming the anode is transferred to the cathode and this
Electrolytic action

is the principle adopted for cathodic protection of a ship's hull. (See

Cathodic protection.)
Electro-magnetic propulsion This futuristic propulsion system is
currently in experimental form and consists of a Japanese built ship
of about 150 tonnes' displacement which is provided with super-
conducting electromagnets as the propulsive force. The use of super-
conducting technology enables a high density magnetic field to be
generated with a minimum amount of electric power. The principle
involved is similar to that expounded in Fleming's left-hand rule used
to describe the magnetic forces in an electric motor. It would appear
that many problems have to be overcome before the project is com-
mercially viable, not least the weight of the equipment.
Electronic charts Electronic charts are rapidly overtaking con-
ventionally used paper charts for ship navigational purposes. They
can be integrated with radar images and displayed on screen usually in
what are called electronic chart display information systems (ECDIS).
Corrections to electronic charts can be made by using computer disc
technology, a far less labour-intensive and more reliable method than
the previously used manual method for paper charts always subject
to human error.
Electronic controls Electronic controls have recently been associated
with what has been referred to as the intelligent diesel engine. Ih this
engine there will be an electronic capability for adjusting both fuel
injection and exhaust valve timing while the engine is running. At the
moment these timing functions are carried out by a combination of
mechanical and hydraulic means using the camshaft and drive gear.
The intelligent engine will monitor various operating conditions
within the combustion process and adjust the electronic timing to
compensate for poor fuel quality as an example.
In place of the conventional camshaft and drive systems a hydraulic
power unit driven from the main engine will supply the necessary
power and electronic actuators the timing functions for the exhaust
valves and fuel injection pumps.
Electronic mail (e-mail) Is the current state of the art in marine
communications made popular by its competitiveness compared with
other means of communication. All that is required to operate an e-
mail system is a personal computer (PC) onboard the ship connected
via a modem link to an appropriate INMARSAT (International Mari-
time Satellite Organisation) station. In the shipowner's office a PC is
connected to a telephone line, also by a modem link. A selection
Emergency fire pump

from a variety of communication software programs is then chosen to

connect the ship to the shore station depending on the shipowner's
radio traffic density expectations.
Elevator As ships on average tend to become much larger it is becom-
ing common practice to provide crew members with an elevator. In
the main this serves the upper and lower accommodation deck levels
and the upper and lower platform levels of the engineroom which,
even on a moderately sized ship, can be eight or so deck levels in total.
Especially on large crude oil tankers elevators are provided to serve
the pumproom although these must be carefully designed in view of
the inherent dangers in this space.
Emergency alternator Many ships are now provided with an emerg-
ency alternator although a battery system may alternatively be pro-
vided to supply emergency electrical power in the event of a main
supply breakdown. The emergency alternator, if fitted, must be
capable of supplying emergency lighting throughout the ship, also the
navigation lights, navigational aids, fire detection/alarm equipment
and the steering gear. In general terms these consumers must
be supplied with electrical power for a period of 18 hours by
the emergency alternator or battery. The emergency alternator must
also start automatically upon failure of the main electricity
Emergency bilge injection This is an independent means of
pumping the machinery space bilges in the event of a catastrophic
flooding incident of the space. The conventional machinery space bilge
system is generally of low capacity and connected to an oily water
separator of equally low capacity. Should a serious inrush of seawater
into the machinery space take place the conventional bilge pumping
system would in all probability not be able to cope, and for this reason
an emergency bilge injection is required under classification rules. It
is connected to an appropriate pump in the machinery space with the
largest capacity, usually but not necessarily a seawater circulating
pump, so that the water can be quickly pumped overboard.
Emergency fire pump All ships must possess an emergency fire
pump located outside the machinery space. It must be driven by an
independent power source and be capable of operation when all other
power sources are out of commission. It is a requirement that the
emergency fire pump must be capable of delivering a specified number
of water jets from the fire hydrants, even if the machinery space piping
is not intact because of fire damage. Although emergency fire pumps
Emergency fire pump

are occasionally located in the focsle area, the means of accessing this
space in the event of extremely bad weather conditions should be
taken into consideration.
Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB) EPIRBs are a
float-off device used for locating the position of a stricken ship to a
search and rescue team. The EPIRB transmits a radio signal picked up
by the COSPAS-SARSAT polar orbiting satellite operating on the 406
Mhz (Megahertz) and 121.5 Mhz frequency bands. It is now a require-
ment under the global marine distress and safety system (GMDSS)
that every ship has to be provided with an EPIRB.
Emergency towing system (ETS) All new tankers (oil, chemical and
gas) above 20,000 DWT must now be provided with an ETS and
existing tankers of this size so provided by 1999. ETS has been intro-
duced to facilitate salvage and emergency towage arrangements pri-
marily to reduce the magnitude of pollution when a tanker is in serious
trouble. The ETS equipment must be provided both forward and aft
ends of a tanker and it comprises various components such as pick up
gear, towing pennants, fairleads and a so-called strong point. The
working strength of the ETS equipment is specified as being 1000 KN
(Kilo Newton) for tankers between 20,000 and 50,000 DWT, and 2000
KN for tankers above 50,000 DWT. ETS is now included in an amend-
ment to SOLAS 74.
Emulsified fuel oil The use of emulsified fuel oil for marine diesel
engines has been practised over the years but is has not proved to be
very popular. Before being burnt in the engine the fuel is first purified
and then emulsified and homogenised, with the appropriate amount
of fresh water added to form a stable emulsion. The amount of water
added can be as much as 15 per cent of the fuel oil and it is primarily
intended to improve the cleanliness within the combustion space and
therefore extend the TBO (time between overhaul). It is claimed the
use of emulsified fuel oil will reduce NO (Nitrous Oxide) emission, a
pollutant presently being investigated by IMO (International Maritime
Organisation). It has also been claimed that the use of emulsified fuel
will reduce the specific fuel consumption (SFC).
Enclosed lifeboats Enclosed lifeboats are a SOLAS (Safety of Life at
Sea) requirement for ships carrying dangerous cargoes, for example
chemical tankers. Many shipowners now specify enclosed lifeboats,
especially if trading to inhospitable areas such as the North Atlantic
where survival is greatly improved by protecting crew members
against the prevailing weather conditions as offered by the enclosed
Engine types

lifeboat. :The lifeboat enclosure is usually of reinforced plastic and

provided with sliding access doors and viewing panels.
Energy conservation Energy conservation techniques have been
practised in many industries since the huge fuel oil cost increases
started in the autumn of 1973. More recently the emphasis on the
introduction of energy conservation measures has been viewed
against the cost effectiveness of the action taken. Derating (which see)
is a case in point, and just a few short years ago many new ships were
delivered with a derated main engine, whereas it is now commonplace
to provide fully rated main engines. Many other energy saving mea-
sures have failed to meet the critical financial criteria now needed to
show a positive return on the investment. The main reason for this
reticence in employing energy conservation measures is the softening
in fuel costs and desire of most shipowners to reduce the first cost of
the ship.
Engineering Council (EC) The Engineering Council is a UK organ-
isation drawing its membership from all the major professional insti-
tutions associated with the many branches of engineering. The avowed
prime aim of the EC is to enhance the standing and the contribution
of the engineering profession. The EC maintains a national register of
professional engineers and has three levels of attainment, namely
Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer and Engineer Technician.
Other activities undertaken by the EC include the setting up and
maintenance of education and training standards. It also holds lectures
at its regional branches and publishes a magazine entitled Engineering
First, devoted primarily to serving the interests of its members.
Engineroom crane An engineroom crane is provided mainly to
facilitate the removal and overhaul of main engine exhaust valves,
cylinder covers and pistons. These are exceptionally heavy parts
weighing up to seven tonnes on slow speed-type engines and the
crane must have the appropriate lifting capacity. The crane is capable
of traversing the full length of the engineroom casing and also has
a cross traverse facility to enable the engine parts to be accurately
positioned. Engineroom cranes are operated by electricity or com-
pressed air depending on choice.
Engine types The large number of engine types which have evolved
over the years with respect to marine propulsion have slowly been
discarded by the industry until only two basic types of diese1 engine
remain. These are the single acting slow speed two-stroke of crosshead
design and the single acting medium speed four-stroke of trunk piston
Engine types

design. High speed diesel engines of four-stroke trunk piston design

are also used but are generally restricted to such craft as the HSS (High
Sea-service Speed) ship. Previously the array of available engines
included double acting two- and four-strokes, opposed piston, slow
speed four-stroke, medium speed two-stroke, and many others all
destined for the shipbreakers.
Enhanced survey programmes (ESP) Under the SOLAS (Safety of
Life at Sea) Convention all bulk carriers and tankers must now be
subject to an enhanced survey programme. This was brought about by
a spate of incidents which indicated to !MO that existing classification
survey requirements in many cases did not ensure that the condition
of a ship's structure was being effectively monitored. It should be
noted that although structural surveys are a classification responsi-
bility IMO does have the mandate to introduce legislation if safety is
involved. All the lACS (International Association of Classification
Societies) members have already incorporated ESP into their rules
which include such items as close-up and intermediate surveys of
known critical areas.
Environmental protection agency A US agency charged with pro-
tecting the environment from known pollutants including those eman-
ating from the shipping industry. Included in its sphere of activity are
such diverse pollutants as exhaust gas emissions and TBT(Tributyltin)
paint, as well as the more usually encountered oil and chemical pol-
Epicyclic gears Epicyclic gear trains are rather complicated arrange-
ments, sometimes referred to as sun and planet gears, which have
large reduction ratios for their rather small space requirements. They
were used in steam turbine installations in order to achieve high
rotor speeds and therefore improve turbine efficiency.They were also
occasionally used in steam turbo generators so that their high rotor
speeds could be reduced to that more suitable for the armature.
E3 tanker A European shipbuilders' initiative evolved to improve
the image of oil tankers. E3 stands for ecological, economical and
European, and is the result of co-operation between German, Spanish,
French and Italian shipbuilders. The shipbuilding partners have joined
forces to produce a design for a VLCC (very large crude carrier)
placing emphasis on the ecological and economical aspects. Their
design features a double hull, and three dimensional finite element
techniques have been employed to minimise stress concentration in
vulnerable areas. One object of the project is to wrest away Far Eastern
European Union (EU)

shipbuilders' current dominance in the VLCC sector.

Equipment number Is used by classification societies mainly to
determine the size and number of anchors and chain cables for a new
ship. In the case of Lloyd's Register the formula used for the equipment
number is; D + 2BH + AllO where D = displacement in tonnes at
summer load waterline, B = Moulded breadth in metres, H = Free-
board in metres plus the sum of the heights of each tier of deckhouse
above B/4 breadth, A = Profile area of hull and superstructure in
square metres. The equipment number ranges in numerical value from
50 ~o 14,600and the mass and number of anchors, also the diameter
and length of chain cable is given in the classification rules. An equip-
ment letter is also given to align with a range of equipment numbers.
Erosion Erosion is a mechanical attack on the surface of a material
and in the marine industry is usually associated with attacks on pro-
peller blades, cooler tubes and pump casings by seawater. It was
previously associated with attacks on steam turbine blades at the low
pressure stages then due to the steam being too wet. In the case of
seawater, erosion is usually caused by cavitational disturbances due
to high water velocities or poor water flow, and manifests itself by
cavities and pits on the surface usually of non-ferrous metals.
Occasionally the steel nose plating of rudders can be affected by
erosion if the propeller creates excessive cavitation.
Escape routes Escape routes usually in the form of a trunkway have
always been required from areas and compartments aboard ship
which otherwise would be deathtraps in the events of a serious inci-
dent such as a fire. Resulting from the Herald of Free Enterprise capsize
incident it was realised by the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) that capsized ships presented a special problem. They therefore
introduced amendments to the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Con-
vention which now requires handrails to be provided on all escape
routes within the passenger spaces of all ro-ro passenger ships. Other
requirements relating to illuminated signs and other such items have
also been introduced and a provision that escape routes must always
be kept clear of obstructions.
European Chemical Coastal Tanker Owners (ECCTO) An associ-
ation of shipowners engaged in the coastal chemical trade who are
very active in maintaining the high standards relating to the con-
struction and operation of these rather specialised ships.
European Union (EU) The European Union has not yet introduced
European Union (EU)

a common policy for maritime transport although several items have

been singled out for attention. One of these is the proposed EUROS
registry enabling ships to fly the Community flag, always providing
strict preconditions have been met. Safety measures have been
addressed by the enforcement of the Paris Memorandum of Under-
standing (MOU) on Port State Control (PSC) which now makes it
compulsory for EU member states to inspect at least 25 per cent of
individual ships visiting their ports for any deficiencies. Shipbuilding
subsidies and environmental issues are also under consideration by
the ED.
Exhaust gas emissions Exhaust gas emissions have recently been in
the limelight and are expected to be regulated by IMO (International
Maritime Organisation) in the not too distant future. These emissions
will probably form part of a new annex to the MARPOL Convention
covering all gaseous emissions from ships. In the case of marine diesel
engines the main sources of pollution from exhaust gas are Sulphur
Dioxide (S02) and Nitrous Oxide (NO). Both these can be significantly
reduced by the use of gas scrubbers in the case of S02 and by selective
catalytic reduction (SCR) in the case of NOx• CO2 is also present in
exhaust gas in large quantities, about 3.2 kg per 1kg of fuel oil burnt,
but it cannot be effectively removed. Unburnt hydrocarbons and par-
ticulates are also present, but are generally in quantities unlikely to
cause concern to the authorities.
Exhaust gas recovery Exhaust gas used to represent a major source
of heat recovery from a diesel engine. Exit temperatures from the
turbochargers were rather high and considerable quantities of steam
could be produced when the exhaust gases were passed through an
economiser or exhaust gas boiler. In main engines with horsepowers
of about 12,000 or above it was possible to produce sufficient steam to
drive a 500 KW turboalternator. All this was to end when the efficiency
of propulsion diesel engines improved, which led to a resultant drop
in the heat available in the exhaust gases. Nowadays the heat in the
gas is used only to provide domestic and heating steam needs, except
on large powered vessels such as post Panamax container ships which
still have the heat capability in the exhaust gas to support a tur-
boalternator scheme.
Exhaust valves In the case of slow speed crosshead-type two-stroke
propulsion diesel engines, the reliability of the exhaust valve is one of
the most important aspects of their design. Exhaust valves control the
flow of exhaust gas from the engine and are nowadays operated by a

hydraulic actuator which replaced the conventional push rod and

rocker arm many years ago. The exhaust valve spindle is usually made
of nimonic material and also has a rotational device operated by the
exiting exhaust gas to jointly extend the time between overhaul (TBO)
Explosion meters Are used aboard tankers of all types (oil, chemical
and gas) to establish whether flammable or explosive vapours are
present in a compartment or space onboard. There are several types
of explosion meter available but in general those using either the
thermal conductivity or catalytic combustion method are used aboard
tankers, occasionally portable explosion meters combining both
methods are used. In the thermal conductivity method the con-
ductivity of the sampled vapour is compared with that of air using
electric heating elements to obtain the necessary temperature. In the
catalytic combustion method the sample to be tested is passed over a
heated platinum element and the change in electrical resistance is
converted to the gas concentration.
Extended surface heat exchangers A conventional heat exchanger
is usually in the form of a nest of plain tubes through which passes
the cooling or heating medium and over the outer surface of the tubes
the medium to be heated or cooled flows. The heat transfer efficiency
of this arrangement is not particularly good, and in order to improve
this aspect the extended surface heat exchanger was introduced. The
extended surface effect is accomplished by the provision of gills or
fins attached to the outer surface of the tubes, so considerably increas-
ing the heat transfer surface and with it the efficiency. Typical appli-
cations are turbocharger air coolers and forced circulated economisers,
although the principle can be applied to most heat exchangers.
Factor of safety A factor of safety is used when designing most
equipment in which the safety of personnel engaged in its use is
considered to be at risk. It is defined as the ratio of the ultimate failure
stress to the permissible working stress. In the case of a ship's structure
it is rather difficult to determine the global or overall safety of factors
as so many components are involved in a ship's construction, but
Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS)for example uses a global figure of
around 2.2. When taking into account the allowable diminution this
can be reduced to perhaps 1.2 on a global basis. In the case of LRS the
factor of safety relating to a ship's structure is based on a continuous
20-year exposure to winter North Atlantic weather conditions.
Fairleads Fairleads are provided aboard ship to ensure that mooring

lines do not foul parts of the ship's structure when securing a ship
alongside a berth and exert a direct pull. Also, because of the large
differences in ships' draught or in the water level of tidal harbours the
lines have to be led in such a way that this does not cause a snag.
Multi-angled fairleads are one such device used to prevent this, and
they consist of both vertical and horizontal rollers, mounted in a frame,
which guide the wires. Panama fairleads are fixed devices having
heavily radiused openings through which the mooring lines are
passed. Other fairleads in general use include roller pedestal and deck
mounted roller types. (See Mooring equipment.)
Fastship project Is an ambitious US project aimed at wresting away
high value time sensitive cargoes from airfreight and conventional
container ship operators. The Fastship project relates to a 1360 TEU
(twenty-foot equivalent unit) container ship operating on the SPMH
(semi-planing monohull) principle which creates partial lift at service
speed. Propulsion is by gas turbine-driven water jets which the design-
ers hope will give a service speed of around 42 knots. The project calls
for loading and unloading the containers by air cushion pallets rather
than the conventional lift on-lift off crane operation in a move to speed
up port time.
Father and son concept This relates to a main engine propulsion
system whereby diesel engines of identical type but with different
numbers of cylinder units are used. A typical example will have an
eight cylinder and a six cylinder engine attached to a common gearbox
so connected that either or both engines can be used as the propulsive
power. The concept was devised to enable part load operation to be
carried out by choosing the engine having a service rating close to
that required to meet the vessel's speed which could then operate at
optimum efficiency. Several large cruise liners have employed the
father and son concept but in their case a total of four engines were
provided one of each type being connected to each of two gearboxes.
Fatigue Fatigue could be described as the failure of material due to
a continuous fluctuating or reversing load usually at a level well below
that which the material could withstand under steady load conditions.
The fatigue life of a material is largely controlled by the number of
alternating stress cycles. Fatigue stress can be greatly reduced by
designing a ship's structure so that the levels of stress are minimised.
Also the alignment of critical components during erection and the
level of workmanship employed must be of the highest standard if
fatigue failure is to be avoided. Fatigue usually manifests itself by the
Feeder container ship

propagation of fractures at the point of high stress and can be reduced

by the use of notch toughened steels.

Fatigue design assessment (FDA) Is a Lloyd's Register of Shipping

(LRS) procedure introduced to estimate the fatigue strength of a ship's
structural details based on a 20-year life cycle relating to the integrity
of the hull. The FDA procedure is based on calculated S-N (Stress vz
Number of Reversals) data supplemented by experimental results
taken from large scale models of a ship's structure. FDA has been
incorporated into a windows-based software PC program which can
simulate both static and dynamic loading irregularities likely to be
experienced over a ship's useful life cycle. It should be mentioned that
other classification societies also have fatigue procedures similar to
that of FDA.

Fatigue fractures The definition of fatigue is a failure generally due

to repeated reversing loads usually in respect of a metal structure or
component. The most common result of fatigue is the development of
fractures which typically take place in three phases, namely crack
initiation, crack propagation and finally fracture of the effected
material. At the final stage the fracture usually leads to failure of
that part of the structure being subjected to fatigue loading. Fatigue
fractures invariably occur at high stress locations, for example at struc-
tural discontinuities, and it is important that due attention is given to
detail design of the structure.

Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) Is the US body

charged with controlling the possible pollution of water. Under the
FWPCA a ship must have evidence that it is in compliance with the
Act and therefore must possess either a declaration of inspection (DOl)
or a tank vessel examination letter (TVEL). The ship must also have
an approved vessel response plan (VRP) and a certificate of financial
responsibility (COFR) all deemed necessary under this Act.

Feeder container ship These are used to collect containers from such
places as outlying ports and river berths and then deliver them to a
major container terminal where they can be transferred to a large
ocean-going container ship. Feeder Container Ships vary in size from
between 100 TEU (see TEU) to 2000 TEU capacity and at the lower end
could even be constructed as a Rhine river barge. At the upper size
range these feeder ships would match the capacity of tl.1esecond
generation ocean going container ships built in the 1970s, such is the
rate of growth in this industry.
Ferric oxide

Ferric oxide Ferric oxide is the chemical term used to describe rust,
arguably the process having the most influential effect on a ship's
commercial life. In order for rust to form, three essential ingredients
must be present namely moisture, oxygen and a difference in potential
on the surface of the metal concerned. In the case of steel which forms
the structure of the vast majority of ships all these ingredients are
invariably present, especially if the protective coating is damaged or
non-existent. Ferric oxide will continue to be produced as long as
moisture and oxygen are present, and the addition of sodium chloride
(salt) into the equation will accelerate the rusting process. If not dealt
with, ferric oxide will continue to form layers and becomes many
times bulkier that the steel from which it was formed.
Filters Filters are mechanical devices usually with a gauze element
which form the basic means of removing unwelcome particles from
the various systems used aboard ship. The filters can be rather coarse,
as in the case of strainers placed in the main seawater cooling inlets
simply to keep out small fish and molluscs. Finer filters are provided
in the fuel and lubricating oil systems mainly to supplement the more
efficient centrifugal separators used as the primary means of particle
removal. More sophisticated filters, such as magnetic, auto-cleaning
and back-flushing types are also provided to meet specific require-
ments. Filters usually of felt material are also provided on the air
intakes of main and auxiliary turbochargers, air compressors and air
conditioning systems to prevent air laden particles from entering these
Fineness ratio This is a method used to give an indication of the
fineness of a ship's underwater hull. It is also called the
Length/Displacement ratio and is defined as the ratio between a ship's
waterline length and the length of a hypothetical cube having a volume
equal to that of the displacement volume. For large bulk carriers and
tankers the fineness ratio is in the range 5.1 to 5.3 and for fine lined
ships such as container ships it is usually around 5.8 to 5.9.
Finite element analysis (FEA) Finite element analysis in this context
relates to a three-dimensional computerised graphical illustration of
a ship's structure which clearly shows the distribution of stress
throughout critical areas of the hull. When used in conjunction with
classification society service records relating to the actual diminution
of the various plates and their supporting structure due to wastage,
fatigue or corrosion the system clearly indicates those areas under
high stress and likely to fail if appropriate action is not taken.
Fire doors

Fire bulkheads The vulnerable compartments of all ships have to

be separated by fire bulkheads, or divisions as they are usually referred
to. They are governed by the Safety or Life at Sea (SOLAS)Convention
which prescribes the various categories of division required depend-
ing on the fire risk involved. The highest category is referred to as
Class A, usually of insulated steel construction, although suitably
insulated aluminium is now acceptable for the increasing number of
passenger ships made in this material. All other divisions apart from
A are considered to be combustible and are allocated to class B or C.
A standard fire test is used to determine a division's fire retardant
properties based on a time-temperature curve. Each A and B class
division is also allocated a number based on the time it can restrict its
prescribed temperature rise. Thus a class A-60 division can resist its
temperature rise for 60 minutes and a class B-15 its temperature
rise for 15 minutes. The allocation of divisions is one of diminishing
severity in that class A-60 is the highest and C has the lowest fire
retarding capability.
Fire control plan A fire control plan placed in a conspicuous position
is required to be provided aboard all ships in accordance with Safety
of Life at Sea (SaLAS) regulations. The plan shows the position and
function of all the various types of fire-fighting equipment provided
onboard. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has adopted
a widely used graphical system of indicating each type of equipment
by means of a symbol in order to facilitate firefighting activities and
avoid language problems when interpreting written descriptions of
the equipment. Posters depicting these symbols are widely published
with a view to ensuring universal acceptance.
Fire detection systems Fire detection systems are required on all
passenger ships, in the hold of ships carrying dangerous cargoes
and in all ships operating with VMS (unmanned machinery spaces).
Various fire detection systems are available depending on the location
and level of fire risk. For example in the hold of cargo ships it is usual
to provide a smoke detection system using the fixed piping of the CO2
total flood fire extinguishing system to convey any smoke to the
wheelhouse indicator. In a typical passenger ship fire detection system
activation of a sprinkler head in a passenger cabin will initiate an
alan;n and also immediately commence drenching the cabin. Other
fire detection systems initiated by heat, smoke or flame are also avail-
able and in every case they must operate the fire alarm system.

Fire doors All passenger ships have to be provided with fire doors
Fire doors

under Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)regulations. These in the main are

constructed of flameproof material and are located at boundaries of
stairway enclosures, main vertical zone bulkheads and galley space
boundaries. Fire doors are normally kept open under normal sea-
going conditions and have to be of the self-closing type and also be
capable of being closed from both a continually manned central control
station and also locally at each door. In the event of a ship fire an
indicator panel situated in the central control station has to show
clearly if the fire doors are closed.
Fire drill It is a statutory requirement that all ships must carry out a
fire drill at regular intervals as prescribed by the relevant admin-
istration and that the event is recorded in the official ship's log. During
the fire drill the emergency fire pump is run and fire hoses rigged to
simulate a fire in various locations at each subsequent drill. Other fire
fighting equipment is brought into use during the fire drill with the
express intention of familiarising all crew members with their respect-
ive fire stations and the duties they are allocated to perform. Many
port state control (PSC) inspectors now require a fire drill to be per-
formed under their supervision to confirm the adequacy of the crew.
Fire extinguishing systems Ship losses as a result of fire figure high
in the total number of losses posted each year, and the reasons behind
the causes of fire are regularly reviewed by the appropriate sub-
committee at IMO (International Maritime Organisation). In the case
of passenger ships IMO now requires all new and existing ships to be
provided with an approved fixed. sprinkler system. The absence of
such a system was arguably responsible for many passenger ship fires
developing from quite small beginnings. In the case of machinery
spaces, halon gas was for many years in general use but has recently
been banned on account of its ozone depletive potential (ODP) under
the Montreal Protocol. Carbon Dioxide (C02) total flood systems are
now the most widely used fire extinguishing method for both machin-
ery spaces and cargo holds. Fixed water mist or fog fire extinguishing
systems are gaining in popularity and can be used in accommodation,
cargo and machinery spaces subject to certain requirements being met.
The basic fire extinguishing methods are still the fire hose and portable
extinguisher, and these, as well as many other implements, have to be
carried irrespective of any other system employed.
Fireman's outfits Fireman's outfits are required to be provided on
all ships in a number as specified in the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
regulations. A fireman's outfit consists of a suit of protective clothing

made of heat resistant material, boots and gloves of similar non-

conducting material, a rigid helmet, electric safety lamp, an axe and
breathing apparatus (which see).
Firing order This refers to the sequence of firing in the combustion
spaces of internal combustion engines usually diesel engines in ship-
board applications. The firing order is generally arranged to ensure
even distribution of the combustion forces on the crankshaft. Recent
research has shown that uneven firing orders can have certain advan-
tages, especially with respect to engines having a large number of
cylinders where a certain amount of latitude is possible. These advan-
tages are related to the vibration excitational forces, which can be
re~uced or redistributed by altering the firing order.
First start arrangements All diesel propelled ships must have a first
start, or initial start, arrangement in the event of a complete loss of
power leading to a dead ship situation. In the case of most diesel
engined ships this will consist of an independently driven air com-
pressor capable of charging the auxiliary air receiver so that a diesel
alternator can be started, and thence the starting air compressors
and main service systems. Those ships having main and auxiliary
engines started by electric motors will usually have an emergency
battery arrangement provided. Steam propelled ships using oil fired
boilers have to be provided with an independent start up unit
having an oil pump and heater so that steam can be raised from cold
Flag of convenience (FOC) Is the activity practised by many ship-
owners whereby their ships are registered in a country other than that
in which they themselves are domiciled, usually for financial gain.
The main reason for adopting FOC registry is to gain access to the
employment of low cost crew members. What might be called con-
ventional or closed registers usually have restrictions as to the
nationality and numbers of officers and crew a ship must have,
whereas FOC countries in general terms do not have such restrictions.
Many countries object to being alluded to as being a flag of con-
venience register and it is probably more correct to refer to them as
open registers.
Flags Every ship must carry a full set of flags which are hoisted up
the mast to convey various signals. Each letter of the alphabet has its
own distinctive flag and also each number from 0 to 9. The signal or
code signified by each letter is controlled by the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) through the International Code of Signals.

Examples of the code are the flag for A or Alpha which signifies "I
have a diver down, keep well clear at slow speed" through to Z or Zulu
"I require a tug". Most eventualities are covered by an appropriate flag
Flag state administration This refers to the administrations of IMO
(International Maritime Organisation) member states charged with
regulating the activities of ships registered in their countries and flying
their flags. In the case of the United Kingdom this is the Department
of Transport (DTp) through its Marine Safety Agency (MSA) and in
the United States of America it is the United States Coast Guard
(USCG). All countries which are signatories to the IMO Conventions
have similar arrangements, and their representatives attend the
various IMO meetings. The flag state administrations introduce the
requirements of the IMO Conventions and other instruments into their
national administration rules and regulations, and they are at liberty
to add specific requirements depending how they interpret the IMO
Flame arresters Every fuel oil tank and cargo tank certified for the
carriage of flammable liquids must be provided with a flame arrester
or flame screen fitted in the tank vent. This is to prevent the passage
of flame into or out of the tank, therefore limiting the explosion risk.
Flame arresters are usually made of incorrodable wire gauze dia-
phragms easily removable for cleaning. Care must be taken if chemical
cargoes whose vapours are likely to condense onto and block the
gauze are being carried, also care ~ust be taken not to over pressurise
a tank when it is being vented with a blocked gauze. The crankcases
of diesel engines must also be provided with a flame arrester on the
relief valves to prevent the passage of flame in the event of a crankcase
Flare In this instance flare refers to the curvature of a ship's bow
introduced to deflect seawater when a ship is proceeding through the
water. Large tankers and bulk carriers are usually built with a much
reduced flare appropriate to their low ship's speed. Passenger ships
and other high speed ships usually have pronounced flares both for
ascetic and wave-piercing reasons. The strengthening of the bow
section of a ship with a pronounced flare angle requires to be specially
considered and classification rules cover this aspect.
Flash point There are various methods used to determine the flash
point of a fuel oil but the Pensky-Martens closed cup ISO 2719
(International Standards Organisation) method is most frequently

used for marine fuels. The flash point of a fuel oil is the lowest tem-
perature at which ignition of its vapours in a closed cup can take place
when a flame is passed over the surface. The flash point of fuels aboard
ship must not be below 60 degrees centigrade, except for fuel used in
such applications as emergency fire pumps when a flash point of not
less than 43 degrees may be allowed. In general the temperature of
fuel oil in the ship's storage tanks must not exceed 10 degrees centi-
grade below its flash point unless special precautions are introduced.

Fleet age statistics The average of the world's fleet for self-propelled
merchant ships of 100 gross tonnes (GT) and above has steadily
increased over recent years, which is a cause for concern to many
interested parties, for example insurance underwriters. It has been
established as would be expected that the loss rate for the older ships,
especially bulk carriers, is rather high when a comparison is made
with newer models having increased scantlings. The current average
age of the world's fleet is currently around 18years and it has steadily
increased since 1980when it was pitched at the 13-year level.

Fleet size statistics The size of the world's fleet when broken down
into the shipowner's nationality is only one of many statistics
produced on an annual basis by, for example, Lloyd's Maritime. When
nationality is considered the picture is completely different from that
when the ship's registry is used as a comparison. For example Panama
heads the list when considering the country of registry but does not
figure in the leading table of shipowners. Recent figures indicate that
the top shipowning nations are Greece, Japan, United States, Norway
and the United Kingdom. The top five registries are Panama, Liberia,
Greece, Cyprus and the Bahamas. The total world fleet as at 31
December 1994 was around 476 million gross tonnes comprising

Floatcoat Was a means of providing a protective coating in liquid

form on the surfaces usually of ballast tanks. Application was
accomplished by simply introducing the coating product into the tank
bottom and slowly filling the tank with ballast water. As the water
level rose in the tank the product adhered to the internal surfaces, thus
providing protection against corrosion. The initial products used were
oil based and were adjudged to contravene MARPOL (Marine
Pollution) regulations in that the ballast water pumped overboard
gave a sheen on the water unacceptable to most harbour authorities.
Also the ballast tank coating now required under classification rules

would not include the type of coating applied by the floatcoat prin-

Floating docks These are essentially drydocks and are used for the
periodic inspection of a ship's hull or to effect underwater repairs.
They consist of a series of integrated watertight tanks which provide
the necessary buoyancy force to lift and then support the weight of a
ship under repair. To undock the ship the tanks are gradually flooded
and the ship floated out when the dock is partially submerged. They
offer an improved feature over fixed excavated drydocks in that they
are cheaper to construct and. can be towed to another location if
commercial reasons dictate such a course of action.

Floating production storage and offshore unit (FPSO) The FPSO

unit has become a popular addition to the various installations now
used in the offshore industry and owes its popularity to being able to
be easily moved to another location when the well being worked runs
out. Their below deck appearance is similar to that of an oil tanker
and they can either be purpose built or converted from an existing
tanker. Their structure is based on conventional shipbuilding tech-
nology and normal classification rules and regulations applied. The
FPSO is usually connected to a riser buoy from which it receives its
crude oil supply from the seabed, and after being dealt with in the
above deck processing plant it is stored and then transferred to a
shuttle tanker by means of a flexible hose.

Floc point The floc point is used to determine the suitability of

lubricating oils for use in refrigerating or air conditioning machinery.
These lubricating oils must be able to combat the extremely low tem-
peratures encountered if or when they are carried over with the
refrigerant. Lubricating oils used in such applications are usually free
from paraffinic waxes, but a low floc point ensures that if oil is carried
over any wax present would not deposit on sensitive controls and
cause malfunction.

Flooding calculations Are those made to determine the effect that

hypothetical hull damage has on both the intact and damage stability
of a ship. The criterion for stability of each ship type is included in the
SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) Convention. If the angle of heel as a
result of flooding calculations reaches a certain value then the so-
called down flooding angle must be taken into account. This is defined
as the least angle of heel at which openings in the hull, superstructure
or deckhouses which are not required to be watertight are immersed
Flume stabilisers

leading to further (down) flooding and this aspect must be taken into
account in the calculations.

Flood prevention doors These are a comparatively recent develop-

ment intended for use on the vehicle decks of those ro-ro passenger
ferries without the necessary damage stability requirements to satisfy
impending legislation shortly to be progressively introduced by the
International Maritime Organisation (IMO). Flood prevention doors
can be either sliding, folding or of concertina type construction. They
effectively subdivide the vehicle decks in a transverse direction, so
that instead of having a complete longitudinal through deck situation,
perhaps three or four watertight compartments are formed when the
doors are closed prior to the ferry departing from berth, and the doors
are then opened on arrival to permit free discharge of the vehicles.

Floors Floors are the transverse members of a ship's structure

welded within the double bottom tanks. They extend from the bottom
plating to the tank top and are placed at intervals usually coincident
with the shell frames of transversely framed ships. Floors are also
provided at the lower ends of fore and aft peak tanks. They can be
either watertight, solid or a bracket type in diminishing order of
strength. Watertight floors are used to divide tank compartments and
solid or bracket floors are used for strengthening reasons. Under a
main engine the double bottom tank will consist entirely of solid floors
which, although referred to as solid, do have access holes cut in for
tank inspection purposes.

Fluidised bed boilers These are a comparatively recent develop-

ment embracing a radical departure from the conventional radiant
flame used in a conventional boiler furnace. In the fluidised bed boiler
the steam generating tubes are immersed in a bed of molten or flu-
idised combustible material which enables the heat transfer coefficient
to be much higher than that of the conventional boiler furnace. It is
claimed that fuel of exceptionally poor quality can be burnt in the
fluidised bed which gives the possibility of using fuel not normally
associated with the furnace method of burning fuel.

Flume stabilisers Flume stabilisers are associated with so-called

passive systems in which seawater is rapidly transferred across inte-
gral tanks via flumes (vents) to counter the rolling moment imparted
on a ship by the action of the waves. The flume integral tanks are
specially designed to avoid the ship becoming destabilised and an
automatic phase sensing system is usually provided to ensure that
Flume stabilisers

optimum efficiency is achieved. They are not as efficient as active

systems when really bad weather is met with.
Foam monitors :Foammonitors are nozzles capable of being rotated
360 degrees provided on the decks of oil and chemical tankers to fight
fires which may occur on deck. A foam tank is provided and the foam
making liquid introduced into a supply of seawater usually taken
from the firemain and directed to the monitors situated above deck
which can be aimed at the fire. Sufficient foam is carried to form a
specified depth of foam on the deck over the cargo oil tanks and avoid
the possibility of fire reaching the cargo. On chemical tankers the foam
carried must be compatible with the cargo carried. The condition of
the foam· in the tank is tested at regular, usually annual, intervals to
satisfy statutory requirements.
Forces originating from diesel engines There are various forces and
moments having their origin in the reciprocating and rotating masses
of a propulsion diesel engine which lead to the excitation of vibration.
It has been postulated that the main sources of excitational vibration
emanate from the propeller, but the main engine also contributes to
such forces. These are mainly first and second order external free
moments, also guide forces and moments. The first order free moments
occur at engine speed frequency and exist in both the vertical and
horizontal plane. They can be balanced by judicial placing of counter
weights on the flywheel or by the provision of a detuning wheel at the
free end of the crankshaft. The second order free moments occur at
twice engine speed frequency and they can be balanced by the pro-
vision of moment compensators driven by the camshaft or even inde-
pendently driven compensators if the moments are high. Guide forces
and moments can be reduced by the provision of bracings between
the top of the engine and the ship's structure. In recent times these
bracings have been hydraulically operated.
Forebody This is the forward part of a ship comprising forecastle,
forepeak tank, store space and chain lockers. The outer hull of the ship
is especially strengthened in this vulnerable area to combat wave
action. Also the shell plating affected by rubbing action when housing
the anchors is made of increased thickness. On container ships it is
usual to provide an extremely high breakwater on the forecastle to
protect the forward containers which otherwise could be exposed to
heavy seas.
Forecastle The forecastle (pronounced focsle) is the raised portion
of the upper deck at the forward end of a ship. On most ships the
Forty-foot equivalent unit (FEU)

windlass is located on the forecastle, as also are the various fairleads

and bollards used to moor the ship alongside. The main purpose of
the forecastle is to reduce the amount of seawater being shipped over
the bow in heavy seas. The height of the forecastle above the summer
load line (bow height) is laid down in classification rules. Ships
without a raised forecastle must be provided with increased sheer
(which see). The length of the forecastle or extent of the increased sheer
is also laid down in classification rules.
Forepeak The forepeak is a tank located at the foremost part of a
ship into which the bow of the ship is structurally integrated. The
forepeak tank is normally arranged to carry ballast seawater, and this
gives the necessary weight forward to reduce the forward draught
and increase seakeeping qualities in the ballast condition. The internal
structure of the forepeak tank is provided with additional strength to
combat both pounding and panting action (both of which see). This
includes the provision of transverse framing supported by various side
stringers, wash bulkheads and diaphragms, all of which contribute to
a rather complicated structure.
Forest product carriers These ships are primarily engaged on the
west coast of North America trade to carry such cargoes as packaged
timber, plywood and paper to European and Far Eastern markets. In
many instances they are built as a fully open bulker (which see) with
large hatches and squared off hold spaces making them suitable for
the carriage of these cargoes. Sophisticated cargo handling equipment
is often provided, and in general it is capable of handling all the varied
cargoes including such facilities as vacuum clamps for lifting paper
Formal safety assessment (FSA) Has been used in industry for many
years and it has recently been suggested that FSA could be applied to
the shipping industry. FSA is essentially a planned method of dealing
with safety risks by identifying all the numerous hazards met within
ship operation and then managing a cost effective solution. In an FSA
scheme each ship would be considered as a separate safety case and
presumably an independent authority would have to be set up to
manage the scheme, as it would embrace both flag state and classi-
fication disciplines. At this moment there would appear to be no
immediate plans to introduce FSA into the shipping sector.
Forty-foot equivalent unit (FEU) Is the larger of the two standard
sizes of container in general use, the other being the TEU (twenty-foot
equivalent unit). The number of FEUs in use is steadily increasing as
Forty-foot equivalent unit (FEU)

countries relax axle load limits on their roads and the economy of scale
concept of using the largest possible containment is adopted. The
heights of containers are also increasing, starting with a standard
eight-foot high container they now can reach 9.5 feet in certain
Forward perpendicular (FP) The forward perpendicular is the point
at which the summer load waterline crosses the stem of a ship. It is
used in conjunction with the aft perpendicular (AP) (which see) to
determine the length between perpendiculars (LBP)of a ship. LBP is
used in many calculations involving classification and IMO
(International Maritime Organisation) rules relating to the strength
and safety of a ship.
Fractionating columns A fractionating column, or tower, is one of
the main components in a crude oil refinery complex. At the refinery
the crude oil is first heated in a pipe still and fed into the lower end of
the fractionating column. The column contains a series of what are
called fractionating plates at various levels, and as the hot oil vapours
rise up the column they are condensed and partially re-evaporate in
what is a continuing process as they pass through each plate. Each time
the vapours condense and re-evaporate their composition changes and
the eventual concentr(,ltionof hydrocarbon products is that the lighter
fractions such as gas and petrol are led off from the top of the column.
Heavy products such as fuel oil, asphalt and petcoke are collected at
the bottom. Intermediate products are removed from the column at
various heights depending on their boiling point temperature.
Frames Frames are in effect the rib cage of a ship onto which the
plates are affixed, nowadays by welding but previously by rivets.
Ships were from time immemorial built with transverse or cross
frames, but in recent years longitudinal or lengthways frames have
been increasingly used and a combination of the two is now very
common. Steel frames are made in various sections which include
symmetrical or asymmetrical web, bulb, rolled angle and channel, to
name but a few. They can be made of shipbuilding quality steel or
high tensile steel and their scantlings and strength are laid down in
classification rules as is the distance between them. Deep frames of
increased strength are also used in various locations on a ship.
Freeboard Is defined as the distance from the waterline to what is
called the freeboard deck, this being the uppermost continuous deck
exposed to the weather and sea having watertight means of closure
on all the openings located thereon. There are several categories of
Free piston engine

freeboard assigned by the IMO (International Maritime Organisation)

Loadline Convention. Type A ships are tankers, and they are allowed
to have comparatively small freeboards befitting their improved
ability to survive hull damage. Type B ships are those other than those
of Type A. Subject to certain additional safety features being provided
it is possible to assign a reduced freeboard to type B ships. A good
example is the B-60 freeboard assigned to a bulk carrier where a 60
per cent reduction can be obtained.

Free fall lifeboats Free fall lifeboats are a comparatively recent

development and are launched from an inclined ramp located over
the stern of a ship, usually on the centreline. The lifeboat itself is
secured to the ramp by means of a quick release gear, and when
the crew have embarked into the lifeboat the release mechanism is
operated and the lifeboat complete with occupants launched down
the ramp into the sea. By locating a single lifeboat on the centreline it
is largely unaffected by a list the ship may have and it is not therefore
necessary to provide a lifeboat each side of the ship, as is the case with
conventionally launched lifeboats.

Free flow system Is a cargo pumping system used aboard crude oil
tankers to reduce the length of cargo suction piping required in the
cargo tanks. In the free flow system a bulkhead valve allows cargo to
flow from a cargo tank without a suction line to an adjacent cargo tank
provided with a suction line. The free flow system is not suitable for
tankers intending to carry different cargo grades and the idea does
not appear to have many supporters.

Freeing ports Are required to be fitted on the exposed decks of

all ships having plated bulwarks. Freeing ports are large openings
provided to prevent the accumulation of seawater on the deck which
if allowed to collect would compromise the stability of the ship. Depen-
dent on the freeboard assigned to the ship so the area of the freeing
ports is decided. The area and location of the freeing ports are given
in classification rules, and in general terms a freeing port area from
between 25 to 33 per cent of the total bulwark area is usually specified.

Free piston engine The free piston engine was installed on a limited
number of merchant ships in the 1960s, but it did not prove to be a
commercial success. It consisted of a free piston reciprocating section
which acted as a gasifier and produced no useful power, but it did
provide the combustion gases for the gas turbine section itself geared
to the propulsion shafting.
Free surface

Free surface Any commodity with the ability to flow in its free state
will do so if a force is applied. Aboard ship this is achieved when a tank
or compartment partially full of seawater or a cargo space partially full
of liquid cargo is subject to the rolling action of a ship in a seaway.
This causes the substance to flow in the direction of roll, and this
action can introduce stability problems. A recent example of this is the
free surface effect of seawater entering the vehicle deck of the Herald
of Free Enterprise which caused the ship to capsize. In the case of ballast
and cargo tanks they are invariably kept full to minimise the free
surface effect.
Freon Freon is the archetypal refrigerant gas used aboard ships since
the 1930s although it has existed in several forms. It was first intro-
duced as R12 (dichlorodifluoromethane), and as such was identified
as a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) which has a rather high ozone depletive
potential (ODP) and is now banned under the terms of the Montreal
Protocol (which see). The latest form of freon IS R22
(chlorodifluoromethane) which is defined as an HCFC and it does
have a somewhat lower ODP than F12 and can there£ore be used until
the year 2000 under the terms of the Montreal Protocol.
Fresh water generators These are an alternative method of pro-
ducing fresh water aboard ship to the reverse osmosis method (which
see). Fresh water generators are typically cylindrical heat exchangers
which evaporate seawater by using the heat contained in the main
engine jacket water system and achieve the necessary evaporation
temperature by creating a partial vacuum in the evaporation chamber.
Because the fresh water so produced has not reached a sufficiently
high temperature to kill many known germs originating in estuarial
waters it is prohibited to use the equipment close to the shore.
Fretting corrosion Is a form of corrosive wear usually identified as
occurring between mating steel surfaces if they are not in firm contact,
compounded if local vibration is being experienced. The vibration sets
up a relative motion between the surfaces, and eventually they pit and
corrode, especially if moisture is present and excessive wear can then
Friction Is a measure of resistance to motion when two surfaces slide
or roll over each other. It is usual to define friction in terms of the
coefficient of friction, a ratio of the force needed to move a certain
load. In the marine sector friction is mainly related to that associated
with bearings within main and auxiliary engines and the propulsion
shafting system. The coefficient of friction is greatly reduced by
Fuel oil classification

employing hydrodynamic or fluid film lubrication techniques and

friction losses are not considered to be a problem these days.

Froude William Proude was a noted hydrodynamicist in the 19th

century who was instrumental in the introduction of test tanks used
to compare the performance of ship models with full scale ships.
Proude also developed what is called the wave line theory (which see)
relating to the pattern of waves and the wash of a ship at various ship
speeds and their relationship with frictional resistance. Among his
many other contributions to the study of hydrodynamics was the
Proude number, used also in aerodynamics, relating length and vel-
ocity to resistance. He also designed the Proude dynamometer used
to measure the output of an engine on the test bed.

Fuel cells Are an electro-chemical means of producing electrical

energy by direct conversion of chemical energy. There are various
forms of fuel cell presently under active development, a move no
d()ubt influenced by their extremely low level of pollutant emission.
One of the most promising designs is the polymer electrolyte fuel cell
comprising a reformer, fuel cell stack and inverter. The theoretical
efficiency of a fuel cell has the potential of reaching above 80 per cent
compared with the current diesel engine efficiency of around 50 per
cent. A lot more research work is necessary before fuel cells become a
commercial reality.

Fuel oil bunker analysis (FOBAS) This is a Lloyd's Register of

Shipping (LRS) service aimed at shipowners who require regular
analysis of fuel oil samples taken while their ships are bunkering.
Shipowners having ships entered in thePOBAS scheme send an agreed
number of samples for detailed analysis and the results obtained are
transmitted to the shipowner within a few days. Should the POBAS
analysis find that to use the fuel in question could give rise to oper-
ational problems then corrective advice is given. There are other
similar systems in operation usually but not necessarily associated
with a classification society.

Fuel oil classification The classification of marine fuel oils has only
quite recently been the subject of an in-depth study. Previously only
three basic classes were in general use, namely, gas oil, diesel oil and
heavy oil. The British Standards Institute (BS1)produced the first
recognised fuel oil standard in 1982, which has now been expanded
and incorporated into the more internationally accepted ISO8217.This
gives 12classifications for residual fuel oils and four classifications for
Fuel oil classification

distillate fuels with a range of densities up to 1.01 and viscosities up

to 700 cst (centistokes) at 50 degrees centigrade.
Fuel oil specifications Are nowadays more likely to be grouped into
a classification band as it is not possible for a shipowner to have a fuel
specification accepted by an oil supplier, the exception being those
owners who operate gas turbine propelled ships. Most diesel engine
and gas turbine licensors have limiting fuel oil specifications, and in
the case of slow speed two-stroke diesel engines these can now tolerate
the lowest quality given in the ISO (International Standards
Organisation) 8217 requirements. Medium speed diesel engines
usually require a somewhat higher grade fuel and high speed diesels
an even higher grade fuel than the slow speed two-strokes. The gas
turbine has the highest fuel specification of all if time between over-
hauls (TBO)are to be maintained at a reasonable level.
Fuel oil treatment Fuel oil delivered to a ship must be treated before
being used in a diesel engine and the accepted methods are first to
pass the fuel through a centrifugal separator and then a filter, although
homogenisation has been occasionally employed on an infrequent
basis. Some shipowners use chemical additives in fuel oil although
their effectiveness in improving combustion is difficult to quantify.
Water has also been introduced in an emulsified form to reduce NO
(Nitrous Oxide) emissions and also improve cleanliness in the com-
bustion space. Chemical additives have also been used to break down
heavy sludge formations in bunker tanks.
Fullagar Is a diesel propulsion engine which first appeared in the
1920s and which had a comparatively short life span. The Fullagar
was named after its designer and operated on the opposed piston two-
stroke principle. Unlike the Doxford (which see) opposed piston engine,
the Fullagar only required two cranks per unit instead of the three
needed by the Doxford which made for a simpler crankshaft. The
upper and lower pistons of adjacent cylinder units on the Fullagar
were connected by massive diagonal rods which provided the necess-
ary driving power for the opposed pistons. The Fullagar engine was
neither a commercial or technical success and is now only of historical
Fully open bulker Is essentially a double hull bulk carrier usually
with large hatch openings compensated for loss of strength by the
provision of a centre girder running in a longitudinal direction. Fully
open bulkers are usually provided with squared off holds making
them suitable for the carriage of packaged timber and other such break

bulk cargoes. It is not inconceivable that all bulk carriers may have to
be built in a similar double hull form sometime in the future, due to
the high loss rate of conventional single hull bulkers when carrying
high density cargoes such as iron ore.
Funnel The funnel of a ship is primarily used to lead the gases from
the various uptakes and pipes from the engineroom to the open deck
clear of the ship. It is a fabricated steel structure and can be a round,
oval or square section depending on the shipbuilder's practice. Most
shipowners place their distinctive housemarks and colours on the
funnel as a form of free advertising. Many cargo ships now locate
the funnel away from the accommodation block to reduce the fire
Fusible plugs These are provided on such items of equipment as air
receivers or reservoirs. They are made of a low melting point material
and are designed so that at a certain temperature, typically 150degrees
centigrade, they melt, so allowing the contents of the air vessel to
discharge into the atmosphere. Their main purpose is to prevent
serious structural damage to the air receiver in the event of a machin-
ery space fire. Such an incident could overheat the material of the
receiver and cause serious distortion due to the internal air pressure.
When a CO2 fire extinguishing system is installed in the machinery
space it is recommended that the discharge from the fusible plug is
piped to the open deck.
Galley Is a compartment aboard ship where all the cooking activities
take place. A modern galley is provided with many labour saving
devices and a typical selection would be;
Cooking Range;
Baking Oven;
Soup Boiler;
Slicing Machine;
Potato Peeler;
Mixing Machine;
Dish Washer;
Waste Disposer;
Water Boiler;

Because of the heat generated in the galley and also the fire risk
involved special precautions are taken. Ventilation is usually inde-
pendent of the main system (see galley exhausts) and fire precautions

include the provision of a fire blanket to smother a fat fire on the

cooking range.
Galley exhaust ducts Galley exhaust ducts lead from the galley to
the open deck and are notorious fire hazards due to their inevitable
exposure to grease laden fumes emanating from the cooking facilities
situated underneath. Under Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)regulations
all passenger ships have to be provided with a grease trap, exhaust
fan shut-off device, fixed fire extinguishing system and an accessible
cleaning hatch in the galley exhausts. While these regulations only
apply to passenger ships and the exhaust ducts which pass through
passenger accommodation and spaces containing combustible
materials it is a sensible idea for all ships to be so provided.
Galley fuel clause The galley fuel clause was included in the original
NYPE (New York Produce Exchange) charterparty and was also
included in various other mainly dry bulk charterparties. Its origin
goes back many decades when most ships were propelled by coal fired
boilers or early diesel engines and the provision of 'Coalfor the galley
stove was considered to be for the shipowner's account. More recently
this was extended to include all the energy needs of the crew and it
then became fashionable to agree a fixed monetary sum each month
which was deducted from the hire rate. The amount involved when
compared with the full hire rate was rather small, and the recent trend
has been to ignore the matter altogether. Rather strangely the subject
of galley fuel actually involved a high court judgment in 1986.
Galvanising Galvanising is a method used to protect mild steel
pipes and components against the ravages of corrosion. In marine
applications galvanising is accomplished by dipping these parts in a
bath of molten zinc held at a temperature of 455 degrees centigrade.
The parts have first to be degreased and pickled to remove impurities
prior to placing them in the zinc. The thickness of the coating so
applied is in the region of 55 microns and affords protection against
corrosion for many years. Parts usually galvanised include bilge and
ballast pipes and various fittings on the exposed upper deck.
Gaseous emissions Included in this category are exhaust gas emis-
sions (which see), also emissions from liquid cargoes, shipboard incin-
erators, refrigerant plants and those emanating from any contaminants
that may have been placed into ship's bunker supply by the oil sup-
plier. The whole subject of gaseous emissions is presently under con-
sideration by IMO (International Maritime Organisation) through its
MARPOL (Marine Pollution) convention, and a proposed new Annex
Gauge glasses

(Annex VI) to this convention is expected to be introduced in the near

Gas oil Is a hydrocarbon fraction with a boiling point located
between that of paraffin and lubricating oil. Its generic name is derived
from the fact that it was previously used in the production of gas for
illumination purposes before electricity became universally adopted.
In marine applications it was used as fuel oil in early diesel engines
and more recently for emergency diesel engines such as those used in
emergency fire pumps and lifeboat engines, to name but two. High
speed propulsion engines and gas turbines also use a highly refined
fuel such as gas oil and the closest classification to gas oil in the ISO
(International Standards Organisation) 8217 fuel classification is that
designated DMX or if CIMAC is preferred their class DX.
Gas tankers The transportation of gas in 'purpose-built tankers has
been around for many years and the trade is confined to a select band
of specialist operators. Two basic types of cargo containment are in
general use, namely free-standing membrane or independently sup-
ported tanks. Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) tankers generally use either
of these two methods, although a third method, referred to as the
prismatic system, has recently been introduced. The tanks of Liquid
Petroleum Gas (LPG) are usually of the semi-membrane type and they
are usually double hulled. The main difference between LNG and
LPG tankers is that the former uses the gas generated by what is called
boil off to supply steam for the boilers whereas LNG tankers re-liquify
the boil off and return it to the cargo tanks.
Gas turbines Originally destined for the aviation industry the gas
turbine first entered the commercial shipping sector in the 1960s and
it then experienced a rather short-lived career. In the naval sector gas
turbines have proved to be very successful as the main propulsion
unit and they are now the mainstay of the world's navies. The recent
emergence of the HSS (High Sea-service Speed) ship has given the gas
turbine a new lease of life in the commercial shipping sector. They are
eminently suitable for HSS ship propulsion by virtue of their extremely
high power to weight ratio which far exceeds those of competitive
Gauge glasses Gauge glasses are the standard method used to deter-
mine the level of liquid in various vessels aboard ship ranging from
boilers to storage tanks within the machinery space. A gauge glass in
its simplest form is a vertically mounted glass tube connected to
positions above and below the expected level of the liquid inside. For
Gauge glasses

high pressure boilers and tanks containing flammable liquid it is usual

to provide flat plate gauge glasses. An additional precaution for gauge
glasses on inflammable liquid tanks requires them to be made of heat
resisting glass and be provided with self-closing valves to prevent the
tank contents from feeding a fire.
Gearing The use of gearing aboard a conventionally propelled two-
stroke diesel engined ship is extremely limited and gearing (a system
of toothed wheels) is primarily used to drive the camshafts on certain
of these engines. On ships propelled by medium speed, high speed
diesel engines or gas turbines the situation is completely different,
unless of course electric propulsion is employed. Non-electric pro-
pelled ships employ sophisticated gear boxes to reduce propulsion
engine revolutions down to those suitable for the propeller. In the
case of multi-engined ships, such as cruise liners, various clutches
and power take-offs are incorporated into the gear box, making for
a rather complicated arrangement and with it a high redundancy
General alarm All ships must be provided witK a general alarm
system to give crew members early warning of an impending emerg-
ency situation. General alarms consist of a series of bells located
throughout the accommodation spaces situated so that in all parts of
the ship the bells can be heard. In addition alarm bells provided with
a red light are located in noisy spaces such as the engineroom, galley
and steering gear flat. Abandon ship and fire alarms have their
individual ringing frequencies to alert the crew to which danger is
General cargo ships The general cargo ship was the backbone of the
dry cargo trade before the arrival, first of the bulk carrier, and then the
container ship. A typical general cargo ship was of around 10,000
DWT, had five holds/hatches and a set of winches and derricks
working on the union purchase system. It was of single hull con-
struction but did have a double bottom and also a tween deck. Machin-
ery was originally located midships but progressively moved aft, as
was the case with most other ships. Service speeds were around 12
knots and diesel propulsion finally replaced steam in the 1950s.
Although general cargo ships are still being built they are now pro-
vided with additional features, and a typical example is the multi-
purpose ship having limited container capacity and a set of deck
cranes instead of winches and derricks. Speeds have also increased
and 15 knots is now the norm.
Glass flake

General purpose manning Is a concept aimed at eliminating the

departmental barriers that existed between the crew members aboard
ship. In a traditional manning arrangement deck, engine and catering
departments operated quite independently of each other and their
ratings fulfilled tasks only within their own sector. In the general
purpose manning concept the crews received training in each disci-
pline, and at peak levels of activity, for example mooring and unmoor-
ing operations, engine and catering crew members joined forces with
the deck crew to handle the ropes and man the winches. Also in
periods of bad weather the deck crew could be employed cleaning
and painting the engineroom if it was not safe to work on deck.
Germanischer Lloyd (GL) A German-based classification society
which is also a member of lACS (International Association of Classi-
fication Societies). Like most of the other members of lACS, GL use
modern techniques for structural design and analysis and are qualified
to issue the ISO (International Standards Organisation) 9000 series of
quality control systems.
Girders The term girder is often used in shipbuilding technology
and has no significant meaning except that it usually refers to a heavy
metal plate used to form a primary means of structural support.
Examples are the centre and side girders connecting the bottom shell
with the tank top plating within a double bottom tank. These run in a
longitudinal direction and if their continuity is interrupted by solid
transverse floors they are then referred to as intercostals. Girders
are also used to support various bulkheads and are then known as
horizontal girders (which see). Girders are also used in other parts of
the ship for example to support decks and are then referred to as deck
Glandless pumps Glandless pumps are usually employed in
systems having abrasive particles in the medium being pumped which
are likely to play havoc with conventional shaft seals and glands. They
can also be used in situations where a leaking seal or gland will present
a danger to personnel. They are usually driven by magnetic forces
acting through a diaphragm or shroud which dispenses with the need
for a shaft or gland, making leakage unlikely.
Glass flake Glass flake is an extremely hard vinyl ester material
formulated with glass flakes impregnated with resin and used as a
coating. It is extremely effective in preventing cavitational attack at
the aft underwater surfaces of a ship's hull, for example the nose
plating of the rudder and the propeller aperture. It has also been found
Glass flake

to be effective in resisting the aggressive action of ice when applied to

the ice belt zone of ships navigating through ice. Glass flake can be
used in any application requiring resistance to impact, abrasion and
corrosive attack.
Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) The use of GRP in ships is steadily
increasing as its unique properties are becoming more widely known.
It was first used for lifeboats when it replaced those made of wood,
steel and aluminium, previously the norm. More recently GRP has
been accepted for use in many shipboard applications such as for
ballast pipes where its anti-corrosive properties make it an ideal
material for these vulnerable pipes. Other systems can also use GRP
piping and IMO (International Maritime Organisation) has issued
guidelines covering its use aboard ship, and most classification societ-
ies rules also include a section on its use.
Global marine distress and safety system (GMDSS) GMDSS is due
to be fully implemented on all ships by 1 February 1999. Prior to this
date there will be a gradual introduction of various aspects of GMDSS,
for example all ships must now haveNAVTEX, a transmission system
for maritime safety information (MSD having a printing facility in
the English language. Also, all ships must now have an emergency
position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB), a float-off device enabling
the position of a stricken ship to be quickly located by the search and
rescue team. All new ships must now comply with all applicable
GMDSS requirements, and between now and 1999 all existing ships
must be provided with the remaining requirements over and above
those of NAVTEX and EPIRB.
Global positioning system (GPS) This is basically a US defence
agency navigational positional system started when the first
NAVSTAR satellite was launched in 1977. By 1985 all 24 satellites were
in 12-hour orbits having worldwide cover and giving an estimated
position accuracy of only seven metres assuming a three-dimensional
fix is achievable. Because the GPS system relies on the integrity of the
US government to continue to transmit signals most vessels also carry
commercial positional fixing devices such as Loran or Decca.
Global strength Global strength is a term used to describe the effec-
tive strength of a ship's structure based on a statistical average and
largely ignoring local diminution which may be present in secondary
structural members. Every ship's structure has an inbuilt allowance
for corrosion and a factor of safety is also introduced. In general terms
global strength can be reduced by about 12 per cent compared with
Grandfather clauses

the as-built condition of the hull before structural problems would be

Goal post masts Goal post masts represented the last phase of
development in the transition from union purchase derrick posts to
deck cranes. As the name implies these masts located on the upper
deck of cargo ships had the appearance of goal posts and the cross
tree connecti!lg the masts performed a valuable function in making
for a much more rigid structure. This permitted much heavier cargo
loads to be handled without the need of a complicated wire stay
system. The deck crane has almost entirely taken over the function of
derrick systems except for specialised heavy lift ships.
Governors All diesel engines have to be provided with a speed
governor in order to prevent the speed (RPM) of the engine exceeding
that for which it was designed. In the case of propulsion engines the
governor is set so that the RPM does not exceed 15 per cent of the
design figure. Diesel engines driving electrical alternators have to be
provided with speed governors capable of controlling the RPM 10 per
cent momentarily and 5 per cent permanently when the full electrical
load is removed. Diesel engines which can have their load removed,
for example those driving a controllable pitch propeller or electrical
alternator, must also have an independent overspeed trip. Originally
governors were mechanical, but more recently hydraulic and elec-
tronic governors have invariably been used.
Grain cargoes One of the largest volume movers in the bulk shipping
trade, grain is also one of the most ship friendly cargoes. Grain loading
and discharging methods usually cause no damage to the ship's struc-
ture or to any hold space coatings. It does have a tendency to shift
under high levels of rolling, but the modern self-trimming bulk carrier
can easily contain a grain cargo, especially when the cargo at the
forward and aft ends of the holds is trimmed. Grain can also be carried
in topside ballast tanks if the necessary structural arrangements have
been provided. It is very important that hatch covers are in a fully
watertight condition before grain is carried, otherwise much damage
can be caused to the cargo.
Grandfather clauses Grandfather clauses are so named because they
refer to existing ships of vintage age which only rarely have retro-
spectively to comply with new rules and regulations when they are
periodically introduced by either classification societies or national
administrations. There is a move afoot to introduce what is called
selective application to certain essential safety measures already pro-
Grandfather clauses

vided on new ships but not required on existing ships under current
regulations. Certain safety items have already been retrospectively
enacted, for example GMDSS (global marine safety and distress
Graphitisation A phenomenon associated with ordinary grade cast
iron when it is exposed to seawater for lengthy periods. Most castings
made in cast iron suffered from graphitisation and had to be replaced
at regular intervals when in effect the original metal was replaced by
much weaker graphite. In recent years spheroidal or nodular cast iron
has replaced ordinary grade cast iron in many applications. Castings
used for arduous duties are generally made in cast steel, and wherever
possible fabricated steel, lined with a neoprene coating if appropriate,
has replaced all forms of castings for many duties aboard ship.
Graving dock Another name for a dry dock, a graving dock is an
excavated area lined with concrete in which ships are placed for per-
iodic examination of the underwater parts or to effect major repairs to
the underwater hull. Nowadays mOstships are constructed in a build-
ing dock, which is identical in many respects to the graving dock
except that craneage facilities at building docks have a somewhat
increased lifting capability. Floating dry docks are still in use in certain
parts of the world and have the added capability of being moved to
another location if trade dictates.
Great circle A system of navigation adopted to enable the shortest
distance to be steamed between two ports on certain routes usually in
an east/west or west/east direction. Typical of such routes where
great circle navigational techniques are in general use are the North
Atlantic and North Pacific, where hundreds of miles can be saved on a
transocean passage. In practice a rhumb line route is usually employed
which reduces the great circle into a number of short straight courses
to assist the ship's navigator.
Greenwich mean time (GMT) Is the basis of all navigational
measurements of time and is also widely used in other services, for
example in communications. It is based on the international accept-
ance of Greenwich near London as the so-called prime meridian of
longitude way back in 1880. Prior to this date each major maritime
country had its own prime meridian which obviously led to confusion
on many occasions.
Grim wheel Is a propulsion arrangement whereby a freely rotating
vane wheel is placed immediately behind the engine driven con-

ventional propeller. It was named after its inventor, and the Grim
wheel enjoyed only limited success. The theory involved is based on
the assumption that the freely rotating vane wheel will recapture
some of the tangential energy in the wake stream and convert it
into additional thrust. The mechanical attachment of such a large
appendage is not without its problems and is a potential danger to its
successful operation.
Gross tonnage (GT) Gross tonnage is only one of several tonnage
measurements for ships in general use, and it plays an important part
in calculating various fees and dues relating to pilotage, harbour and
lighthouse services. Gross tonnage is now controlled by the Inter-
national Convention on tonnage Measurement which entered force in
1982 as part of IMO (International Maritime Organisation). Gross
tonnage is a measurement of the underdeck spaces using a com-
prehensive formula in which exempted and deducted spaces are given
due consideration. The end result is a figure which bears no relation
to the actual carrying capacity of a ship.
Group of Experts-Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
(GESAMP) GESAMP are part of IMO's (International Maritime
Organisation) Bulk Chemical Code (BCH) sub-committee. They are
responsible for evaluating the safety and pollution aspects both of
existing and newly introduced bulk chemicals before they are allowed
to be carried aboard a chemical tanker. They also issue provisional
evaluations for the numerous noxious substances forever being
developed by the chemical industry.
Guarantee period This is the period starting from delivery of a
newly built ship to the shipowner, and usually lasts for a period of 12
months. A guarantee engineer is sometimes appointed to serve aboard
the ship for this period to record any defects found. The guarantee
engineer can be an experienced technician from the shipyard or engine
builder, more recently the ship's own chief engineer has fulfilled the
role. The terms of the shipbuilding contract specify what can be
claimed as a guarantee defect, and many shipyards include a clause
limiting the cost of repairing the defect to that which it would cost if
undertaken at the shipyard. This is seen as a convenient means of
limiting their exposure to high cost repairs undertaken elsewhere, not
forgetting that many ships do not subsequently trade in the area of
the shipyard in which they were built.
Gunwale The gunwale (pronounced gunnel) is that part of the upper
deck of a ship which adjoins the upper end of the side she~l at the

sheer strake (which see). There are various forms of gunwale in general
use, but these could be broadly categorised into either square or
rounded. In the square type of gunwale the sheer strake of plating
extends above the upper deck to form a lip. The rounded or whale-
back gunwale presents a well rounded profile by rolling the sheer
strake plating over to meet the upper deck plating. The gunwale
area is highly stressed and the workmanship has to receive careful
Gyro compass Is an electrically driven gyroscopic disc spinning at
extremely high speed which maintains its relative axis in relation to
space. The gyro compass is constructed so that it always points to the
North Pole, unlike the magnetic compass which points to the magnetic
north and requires constant correction. The gyro compass is nowadays
connected to the auto-pilot and course recorder and it usually operates
repeater compasses throughout the navigation area.
Hales Trophy In 1935 Harold Hales, the British MP for Hanley,
donated a magnificent trophy to be awarded to the holder of the Blue
Riband, itself presented to the passenger carrying 'ship making the
fastest North Atlantic crossing in either direction eastbound and
westbound. The French passenger ship Normandie was the first ship
to hold the Hales trophy and the Normandie and Queen Mary alternately
held the trophy prior to the outbreak of the Second World War (1939-
1945). (See also Blue Riband.)
Halon Is a gas that was used as a fire extinguishing medium, but
because of its rather high Ozone Depletive Properties (ODP) it is now
banned on newbuildings under the terms of the Montreal Protocol.
Halon is classified as a halogenated hydrocarbon and as such has a
high ODP even though in its function as a fire extinguishing medium
it is only rarely introduced into the atmosphere. Replacement fire
extinguishing mediums for halon include carbon dioxide (C02) gas
and water fog/mist systems and like halon they are generally used
for extinguishing machinery space fires.
Hatch coamings Hatch coamings are made of fabricated steel and
are provided on bulk carriers, container ships and general cargo ships
to provide a supporting structure for the hatch covers and also to
compensate for the loss of strength by virtue of cutting the hatch
opening into the main strength or freeboard deck. It is important that
the openings in the deck are properly radiused at each corner to avoid
propagation of fractures into the coaming proper. The basic design
of hatch coamings has barely changed over the years, one possible
Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) convention

exception being the twin-hatch arrangement provided on some fully

open bulk carriers. The advent of the coverless container ship (which
see) has resulted in the hatch coamings on these ships simply being
that of a compensating nature.
Hatch covers Hatch covers used to be one of the most vulnerable
parts of a ship's structure likely to be broached when a ship was being
pounded by heavy seas. In those days wooden hatch covers were in
general use, but nowadays modern ships are invariably provided with
substantial steel hatch covers of various types, for example side rolling,
folding, piggy back or even slab. The provision of such covers has
made it possible for dry cargo ships to be assigned reduced freeboards
under the International Load Line convention. In recent years con-
tainer ships have been built which have only hatch covers on the
forward holds (see Coverless container ships).
Hawse pipes The hawse pipes are fabricated heavy section steel
pipes located on the forecastle deck and they lead to the outside of the
upper part of the hull. They are positioned in a downward facing
angle at port and starboard sides of the bow and so'arranged that the
anchor cables (chains) have a smooth run when the anchors are being
lowered or raised. The attachment of the hawse pipe to the hull at the
lower end is usually in the form of a recess so that the anchors can be
snugly stowed at sea. A water washing system is usually provided to
remove the mud and debris accumulated by the anchors on the seabed.
Hazard evaluation Hazard evaluation is a term usually reserved for
the characteristics of the many substances carried aboard chemical
tankers with respect to their inherent dangers that the crews of these
ships are exposed to. Inhalation of vapours released from the cargo is
arguably the major hazard, and strict precautions are taken to ensure
that this is avoided. Skin contact is another hazard and cargoes posing
a threat to the crew have to be provided with so-called closed tank
sounding or gauging arrangements. The design of a modern chemical
tanker is such that very little risk to the crew is present and various
means are provided to deal with any contamination that may occur.
These include protective clothing, gas masks, goggles and deck
Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) convention Oil pol-
lution compensation schemes have been in place for many years, but
compensation as a result of pollution from hazardous and 'noxious
substances (typically chemicals) has only recently been formulated.
This is in the form of the HNS fund which is expected to be introduced
Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) convention

by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in the near future.

The HNS fund is based on existing oil pollution schemes and com-
pensation will initially be paid by the shipowners who would take out
the necessary insurance to cover their pollution liability. Additional
compensation in the form of the HNS fund would be financed by
contributions from cargo interests.
Heated cargoes These are liquid cargoes carried aboard tankers with
carrying temperatures above 65 degrees centigrade. Classification
rules and regulations for such tankers carrying heated cargoes require
that the resultant stresses imposed on the hull are adequately catered
for, and in general a double hull configuration is normally required.
For really high temperature cargoes, such as bitumen which has a
carrying temperature of around 140 degrees centigrade, thermal insu-
lation of the tank boundary surfaces is usually provided to avoid
severe heat loss.
Heat Exchangers Heat exchangers are used aboard ship to either
heat or cool the various systems associated with the J:!\achineryinstal-
lation. When used in a cooling function they dissipate the heat gen-
erated either by the combustion process or mechanical friction and
examples of these would be jacket water, piston water / oil, combustion
air and lubricating oil. These heat exchangers are either of the shell
and tube type or, more recently, plate type coolers (which see). In the
heating mode they are used to raise the fuel oil to its requisite burning
temperature in diesel engine or boiler or to heat fuel or lubricating oil
to its purification temperature. They are also used in other systems for
example accommodation heating/ cooling, hot water and refrigeration
plants to name but a few.
Heave to The practice of "heaving to" relates to the positioning of a
ship so that it is heading into severe weather with reduced speed
enabling it to ride easily in the seaway. This action greatly reduces the
stresses and strains on the ship's structure and also reduces ship
motion, thus avoiding the possibility of any cargo movement and the
resultant loss of stability this usually entails. The use of such equip-
ment as strain gauges and accelerometers could in the future alert
ships' staff as to the level of stress being imposed on the ship and with
it a decision as to whether or not to heave to.
Heavy cargoes In this context heavy cargoes are those carried aboard
bulk carriers which are usually loaded in alternate cargo holds of those
ships provided with the necessary longitudinal stiffening and the
appropriate classification society notation. Iron ore is arguably the
High expansion foam

major commodity which comes under this heading, but there are other
ores and also such cargoes as scrap steel. The technical problems
that the carriage of heavy cargoes have on a ship's structure as a
consequence of the increased shear forces and bending moments intro-
duced are presently under review by both the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) and the International Association of Classification
Societies (IACS).
Heavy fuel oil (HFO) Is the fuel oil now used on the majority of
ocean going ships, although it is variously referred to as heavy vis-
cos~ty fuel (HVF) or residual fuel oil. A further complication is that
the ISO (International Standards Organisation) 8217 fuel classification
and the CIMAC method for classifying fuels use different type des-
ignations for various grades of fuel oil. Heavy fuel oil could be said to
refer to fuel oils having viscosities at 50 degrees centigrade of 180 cst
(centistokes) and above. Fuel oil below this viscosity down to say 80
cst are usually referred to as intermediate fuel oil, and below 80 cst as
light fuel oil although it is safer to use the ISO or CIMAC designations.
Heavy lift ships These very special ships have an important part to
play, although it must be said that their trading patterns are usually
of an irregular nature. There are three basic types of heavy lift ship in
service, namely those provided with derricks, with cranes and those
using their own buoyancy to lift the load. The derrick or crane type of
heavy lift ship is usually employed to transport such items as oil
refinery items and power station modules, and it uses its own equip-
ment to both load and discharge its loads. The really heavy cargoes
are transported using the semi-submersible method, whereby the
heavy lift ship is partially submerged, the cargo floated over to its
correct position and the ship then raised to support the load by
pumping out ballast water.
Helicopter landing and pick up area The International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) has recently introduced a new regulation in the
Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)Convention which is applicable to all ro-
ro passenger ships. This concerns a helicopter landing and pick up
area, and all new such ships have to be so provided. Existing ro-ro
passenger ships built before July 1997 have to be provided with an
approved helicopter landing area at the first special survey after this
date. Many other ships are provided with helicopter landing areas
mainly to facilitate pilot embarkation and disembarkation operations.
High expansion foam High expansion foam is a fire fighting
medium which has proved to be effective in fighting fires aboard ship
High expansion foam

particularly machinery spaces where it is discharged through fixed

nozzles to a depth of 1 metre per minute. It has an extremely high
expansion ratio probably in the ratio of 1,000 to 1 when compared to
water and has the advantage of being both environmentally friendly
and less damaging to equipment in the area of any fire, it is also
effective in preventing re-ignition and greatly reduces heat radiation.
High expansion foam generators have been used for machinery spaces
and cargo holds but it must be said that the system has not proved to
be as popular as CO2 in these particular applications.
High pour fuels These are fuels containing an usually high pro-
portion of wax which usually emanates from a waxy crude oil source.
It affects both residual and distillate grade fuels and it only results in
problems when ambient temperatures are below that of the fuel's pour
point. If this occurs the wax in the fuel solidifies, leading to major
operational problems, for example chokage of filters or even blocked
fuel lines in extreme cases. Residual fuels are invariably heated to a
temperature well above their pour point, but if dOl,lble bottom fuel
tank heating coils are positioned too high when a ship is operating in
cold waters the wax will precipitate in the fuel under the coils leading
to choked pump suctions in certain instances.
High Sea-service Speed (HSS) ships Are a fairly recent develop-
ment in sea transportation usually associated with short sea passenger
ships of the car ferry type, although other types of HSS ship will no
doubt emerge in due course. HSS ships usually but not necessarily
employ twin hulls to reduce the wetted area and with it the frictional
resistance. This approach reduces the power needed to achieve the
service speed, and the use of gas turbine driven waterjets greatly
reduces the weight of the propulsion machinery. The provision of twin
hulls coupled with the use of turbines and an aluminium structure
leads to a fast, efficient lightweight ship with an enhanced hyd-
rodynamic performance.
High skew propellers A high skew propeller is defined as one in
which the blades, instead of being largely tangential to the boss, are
bent or skewed backwards to the ahead direction of rotation. Both
fixed and controllable pitch propellers can be high skew and the design
was produced in order to enable a larger blade area to be developed
for a given diameter, an important consideration in reducing blade
stress. A reduced propeller diameter allows increased clearance
between blade tips and the hull structure, a major factor in reducing
propeller induced vibration.

High Speed Craft (HSC) HSC is the official description of the recent
breed of High Sea-service Speed (HSS) ships and other ships who fall
into the fomula laid down by the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) and adopted by its Marine Safety Committee (MSC). A HSC is
defined as a craft capable of a maximum speed in metres per second
equal to or exceeding 3.7 V 0.1667 where V equals displacement cor-
responding to the waterline in cubic metres. Ships falling into this
category must conform to the HSC code developed by IMO. The HSC
code applies to such safety equipment as radars for high speed ship
operation, fire restricting materials and life saving equipment. The
code also lowers the tonnage requirements for the introduction of the
International Safety Management code (which see) to embrace these
High tensile steel (HTS) The partial use of high tensile steel for ship
construction has become more or less standard practice in recent years
in spite of some reservations over its use. The main object of using
HTS is to reduce both the steelweight and cost of a newbuilding. In
general terms the thickness of shell plates and the scantlings of the
supporting structure can be somewhat reduced by using HTS when
compared with standard shipbuilding quality steel. The corrosion
rates for each of these types of steel is broadly similar and a reduction
in thickness due to corrosion or wastage will have a more serious
effect from a strength point of view on a ship constructed with HTS.
High tensile steel receives its additional strength by adding various
metals such as vanadium, chromium, nickel and niobium.
High velocity vents Are used in order to increase the velocity of the
escaping vapours to at least 30 metres per second. Thus, they ensure
that vapours do not pose a threat to personnel and cannot be drawn
into accommodation in-take openings. High velocity vent valves are
used in conjunction with what is called a controlled venting system
under SOLAS regulations. The use of high velocity vents makes it
possible to reduce the height of the vent outlets above the upper deck.
High viscosity fuel oil The trend in recent years has been to design
fuel systems for diesel engines capable of handling fuel with viscosities
of up to 700 cst (centistokes) at SO°Cin anticipation of fuel oil with
this high viscosity appearing in the market place. For many years, the
upper viscosity limit of fuel oil intended for marine die~el engines
was 380 cst at SO°c. Fuel oil intended for steam turbine propelled
ships does not normally have an upper viscosity limit.
Hogging Hogging is a deformation of a ship's hull in still water

caused by an excess of buoyancy amidships and is the exact opposite

of sagging. Hogging can be measured by comparing the draught
amidships with the forward and aft draughts. Most ships sag in the
fully laden condition and the load line marks amidships could become
submerged leading to problems with some authorities. One solution
practised some years ago was to build a ship with a built-in hog so
that when fully laden all three draught marks were equal.

Hoistable car decks Are used aboard many Ro-Ro passenger ferries
to maximise carrying capacity by introducing additional car deck
space. They are either electrically or hydraulically operated and can
be stowed against the deckhead when not required. They were also
used on conventional cargo ships as a means of carrying new cars
from factory to sales outlets prior to the introduction of the Pure
Car Carrier (which see). The International Maritime Organisation is
presently formulating sub-division requirements for Ro-Ro passenger
ferries, and the future of hoistable car decks may well be in jeopardy.

Holds Holds are the spaces situated below the shIp's upper deck
which are used for the stowage of dry cargo. They are accessible
through large openings made watertight by the provision of hatch
covers (which see) located on the upper deck and through which the
cargo is loaded or discharged. The shape of cargo holds varies accord-
ing to ship type. A modern bulk carrier will have holds incorporating
sloping boundaries located at the upper and lower ends to present a
self-trimming and stable surface to the cargo. Fully open bulk carriers
(which see) usually have completely squared off hold spaces making
them suitable for the carriage of packaged type cargoes. The holds of
container ships are also squared off and additionally incorporate a cell
guide (which see) system.

Homogeneous loading This is a cargo loading concept used on bulk

carriers when carrying the same cargo in all holds. Many years ago
bulk carriers carrying heavy cargoes such as iron ore started loading
cargoes in alternate holds which had several advantages, namely a
reduction in the meta centric height (GM) leading to a reduced rolling
motion in bad weather and to reduced hold cleaning operations after
cargo discharge. The hull structure had to be strengthened before
alternate hold loading was allowed and an appropriate classification
notation issued. Because of the increased stresses caused by the alter-
nate loading concept coupled with the high loss rate of bulkers when
carrying heavy cargoes, there are moves afoot to revert to· homo-
Horizontal girders

geneous loading on bulk carriers above a certain age unless their

steelwork is in good condition.
Homogenisers Heavy fuel oil usually contains a high level of carbon
residues, most of which are removed by centrifugal separation and
filtration techniques applied onboard. Some of the finer carbon par-
ticles are not so removed by this treatment and can pass through into
the engine. These fine particles can be made even smaller by passing
the fuel oil through a homogeniser in which extremely high mech-
anical pressure is applied to reduce particulate size and make the
fuel more clean burning leaving less carbonaceous deposits in the
combustion spaces.
Honourable Company of Master Mariners The Honourable
Company of Master Mariners based in London, was formed in 1932
and was granted Livery Status in 1932,the first guild to be so admitted
for over 200 years. Its members are drawn from UK master mariners
or captains as they are usually referred to by the public, and its aims
are to promote and protect the interests of the British Merchant Navy
and its seafarers. Members also act as nautical assessors in maritime
legal cases and generally provide professional advice to the shipping
Hopper tanks On a conventional single hull bulk carrier the hopper
tanks are used for ballast and are joined to the double bottom ballast
tanks and extend to the side shell. The connection between the inner
bottom plating and lower end of the hopper tank forms a knuckle.
This is a problem area due to the structural arrangements compounded
by the use of bulldozers and grabs while discharging such cargoes as
iron ore and coal. Current designs of bulk carrier have stiffened up
the knuckle connection by the addition of intermediate brackets, also
the knuckle itself had been radiused to lower stress levels.
Horizontal girders Horizontal girders are steel structures mainly
used on oil tankers to support the transverse tank bulkheads against
the hydrostatic load imposed by the cargo. Because of their horizontal
position they are vulnerable to acidic attack from any corrosive sludge
products likely to be present after the cargo has been discharged.
Regular crude oil washing coupled with adequate drainage openings
will usually ensure that corrosive products are unlikely to be present.
Structural problems have been experienced at the connection of the
horizontal girder end brackets to the longitudinal bulkheads and by
adopting a so-called softer toe connection the peak stress levels have
been greatly reduced.
Horsepower (HP)

Horsepower (HP) In its original form horsepower was used to

measure the work done allegedly by a shire horse. This was adjudged
to be 550 foot pounds force per second, and this figure is usually
referred to as the British horsepower. On the European continent
horsepower is defined as 75 metre kilogram force per second which is
about 1 per cent less than the British version. Horsepower is not an
approved SI (Systeme International) unit for power and it has largely
been replaced by the kilowatt (KW), which is. The conversion factor
between horsepower and the kilowatt is 1 British horsepower equals
0.7458KW or 1 Metric horsepower equals 0.7360KW.
Hospital All ships are provided with a hospital which, in the case of
a cargo ship is usually a twin-berth cabin with toilet and bathroom.
Various precautions have to be taken to prevent the spread of infec-
tious diseases according to the requirements of the relevant National
Administration. For example sheet vinyl deck covering instead of tile
type, and air from the hospital is not allowed to be circulated. An
alarm push button is also installed with a buzzer located in the wheel-
house and a designated officer's cabin.
Hot gas bypass The hot gas bypass was a popular device in use
several years ago when gas exit temperatures from two-stroke diesel
propulsion engines became much lower due to their enhanced thermal
efficiency. Those machinery installations intending to use an exhaust
gas heat recovery system comprising a large exhaust gas economiser
in association with a steam turbo alternator, then had difficulty in
ensuring that sufficient steam would be produced by the economiser.
The situation was partially retrieved by the use of the hot gas bypass
in the form of a pipe which allowed a portion of hot exhaust gas to
bypass the turbochargers and flow direct to the economiser, thereby
increasing steam production.
Hovercraft The hovercraft is the archetypal air cushion vehicle
(ACV), the design of which is attributed to Sir Christopher Cockerell.
There are two basic types of hovercraft, namely the fully amphibious
hovercraft having no direct contact with either the ground or the
surface of the water, and the surface effect or sidewall hovercraft, part
of which is immersed in the water. Both of these hovercraft types
are used in military and commercial applications. The amphibious
hovercraft is usually propelled by aero-type engines driving fans,
whereas the sidewall type can be propelled by diesel driven waterjets
or super cavitating propellers.
Hull and machinery policy (H&M) A hull and machinery (H&M)
Hydraulic tools

insurance policy is taken out by a shipowner to give him cover in the

event of various marine perils likely to be encountered by his ship.
Perils included in the standard clauses are, for example, total loss
(actual or constructive) and partial loss. Total loss need hardly be
commented upon, but partial loss probably accounts for the majority
of claims against underwriters under the H&M policy. In this category
are included such items as damage due to heavy weather, collision,
grounding, fire and also many causes of machinery damage, either
from negligence, latent defect or other reasons, not forgetting that fair
wear and tear is not acceptable as a claim against underwriters.
Hull 'conditioning monitoring (HCM) Machinery conditioning
monitoring techniques have been in use for many years, and they are
rather easily applied to dynamic systems. In the case of static systems
such as a ship's structure different techniques are needed. Lloyd's
Register of Shipping (LRS) has recently introduced a personal com-
puter (PC) HCM system which gives an instant up-date on critical
areas of a ship's structure. This is based on surveyors' reports relating
to any corrosion, pitting, cracking and the condition of the protective
coatings, all illustrated with high resolution pictorial displays. Details
of the original scantlings and diminution allowances are also included
in the HCM system.
Hydraulically operated valves For many years the valves con-
trolling the combustion process of marine diesel engines were mech-
anically operated by push rods and rocker arms from cams situated
on the engine driven camshaft. In the case of slow speed two-stroke
diesel engines the exhaust valves are now driven by hydraulic actu-
ators, thus dispensing with the rocker arm and push rod. In this system
a eam driven piston operates a similar piston located on the exhaust
valve spindle via a transfer pipe in what is a closed system. In the
future it is expected that the camshaft drive will be replaced by an
independent hydraulic system enabling electronic selective control to
be exercised on the exhaust valves.
Hydraulic tools A modern diesel engine does not nowadays require
the use of spanners and hammers to assemble or dismantle the various
parts for overhaul or routine maintenance. These include holding
down bolts, cylinder cover studs, piston rod nuts and many other
parts of the engine which have to be pretensioned to a specific level.
This is now accomplished by a hydraulic pumping set comprising a
tensioning device which ensures that the stud or bolt is at the pre-
scribed tension so thatthe corresponding nut can simply be turned by
Hydraulic tools

hand to its mating surface. The release of hydraulic pressure then

ensures that the stud or bolt is at its correct tension. This system
avoids shock loading and over- or under-tensioning previously quite
common when using the hammer and spanner method, and it is also
less labour intensive.

Hydraulic winches Hydraulic winches are used to handle cargo and

were developed mainly to avoid the high cost and complexity of the
controls needed for alternating current (AC) electric winches. First
steam and then direct current (DC) electric winches were the standard
form of cargo winch prior to the arrival of the AC ship in the early
1960s. Early hydraulic winches used rather high hydraulic oil pres-
sures and were not popular. Low hydraulic pressure winches
(typically 25 Bar) then arrived on the scene and are now extensively
used on ships still using derrick systems. Hydraulic windlasses and
mooring winches are also popular on many ships without cargo hand-
ling gear. Vane-type hydraulic motors and pump units operating in a
series or group of consumers is the typical arrangement, and speed
control exercised by the operation of a single lever regulating the flow
and direction of the oiL

Hydrocracking The use of hydrogen in an oil refinery process is

usually when hydrocracking takes place, a procedure in which high
pressure hydrogen gas and certain catalysts are used to obtain lighter
products from the heavier fractions. Hydrocracking is a sup-
plementary process to that used in the fractionating columns and cat
crackers, and in addition to its prim~ function has the added attraction
of reducing the sulphur content of the product.

Hydrodynamics Hydrodynamics is the study of the behaviour of

fluids in motion usually applied to the performance of a ship, although
hydrodynamics are also applied by bridge and harbour builders when
designing their structures. Hydrodynamic principles are applied in
order to reduce frictional and wave resistance by designing the most
efficient hull form, which requires a minimum of power for a given
ship speed, usually with the aid of a model test tank.

Hydrofoil Hydrofoils are high speed craft which lift out of the water
at service speed due to the hydrodynamic effect of the foils, or planes,
fitted to the underwater hull. There are two basic types of hydrofoil,
the conventional in which 30 per cent of the ship's weight is supported
by the aft set of foils. The other hydrofoil is the canard type in which
70 per cent is supported by the aft foils. The canard hydrofoil rides
Hydrostatic balance

clear of the water on a cushion of air, whereas in the conventional type

the foils remain 'Submerged.
Hydrography Is a branch of science dealing with the mapping of the .
sea, usually in the form of hydrographic charts. In the United Kingdom
this is dealt with by the hydrographic office which produces Admiralty
charts. Other maritime nations also produce their own charts, but the
British Admiralty charts are arguably the most universally accepted
hydrographic charts in general use. More recently the introduction of
ECDIS (electronic chart display information systems) has rev-
olutionised the science of hydrography. It is expected that to cover the
sea area already covered by ordinary charts by replacement electronic
charts will take many years.
Hydrogen sulphide (HzS) A life-threatening substance only very
rarely met with in the shipping sector. An actual example concerned a
suspect crude oil cargo, aboard a tanker loaded in a former communist
state. The presence of HzS was identified by its classical rotten eggs
smell, and in this case it was found that the level of HzS in the vapour
phase was around 10,000 ppm (parts per million). HzS in liquid form
gives a reading of almost 100 times higher when in the gaseous form.
Fortunately the strong smell given by its presence usually alerts per-
sonnel of impending danger. HzS is occasionally found in ballast tank
spaces, although the precise reason for this is unclear unless polluted
harbour water was taken aboard.
Hydrophore systems These are the standard systems used for dom-
estic fresh water and sanitary salt water services aboard ship. Each of
these separate systems has its own pressure tank which has a cushion
of air at pressure above the level of the water. A pump actuated by a
pressure switch starts and stops the pump to maintain the designed
pressure in the systems which are self-regulating and obviate the need
for the gravity tanks previously used.
Hydrostatic balance This is an oil tanker loading method whereby
the hydrostatic pressure of the oil column in the cargo tank is balanced
by the hydrostatic pressure of the outside seawater. Because the
density of seawater is on average 1.025 and the density of crude oil is
typically 0.85, the column of cargo oil can be significantly higher than
the outside seawater. This means in theory that there would be no
cargo outflow into the sea in the event of bottom damage to the tanker
for example. The hydrostatic balance method results in a somewhat
reduced cargo uplift and it is not acceptable to the USGC (United
States Coastguard) under OPA 90 regulations.
Ice belt

Ice belt The ice belt is that part of a ship classed to operate in ice
whose side shell is exposed to ice pressure. In order to define the depth
of the ice belt it is first necessary to define the ice load waterline which,
. in the case of Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS),is that corresponding
to the fresh water summer loadline. The ice light waterline is defined
as that corresponding to the lightest draught the ship is expected to
navigate under. From these deepest and lightest draughts the ice belt
is extended above and below at a distance which varies according to
the ice class notation, but is in the range of 400mm to 750rnrn.
Icebreaker Is a ship specially designed to keep ports and their
approaches subject to extremely low temperatures clear of ice in the
winter months and therefore make them accessible to ice strengthened
cargo ships. Canada and Russia are countries which rely on icebreakers
to keep their vulnerable ports accessible. Icebreakers are extremely
high powered ships and several Russian icebreakers were built with
nuclear propulsion such were their power and endurance needs.
Classification rules relating to the structural strength of icebreakers
and of their underwater parts in contact with ice are somewhat higher
than those applied to ice strengthened cargo ships, and they are
invariably operated by government departments.
Ice class notation Most of the major classification societies have
notations which are issued to ships when they are in compliance with
their published rules for operating in ice conditions of varying degrees
of severity. In addition to classification notations certain countries
have their own ice class notations, and Canada, Finland and Sweden
corne into this category. In the case of Lloyd's Register of Shipping
(LRS),five different ice class notations are available, namely lAS, lA,
lB, lC and 10. Ice class lAS is the most severe, and the increased
strength requirements should enable a ship so classed to operate in
first year ice up to one metre thick. Conversely the requirements for
ice class 10 will enable a ship only to deal with light first year ice.
When it is intended to operate a ship in multi-year ice the notation
assumes an "icebreaking" prefix and the following notations are avail-
able: ACl, AC1.5, AC2 and AC3. In these cases the figures represent
the thickness in metres of the unbroken multi-year ice.
Ice operations In addition to classification notations for operation
in ice conditions it is essential that certain other provisions are made
to deal with the extremely low temperatures encountered. One of the
most important is an arrangement for circulating cooling water in the
event of the seawater inlets being choked with slush ice. Adequate
Impressed current cathodic protection

heating must also be provided, not only throughout the accom-

modation but also in all compartments housing machinery and the
navigating bridge. For really cold temperature conditions the ballast
tanks may require heating coils. An ice knife fitted behind the rudder
offers protection against ice when backing off from an ice ridge. Ice
radar is also recommended to give early warning of approaching ice
and helps locate tracks through the ice.
Ice radar This is an extremely useful navigational device for use on
ships which periodically have to operate through sea ice. The ice radar
is mounted forward and is so arranged as to pick up the edge of an
ice belt or locate a passageway or lead through the ice. It can give
ships' staff prior warning before the ship hits the ice belt and is more
effective than relying on visual advice from the bridge watchkeeper
or look-out, so giving more time to take evasive action.
Ice strengthening The actual increased strength requirements to
obtain an ice class notation for first year ice are rather varied, and each
classification society has its own rules. Lloyd's Register of Shipping
for example divides the ice belt into four separate regions, namely
forward, shoulder, midships and aft. In addition there are two further
regions immediately below the forward region and these are referred
to as forefoot 1 and forefoot 2. In each of these regions the thickness
of the side shell plating and the scantlings of the supporting frames is
increased in line with the chosen ice class notation. For multi-year ice
operations the increased strength requirements are more onerous. The
power of the main engine and the strength of the rudder and propeller
also have to be increased as required for the chosen ice notation.
Ignition quality Is usually expressed as the ability of a fuel oil to
ignite in a diesel engine's combustion chamber. It is also a measure
of the time interval between actual fuel injection and the start of
combustion. The slow speed two-stroke diesel engine can tolerate fuel
oil with relatively poor ignition qualities, and it must be said that there
are very few incidents on file where the ignition quality has led to
problems in service. Medium speed four-stroke diesel engines
designed to run on heavy fuel oil similarly have few ignition problems,
but in general terms high speed diesel engines are sensitive to ~uel
with poor ignition qualities occasioned by the extremely short hme
interval between injection and start of combustion, and these engines
do require a fuel having good ignition qualities.
Impressed current cathodic protection This is a system which
involves passing an electric current through anodes attached to the
Impressed current cathodic protection

underwater hull of a ship as a counter measure to the electrolytic

action occasioned by the dissimilar metals used in ship construction,
namely the steel structure and bronze propeller. The impressed current
system is automatically regulated in accordance with the current needs
of the required potential. The system has an advantage over a sac-
rificial anode system, in that the anodes have an indefinite life and
periodic renewal is not therefore needed, also the anodes are some-
what less obstructive and more suited to operation in ice.
Impulse turbo charging Impulse turbocharging was widely prac-
tised in slow speed two-stroke marine diesel engines until com-
paratively recently. In this turbocharging system the individual
exhaust outlets from a group of cylinders were led directly into the gas
.inlet casing of the turbocharger serving those cylinder units. Because of
the relative position of the turbocharger to the various exhaust valves
the exhaust branch pipes were of different lengths and the gas flow
into the turbocharger somewhat chaotic. Impulse turbocharging has
now largely been replaced by constant pressure turbocharging (which
Inchmaree clause ~e Inchmaree clause is a long established defi-
nition relating to the physical damage a ship may suffer to its hull or
machinery as included in the insurance policy. Included in the Inch-
maree clause are: accidents while loading, discharging or shifting cargo,
explosions onboard or elsewhere. Also included are such items as
bursting of boilers, breakage of shafts or any defect in the hull and
machinery. Negligence of masters, officers, crew or pilots and neg-
ligence of repairers is also included. If such loss or damage is as a
result of want of diligence by the assured, owners or managers then it
is not covered under the Inchmaree clause.
Incinerators Are cylindrical oil fired vessels used aboard ships con-
veniently to dispose of all manner of waste substances which if dis-
charged into the sea would contravene MARPOL (Marine Pollution)
regulations contained in the various Annexes. Sludge recovered from
the purification of heavy fuel oil is one such substance which can be
burnt in a shipboard incinerator after it has been subject to some form
of prior treatment. Garbage is another candidate for incineration if the
incinerator has been designed to deal with solid waste. Emissions
from shipboard incinerators will shortly be controlled by a proposed
new annex to the MARPOL Convention and some level of temperature
control is expected to be included. Combined incinerator/boilers are
also available which have an advantage over conventional incinerators
Inert gas (IG)

in that the heat produced when burning the waste can be converted
to useful steam.
Inclining experiment Each new ship, or existing ship which has
been structurally altered, must undertake an inclining experiment
before being issued with a certificate of classification. The purpose of
the inclining experiment is essentially to fix the centre of gravity of
the ship. The inclining experiment is accomplished by placing weights
at alternate sides of the upper deck and carefully measuring the result-
ing angle of heel. From the inclining experiment results all manner of
preliminary calculations can be verified such as intact stability, trim
and stabi~ity calculations and lightship weight.
Independent tanks Independent tanks are usually associated with
chemical tankers, although offshore supply ships also use them. An
independent tank is defined as one which is completely separate from
the hull structure and does not form part of the calculations affecting
the strength of the ship. They are usually located on the upper deck
and are generally used to transport small parcels of usually specialised
high density high temperature cargoes such as molten sulphur. Inde-
pendent tanks can rather easily be designed to withstand high pres-
sures, which gives access to the carriage of high density cargoes not
normally allowed to be carried in the ship's integral tanks. Such fuel
oil tanks used for daily service and settling duties are also in many
cases constructed as independent tanks.
Indicated horse power (IHP) All reciprocating heat engines have
the possibility of calculating their IHP always providing the necessary
mechanical drive gear has been installed. IHP is usually only cal-
culated on slow speed engines, either steam or diesel driven, although
steam reciprocating engines have long since disappeared. IHP is cal-
culated from what is called an indicator diagram, a banana shaped
trace with a vertical axis representing the pressure developed in the
engine cylinders and a horizontal axis the stroke or swept volume of
the engine. The area of the diagram represents the work done, and it
can rather easily be converted to IHP. The indicator itself can either be
a conventional drum-type connected to the combustion space and
operated by an engine driven earn. More recently cathode ray tube
(CRT) indicators have been developed. It is necessary to know the
mechanical efficiency of the engine in order to calculate the brake
horsepower (BHP). A modern diesel engine will have a mechanical
efficiency of around 93 per cent.
Inert gas (IG) All tankers have to be provided with an IG plant
Inert gas (IG)

under SaLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) regulations. This is to enable the

cargo tanks to be filled with inert gas and therefore reduce the oxygen
level within the tanks to be maintained below 8 per cent. Steam turbine
propelled tankers 'could obtain the requisite supply of inert gas from
the treated flue gas emanating from the main boilers. Modern tankers
with diesel engine propulsion usually rely on separate oil fired inert
gas generators to provide the supply of inert gas. Inert gas however
obtained is passed through a scrubber unit to both cool the gas and
also remove solids and sulphurous products before it is introduced
into the tanks. A deck mounted water seal is also required so that
hydrocarbon vapours cannot be returned to the machinery space.
Many double hull tankers also have IG connections to the ballast
Institute of London Underwriters (ILU) This UK organisation is
actively engaged in protecting its underwriting members' interests,
particularly with respect to the high incidence of accidents involving
claims against them. The standards of maintenance exercised aboard
some ships and the level of crew competence are areas causing concern
to the ILU, particularly with respect to bulk carriers and tankers of
vintage years. The ILU has instigated structural condition surveys on
selected ships of these types in an effort to identify substandard ships,
and it welcomes the introduction of the International Safety Man-
agement Code (which see) to improve crew standards.
Institute of Marine Engineers The Institute of Marine Engineers
was formed in 1889 and granted a Royal Charter in 1933. It is head-
quartered in London and has branches both throughout the UK and
in many countries overseas, and is arguably the largest such organ-
isation in the world with around 16,000 members. Technical papers
are regularly published relating to all aspects of marine engineering
topics covering merchant, naval and offshore activities. The Institute
of Marine Engineers also publishes a monthly bulletin and journal in
which many subjects of current interest are covered, and an annual
review of all marine enginebuilders is produced. International con-
ferences on many marine engineering and associated subjects are also
organised by the Institute.
Institute of Petroleum (IP) A UK-based organisation concerned
mainly with test methods relating to all aspects of hydrocarbon prod-
ucts. IP methods are recognised throughout the petroleum industry,
but in common with other national test and standard authorities their
methods are slowly being superseded by those of ISO (International
Integral tanks

Standards Organisation) and other such international organisations.

IP is also concerned with many other aspects of the petroleum industry
outwith the scope of this work.
Institute Warranty Limits (IWL) Institute warranty limits (IWL) are
geographical areas of the world where ships are allowed to trade while
still remaining covered under the terms of their hull and machinery
policy (which see). In order not to breach these warranties ships must
first receive prior approval from their underwriters if they wish to
trade outside these areas. The trading limits are laid down by the
Institute of London Underwriters Joint Hull Committee. Areas outside
IWL generally relate to those subject to ice, for example the Baltic and
St Lawrence in winter, and those posing navigational dangers. Most
charterparties have clauses relating to IWL which usually state that a
ship will not be expected to trade outside them.
Insulation Heat insulation in the form of a layer of material is pro-
vided on all hot surfaces in the machinery spaces of ships to protect
personnel from injury and also as a fire prevention measure. The
main sources of heat are from steam pipes and associated equipment,
exhaust gas pipes, boilers, economisers and fuel oil pipes with a range
of temperature from around 140 to 400 degrees centigrade depending
on the system being protected. Asbestos was the insulating material
in general use prior to its carcinogenic properties being fully realised
and nowadays alternative materials such as glass wool and rock wool
are used. Sound insulation is also provided to protect passenger and
crew accommodation areas, also machinery control rooms from noise
emanating from the machinery.
Intact stability There are two broad definitions of ship stability,
namely intact and damage stability. Intact stability is usually measured
as what is called the GM, the distance between the centre of gravity of
a ship (G) and the metacentre (M). This distance must always be
positive so that the buoyancy of the ship will always exert a righting
lever to return the ship upright when rolling in a seaway, listing
when loading cargo or transferring ballast or engaged in other such
activities. Intact stability takes no account of any damage the ship has
suffered and assumes the hull is intact, in the event of damage this is
covered by damage stability criteria (which see).
Integral tanks The official description of an integral tank is that it is
one in which the containment envelope forming part of the ship's hull
and which may be stressed in the same manner and by the same loads
which stress the contiguous hull structure and which is normally
Integral tanks

essential to the structural completeness of the ship's hull. Most oil and
chemical tankers are built wholly with integral tanks but gas tankers
in many cases are built otherwise. Some chemical tankers in addition
to integral tanks forming the hull structure also have independent
tanks (which see). Most oil fuel tanks aboard the majority of ships are
integral with the hull, the exception being daily service and settling
tanks which can be independent to suit the layout of the engineroom.
Integrated bridge systems (IBS) Integrated bridge systems have
been developed to satisfy the currently fashionable trend towards one-
man bridge operation combined with unmanned machinery spaces,
so that in clear weather conditions one man can control both bridge
and engineroom functions. In the IBS system the OOW (officer on
watch) is usually seated at a console with a cockpit style layout. All
the various supervisory items of equipment are readily accessible, and
also included is a dead man alarm which must be operated at regular
preset intervals by the OOW in case he suffers a heart attack or some
serious accident. The various navigational positioning devices, com-
munication facilities and machinery monitoring equipment are all
ergonomically arranged to facilitate the single OOW approach.
Integrated fire protection systems (IFP) The IFP system is a Lloyd's
Register of Shipping (LRS) system and its use is over and above the
fire protection requirements included in the SOLAS (Safety of Life at
Sea) Convention. In order to obtain the IFP classification notation
various items of equipment have to be installed. The main provision
is that of an integrated fire control station located on the navigating
bridge or other suitable position. The operational control and moni-
toring of all active fire protection and fire fighting systems are located
in this integrated control station. Communication systems, alternative
power sources and means of control are all included and compliance
with relevant SOLAS regulations is also an essential requirement.
Integrated radio communication system (IRCS) This is a system
designed to integrate all the various radio communication methods
installed aboard a modern ship into a single basic user-friendly work-
station, with a duplicate workstation provided if necessary. Items
connected to the IRCSworkstation include a VHF with digital selective
calling (DSC) facility, medium/high frequency radio-telex also with
DSC, Inmarsat, GMDSS and the various supplementary equipment
needed, for example the printers, emergency power source and any
other communication networks required depending on the expected
radio traffic density.
Intermediate surveys

Integrated tug barge system Is a concept based on maximum util-

isation of tugs as a propulsive power base for moving a large number
of barges usually on a short sea high cargo density route. Using a bow
notch connection system between tug and barge the time occupied by
discharging cargo from the barge enables the tug to return to the
loading port to pick up another barge. So that instead of using say five
conventional self propelled ships to transport a given amount of cargo
from port A to port B it can be accomplished with say five barges and
only three tugs. This approach represents considerable savings in both
operational and capital cost, but it must be said the integrated tug
barge concept is only rarely used. Also there is usually a wave height
restriction using the bow notch connection arrangement.
Intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbines The recent popu-
larity of the HSS (High Sea-service Speed) ship has highlighted the
need for the most efficient gas turbines which are generally used to
propel these ships. One such method used to enhance the thermal
efficiency of the gas turbine is to adopt the ICR .system whereby
combustion air in the primary stage is cooled and preheated prior to
actual combustion. By adopting this approach the thermal efficiency
of the gas turbine can be increased from the current 40 per cent or so
to perhaps 60 per cent in the medium term. The ICR system does
require additional heat exchangers and the capital cost and complexity
of the plant will be increased somewhat.
Interim final rules (IFR) This is a procedure adopted by the United
States Coast Guard (USGC) which publishes IFRs prior to their enact-
ment. Recent examples of the IFR procedure mainly concerned the
introduction of the Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA90) by the US auth-
orities. The various aspects of OPA90 were promulgated by circulating
them as IFRs, so giving interested parties the opportunity to comment
prior to their adoption into official legislation.
Intermediate surveys Intermediate surveys were introduced by
members of the International Association of Classification Societies
(lACS) after it was realised that certain parts of a ship's structure could
not survive the regulatory five-year period between special surveys
without suffering from serious corrosion. Those parts of the structure
mainly affected were the ballast tanks on all ships if uncoated and the
cargo hold spaces of bulk carriers, especially if carrying heavy cargoes
such as iron ore. It is now a classification requirement that all these
vulnerable spaces are surveyed at a two to three-year interval instead
of the five-year interval previously allowed.
International Association of Classification Societies (lACS)

International Association of Classification Societies (lACS) There

are 11 full members of lACS and two associate members as shown
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS);
Bureau Veritas (BV);
China Classification Society;
Det Norske Veritas (DNV);
Germanisher Lloyd (GL);
Korean Register of Shipping;
Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS);
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NKK);
Polski Rejestr Statkow;
Registro Italiano Navale (RINA);
Russian Register of Shipping.
Associate Members
Croation Register of Shipping;
Indian Register of Shipping.
All lACS members must have audited compliance with ISO
(International Standards Organisation) 9001.lACS is actively involved
with the International Marine Organisation (IMO) where it has a
permanent representative. lACS periodically introduces so-called
unified rules relating to the more important safety aspects of classi-
fication which all members follows.
International Association of Independent Tanker Owners
(lNTERTANKO) INTERTANKO is an association of tanker owners
representing around 80 per cent of the world's independent tanker
owners and approximately 50 per cent of the total tanker tonnage. In
this context independent refers to tanker owners who are not from the
oil companies or those controlled by governments. INTERTANKO
publishes many documents relating to both the technical and com-
mercial aspects of tanker operations. It is represented at all Inter-
national Maritime Organisation (IMO) meetings as well as many other
maritime organisations with which it is associated. INTERTANKOhas
been instrumental in introducing measures which benefit the tanker
industry, for example reduction in dues for SBT (segregated ballast
tanks) and double hull tankers and improvement in shoreside waste
reception facilities, amongst many other such benefits to its members,
and it also gives valued assistance in pursuing claims against char-
International Chamber of Shipping (ICS)

International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC) The IBC code is the Inter-
national Maritime Organisation (IMO) document used in the design
and construction of chemical tankers and their associated equipment
and it is now incorporated as an amendment to the Safety of Life at
Sea (SOLAS)Convention. The IBC code covers all aspects relating to
the safe construction of chemical tankers, for example the location of
cargo tanks and damage survivability in the event of damage affecting
the integrity of the hull. Safety and pollution hazard identification of
the numerous chemical cargoes likely to be carried aboard chemical
tankers is evaluated with respect to health hazard definitions. The
special requirements of chemical tankers with regard to classification
and flag state surveys are listed, as are details of the international
certification of fitness relating to those cargoes approved for carriage
having regard to the type of tanker, i.e. I, II or III.

International Bunker Industry Association (IBIA) The IBIA was

only formed in 1993but already boasts of many hundreds of members
and is based at Kingston-upon- Thames, United Kingdom. It was
formed primarily to represent the oil fuel bunker industry on a global
basis in matters mainly related to product quality. Many of the IBIA
members are bunker suppliers per se, but other interests are also rep-
resented, and it remains to be seen whether sufficient buyers and end-
users of bunkers join up to enable it to represent all the interests

International Cargo Owners Association (INTERCARGO) An

association of shipowners engaged in the dry bulk trades who rep-
resent around 30 per cent of all ships in this sector. INTERCARGO is
very active in promoting the safety and pollution aspects of bulk
carriers and periodically publishes facts and figures relating to the
various types of accident these ships are involved in. Of particular
concern to INTERCARGOis the high loss rate of bulk carriers carrying
high density cargoes such as iron ore, and it is actively involved in
discussions involving preventive means.

International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) ICS is a London-based

organisation which represents the interests of the whole shipping
industry, usually with respect to the introduction of new legislation
affecting technical and commercial issues. ICS publishes many auth-
oritative safety guides relating to the safe operation of oil, gas and
chemical tankers. It is also represented at all the many International
Maritime Organisation (IMO) meetings and makes a significant con-
International Chamber of Shipping (lCS)

tribution to the enactment of the various IMO conventions and codes

by expressing the views of its members.

International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) The Inter-

national Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) is regulated by the
International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and it relates to both the
maintenance and construction of all types of containers carried aboard
ship. CSC first entered into force in 1977 and was subsequently
amended in 1981and 1984.The structural requirements for containers
included in the Convention mainly relate to the weight they can be
exposed to when stacked in the ship's hold. Also included in the
CSC convention are regulations relating to the testing, inspection and
approval of the various types of container met with in all sectors of
the container business except those carried by air.

International Electrotechnical Commission (lEC) IEC is the recog-

nised authority on all electrical and allied equipment used in both the
shipping and shipbuilding industries. Practically all electrotechnical
equipment is manufactured to one of the numerous IEC standards
in general use and they are recognised by the leading classification
societies and also the International Maritime Organisation (IMO).

International Federation of Ship masters' Associations (lFSMA)

IFSMAwas formed in 1974when eight European Shipmasters' Associ-
ations united to form a single professional co-ordinated association. It
is a non-profit-making apolitical organisation based in London and is
dedicated to the interests of serving masters with over 8,000 ship-
masters affiliated throughout the world. IFSMA was granted con-
sultative status by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in
1975and has representatives on many committees and subcommittees.
It is committed to uphold professional competence commensurate
with the need to ensure safe operation and to protect the marine
environment and produce a regular informative newsletter.

International Gas Code (lGC) The IGC is the International Maritime

Organisation (IMO) publication which covers the design, construction
and equipment of tankers certified to carry liquefied gases in bulk.
The IGC now forms part of the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Con-
vention and it includes details of all the safety requirements needed
for both liquid natural gas (LNG) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
tankers, also for tankers designed to carry other types of gas. The IGC
format follows closely that of the International Bulk Chemical Code
(IBe) on which it is based.
International Marine Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG)

International Grain Code This is more usually referred to as the

International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk and is pub-
lished under the auspices of the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) as part of the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention. The
Code covers the acceptable level of stability permitted when carrying
grain in bulk. Such matters as the strength of grain fittings and partially
filled hold spaces are also covered. Trimming the grain cargo to a level
surface and therefore reducing the possibility of cargo shift is also
included. In years gone by many ships were lost due to the grain cargo
International Labour Office (ILO) The ILO is a United Nations
affiliated organisation which represents the interests of all labour
activities throughout the whole employment spectrum. In the ship-
ping sector ILO is mainly concerned with the standards of crew accom-
modation and has published various standards relating to conventions
held on this subject. It is also involved in many other aspects of
shipping, such as safe working practices for seafarers and has also
published a code on this subject. ILO is also actively involved in the
training of seafarers in a joint venture with the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO).
International Load Line Convention (ILLC) The first international
convention on load lines was adopted way back in 1930 prior to the
establishment of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). IMO
now controls the assignment of load lines under the Safety of Life at
Sea (SOLAS) Convention, but in practice this is usually delegated to
the classification society involved whose identification mark is shown
next to the Plimsoll marks on the side shell. Load line surveys are held
at annual intervals whereby all the watertight closures on and below
the freeboard deck are inspected by the classification surveyor and the
load line (Plimsoll) marks verified.
International Marine Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG) The IMDG
code is recognised as the authority on the transportation of dangerous
goods by sea, and the Code has been adopted by many administrations
as a basis for their own national regulations. The IMDG Code contains
details of all the numerous dangerous cargoes offered for carriage
by sea and includes solid, liquid and gaseous substances. Explosive,
flammable, oxidising and radioactive substances are also included
and recommended means of their containment or packaging are listed,
as is all manner of other information relating to the product. Emerg-
ency procedures and a medical first aid guide are also included.
International Marine Satellite Organisation (INMARSAT)

International Marine Satellite Organisation (INMARSAT) All

marine satellite communication systems are controlled by a con-
vention and operating agreement issued by the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) under the INMARSAT recommendations. These
documents cover all the many aspects of satellite communications and
INMARSAT's aim is to improve services both in safety and distress
systems. It also controls the communication links between a ship and
the various shore establishments it is likely to contact.

International Maritime Organisation (IMO) IMO is the United

Nations body charged with regulating all the numerous aspects of
maritime affairs. Included in this portfolio are mainly safety and pol-
lution matters controlled by the Marine Safety Committee (MSC) and
the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) respectively.
Following on from this there are various sub committees dealing with
the following subjects:
Life saving appliances;
Training and watchkeeping;
Dangerous goods, solid cargoes and containers;
Ship design;
Fire protection;
Bulk liquids and gases;
Safety management;
Vapour emissions.

Other subjects embraced by IMO are such matters as pollution com-

pensation, document facilitation, piracy, noise and the dumping of
waste at sea and many other aspects concerning maritime operations.

International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (IOPP) Under

regulations contained in Annex I of the Marine Pollution (MARPOL)
Convention every tanker above 150 gross tonnage and every other
ship above 400 gross tonnage is required to have an IOPP certificate.
The IOPP certificate is issued to each new ship after it has been
inspected by an appointed surveyor and found to be in compliance
with the MARPOL Convention. The IOPP certificate gives details of
all the oily water separation and filtering equipment and also the
associated monitoring equipment required under the Convention. The
structural arrangement of tankers is also included on the certificate,
International Safety Management Code (ISM)

and vessels are periodically surveyed to ensure compliance with the

relevant regulations.
International Parcel Tankers Association (IPTA) An association pri-
marily formed to protect the interests of parcel tanker owners which
includes both product and chemical tankers. IPTA have been involved
with other similar organisations in such issues as the development
of a code of practice for organising ship inspections by prospective
charterers which have come in for much criticism over the years.
The qualifications of surveyors carrying out ship inspections and the
methods they employ are also issues which concern IPTA members.
The problem of cargo contamination with the carriage of edible oils in
parcel tankers is also an area in which IPTA are actively involved.
International Salvage Union (ISU) The ISU is an association rep-
resenting the interests of marine salvage contractors operating
throughout the world. It seeks to generate an improved understanding
from both within and outside the marine community of the role,
activities and operating conditions of marine salvors. ISU also rep-
resents the interests of its constituent members on various Inter-
national forums, for example the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO), Lloyd's open form (LOF), also many other shipping and legal
organisations concerned with salvage activities. The recent doctrine
of allowing pollution prevention activities to be included in salvage
awards is also an area where ISU is active.
International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals
(ISGOTT) The ISGOTT guide is a most important document relating
to the safety procedures to be adopted at terminals or at sea by oil
tanker personnel. The ISGOTT guide is seen as a self-regulating pub-
lication developed within the oil industry without any outside inter-
vention from national administrations. ISGOTT works closely with
such organisations as the Oil Companies' International Maritime
Forum (OCIMF) and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
when drawing up the recommendations in their guide. The guide
covers many operational matters involving all manner of tasks per-
formed by ships' personnel.
International Safety Management Code (ISM) The ISM Code forms
part of the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention and is regulated
by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) Marine Safety Com-
mittee (MSC). The ISM Code is the first attempt by IMO to introduce
safety management techniques into ship operations, and it will apply
to all those involved in ship management from ships' staff, owners,
International Safety Management Code (ISM)

managers to operators of bare boat charters. There are 12 main cat-

egories included in the ISM Code ranging from safety and environ-
mental policy to the documentation required to prove compliance
with the Code. In the case of the European Union (EU) passenger ships
and ferries have already complied with the ISM code, and all other
ships will have to comply by 1998.
International Ship Information Database (ISID) ISID is an Inter-
national Maritime Organisation (IMO) project to establish a database
of information relating to the safety and environmental aspects of all
ships. Information for the database would be supplied by shipowners,
classification societies and others involved in the operation of ships.
The database would primarily be used in an attempt to eliminate sub-
standard ships and the information it contained would be available to
such interested parties as insurers and charterers, all with the aim of
enhancing safe and efficient operation.
International Ship Managers' Association (ISMA) ISMA is an
association originally comprising of five leading ship management
companies formed primarily to counter claims that standards in ship
management companies were being eroded for purely financial gain.
ISMA members in co-operation with several classification societies
incorporated the requirements of the International Standards Organ-
isation (ISO)9002 managements system into their operations and also
all the relevant International Maritime Organisation (IMO) standards.
In conjunction with the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and
International Shipping Federation (ISF) (which see) ISMA could be said
to be the originator of the International Safety Management Code
(ISM).There are currently 45 members of ISMA.
International Shipping Federation (ISF) ISF is an organisation
affiliated to the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) (which see)
and it represents the interests of the whole shipping industry with
respect to manning arrangements and agreements, also ship regis-
tration matters. ISF is also actively involved in training schemes and
manpower availability studies. ISF is generally in favour of flags of
convenience operations insofar as its members' interests are con-
cerned, not forgetting the so-called internationalism of shipping.
International shore connection It was found that when ships suf-
fered a serious fire while in port and the local fire brigade was called
in it could not always match the various fire main connections in use
aboard ship. In order to regularise the situation an international fire
connection was designed, and it is now mandatory for all ships to be
In-water surveys

provided with this standard connection so that any fire brigade in the
world can quickly connect its appliances into the ship's firemain. It is
installed in a prominent position on the open deck and is in the form
of a flange.
International Standards Organisation (ISO) The emergence of ISO
was an attempt to rationalise the numerous national standards auth-
orities in existence throughout the world. It was common practice
for each major manufacturing nation or industry to have its own
standards, for example British Standards Institute (BSI), Japanese
Industrial Standards (JIS) and Institute of Petroleum OP). Although
these standards still exist the move in the shipping sector is to use the
International Standards Organisation (50). Recent examples are ISO
8217 fuel oil, and the ISO 9000 series of management systems.
International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (lTOPF) ITOPF
administers TOVALOP (Tanker Owners' Voluntary Agreement con-
cerning Liability for Oil Pollution) and it is funded by annual sub-
scriptions from its tanker owner members who represent around 96
per cent of the world's tanker tonnage. ITOPF is a non-profit-making
organisation and its activities are mainly concerned with the inves-
tigation of incidents involving substantial spillage of oil into the sea.
ITOPF also arranges expert attendance at the scene of the pollution
incident in order to mitigate damage. It also publishes details of all
reported oil pollution incidents on an annual basis.
International Transport Workers' Federation (lTF) The ITF is an
association of trade unions and trade union federations concerned
with all aspects of the transportation industry. In the case of maritime
transportation both union and employers pay contributions to both
the ITF and its welfare fund. The ITF is opposed to so-called flag of
convenience (FOC) operations and is often involved in efforts to secure
unpaid wages for FOC crew members or to improve their working
conditions. The ITF definition of FOC is simply one which allows
ships beneficially owned elsewhere to fly its flag. Owners who accept
the ITF collective agreement on its terms and conditions are awarded
a blue certificate which exempts them from industrial action from this
In-water surveys In-water surveys are an arrangement whereby the
interval between the scheduled classification drydockings of a ship
can be extended to a maximum period of five years subject to various
provisions. It is normal practice in order to satisfy classification regu-
lations to have two drydockings per five-year special survey period.
In-water surveys

The drydocking in the middle of this period can be substituted by

an in-water survey. In order to qualify for an in-water classification
notation (IWS) in the case of Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS) the
ship must be inspected by approved divers operating video cameras
whose images are controlled and witnessed by a classification sur-
veyor. The geographical location of the in-water survey must have
clear visibility and be sheltered from the weather.
Iron ore cargoes One of the most aggressive cargoes carried aboard
bulk carriers is iron ore. Loading and discharge methods used are
likely to cause damage to the ship's internal structure and strip any
protective coating. This can lead to both physical and corrosive
damage within the cargo holds, and with it a reduction in strength.
Many of the bulk carriers lost at sea in recent years were employed in
the iron ore trades, and it is now accepted that this was an important
factor in their high loss rate. Major areas of damage concern the shell
frame attachment which is torn away by cargo grabs in extreme cases,
leading to a weakness at the side shell. The carriage of high density
cargoes such as iron ore is currently under review by the International
Association of Classification Societies (lACS) and the International
Maritime Organisation (IMO).
Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) These extremely com-
prehensive standards cover most materials and fittings used by not
only Japanese but many other Far Eastern shipyards. It is com-
paratively rare for a Japanese shipyard to adopt international stan-
dards such as those included in the International Standards
Organisation (ISO) unless specifically asked for by the shipowner
when negotiating a building contract.
Jet propulsion Pure jet propulsion is now the standard means
adopted by the aircraft industry after first using the piston engine
driven propeller and then the gas turbine driven propeller. Marine
propulsion systems are still at the piston engine driven propeller
stage, although gas turbine driven waterjets are only now making an
appearance, mainly on High Sea-service Speed (HSS)ships. It remains
to be seen whether pure jet propulsion will ever become popular as a
means of ship propulsion for the larger size vessel.
Jointings Jointings are thin pieces of material used aboard ship to
form an effective leak-proof joint when such items as lengths of piping
and tank manhole lids are secured using a flanged connection. Each
piping system or commodity in contact with the jointing material has
its own special requirements relating to the characteristics of the liquid
"I" type Doxford engine
or vapour being handled which determines the composition of the
joint material. Steam and exhaust gas require a heat resisting material,
lubricating and fuel oil a material impervious to both oil and heat and
seawater systems usually use rubber based material. In the case of
cargoes carried by chemical tankers the choice of jointing material
must receive careful study based on the characteristics of the cargo in
contact with the joint material.
Jones Act The so-called Jones Act is officially the United States Mer-
chant Marine Act (1920) introduced to protect US shipowners and
shipbuilders from overseas competition. The Jones Act is mainly con-
cerned with trade between US ports and outlying territories and
requires that such trade be performed by US built and US owned
ships, and excludes ships built in the United States but subsequently
reflagged to another country. Waivers are granted under certain con-
ditions, for example to the many passenger ships trading from the
United States.
Joules Joule was an eminent physicist known primarily for what is
referred to as Joules equivalent used in converting heat into work and
it was he who established the relationship between the two. In honour
of his achievements the Systeme International (SI)unit for heat is now
known as the Joule. The heat, or calorific, value of fuel oil is now
usually expressed as so many MegaJoules per kilogram to give the
result a convenient figure of around the 40 mark. Previously it was
usual to use kilocalories per kilogram or British Thermal Units per
pound. The approximate conversion factors are 1 Megajoule/Kg =
239 KCals/Kg or 429 BTUs/Lb.
Journal bearings These are the plain bearings, usually white metal
lined, which are used throughout a typical marine engine, both steam
and diesel. They are usually machined in such a way that a wedge
shape is formed at the joint between the bearing halves in order to
enhance hydrodynamic lubrication and keep the bearing and shaft
surfaces apart by a film of lubricating oil. There has been very little
change in the design of journal bearings over the last decades and
little future research is in the offing.
"J" type Doxford engine The "J" type Doxford engine was the last
engine produced from the Doxford stable, and it was first produced
in 1964. The "J" type was a last-ditch attempt to compete with the
other two-stroke engines then still in production, for example Sulzer,
Burmeister and Wain and MAN. The opposed piston principle was
retained but improvements were made to improve performance and
"l" type Doxford engine
reliability. Exhaust gas turbocharging was introduced to replace
engine driven reciprocating scavenge pumps. Lubricating oil was used
to cool the lower pistons instead of fresh water and timed cylinder
lubrication was employed. Neither of these measures was successful
in avoiding the demise of the Doxford engine which ceased manu-
facture in the late 1970s.
Jumbo derricks Jumbo derricks are those that were provided on
heavy lift ships to handle cargo when they first became popular many
years ago. Jumbo derricks were generally of the swinging or slewing
type as opposed to the fixed type of derrick used in the union purchase
rig. Quite heavy loads could be handled by these jumbo derricks, their
winch and wire rigging systems were rather complicated and they
required extremely well qualified personnel to ensure trouble-free
Jumboising Jumboising is a term used to describe the operation of
increasing the original dimensions and cargo or passenger carrying
capacity of a ship at some stage after it has entered service. In most
cases a ship is jumboised by simply having its length increased by
inserting a new mid ship section. This form of jumboising can lead to
problems arising with respect to the longitudinal strength of the hull,
and the most commonly used counter measure is to weld strapping
plates along the full length of the ship to the port and starboard shear
Kaolin Kaolin is a form of China clay used by the paper industry to
provide a glossy surface on the pages of upmarket magazines. It can be
transported by ship in liquid form, and providing its viscosity is kept
within pumpable limits by the provision of heating coils in the cargo
tanks it can be pumped ashore. This makes for an extremely cost effec-
tive method of carriage compared with that in its natural solid state.
Keel The keel of a ship runs along the bottom shell and is positioned
on the fore and aft centreline in a longitudinal direction. In former
times the keel consisted of a heavy beam or bar, but all modem ships
have flat plate keels. When a ship is in drydock its weight is supported
by the keel, and mainly for this reason the keel plate and supporting
strUcture within the double bottom tank are usually made with
increased scantlings or strength.
Keyless propellers One of the most significant developments in
propeller design concerned the introduction of the keyless propeller
several decades ago. The keyways cut into propeller shafts have
Laminar flow

always been a source of trouble from a stress-raising point of view

and many a propeller shaft has been condemned due to fractures
emanating from the keyway. Sledge runner shaped keyways were first
introduced to reduce the stress level, but this action was only partially
successful. The current method is to mount the propeller on the shaft
using only hydraulic pressure to force it up the taper into its correct
position without the need for a key, and this has proved to be very
K factors The design of gearing systems for ships involves many
symbols, and in the case of Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS), for
example, those having a most important role are the so-called K
factors. These cover such aspects as Ka, the application factor which
ranges from 1.0to 1.5 depending on the tooth loading. Other K factors
are those relating to load distribution and dynamics, all of which are
included in the detailed calculations necessary to secure safe oper-
Kinematic viscosity Kinematic viscosity is now in general use when
describing fuel oils supplied to ships as bunkers and it is based on the
centistoke. The absolute or dynamic viscosity is the basic unit, and
this is measured as the force in poise required to move a prescribed
surface area at a given velocity at a certain thickness of the liquid
whose viscosity is to be measured. If the result is divided by the
density of the liquid then the kinematic viscosity in centistokes is
arrived at. It is possible to convert the viscosity units previously in
use to kinematic viscosities using widely published tables.
Lacquering Lacquering is a phenomenon associated with a deposit,
similar to lacquer, hence its name, found in certain parts of a diesel
engine or air compressor. It is usually associated with high operating
temperatures aggravated by the presence of contaminants in the lub-
ricating oil serving these parts. In some instances the use of lubricating
oil with insufficient thermal stability has resulted in the formation of
lacquer deposits.
Laminar flow When a ship is proceeding through the water the
underwater hull draws layers of water in the immediate vicinity along
with the ship. The depth of these layers depends on the roughness of
the hull; the rougher the hull surface the greater the depth. Within
these layers the flow of water is usually called laminar, and in theory
the thinner this depth so the frictional resistance is reduced leading to
improved hydrodynamic performance. Outside the area where
laminar flow exists the water becomes turbulent, which results in
Laminar flow

increased resistance and with it a loss of performance. It is therefore

important to keep the hull as smooth as possible in order to obtain
maximum performance.
Laminates Laminates or composites of sandwich type construction
are being increasingly used for ship construction in those ships where
weight is a problem, notably the recent breed of High Sea-service
Speed (HSS) passenger ships. Aluminium sheeting with a lightweight
core has proved to be satisfactory, in that a much stiffer panel at
less weight than that of steel is produced. Other materials under
investigation are those reinforced with Kevlar Aramid fibre. Small
yachts and other such pleasure craft have used laminates for several
years but their extension into the larger ship market is a comparatively
recent development.
Language A recent amendment to the Safety of Life at Sea (SaLAS)
Convention which is due to enter force in 1997 has been announced
by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). This concerns the
working language of a ship's crew which will have to be recorded in
the official log, and it is a requirement that all crew members must be
able to communicate and understand orders and instructions given in
this language. If the stated working language is different from that of
the flag state then all plans, instructions and notices will have to be in
both languages.
Laser welding Laser welding is a comparatively new technique
shortly to be introduced into the shipbuilding industry. The technique
makes use of a very high energy density in a finely focused laser beam
to penetrate the metal thickness and produce a narrow rapidly cooled
weld joint. Joint gaps in a laser weld are extremely small and this
will require improvements to current plate and section production
methods before the technique can be introduced into the shipbuilding
industry. CO2 gas is used in conjunction with laser welding mainly to
prevent the build up of decomposition products.
Latin American MOV The Latin American Memorandum of Under-
standing (MOU) on port state control (PSC) entered force in 1992 and
is known locally as the Acuerdo de Vifiadel Mar. Membership consists
of 10 Central and South American countries, and it is presently oper-
ated on a voluntary basis, where its members pass details of deficien-
cies found during ship inspections to a centre located in Buenos Aires.
The system operates on similar lines to other MOUs whereby ships
with serious deficiencies in their safety equipment or operational stan-
dards are detained until the PSC inspectors are satisfied. Details of
Leak test

deficiencies are also passed among member states to enable follow-up

inspections to be held.

Layout diagram All modern two-stroke diesel engines directly

coupled to a propeller can be operated at various outputs within
certain limiting conditions. These are illustrated by what is called a
layout diagram which is used to indicate the allowable degree of
derating, as it is usually called. There are two basic approaches when
using the layout diagram, one is to concentrate on enhancing the
specific fuel consumption and the other is to reduce engine rev-
olutions. Numerous positions within the area so illustrated on the
layout diagram allowed for safe operation can be chosen depending
on the needs of the shipowner and his perceived outlook on future
fuel or capital costs. The recent trend is for engine designers to produce
fully rated engines aimed at specific ship types and recourse to layout
diagrams not so frequently resorted to.

Lay-up procedures In times of poor freight rates when earnings

cannot match operating costs many shipowners choose to lay their
ships up until the market improves. If the lay-up period is likely to be
for many months then various precautions should be taken. There are
specialised firms available which will look after a ship, so allowing all
staff to return home. Classification societies also offer precautionary
advice and defer routine surveys and underwriters will usually allow
a reduction in premiums for ships in approved lay-up locations which
have taken precautions to avoid damage. These include such matters
as draining all cooling water systems and boilers or alternatively
adding corrosion inhibitors. Main and auxiliary machinery should be
turned over at regular intervals and run if this is practical. Dependent
on the atmospheric conditions at the lay-up berth the whole of the
machinery and accommodation spaces can be sealed and a dehumidi-
fier installed so preventing damage to sensitive equipment.

Leak test All watertight compartments and important welds aboard

a new ship must be tested against defective workmanship by con-
ducting what is called a leak test. This is accomplished by means of
water pressure, air pressure or a combination of both, and is mainly
used to determine the integrity of welded joints. When air pressure is
used as a test medium a soapy water solution is applied to the welded
joint and whilst it may appear primitive it is nonetheless very effective.
Tanks may also be tested by filling them with water to a specified
height above the highest point in the tank. Such items as bow doors,
Leak test

hatch covers and watertight doors are usually tested by using a high
pressure hose held close to the part being tested.
Legionnaires disease This is a comparatively rare disease not par-
ticularly related to the shipping industry but all the ingredients are
present in some shipboard installations. In shore-based establishments
air conditioning cooling towers and hot water calorifiers were found
to be major sources of the legionella bacteria. It was found that the staff
aboard some ships were collecting water drained from air conditioning
units and placing it in the storage tanks as a water conservation
measure. This procedure is extremely dangerous and should not be
practised on board in view of the risk of spreading the legionnella
Length between perpendiculars (LBP) This is the length of a ship
that the classification societies use when applying various criteria into
formulae concerning the strength of a ship and is sometimes referred
to as the Rule Length. It is the distance in metres on the summer
waterline from the forward side of the stem (which see) to the after side
of the rudder post. If there is no rudder post (see Open Water Stern)
then this is taken as the centreline of the rudder stock.
Length breadth ratio (LIB) One of the most important parameters
affecting ship performance is that of the L/B ratio. The larger this ratio
the better is the performance of the ship within practical limits, of
course, not forgetting that a ship with an L/B ratio of over 8 would in
all probability have a serious stability problem. Length is the most
expensive dimension to increase when designing a ship, so it is always
a compromise to choose between the capital cost of a ship or its
performance. A long thin ship is a good performer and a short thick
ship rather cheaper than the good performer.
Letter of compliance (LOC) A letter of compliance inspection is a
United States Coast Guard (USCG) requirement that relates mainly to
chemical tankers which have to demonstrate that their certificate of
fitness is in accordance with the cargoes being carried. LOC inspec-
tions are held by USCG surveyors at two-year intervals, and until
the ship inspection has been passed the tanker can neither load nor
discharge its cargo.
Liberty ships During the Second World War (1939-1945) close to
3,000 Liberty ships were built at US shipyards, in many cases specially
built for the purpose. Liberty ships were five holds/hatch tween-
deckers with a set of steam winches and union purchase derricks.

life of a modern lifeboat will nowadays match the life of the ship
which was not always the case previously. Gravity davits allowing a
single crew member to lower a lifeboat at a safe speed are now stan-
dard, and lifeboat recovery usually by air driven motors also a one man
operation. Survival equipment provided in lifeboats is also covered
by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). See also Free fall
Life extension schemes Life extension schemes generally relate to
the structure of a ship, although the scheme could equally apply to the
machinery installation. Special surveys undertaken by classification
society surveyors are held with the prime purpose of ensuring that
the structure of a ship can satisfactorily function for a further five years
without the need for major remedial work. Life extension schemes are
aimed at longer periods than five years, which can give the shipowner
a good idea of what repair expenditure he may be faced with over the
period he has in mind. Life extension schemes are usually conducted
by classification societies and involve a detailed examination of the
ship's structure and assessing the likely onset of problems due to
fatigue or corrosion and then recommending counter measures.
Lifejacket The lifejacket represents the basic lifesaving appliance
when used on an individual basis. Each crew member and passenger
is allocated a lifejacket the location of which is clearly indicated on
board. The design of lifejackets is usually left to individual National
Administrations although the basic concepts are controlled by the
International Maritime Organisation (IMO) through the Safety of Life
at Sea (SOLAS) Convention. Modern lifejackets are usually of the air
inflatable type which can also be inflated automatically by means of a
CO2 cylinder.
Liferafts Liferafts of the self-inflating type are now provided aboard
all ships to supplement the capacity of the statutory lifeboats. On large
passenger ships or ro:-ro ferries the use of inflatable liferafts greatly
reduces the need for the considerable amount of deck space needed
for lifeboats, in that they can be located more or less at any convenient
space instead of along the ship's side as is the case of davit mounted
lifeboats. In the case of large ships an inflatable liferaft mounted on
the forecastle would save valuable time if a sudden accident occurred,
giving personnel in the vicinity immediate means of abandoning the
ship rather than making the long trek to the embarkation deck aft.
Life saving appliances (LSA) The main LSA aboard a ship is the
lifeboat, which in recent years has seen important changes in design.
Lignum vitae

The main improvement is the introduction of the enclosed lifeboat

(which see), offering protection to its occupants in adverse weather
conditions. Free fall lifeboats (which see) launched down an inclined
ramp offer speedy evacuation from a sinking ship. Aircraft-type
escape chutes serving inflatable liferafts have recently been provided
for such craft as High Sea-service Speed (HSS) passenger ships. Inflat-
able liferafts are the secondary LSA provided aboard ship, and they
are usually provided with float operated inflation arrangements which
automatically ensure that they inflate when released from a sinking
ship. Lifebuoys and lifejackets make up the remaining LSAequipment
provided aboard ship, but it must be said that helicopters and lifeboats
from shore based establishments play their part in life saving oper-
Lighter aboard ship (LASH) Several LASH ships were built in the
early 1970s and they were specifically designed to both handle and
carry loaded lighters to and from ports having suitable facilities for
lighter traffic. One such route was from the Mississippi River to the
River Medway. The LASH ships were provided with gantry cranes
capable of handling loaded lighters, which were then towed to their
final destinations. The LASH system was not a commercial success
on other routes and has not penetrated the shipping market to any
significant extent.
Lightship weight The lightship weight of a ship is that of the steel
structure, machinery and all the necessary equipment and fittings
which would enable the ship to proceed to sea and is inclusive of full
cooling water and lubricating oil systems. It does not include fuel oil,
ballast water and of course cargo. It is usually calculated by the ship-
yard during construction of the ship and is checked against results
obtained from an inclining experiment performed before delivery of
the ship to its owners. When a ship is sent for demolition the lightship
weight is used to calculate its value, which is usually expressed as so
many US dollars per lightship tonne.
Lignum vitae A wood obtained mainly in the West Indies from the
guaiacum tree and used for many years as the bearing material for
propeller shafts and rudder pintles. Lignum vitae is a very hard, dense
wood with extremely good self-lubricating properties, making it an
ideal underwater bearing material. When used as a propeller shaft
bearing material lignum vitae could give a bearing service life of
perhaps eight years. Nowadays the majority of propeller shafts
employ white metal as the bearing material. This avoids the need for
Lignum vitae

a shrunk-on bronze liner necessary when using lignum vitae and

coupled with the use of modern shaft seals the white metal bearing
lasts the life of the ship in many instances.
Liner This is a nautical term which originally referred to ships
belonging to a recognised shipping line. In general terms liners were
usually passenger ships or fast cargo ships operating on a regular
scheduled route. In recent times the only ships which are usually
allocated liner status are the cruise liners now being built in ever-
increasing size and numbers.
Lines plan This is the basic shipbuilding plan which defines the
actual shape of the fore and aft parts of the ship. The parallel mid-
body section is uniform for approximately half the total ship's length
but the forward 20 per cent and the aft 30 per cent is shaped in such a
way as to enhance hydrodynamic performance through the water. The
lines plan divides the ship into 10 or so longitudinal sections, and
these are illustrated in a composite transverse section body plan. The
lines plan is also used to produce profile and half-breadth plans which
give the production department the means of developing the actual
shape of the ship.
Liquid level indicators Determination of the liquid level, or con-
tents, of tanks aboard ships has for long been an imprecise science. In
the case of tanks, other than those containing cargo, a simple sounding
rod was used to measure the depth of liquid, and comparing this with
the sounding tables the weight of liquid in the tank could be calculated.
Cargo oil tanks generally used the ullage method, in which the dis-
tance between the ullage port and the level of liquid in the tank was
measured by a rod and then compared with the ullage tables and the
contents calculated in similar manner to the sounding method. More
recently the liquid level in tanks is obtained by using such means as
pressure transducers, pressure resistance tapes and radar type trans-
Liquid natural gas (LNG) One of the recent success stories on the
shipping and energy front is that of LNG, commonly known as
methane. LNG is usually carried at a temperature of minus 163degrees
centigrade aboard gas tankers in the 130,000 cubic metre capacity
range. Because of its clean burning characteristics· LNG is becoming
increasingly popular as environmental pressure groups seek to reduce
atmospheric pollution from sulphur dioxide (502) and LNG falls into
this category as it contains only negligible amounts of sulphur. Two
basic types of LNG tanker have emerged in recent years. The first is
Loading instrument

the Moss-type spherical tank made of aluminium and insulated with

styrofoam giving a rather low daily boil off rate of around 0.15 per
cent by volume. The other containment method is the Technigas or
Gaz Transport membrane system of integral tanks made of Invar, a
nickel steel alloy, incorporating two Invar membranes separated by
perlite insulation.
Liquid petroleum gas (LPG) LPG is commonly referred to as either
butane or propane gas and it is usually recovered from natural and
refinery gases. It is used in a variety of applications ranging from
domestic heating and cooking to the production of petrochemicals.
LPG is carried at minus 42 degrees centigrade aboard gas tankers of
around 75,000cubic metres maximum capacity. Cargo tanks can either
be independent or integral with the ship's structure and they are
usually insulated with polyurethane foam or equivalent. Boil off gas
from LPG tankers is usually reliquified onboard and returned back to
the cargo tanks.
List List in this connection is an inclination of a ship in either a port
or starboard direction, hence a port list refers to a ship tilting over in
a direction to port. List is usually caused by an unequal distribution
of cargo, ballast or fuel oil bunkers and the presence of a list can
indicate that a ship has a stability problem. A stable ship will have a
righting lever which will restore any moderate unequal distribution
of weight but an unstable ship will retain a list and it may be difficult
to keep the ship upright.
Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS) One of the leading members
of the International Association of Classification Societies (lACS),
Lloyd's Register is also one of the largest, if not the largest, classi-
fication societies in the world and also the longest established. Like
most other classification societies LRS is a non-profit distributing
organisation and it funds many investigation and research pro-
grammes into marine-related matters. LRS is active in many areas,
notably the strict control of class transfer activities, the development
of fatigue design and lifetime hull condition monitoring techniques as
well as many other such activities.
Loading instrument All ships having a length greater than 65metres
must, if classed by Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS),be provided
with a loading instrument, and other classification societies no doubt
have similar requirements. The loading instrument must be capable
of calculating shear forces and bending moments at various vulnerable
positions along the ship's hull for given loading conditions. Ships'
Loading instrument

staff input the cargo, ballast, fuel oil and other known weights into
the loading instrument, which then calculates the shear forces and
bending moments usually as a percentage of their allowable values.
The original loading instruments were mechanical devices but modern
instruments are in the form of a computer.
Loading manual All ships whose longitudinal strength has to be
satisfactorily demonstrated to meet classification requirements have
to be provided with a loading manual approved by the relevant classi-
fication society. Actual and permissible still water bending moments
and shear forces are included in the manual, as also are allowable local
loadings on hatch covers, decks and double bottoms. Restrictions on
minimum draught forward and sea conditions are included, as also is
the allowable weight of grabs used when discharging bulk cargoes.
Load line rules The load line rules decide the minimum freeboard a
ship is assigned and they are based on the International Load Line
Convention (ILLC) introduced by the International Maritime Organ-
isation (IMO) in 1966 and periodically amended. The freeboard is
defined as the distance from the waterline amidships to the freeboard
deck. The assignment of the load line is essentially to ensure that the
ship has sufficient reserve buoyancy, and it is based on the main
dimensions of the ship, also its type. The allowable draughts are
indicated by the load line markings on the side shell amidships. The
summer load line is generally used as a basis, and deeper draughts
are allowable when operating in tropical or fresh water and lesser
draughts when operating in winter or North Atlantic conditions.
Load line zones Load line zones are seasonable in nature and give
guidance to the owners and master of a ship on the allowable
maximum load line the ship must not exceed in various geographical
areas. The world is divided into eight basic seasonal areas comprising
three seasonal winter zones, one summer zone, one tropical zone, one
seasonal tropical zone, a Mediterranean/Black Sea zone and a Sea of
Japan zone. These are all clearly indicated on the appropriate hydro-
graphic charts, which also give the effective dates defining winter and
summer having regard to the north and south hemispheres.
Load on top (LOT) The load on top procedure was adopted many
years ago as a measure to reduce the then horrific oil pollution caused
by tank cleaning operations from crude oil tankers. In those days cargo
tanks were cleaned by hot water Butterworth tank cleaning machines
after cargo was discharged. The heavily oil contaminated cleaning
water was allowed to settle and then pumped overboard. Just before
Log carriers

the mainly oil residues reached the pump suctions they were diverted
to the slop tanks and the next cargo loaded on top of this noxious
mixture. The LOT procedure has been superseded by the crude oil
washing (which see) system.
Load and resistance factor design concept (LRFD) The LRFD
concept is the current state of the art with respect to the design of
ships' structures which for many years were based on so-called pre-
scriptive rules which had no calculable relationship to the loads
imposed on the structure. LRFD is a direct calculation method which
does take into account actual induced loads, and as such is deemed to
be deterministic. This LRFD concept is being increasingly used in the
civil and offshore engineering industries. To address the problem of
the uncertainty surrounding actual loads and strengths it is normal to
apply such methods as, for example, limit state and partial safety
factors, and these are adopted by the LRTD concept in an endeavour
to improve th,estructural safety of ships.
LoFlyte LoFlyte is an acronym for low observable flight test exper-
iment and is a combined US Air Force and National Space Agency
(NASA) project primarily aimed towards military applications. The
project consists of a wedge shaped craft designed to surf in wave
riding fashion at hypersonic speeds in the 3,000 knots region. The
shock wave when passing through the sound barrier is dispersed
around the fuselage of the craft, and this greatly reduces the frictional
resistance at the hypersonic speeds proposed. If successful then the
project could possibly be adapted for commercial as well as military
Log books All ships registered in traditional maritime nations must
maintain an official log book in which all important events are
recorded, for example misdemeanours of the crew, and physical
damage to the ship. Ships also maintain a deck log book, also an
engineroom log book in which are recorded all the many parameters
regarding weather conditions, fuel consumption, speed, revolutions,
course steered etc. From these log books a passage summary or voyage
report is compiled and these documents are used in negotiations with
charterers over such matters as performance warranties and damage
claims against underwriters when extracts covering the time of the
casualty are taken from the log books and presented to the surveyor.
Log carriers Log carriers fill an important niche in the timber trade
and are generally employed to circumvent restrictions on the import
of sawn timber into certain countries, particularly those on the Pacific
Log carriers

Rim. Because of the weight and size of many of the logs carried,
coupled with their often frequent and lengthy immersion in seawater
prior to loading, they pose certain dangers when carried. Apart from
physical damage caused by contact with the ship's structure whilst
being handled, they also contribute to the extremely humid conditions
within the hold. This can result in severe corrosion to parts already
damaged by the logs, and a suitable paint system is recommended.
The loss rate of log carriers is reported as being rather high, no doubt
as a result of the aforementioned dangers.
Logs (speed) The accurate determination of ships' speed has been
the subject of much development over the years, and in the early stages
primitive methods involving knotted lengths of rope and hourglasses
were used. The next step was the Walker log based on a towed rotating
sensor, sending signals to an onboard indicator. Logs protruding
beneath the ship's hull were the pitot, Chernikeef and electromagnetic,
last being the most popular and most accurate of those introduced in
recent years. Doppler logs, based on the shift in the electromagnetic
spectrum, are also used when extreme accuracy is required. The
current use of extremely accurate celestial and terrestrial positional
fixing devices has rendered the use of speed logs of lesser importance.
London Dumping Convention (LDC) The LDC is also known as
the Inter-Governmental Conference on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea
and it entered force in 1975.The LDC regulates the dumping at sea of
not only wastes but other materials, including redundant offshore
structures. Certain wastes are pro~ibited from being dumped at sea
under any circumstances, and these include such dangerous sub-
stances as mercury, cadmium, plastics and high-level radioactive
waste. The LDC also regulates the incineration of wastes aboard ships
and nominates areas where incineration and dumping of approved
wastes can take place.
Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy (LCB) The Longitudinal Centre
of Buoyancy (LCB) is a term used by ship designers to express the
distance that the centre of buoyancy is displaced from a mid-point
measured between the forward and aft perpendiculars (which see) in a
longitudinal direction. It is usually expressed as a positive or negative
percentage, positive if the centre of buoyancy is located forward of the
mid-point and negative if located aft of the mid-point. It is usual for
tankers and bulk carriers to be designed with a positive LCB and for
high speed container ships to have a negative LCB.The range of LCBs
is in the order of plus or minus 3 per cent.

Long-stroke engines Long-stroke diesel engines were introduced a

decade or so ago and they are usually associated with the two-stroke
slow speed designs. Although no clear definition exists, long-stroke
engines could be said to be those with a stroke/bore ratio (which see)
of above 3 to 1. Long-stroke engines are generally associated with
ships which do not have a restriction on propeller diameter, for
example large tankers and bulk carriers, so that the .largest possible
diameter propellers can be used. Large diameter propellers are syn-
onymous with enhanced hydrodynamic performance, hence the
popularity of the long-stroke engine on these ships. Long-stroke
engines are also associated with enhanced scavenge efficiency and
thermodynamic performance.
Loop scavenge Loop scavenge was a system of scavenging adopted
usually by slow speed two-stroke diesel engines. Loop scavenge
engines were popular on account of their absence of exhaust valves
in the cylinder covers which made for an uncluttered arrangement
housing only the rather small fuel, air start and relief valves. Sulzer
and MAN actively followed the loop scavenge system but Burmeister
and Wain kept with the uniflow scavenge system (which see). In the
loop scavenge system both the exhaust and scavenge ports are located
at the lower end of the cylinder liners, leading to a loop-shaped flow
of scavenge. When combustion pressures were elevated in order to
enhance thermodynamic performance the loop scavenge system
proved to be unable to meet the additional thermal stresses involved
and all the two-stroke designs now adopt uniflow scavenge.
LOOP terminal LOOP is an acronym for the Louisiana Offshore Oil
Port, which is located about 60 miles offshore Louisiana in com-
paratively deep water. Because of this lengthy distance from the US
coastline it is outside what are normally considered to be territorial
waters. The United States has designated what is called an exclusive
economic zone, which extends 200 miles from its coastline. It has been
decided by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) that, under the Oil
Pollution Act 1990 (OPA90) regulations, single hull tankers can use
the LOOP terminal, but other aspects of OPA90 such as COI, TVEL
and COFR (all of which see) must be followed.
Loran Loran is a US designed terrestrial ship navigation system, and
the name Loran is an abbreviation for long range as used in navigation
techniques. It uses pulsed radio signals from shore-based stations
which are received onboard and when decoded by the receiver enables
the position of the ship to be accurately fixed. Satellite navigation

systems such as GPS (which see) have largely relegated Loran and other
such terrestrial systems to that of a supplementary role.
Louisiana Offshore Oil Port See Loop terminal
Low location lighting (LLL) One of the recommendations made
by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) following recent
serious passenger ship calamities was for low level lighting systems
to be installed, similar to those used in the commercial airline industry.
LLLsystems are used to provide evacuation route indication in emerg-
ency situations, and current systems use the latest available tech-
nologies to provide the necessary illumination. These include light
emitting diodes (LED) and other such methods, for example pho-
toluminescent material which stores light from normal sources and
then releases it when the normal source is interrupted, such as when
in an emergency situation.
Low viscous resistance fin Is yet another device introduced to
improve the hydrodynamic performance of a ship. The low viscous
resistance fin was developed by a major Japanese shipyard and con-
sists of a pair of horizontal triangular shaped fins attached to the hull
at a position just in front of the propeller. The fins are designed to
reduce vortex flow resistance which interferes with the uniform flow
of water into the propeller and results in an improved hydrodynamic
performance with an alleged 2 per cent improvement claimed.
Lubricating oil (LO) Lubricating oil plays a very important part in
the efficient running of a ship's machinery. Its primary function is to
reduce frictional resistance between the moving parts of the mech-
anical systems. Secondary functions include those used to combat the
effect of various contaminants which may find their way into the
lubricating oil, usually from the products of fuel combustion. In the
case of cylinder oils used to lubricate the cylinder liner I piston ring
interface, they also have to neutralise the high sulphurous acid levels
present occasioned by the high level of sulphur in most fuel oils. Each
system using lubricating oil has its own special requirements, for
example the low temperatures in refrigerating machinery, high tem-
peratures in hydraulic systems and extreme pressures in gear boxes
all solved by the choice of the requisite lubricating oiL
Lubricant quality scan (LQS) Lubricant Quality Scan (LQS) is an
analytical system which regularly issues reports on the condition of
lubricating oil samples submitted mainly from stem tube systems but
it can be extended to other lubricating oil systems for example those

relating to the steering gear. LQS is a Lloyd's Register of Shipping

(LRS) scheme and participating shipowners can adopt the Screwshaft
Condition Monitoring class notation (which see) enabling screwshaft
withdrawals to be waived. This is subject to the condition of the
lubricating oil submitted for analysis being within acceptable limits.
Machinery control room The machinery control room is an air-
conditioned sound insulated compartment usually located in a central
position within the machinery space in which is housed all the super-
visory, indicating, alarm and control equipment required for the oper-
ation of the main propulsion and auxiliary machinery. During normal
daytime periods the engineers previously assigned to watchkeeping
duties can now be employed in useful maintenance tasks, leaving
supervision of the machinery to the equipment so provided. During
overnight periods the machinery space is usually locked shut and
control of the machinery is transferred from the machinery control
room to a console located on the bridge under the supervision of the
bridge officer of the watch (OOW).
Main deck The term main deck is nowadays hardly ever used, and
it is more usually referred to as the freeboard deck (which see). On
tankers the main deck was patently obvious as it was the only visible
deck likely to fit the description. This also applies to modern bulk
carriers. When so-called open shelter deck general cargo ships were
allowed, the tween deck was usually designated as the main deck and
the upper deck then referred to as the shelter deck. This practice is not
now allowed, and with it the term main deck.
Main engines The distribution of main engine types is nowadays
rather restrictive with regard to that which existed previously. The
steam ship has all but disappeared, apart from those very few LNG
gas carriers still in service. Diesel engines are now installed in the vast
majority of ships and slow speed two-stroke crosshead engines are
the preferred choice. Of the remainder these are mainly medium speed
four-stroke trunk piston engines with a small number of high speed
engines of the same basic design. Gas turbines are emerging as the
main engines for the recently introduced HSS (High Sea-service Speed)
ship but these are in such small numbers that they hardly affect the
Man/B&W Is the largest of the three remaining two-stroke (cycle)
slow speed crosshead marine diesel engine licensors. Its design centre
is based in Copenhagen at the former Burmeister & Wain (B&W)
facility. It is also licensor for a range of four-stroke propulsion engines

located at Augsburg at the premises previously belonging to MAN.

These two formerly separate companies joined forces in the early
1980s, and they now have a comprehensive range of both auxiliary
generator engines and main propulsion engines covering all antici-
pated power needs embracing both two-stroke and four-stroke diesel
engines up to 68,520 KW (92,000 BHP). The group also acquired a
majority in the Pielstick facility (which see) and when coupled with the
formerly B&W designs of Alpha Diesel and Holeby all requirements
can be catered for.
Mandatory excess insurance facility (MEIF) This is a proposed
insurance facility aimed primarily at offsetting the financial effect of
the liability imposed on shipowners following the United States Coast
Guard (USCG) imposition of the need for a Certificate of Financial
Responsibility (COFR) under regulations included in the Oil Pollution
Act 1990 (OPA90). The MEIF could be funded by a levy on oil imports
and the fund used to offset the finance involved in major pollution
incidents which currently entail unlimited liability.
Manhattan The SS Manhattan was a US registered tanker of around
115,000DWT built in 1961. In 1969 she was strengthened for navigation
in severe ice and navigated the North West Passage from the Delaware
River on the East coast US to Prudoe Bay, Alaska. The idea behind this
rather difficult voyage was to demonstrate that North Slope Alaskan
crude oil could be transported to the US markets by oil tanker. In the
event it was considered that a pipeline could best serve this purpose
and the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline (TAP) was subsequently built despite
strong objections from the environmentalists.
Margin Plate This is a downward sloping plate which constitutes
the outboard end, or margin, of a double-bottom tank and formed a
bilge space between the side shell in which bilge water collected. In
former times the tank margin plate on general cargo types of ship
extended the full length of the ship from bow to stern. Modern ship
designs rarely feature a margin plate, the double bottom tank top
either carries on straight across to the ship's side or slopes upwards
to form a hopper tank (which see). Bilge wells are nowadays provided
as an insert in the tank top rather than a continuous well formed by
the margin plate.
Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) MAIB is a UK
government department charged with the investigation of all marine
accidents leading to serious injury, death or those considered to be
potentially dangerous. A report on each accident investigated is cir-
Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC)

culated to all concerned and recommendations made to avoid a rep-

etition. Some of the recommendations made by MAIB have been
incorporated into Statutory Instruments (S1).
Marine Accident Reporting Scheme (MARS) MARS is a voluntary
scheme aimed at promoting a greater exchange of information in
relation to marine accidents. Contributions are solicited from seagoing
staff who have experienced accidents or near accidents aboard the
ships in which they are serving. Full details surrounding the accident
are promulgated and extracts from any official reports relating to this
or other similar accidents are also published under the MARS scheme.
The scheme is administered by the Nautical Institute (which see) and
details are regularly published in their Seaways magazine. Various
other marine related organisations also actively support the MARS
Marine Administration (MARAD) MARAD is a US government
department which covers many aspects of its shipping and ship-
building industries. One of the main activities covered by MARAD is
the so-called Title XIloan guarantee which in its original form allowed
US shipyards to build ships for US owners with favourable finance
terms. In recent years this was extended to cover foreign shipowners
building in US shipyards. MARAD also finances research and develop-
ment projects aimed at producing competitive ship designs and pro-
duction methods in US shipyards and it is also involved in many other
marine related activities.
Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) The MEPC
represents all the environmental issues at the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) and is second in importance only to the Marine
Safety Committee (MSC).Arguably the major part of MEPC's work is
related to oil pollution covered by Annex I of the MARPOL (Marine
Pollution) Convention and which entered force in 1983.Other Annexes
to the MARPOL Convention controlled by the MEPC are:
Annex II Bulk chemicals;
Annex III Dangerous goods in packaged form;
Annex IV Garbage;
Annex V Sewage.
Annex V relating to sewage has yet to enter force but all other Annexes
are in place. It is expected that other annexes relating to gaseous
emissions and solid bulk cargoes will be introduced in the not too
distant future.
Marine evacuation systems (MES)

Marine evacuation systems (MES) These MES systems are based

on aircraft-type arrangements which use inflatable slides to allow
passengers quickly to escape to waiting liferafts after donning their
lifejackets should an aircraft put down in the sea. In marine operations
they are particularly useful in association with High Sea-service Speed
(HSS) passenger ships and they meet the special requirements of the
regulatory bodies controlling the safety of such ships. Conservation
of weight is a particular feature of the HSS ship and the MES system
makes a useful contribution in this area.
Marine Pollution Convention (MARPOL) The first convention
relating to pollution of the seas concerned oil pollution, and this led
to the 1954Oil Pollution Convention which entered into force in 1958.
As other sources of marine pollution than oil became more prevalent,
the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
Ships was held in 1973, modified in 1978, and entered into force in
1983. As well as oil pollution, the MARPOL Convention also covers
pollution from chemicals, packages, sewage and garbage. MARPOL
is also responsible for designating special sea areas, such as the Baltic
and the Mediterranean in which more restrictive anti-pollution mea-
sures are applied. Gaseous emissions and bulk cargoes are expected
to be included in future MARPOL regulations.
Marine Preservation Association (MPA) Is an independent non-
profit-making organisation created by the US Petroleum Industry
Response Organisation (PIRO). MPA is also associated with the US
Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC). All these organisations
came into prominence to deal with oil pollution incidents around the
US coast such as that which befell the Exxon Valdez, and they probably
owe their continued existence to this tragedy. In most parts of the
world the governments concerned generally direct clean-up oper-
ations resulting from an oil spill. However the US government has
abrogated this responsibility to various private organisations, of which
MPA is only one of several.
Marine Safety Agency (MSA) Is a branch of the United Kingdom's
Department of Transport involved in the implementation of its rules
and regulations generally with respect to the safety equipment and
appliances aboard UK registered passenger and cargo ships. Sur-
veyors from the MSA conduct surveys in relation to the issue of
passenger ship certificates and cargo ship safety certificates. They also
conduct safety checks and surveys on foreign flag ships visiting UK
ports under the memorandum of understanding (MOU) on port state
Marine Society (The)

control (PSC), both of which see. The MSA was formed on 1 April 1994
as the successor to the surveyor general's organisation and is based in
Marine Safety Committee (MSC) The MSC is the principal com-
mittee of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and it is the
MSC which regulates all safety matters relating to marine operations
throughout the world. Included in the MSC's activities are such
diverse subjects as:
Life saving appliances;
Training and watchkeeping;
Dangerous goods, solid cargoes and containers;
Ship design;
Fire protection;
Bulk liquids and gases;
Safety management.
Each of these specialised subjects is represented by a separate sub-
committee which reports back to the MSC with various rec-
ommendations which, if approved, will form amendments to the
SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) Convention, with which the MSC is
principally concerned.
Marine safety information systems (MSIS) This is a United States
Coast Guard (USCG) database which records vital information relat-
ing to ships visiting US ports with emphasis on safety and environ-
mental issues. The object of the MSIS is to remove sub-standard ships
from the system and of course prevent them from trading to the
United States. The USCG has made the MSIS database available to all
interested parties, and even the general public if used for legitimate
Marine Society (The) The Marine Society is a UK organisation based
in London, and it was formed in 1756 by one Jonas Hanway. The
principal objects of the Marine Society are the encouragement of young
persons to take up a career at sea and the enhancement of the qualities
of life for those already serving at sea. Its services are directed to both
the Royal and merchant navies and also the fishing and offshore
sectors of the shipping industry. The Marine Society provides a library
Marine Society (The)

service for merchant ships and also operates the College of the Sea. It
publishes a quarterly magazine entitled The Seafarer and gives much
advice to seafarers in a quest to further their careers.
Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSCR) MSCR is an inde-
pendent non-profit-making organisation based in the United States
formed by the petroleum industry in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez
incident and which is closely related to the US Oil Pollution Act 1990
(OPA90). The MSCR has access to all the various equipment needed
to deal with serious oil spills and this is located at various vulnerable
positions around the US coastline. The equipment includes such items
as response vessels, transfer pumps, booms and skimmers, all main-
tained in a state of readiness to deal with an oil spill.
Marine Technology Directorate (MTD) The Marine Technology
Directorate is a UK governmental agency charged with conducting
research into all manner of projects concerning the shipping and
related industries. One of its main current projects is that concerning
High Speed Craft (which see) in its many forms and it is expected that
the MTD will be actively involved in the future development of these
craft, especially with respect to innovative designs leading to
improved seakeeping qualities at high speed.
Maritime Information Society (MARIS) MARIS is a European
Union (EU) based society aimed primarily at promoting the intro-
ductionof information technology (IT) into marine related activities.
One of the research programmes instituted by MARIS concerns the
various safety and environmental issues involved following a serious
marine accident. Another MARIS programme is related to the cost
effectiveness of all marine transportation activities ranging from vessel
routing to port communications. Other MARIS programmes concern
the management of marine resources and the application of IT to the
manufacturing and engineering services within the marine industry.
Master The Master of a ship is in the case of UK ships the Captain,
although other shipping nations still retain the title of Captain. All
official documents relating to UK ships including professional quali-
fications use the term Master but as a matter of courtesy he is invariably
addressed as Captain.
Masts Masts are vertically mounted spars provided on a modern
ship primarily to house the navigational equipment, although some
general cargo ships still use mast-type structures to support the cargo
handling equipment (see Goal Post Masts). The foremast is nowadays
Mean indicated pressure (P Mean)

usually made of fabricated steel tubing and is mainly self-staying. It

houses the navigation lights and fittings, floodlights and, on some
ships, an electric horn (whistle). A stayed Radar mast is also provided
either alongside or atop of the wheelhouse which, as well as the Radar
scanner, houses the navigation lights, flag halyard and air horn. Finally
an antenna mast is provided to house the radio aerials.
Matsu Matsu is a Japanese built nuclear propelled merchant ship
which never actually sailed. Prior to completion a routine inspection
revealed that a serious defect was present in a containment vessel
within the nuclear reactor. It was eventually decided that the repair
needed was too risky to perform, bearing in mind the sensitivity of
the Japanese nation to any form of radioactive contamination. The
Matsu incident in the eyes of many is the reason nuclear propelled
merchant ships will never be built in the foreseeable future.
Maximum continuous rating (MCR) The MCR of a marine diesel
engine is the output at which it can be continuously operated day in
day out. The strength of all the various components which make
up the engine is based on the MCR and its associated maximum
combustion pressure (P Max). Engine designers occasionally uprate
the MCR of their existing engines if service results indicate satisfactory
performance, but in general terms uprating is usually only resorted to
when significant design changes have been made to the engine. Most
shipowners operate their engines at their continuous service rating
(which see) which is usually pitched at about 90 per cent of MCR.
Maximum pressure (P Max) P Max in this context relates to that
achieved in the combustion chamber of a marine diesel engine. P Max
is a measure of the thermodynamic stress created by the combustion
process and is a major factor in determining the strength of engine
components transmitting the combustion load. P Max is also an
important factor in determining the thermal efficiency of a diesel
engine, and over the years its numerical value has increased more or
less in line with the increase in thermal efficiency. In the case of slow
speed two-stroke crosshead type engines the current value of P Max
is around 130 Bar and that of medium speed four-stroke trunk piston
engines somewhat higher at 200 Bar.
Mean indicated pressure (P Mean) P Mean is the average or mean
pressure within the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and is
measured by means of a pressure volume (PV) indicator or more
recently a cathode ray tube (CRT). The P Mean is directly converted
into indicated horsepower (lHP) when multiplied by area of the piston,
Mean indicated pressure (P Mean)

length of stroke and number of engine revolutions. In similar fashion

to P Max, the value of P Mean has also increased over the years and
its numerical value for slow speed two-stroke engines now around 18
Bar and for medium speed four-strokes around 25 Bar.

Mean time between failure (MTBF) MTBFis a recognised means of

establishing the reliability of component parts within a mechanical or
electrical system. In the case of marine diesel engines it is usually
associated with components affected by thermal stress, for example
cylinder covers, piston crowns and turbocharger casings. Typical
MTBF values for these highly stressed components would be in the
region of 50,000 to 70,000 hours. Less highly stressed components
would have considerably longer MTBF values.

Mean time between overhaul (MTBO) MTBO is a similar method

to that of the MTBF mentioned above but is more concerned with the
maintenance needs of component parts, usually those of a diesel
engine which require regular attention. Parts such as pistons, exhaust
valves and fuel valves are those whose MTBOs are of concern to ship
operators. The longer the MTBO interval the less is the work load on
ships' staff. One of the most successful means used to extend the
MTBO interval is to use more exotic materials in order to combat the
hostile environment in which these parts usually operate.

Mechanical efficiency The mechanical efficiency of any machine is

usually expressed as the ratio between its input and output. In the
case of marine diesel engines the difference between input and output
is due mainly to the frictional losses between the moving parts, for
example piston rings and liner bearings and journals. Modern diesel
engines have mechanical efficiencies of around 93 per cent.

Medium speed engines Medium speed diesel engines are those of

four-stroke (cycle)trunk piston design operating in the 500revolutions
per minute range. They are invariably chosen for the propulsion of
cruise liners, ro-ro ferries and small sized cargo ships, and also for
electricity generation on most types of ship. They are ideally suited
for cruise liner propulsion because of their low head height, leading
to greater utilisation of available space for revenue earning passengers.
They also offer greater redundancy when used in a multi-engine
geared or electric propulsion mode. In general terms medium speed
engines prefer a superior grade of fuel oil to that of their slow speed
rivals, although this is not seen as an important factor in cruise liner
operating economics.
Metacentric height

Memorandum of understanding (MOD) MOU is more correctly the

Paris Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control (PSC). It
was formed in 1982 by the administrations of 14 European maritime
nations and under the terms of the MOU ships visiting ports in
member states flying flags of other states are inspected for deficiencies
affecting safety of the vessel or its crew. Ships flying flags of states
having poor MOU inspection records are afforded special attention,
as also are first-time visitors. A table showing deficiencies and deten-
tions is published annually and distributed to other groups of coun-
tries operating their own MOU system, for example a Far Eastern
group based in Tokyo and a South American group based in Buenos
Merchant Shipping Act The Merchant Shipping Act applies to all
UK registered ships and was first passed through Parliament in the
late 19th century. It is periodically reviewed by Acts of Parliament
when serious incidents such as that which befell the Herald of Free
Enterprise reveal that procedures for safe operation of UK ships are in
need of review. One of the most important recent revisions concerned
the right to prosecute shore based personnel responsible for the man-
agement of ships in the event that negligence is proven, and several
cases of this have been proceeded with.
Merchant shipping notices Merchant shipping notices are usually
referred to as "M" notices and are issued by the UK government. They
are usually in pamphlet form and are generally of an advisory nature
and contain useful information mainly gained as a result of an official
investigation into a serious marine accident. The full list of "M" notices
is also issued as an "M" notice (M914)which gives the identification
number, date and subject matter contained.
Mestral Mestral is an acronym for Monohull Excellent Seakeeping
Transport and Leisure ship designed by a Spanish shipbuilder and
aimed at the fast ferry market. The Mestral design is based on that
used for fast naval ships for which the shipyard was previously well
known. The hull is built from aluminium alloy and has a deep V-
shaped hull form said to provide a smooth ride for the passengers.
Propulsion of the earlier Mestral passenger ships was by medium
speed diesel engines driving waterjets, giving a service speed of
around 38 knots. Higher speeds are possible but gas turbines will then
be needed.
Metacentric height The meta centric height, or GM as it is usually
referred to, is the classical means of determining the intact stability of
Metacentric height

a ship. It is defined as the distance between G (centre of gravity) and

M (transverse metacentre). The centre of gravity is determined at the
inclining experiment conducted before a new ship is delivered to
its owners. The transverse metacentre is determined by vertically
projecting a line from the centre of buoyancy (B) when it has been
displaced during an angle of heel. To be stable a ship must have its
centre of gravity (G) below the transverse metacentre (M). Should M
be below G the ship would be unstable and therefore be unable to
right itself from a list or roll.
Metalock Metalock is a propriety method used to repair fractured or
broken metallic components and is an alternative method to welding
when this is not feasible, for example if the material is not weldable
under ruling ambient temperatures. In the case of a fracture this is
usually chain drilled along the line of fracture and then studded.
Transverse keys are then provided to prevent the fracture from
opening up, in service in what is called a cold stitching technique
developed by Metalock. It is also possible to insert newly fabricated
inserts into broken castings using the Metalock principle, and most
classification societies accept a Metalock repair as being permanent
usually after several interim inspections.
Methane Pioneer Methane Pioneer was allegedly the first liquid
natural gas (LNG) tanker. It was converted from a wartime (1939-
1945) built cargo ship and entered service in 1958 carrying LNG from
Algeria to the United Kingdom. The first purpose-built LNG tanker
was the Methane Princess which entered service in 1964. From these
rather primitive beginnings the modern LNG tanker was evolved with
gas capacities of around 130,000 cubic metres and an extremely low
boil off rate of around 0.15 per cent by volume per day.
Metre kilogram second system (MKS) The MKS system is the orig-
inal metric system used extensively by continental European countries
as opposed to the Imperial system used by the United Kingdom
and certain other countries, for example Canada and Australia. More
recently the Systeme International (S1) is increasingly being used
throughout the world and it has the benefit of having additional units
to those included in the original MKS system. These are the Ampere,
Kelvin, Candela and Mole from which all other units in general use
can be derived. Conversion tables from SI to Imperial units are widely
Microbiological attack In the marine industry there are three basic
types of micro-organisms, or microbes, responsible for creating mic-
MIL specifications

robiological problems. The first are bacteria of which there are numer-
ous species, the next are yeasts usually classified as being micro-fungi
and finally moulds, which are similar in structure to yeasts. One of the
main targets of microbiological attack is the main engine lubricating oil
system which can become infected with microbes especially if water
is present. In severe cases corrosion of the bearing journals and heavy
sludge deposits can occur. Biocides have proved to be successful in
many cases, but renewal of the complete oil charge is necessary on
occasions. Fuel oil and enclosed cooling water systems can also be
infected with microbes, generally with the result that either sludge
deposits or corrosion occurs.
Mid-deck tanker The mid-deck tanker was a Japanese proposal sub-
mitted as an alternative design to the double hull tanker insisted upon
by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) under the Oil Pollution Act
of 1990 (OPA90). The mid-deck tanker has a horizontal oil tight div-
ision between the upper and lower parts of the cargo tanks, and while
it is in effect a double hull design, it does not have a double bottom
ballast tank. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) will
accept the mid-deck tanker design as conforming to the latest anti-
pollution regulations, but it is not acceptable to the USCG.
Midship section coefficient This is a term used to indicate the full-
ness of a ship at its immersed midship cross section. It is in effect the
ratio between this and a projected oblong shape having the full beam
and midship draught as its multiples. Bulk carriers and tankers of the
larger deadweight sizes will have the midship section coefficients of
between 0.98 to 0.99. A ship without any turn of bilge would of course
have a coefficient of 1.0.
Mineral acids Mineral acids are of the strong inorganic type which
includes sulphuric, hydrochloric, nitric and phosphoric. In the case of
marine operations the most common mineral acid met with is sul-
phuric, usually as a result of sulphur being present in either fuel oil,
crude oil when carried as cargo or bulk sulphur also when carried as
cargo. Under certain circumstances, usually in the presence of water,
this sulphur can be converted into sulphuric acid. It can then attack
such items as diesel engine bearings, cylinder liners, exhaust gas
uptakes and the cargo holds of bulk carriers used to carry sulphur.
MIL specifications MIL specifications are an abbreviation of US
Military Specifications which cover all the many fuel oils and lubri-
cants used by the US military. MIL specifications are also used in
commercial applications, particularly those which embrace both mili-
MIL specifications

tary and commercial applications, for example gas turbines and high
speed diesel engines.
Millibars The universally adopted method of measuring atmo-
spheric pressure is the millibar, equivalent to one thousandths part of
a Bar (which see). As a general guide the average atmospheric pressure
is around 1015 millibars, which is approximately equal to 30 inches
of mercury using the previous method of measuring atmospheric
pressure. The differences in recorded atmospheric pressure in mil-
libars present in a weather system are shown as isobars which clearly
indicate the strength of wind speed. The more tightly packed the
isobars the higher the wind speed in the weather system.
Mini-bore diesel engines Mini-bore marine diesel propulsion
engines are in this context those of the two-stroke crosshead type
which in recent years have encroached into territory previously the
domain of the medium speed trunk piston four-stroke engine. The
mini-bore two-stroke engine has several claimed advantages over a
trunk piston engine of equivalent output, the first being its ability to
deal with poorer quality fuel oil without the risk of contaminating the
lubricating oil system. The mini-bore engine also operates at lower
revolutions than the four-stroke engine, which permits the use of a
larger diameter propeller in certain circumstance, for example if direct
drive is proposed. The maintenance needs and therefore the mean
time between overhaul (MTBO)is allegedly less onerous on mini-bore
engines, although four-stroke proponents usually refute this.
Misalignment One of the most common reasons for premature
structural failure is misalignment between load carrying component
parts of a ship's hull. It has been found that structures using high
tensile steel are more vulnerable to failure if misalignment tolerances
previously thought acceptable for mild steel structures are used. Most
classification societies have reviewed their misalignment tolerances,
and their field surveyors nowadays pay careful attention to the fit up
and alignment during construction in the assembly halls and at the
Mitsubishi Mitsubishi is the only non-European designer of two-
stroke (cycle) slow speed marine diesel engines, and is located in
Japan. Its two-stroke engines operate on the uniflow scavenge prin-
ciple in similar fashion to the two remaining European designs of two
stroke. Except for fairly isolated instances Mitsubishi engines of its
own design have not penetrated into the European market and their
use is generally restricted to Japanese or Korean shipyards. Mitsubishi
Montreal Protocol

manufactures only two-stroke'engines and it has a range of cylinder

bores from 330 mm to 850mm with the larger bore having a maximum
output of 46,780 KW (62,700 BHP) in the 12 cylinder version. Mit-
subishi also holds licences to build other marine diesel engines mainly
of European design.
Model test Most new ship designs are tested by means of a model
put through its paces in a test tank. There are many test tank facilities
around the world which will test models submitted to them by ship-
builders anxious to prove the hydrodynamic performance of their
designs. It was Froude who recognised the importance of the con-
nection between model tests and full size ship performance. Froude
laid down the principles relating to the extrapolation of model test
results into the full scale performance so that the hydrodynamic per-
formance and seakeeping facilities could be predicted, thus saving
considerable time and expense.
Modem link Modem is an acronym for modulated demodulated
and is the standard means of transmitting data from computer to
computer via telephone land lines. In marine applications the con-
nection between shipboard computer and land line is usually by
means of a satellite communication system (Satcom). Modem links
are being increasingly used as the usefulness of shipboard computer
programs in the marine sector is being appreciated by many ship-
Modular construction Modular construction techniques have been
employed in the shipbuilding industry for many years and it was
probably first used in the construction of Liberty ships during the
Second World War (1939-1945). It then apparently lay dormant until
both Scandinavian and Japanese shipbuilders resurrected the system
in the 1960s,and it is now the standard construction method. Modular
construction has recently been applied to auxiliary diesel engine and
boiler construction with success and also it has been used to construct
accommodation toilet/shower units.
Montreal Protocol The Montreal Protocol was held as a result of
International concern over the effect that ozone depletive substances
were having on the ozone layer. This was having an apparent effect
on the incidence of skin cancer cases being reported, especially in the
Southern Hemisphere where the so-called ozone hole in the strato-
sphere was first discovered. Ozone depletive substances used in the
marine sector are refrigerants from the CFC stable (which see) and fire
extinguishing mediums of which halon (which see) is the major ozone
Montreal Protocol

depletive substance. Both these substances are being phased out under
a time scale agreed by the Montreal Protocol which entered force in
Mooring equipment A typical ship is provided with an array of
mooring equipment to enable it to be secured alongside whilst in port.
Mooring lines made of rope, either natural or man made fibres, or
steel wire form the basis of a mooring system and they secure the ship
to bollards on the quay. Winches are used to provide the necessary
power to heave the ship alongside, and an assortment of fairleads
(which see) placed in various strategic positions ensures that the
mooring lines have a direct lead from winch to quay. When the ship
is in its final position the mooring lines are secured to bitts or bollards
Morse Code Is a communication system first developed by Samuel
Morse in the mid-19th century. It was originally applied using hand
signal flags, then by flashing lights and finally by wireless telegraphy.
The Morse Code is based on a system of dots and dashes which
represent letters of the alphabet and numbers. It requires a certain
amount of skill to master the technique and needed a dedicated wire-
less operator onboard to transmit all the messages to and from a ship.
It is only c,omparatively recently that voice communication has largely
replaced the Morse Code using satellite communication systems
Moulded dimensions The moulded dimensions of a ship have their
origins back in the time when ships were built with the aid of moulds
to define their lines. The moulded breadth and depth of a ship refer
to dimensions taken from within the side shell and bottom plating.
Most classification societies base their rules and regulations on the
moulded dimensions when determining the strength of a ship's struc-
Multi-hull designs The multi-hull design covers a collection of ships
generally of the High Sea-service Speed (HSS) type. They are then
referred to as high speed craft by the International Maritime Organ-
isation (IMO) and special service craft by Lloyd's Register of Shipping
(LRS), although not all such ships are of the multi-hull design.
Included in the multi-hull designs are catamarans, trimarans, wave
piercers and small waterplane twin hull ships (SWATHS).
Multi-purpose ships The multi-purpose ship plays a small but
important part in the overall scheme of things, and they were basically
National Research Council

designed with the express purpose of avoiding non-revenue-earning

ballast voyages. A typical multi-purpose ship will be able to carry
general cargo, containers and bulk cargoes such as grain and ore. They
are invariably provided with a set of fairly high capacity cranes or
derricks and have large open hatches. Some of the more sophisticated
designs were provided with retractable tween decks, making the car-
riage of bulk cargoes that much easier.
Naphthenic acid Is usually found in crude oils of a naphthenic
origin. It is removed in the refinery process and then used in the
manufacture of many petrochemical products, for example solvents.
In extremely rare cases naphthenic acid has been discovered in fuel
oil delivered as ships' bunkers with extremely disastrous results for
the main engine fuel injection system. Naphthenic acid is not normally
looked for when fuel oils are routinely test~d for quality and its pres-
ence detected only after the engine has suffered from mysterious
damage warranting further investigation.
National Measurement Accreditation Service (NAMAS) NAMAS
is a worldwide organisation concerned with analytical techniques
covering a wide range of activities. In the case of marine operations
NAMAS has recently been involved in a drug and alcohol policy
which will shortly become mandatory under the International
Maritime Organisation's (IMO) International Safety Management
(ISM)Code (which see). The various analytical methods used to deter-
mine the presence of alcohol and banned substances and the import-
ance of maintaining the security of samples are all addressed by
National Response Corporation Is a US organisation operating in
the US Gulf and East Coast areas. Its aim is to offer assistance to oil
companies, refineries, terminal operators and shipowners in meeting
oil spill response resource equipment necessary under the US Oil
Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA90). NRC have available a fleet of ships
equipped to deal with both OPA90 and various US state oil spill laws,
and it is only one of a number of such organisations offering this
National Research Council Is a USgovernment department charged
with conducting all manner of investigations usually of a technical
nature. A section of the NRC deals primarily with marine related
matters, referred to as the marine board, and in a recent investigation
it was asked to quantify the amount of oil being discharged into the
sea from marine operations. NRC was also actively involved in the
National Research Council

United States Coast Guard (USCG)decision to insist upon double hull

tankers under the US Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA90) after it had
rejected all other designs put forward by the oil industry.
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) NTSBis a US agency
created by Congress and charged with the investigation of serious
marine accidents such as that which befell the Exxon Valdez. All
aspects, both technical and commercial, of each incident investigated
are fully explored and recommendations made by the NTSB are
usually far reaching and sometimes rather onerous.
Nautical Institute (NO The Nautical Institute is a UK based pro-
fessional association with qualified mariners forming the majority of
its members. The aim of the Nautical Institute is to encourage and
promote high standards in its profession. Activities include the pres-
entation of seminars on such topical subjects as marine safety and
pollution and it also produces a journal entitled Seaways, in which
many subjects connected with marine activities are covered.
Navigation Expressed in simple terms navigation is the art of
arranging for a ship to move from one location to another in a safe
and efficient manner. The great navigators of the past had only the
sun and stars to guide them on their way, but the art of navigation has
now reached a highly technical standard which enables those without
the mathematical skills previously needed to determine a ship's pos-
ition by the press of a button. Prior to the introduction of modern aids
navigators relied almost wholly on the sextant to fix the position of
their ship on a hydrographic chart, a rather imprecise method when
cloud cover obscured the sky for days on end and prevented the taking
of sextant sights.
Navigational aids One of the first departures from the sextant sigh-
ting method of fixing a ship's position was by such means as the Decca
navigator or LORAN, both of which use shore based radio signals to
fix the position of a ship when in an area covered by their system. More
recently the global positioning system (GPS) using satellite instead of
shore based radio signals was developed mainly for ocean navi-
gational purposes. Electronic charts integrated with radar displays are
nowadays extensively used for coastal navigational purposes.
Another navigational aid is the echo sounder which, when used in
conjunction with a hydrographic chart, can accurately fix the position
of a ship.
Navigation and vessel inspection circular (NAVIC) NAVIC cir-

culars are issued by the United States Coast Guard (USCG)as a means
of informing interested parties of any changes being introduced into
US legislation. NAVIC circulars are suffixed by an identifying number
followed by the year it was issued to assist recipients. For example
NAVIC 8-92 relates to the eighth circular issued in 1992, and this
particular NAVIC circular concerned the introduction of vessel
response plans (VRP) (which see).
Navigation bridge visibility Navigation bridge visibility has been
the cause for concern especially with respect to those ships with cargo
stowed above deck, for example container ships and ships carrying
timber cargoes. Ships provided with heavy lift derricks, with their
array of mast posts, cross ties and sophisticated rigging, can also
introduce restrictions on visibility from the bridge. Safety of Life at
Sea (SaLAS) regulations have recently been amended with the object
of improving visibility from the bridge, and in the case of ships opera-
ting with a single bridge watchkeeper the requirements for visibility
from the bridge are more comprehensive and include a facility for all
round visibility.
Navigation lights These are the lights that all ships must display
during the hours of darkness when under way. The actual position,
arc and colour of each light is laid down by the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) in the Collision Regulations (which see). For ships
over 150 feet in length two white steaming lights must be displayed on
the mast one higher and further aft than the other. Port and starboard
sidelights (red and green) are displayed on the bridge wings and a
white overtaking light displayed at the stern. The position of these
lights allows trained observers to judge the speed and direction of
other ships. Various other lights are displayed for example when at
anchor, not under command and when carrying explosive cargoes.
Fishing vessels, tugs and sailing ships have their own layout of
Navigation Lights.
Navigator On most ships it is traditional practice to nominate one
of the deck officers, or mates as they are usually called, to be entrusted
with the navigation of a ship on its intended voyage. The navigator
lays out the course the ship will follow on the navigation charts and
plots the progress of the ship on a daily or less frequent basis if
appropriate. The navigator also attends to the task of correcting the
navigation charts as advised by various Notices to Mariners issued to
ships on a regular basis. The duties of a present-day navigator has
been lessened by the introduction of navigational aids such as Elec-

tronic Charts and Global Positioning Systems (both of which see).

NAVTEX NAVTEX is a radio receiver capable of receiving inter-
national service broadcasts relating to marine distress transmissions.
It is an automatic direct printing service used mainly to promulgate
both navigational and meteorological warnings, also any information
of an urgent nature to shipping. NAVTEX has a selective message
rejection facility which ensures that only messages relevant to the ship
concerned are received. NAVTEXis part of the International Maritime
Organisation' (IMO) global marine distress and safety system
(GMDSS) (which see), and all ships must now be provided with
Net positive suction head (NPSH) NPSH is a technical term used
by pump manufacturers and system designers to ensure that a pump
which by virtue of its duty has to lift a liquid through a certain distance
actually has the capacity to do so. It is a measure of the differential
pressure between that at the pump suction and the vapour pressure
of the liquid being pumped at its vyorking temperature.
Net present value The net present value is a means of making a
financial approach to a decision usually involving the purchase of
capital equipment or expenditure and measuring this against antici-
pated savings in operating costs. In the case of the shipping industry
the cost of a piece of additional equipment or an improvement is
reduced on an annual basis using the ruling interest or discount rates
over the relevant period of time. It is a measure of judging the cost of
the investment compared with what it could have earned if invested
Net protector Net protectors are used to keep fishing nets and lines
away from a ship's propeller shaft stern seal. Should these mainly
plastic objects be drawn into the stern seal then serious damage to the
seal can result in an excessive leakage of lubricating oil from the
system and the possibility of a fine for pollution. In some instances
the damage can be so severe that the ship has to drydock to effect
repairs. The net protector is a simple fixed device offering a reduced
aperture, and so arranged that the line or net cannot be drawn into
the seal. A recent development to avoid stern seal damage is the net
and line cutter which also effectively prevents such material being
drawn in the seal.
New Sulzer Diesel New Sulzer Diesel was formed in 1991 by the
amalgamation of Sulzer Brothers, Bremer Vulkan/Deutsche Mas-
Nitrogen oxide (NOx)

chinen und Schiffbau and Fincantieri. New Sulzer Diesel designs both
slow speed two-stroke (cycle) and medium speed four-stroke engines
and has many versions of each basic type for both propulsion and
auxiliary power generation purposes. It has many licensees through-
out the world who manufacture its designs. It is based at Winterthur
in Switzerland and it has largely followed the Sulzer Brothers designs
with financial support from its new partners, although Fincantieri
also has its own four-stroke design based on the former Fiat stable.
MAN/B&W intended to take over Sulzer Brothers in 1990 but the
move was blocked by the German authorities. Following the demise
of Bremer Vulkan in 1996 New Sulzer Diesel has been acquired by
Metra Corporation, owners of Finland's Wartsila Diesel.
New York Produce Exchange (NYPE) The NYPE is pne of the most
commonly used and longest established charterparty documents in
the dry cargo sector. Most of its many clauses have been tested in the
courts and the acceptable speed and consumption tolerances allowed
in the NYPE charterparty are now well known. Weather conditions
are usually left blank for shipowner and charterer to agree what con-
stitutes good weather and then insert the appropriate Beaufort
number. The form,is updated from time to time, and the last significant
revision was in 1993.
Neutralisation number The neutralisation number is a method used
to determine the condition of a sample of lubricating oil taken from a
diesel engine's system. These lubricating oil systems tend to attract
acidic products from the combustion process especially those engines
of the trunk piston type. In chemical terms it is the number of milli-
grams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralise all acidic com-
pounds present in one gram of the oil sample. The result is expressed
as either the total acid number (TAN) or the strong acid number (SAN)
depending on the type of acid found.
Nitrogen oxide (NOJ Nitrogen is the largest component in a diesel
engine's exhaust gas emission and nitrous oxide is arguably the pol-
lutant having the most significant effect on the environment. Typical
NOx emissions from marine diesel engines are in the order of 15-20
g/KW /h (grams per kilowatt hour). It is thought that the International
Maritime Organisation (IMO) will introduce legislation to control the
permitted level of NOx emission by means of a new annex to the
Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention sometime in the future.
Selective Catalytic Reduction (which see) is a system which significantly
reduces NOx emissions. Other methods to reduce NOx include the use
Nitrogen oxide (NOX>

of water emulsified fuel oil and specially designed low NOx fuel valve
Node Node in this instance refers to the mode of hull vibration
deflections caused by either the machinery, propeller or in some
instances by a wave pattern. Each design of ship has its own natural
vibration frequency, and when this is excited by extraneous forces
such as those mentioned above it will assume a pattern of vibration
which can be illustrated by nodes. If we consider the ship's hull as
being represented by a straight horizontal line then the hull vibration
deflections could be illustrated by a superimposed sinusoidal or wave
shaped curve. Where this curve crosses the horizontal line a node is
formed and a typical ship will perhaps have a three node deflection
Nodular cast iron Nodular or spheroidal cast iron is a grade of cast
iron with superior qualities to those possessed by conventional grey
cast iron especially with respect to its ductility. Nodular cast iron
valves and fittings can be used fo~ such purposes as ships' side con-
nections and also for other uses where comparatively low pressures
and temperatures exist. It can also be used for heat exchangers where
its superior resistance to cavitational erosion and graphitisation (which
see) is superior to that of grey cast iron previous used.

Noise Noise levels aboard ships have tended to be responsible for

more problems in recent years for a variety of reasons. One of the main
causes of this occurred when the accommodation block was located
above the machinery spaces instead of being amidships as was pre-
viously the case on many ships. Diesel engines also emit more noise
and vibration than steam engines, which inevitably leads to more
problems in these areas. In recent years it has become standard practice
to provide an air conditioned sound insulated control room within
the engineroom to reduce noise exposure levels of those personnel
working in the machinery spaces. Both the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) and the UK Department of Transport issue rec-
ommended noise levels for various locations in a ship. These range
from 60 decibels (A) in crew cabins to 85 decibels (A) in a workshop.
It is recommended that all personnel exposed to high levels of noise
wear ear defenders.
Nomogram A nomogram in this particular instance is a graphical
means for deriving numerical results from two separate parameters
when they are used as inputs. The version used in the marine industry
is to determine the calculated carbon aromacity index (CCAI) and the
Norwegian Shipowners Association

cetane indicated index (CCl). The nomogram consists of four vertical

columns of numbers, the left hand column is that of viscosity. Moving
across the page the next column represents the density and then the
CCI followed by the CCAI, which occupies the extreme right hand
column. A ruler or straight edge is placed across the' given figures
relating to density and viscosity and the required result of the CCAI
and CCI values read off their respective columns.
N on-destructive testing (NDT) As its name implies non-destructive
testing is the technique of assessing the suitability of a material or
component without inflicting damage which would render it unus-
able. NDT does not ensure that the product is suitable for its intended
purpose, but it does indicate whether any hidden defects are present.
The main NDT method is by means of a detailed visual examination
using such aids as mirrors or borescopes, perhaps in association with
a liquid dye penetrant if considered appropriate. Other more soph-
isticated NDT methods in general use include magnetic particle
inspection, radiography, ultrasonic, acoustic emission and holo-
Non return valves Non-return valves are provided in shipboard
piping systems to prevent the flow of liquids or gases in a reverse or
dangerous direction. One of their main functions is to avoid the flood-
ing of cargo hold spaces via a damaged bilge suction line passing
through adjacent compartments one of which is already flooded. Scup-
pers leading below the freeboard deck also have to be provided with
non-return valves in most shipboard applications for similar reasons.
The discharge valves on main and auxiliary compressors are also of
the non-return type to prevent high pressure air flowing back into the
compressor during the suction stroke.
Norwegian Marine Directorate (NMD) NMD is the Norwegian
government agency charged with the safety of ships registered in
Norway. Surveyors from the NMD conduct regular surveys on
Norwegian ships in relation to the issue of passenger ship certificates
and cargo ship safety certificates. NMD surveyors also conduct safety
checks and surveys on non-Norwegian ships visiting Norwegian ports
under the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on port state
control (PSC). NWD is at the forefront when it involves safety aspects
and NWD introduced stability requirements for Norwegian flag ro-ro
ferries prior to those recommended by the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) entered force.
Norwegian Shipowners Association The Norwegian Shipowners
Norwegian Shipowners Association

Association (NSA) or Norges Rederiforbund, as it is known in Norway,

represents the interests of one of the world's largest groups of ship-
owners. The NSA is very active in all matters concerning safety and
environmental aspects of ship operations. Because of the com-
paratively high cost of employing Norwegian nationals aboard
Norwegian ships the NSA has a training centre based in Manila so
that Filipino crews can be appointed to Norwegian ships after quali-
fying. The NSA is also involved in such futuristic projects as infor-
mation technology (IT) and its effect on efficient ship operations.
Not always afloat but safely aground (NAABSA) This is basically
a term used when chartering a vessel whose trading pattern may
include cargo loading or discharge operations at a berth, usually tidal,
which results in the vessel touching bottom. When accepting such a
term in a charterparty an owner should ensure that the bottom struc-
ture of his ship has been designed for such operations. Classification
societies are usually better placed to give advice on the matter and the
terms of the owner's hull and machinery insurance policy should be
so worded as to permit this activity.
Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) NPRM is a United States
Coast Guard (USCG) document which is circulated to all interested
parties so that they can comment on any proposed rules before their
enactment by the USCG. Various subjects are covered byNPRM docu-
ments and recent examples include "Structural and Operational Mea-
sures to Reduce Oil Spill from Existing Tank Vessels Without Double
Hulls" and "Overfill Devices as a Means of Avoiding Accidental Over-
fill Spills during Loading or Transfer Operations onboard Tankers".
The next stage in this USCG rulemaking process is the circulation of
an interim final rule (IFR) (which see).
Notices to Mariners Notices to Mariners are weekly publications
issued by the UK hydrographic office available at Admiralty chart
agents throughout many parts of the world, and other hydrographic
organisations no doubt have similar arrangements. Their purpose is
to update navigational charts held aboard ship with such information
as wrecks and buoy position changes. More recently the UK Notices
to Mariners have been issued on floppy disk for use aboard ships
having the necessary computer software.
Not under command signals When a ship is stopped at sea because
of ma~hinery breakdown or for other such reasons it must indicate
that it is not under command (NUC) so that other vessels in the
immediate vicinity can take evasive action. During daylight hours two
Ocean leveller

black balls are hoisted up the mast, and if in poor visibility the ship
sounds one long blast followed by two short blasts on the ship's
whistle or siren at regular intervals. During the hours of darkness two
all round red lights, one above the other, are hoisted having a visibility
of two miles and all other navigation lights are switched off.
Noxious liquid substances (NLS) NLS is the correct term for liquid
chemicals when they are carried aboard ship, usually a purpose built
chemical tanker. Safety issues relating to the carriage of NLSs are
included in the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) Bulk
Chemical Code (BCH) and International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC)
(both of which see). Environmental issues relating to the carriage of
NLSs are covered in the IMO's Annex II of the Marine Pollution
(MARPOL) Convention. There are literally hundreds of NLS carried
aboard ship and their safety and pollution hazaf(~.s are evaluated on a
regular basis by IMO's Group of Experts-Scientific Aspects of Marine
Pollution (GESAMP) (which see).
Nuclear propulsion There has only been a small number of nuclear
propelled merchant ships built and the only survivors are Russian
built icebreakers, although many naval vessels with nuclear pro-
pulsion are still in service. The Japanese built Matsu (which see) proved
to be a serious deterrent to nuclear propulsion and it would appear
unlikely that nuclear propelled ships operating under normal com-
mercial terms will appear in the short to medium term mainly because
of their high capital cost and the current comparatively low cost of
fossil fuels.
NUMAST NUMAST is a UK trade union and professional organ-
isation representing the interests of nearly 18,000masters, officers and
cadets employed in the British Merchant Navy. NUMAST is rep-
resented at numerous bodies relating to the activities of masters and
deck officers and their involvement particularly with respect to safety
issues. These include such organisations as the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO), Department of Transport (DOT) and the Mer-
chant Navy Training Board (MNTB), to name but a few. NUMAST
is committed to the furtherance and enhancement of its members'
professional interests.
Ocean leveller This is a proprietary ride-control system designed
for high speed ships, especially those carrying passengers. The system
consists of fin-shaped stabilisers fitted at the bow section oHhe ship
and flaps located at the stern. The movement of the fins and flaps is
controlled by computer and as well as increasing passenger comfort
Ocean leveller

allows the ship's service speed to be maintained in more severe

weather conditions.
Ocean swell powered renewable energy (OSPREY) OSPREYis the
world's first commercial shoreline based seawater activated electrical
power generator, using what are referred to as renewable energy
techniques as opposed to non-renewable energy techniques by the
combustion of fossil fuels or the fission of radioactive material. In the
OSPREYsystem a steel canopy anchored to the seabed allows waves
to rise and fall within the chamber of the canopy, and in so doing
forces air through a turbine, thus producing 2,000 kilowatts of elec-
trical energy in the original version.
Officer of the watch (OOW) The OOW is the bridge watchkeeping
officer in charge of navigation. The function of the OOW has drastically
changed over recent years due mainly to the introduction of soph-
isticated navigational techniques. The first departure from the use of
so-called conventional navigational techniques was when radar was
introduced five decades or so ago. This was followed by the intro-
duction of autopilots, and more recently ARPA (automatic radar plot-
ting aids), then terrestrial and celestial navigational positioning
devices and finally electronic chart display information systems
(ECDIS).The cumulative effect of all these costly devices being intro-
duced has led to a concentrated effort to allow the OOW to be the sole
occupant of the bridge under all weather conditions, but this has not
found favour with many traditional seafaring nations.
Offshore tidal information systems (OTIS) OTIS is available as a
software system used to predict tidal variations and currents on an
accurate basis. The system has been developed primarily to serve the
North West European sea shelf and the many offshore activities being
carried out in this area. The information provided by the OTIS system
includes such detailed items as vector tidal maps, trajectory mapping
and tide tables, as well as seismic analysis, all with a high resolution
capability. It is expected that the OTIS system will be expanded to
serve other suitable areas for example the Arabian Gulf and Med-
iterranean Sea.
Oil Companies' International Marine Forum (OCIMF) OCIMF is
an organisation representing over 30 major oil companies and similar
interests which has worldwide coverage among its members. OCIMF
is represented on most of the committees relating to the safety and
pollution aspects of oil tanker operations, for example those of the
International Maritime Organisation (IMO). OCIMF in its own right
Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA90)

also publishes numerous authoritative documents on a variety of

subjects, including for example drug and alcohol policy, ship inspec-
tion procedures by prospective charterers (SIRE),prevention of over
and under pressure in cargo tanks, and many other publications all
aimed at eliminating unsafe practices in the tanker industry.
Oil discharge monitoring and control equipment system measure-
ment (ODMC) ODMC equipment must be provided on all tankers
of 10,000 GT and over, its purpose being to limit the instantaneous
rate of discharged oil under regulation 9 of the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention. The
original regulation 9 limited the rate of oil allowed to be discharged
to 60 litres per nautical mile with an oil content limit of the effluent
set at 100 parts per million. More recently the rate of oil now allowed
to be discharged has been reduced to 30 litres per nautical mile and
the oil content of the effluent now set at 15 parts per million. New
tankers already have to comply with these latest limits and existing
tankers have to comply by 1998.
Oil-like substances Oil-like substances are in general terms those
which are carried under the regulations contained in the International
Maritime Organisation (IMO) Annex II of the Marine Pollution
(MARPOL) Convention, as opposed to Annex I of this Convention.
They are also subject to regulations in either the Bulk Chemical Code
(BCH) or the International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC).Certain oil-like
substances have to be carried in tanks provided with mechanical
refrigeration systems, for example liquid petroleum gas (LPG)tankers,
if they have a Reid vapour pressure (which see) which is above the
atmospheric pressure. Examples of oil-like substances are pentane,
pentine and naphtha.
Oil mist detectors An oil mist detector is recommended to be fitted
to the crankcase of a main propulsion diesel engine. A typical oil mist
detector consists of a continuously rotating device which takes mist
samples from all the compartments from the crankcase. When the oil
mist concentration is between 2 and 5 per cent of the least amount
needed for ignition an alarm is initiated. Prior to the use of oil mist
detectors many diesel engines suffered from crankcase explosions
usually as a result of a hot bearing generating an explosive mixture,
and the use of oil mist detectors has largely been responsible for a
reduced number of such incidents.
Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA90) OPA90 is a set of regulations which
were formulated as a direct result of the Exxon Valdez incident which
Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA90)

occurred off the Alaskan coast in March 1989 and led to massive
oil pollution. The main effect of OPA90 was the introduction of a
requirement that any new oil tankers intending to trade to the United
States must have double hulls and the imposition of a time limit for
single hull tankers which wish to trade there. Another requirement
included in OPA90 is that all ships must have a vessel response plan
(VRP). Other OPA90 requirements concern financial liability and the
engagement of an approved oil spill removal organisation (OSRO)
while trading in US waters.
Oil Pollution Preparedness Response and Co-operation Treaty
(OPRC) The OPRC treaty was established by the International Mari-
time Organisation (IMO) following an international conference held
in November 1990. Its main purpose was to make signatories of the
Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention aware of their need to estab-
lish means for speedy and effective measures which have to be taken
after a major oil spill has occurred. International co-operation and
mutual assistance by member states are priority functions of OPRC
which are now in force. It was decided that shipboard oil spill removal
equipment was not to be insisted upon, and the main duty of ships'
staff was to alert the appropriate authorities immediately a danger of
oil pollution was recognised. Under the OPRC treaty every oil tanker
of 150 GT and over and every other ship of 400 GT and over must be
in possession of an Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (OPEP).
Oil record book Under regulation 20 of the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) as included in Annex I of the Marine Pollution
(MARPOL) Convention every tanker of 150 GT and over and every
other ship of 400 GT and over must be in possession of an oil record
book. The form that this document must take is set out in the MARPOL
Convention and it must be completed whenever any operations likely
to involve accidental discharge of oil into the sea are carried out. These
include cargo, ballast and tank cleaning operations aboard oil tankers
and bilge pumping operations aboard all ships to which regulation 20
applies. The oil record book must be kept in a safe place and be
available for inspection by the relevant authorities at all times.
Oil Spill Response Ltd (OSRL) OSRL is a non-profit-making organ-
isation located in the United Kingdom which operates the Oil Spill
Service Centre (OSSC) also located in the United Kingdom. OSSC has
a large stockpile of the latest oil spill clean up equipment and a team
of experts available on a 24-hour basis with worldwide coverage
offered. It is registered with the US based Oil Spill Removal Associ-
Open registers

ation (OSRA) which delegates the classification of all such contractors

into five levels depending on their level of oil spill capability and the
response time needed for activation. OSRL is only one of many such
organisations which came into being soon after the Exxon Valdez inci-
Oily water separators (OWS) Oily water separators are required
to be provided aboard all ships under the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention and all
ships must possess an international oil pollution prevention certificate
(IOPPC). (See Bilge water separators.)
Omnithruster The omnithruster is a novel arrangement designed
by a United States company incorporating a waterjet similar in oper-
ation to a tunnel housed bow or stem thruster but with the important
difference that it has a 360 degree steerability facility and has a nozzle
positioned flush with the bottom of the hull. Designed primarily as a
multi-directional docking device, the omnithruster has also been used
in a recent application as a so-called "get-you-home" propulsion
syst~m in the event of a main propulsion system breakdown.
Ondeck cell guides· Ondeck cell guides are a fairly recent innovation
used on container ships to replace the portable above deck lashing
systems comprising wires, rods, stacking cones and twistlocks pre-
viously used. Cell guides are a permanent facility and are more or less
an extension of the below deck cell guides as used on all conventional
container ships. Ondeck cell guides are invariably used in conjunction
with the coverless container ship (which see).
On/off surveys Onloff hire surveys are held aboard a ship prior to
its being chartered and then being redelivered to its owners. They are
held basically to record the physical condition of mainly the cargo
spaces, so that any damage incurred during the period of the charter
can be attributed to the charterer or his appointed stevedore. Fair wear
and tear is always excluded and only damage due to cargo operations
usually accepted. During these surveys it is normal practice to measure
the fuel quantities held aboard and compare these with submitted
returns which can involve sums of money being credited or debited
for any shortages or excesses found.
Open registers Open registers, by which is meant a ship flying the
flag of a country to which the shipowner does not belong, have been
in existence for hundreds of years. In recent times one of the first open
registers was that of Panama which, due to its links with the United
Open registers

States was popular with US shipowners. Liberia was another country

with strong US links and it also became popular with US shipowners.
Even more recently Cyprus, Vanuatu and the Bahamas have become
popular with a mix of shipowners using their registers. (See also Flag
of convenience.)
Open water stem This is a fairly recent development in ship design
and was introduced to enhance hydrodynamic performance. In this
arrangement the lower end of the stem frame terminates at a position
forward of the propeller and the rudder is of the semi-balanced type
without support from the stem frame or rudder post. The propeller is
therefore free to rotate without any interference from a stern frame or
rudder post which is not required in this design.
Operational differential subsidy (ODS) ODS is a US government
initiative used to secUre higher freight rates for US flag ships when
they are employed carrying cargoes from US ports. The aim of ODS is
to encourage US shipowners to retain registry in the United States so
that in the event of an emergency the ships can be commandeered by
the authorities for military style operations.
Opposed piston diesel engine Arguably the most famous exponent
of the opposed piston diesel· engine was the Doxford, built in large
numbers until its demise in the 1970s. The English Electric Deltic diesel
engine also operated on the opposed piston principle in which there
are no cylinder covers and the combustion gases act directly on both
pistons working in a common cylinder. The Doxford engine was very
popular with tramp ship operators and the Deltic was favoured by
those shipowners seeking a high power to weight ratio. The Fullagar
diesel engine was another example which operated on the opposed
piston principle, but it was not nearly as popular as the Doxford and
even less well known than the Deltic.
Ore bulk oil (OBO) The OBO carrier was one of the first of the so-
called breed of combination carriers pioneered by Erling Naess, the
Norwegian shipowner, four or so decades ago. The OBO carrier in
mid ship section is similar to a conventional single deck bulk carrier,
but of course it has the necessary pipework to load and discharge an
oil cargo and it also has an inert gas plant and is provided with slop
tanks. The loss rate of OBO carriers is somewhat higher than that of
bulk carriers or tankers, and there is a marked reluctance of some
charterers to employ these vessels in the oil trade. The principle behind
the deveiopment of the combination carrier was to avoid non-revenue-
earning ballast voyages by utilising both their liquid and dry bulk
Overfill devices

facilities. The main objection to the OBO and other combination car-
riers is seen by many as the labour intensive cleaning activity when
changing from dry to liquid cargoes and vice versa.

Ore/oil carriers The ore/oil carrier is also designated as a com-

bination carrier but has a somewhat different configuration from that
of the ore bulk oil (OBO) carrier. In cross-section the ore/oil carrier
has two longitudinal bulkheads usually inclined towards the ship's
centreline at their lower ends and is provided with a double bottom
under the centre holds which are designed to carry a full cargo of ore.
When employed in the oil trades the cargo is loaded in both the centre
holds and the wing tanks. Unlike the OBO carrier the ore/ oil carrier is
not suited for the carriage of grain or coal, especially if grab discharge
methods are likely because the hatch covers generally only serve the
centre cargo holds/ oil tanks.

Organisation' for Economic Co-operation and Development

(OECD) OECD is an international organisation whose aim is to
promote economic and social welfare throughout the OECD area
which covers many parts of the world, for example much of Europe,
North America, Australia and Japan. OECD has a Marine Transport
Committee which is involved in the establishment of a common policy
to prevent unfair competition, for example by flag discrimination.
OECD also takes an interest in shipbuilding activities and its object is
to remove national financing terms which result in unfair competition
among its member states.

Otto Hahn The Otto Hahn, a nuclear propelled merchant ship named
in honour of the German physicist, was built at Kiel, Germany, in the
mid 1960s. Like the Savannah, the Otto Hahn did not prove to be
commercially sound or set a trend nor did it advance the prospects of
nuclear propulsion for merchant ships, and very little research is
currently being undertaken in this field.

Overfill devices Overfill devices are required to be fitted on the cargo

tanks of chemical tankers when they are carrying certain dangerous
chemicals as specified in the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) International Bulk Chemical Code (lBe). More recently the
United States Coast Guard (USCG) has extended this requirement to
oil tankers which must be provided with an overfill device if trading
to the United States. New oil tankers built since 1995 must already
comply with this requirement and existing ships have until their first
survey of drydocking after 1995.
Overflow pipes

Overflow pipes All fuel oil tanks which can be pumped up must be
provided with an overflow pipe led to a separate overflow tank or to
a storage tank with a permanently reserved space capable of accepting
an overflow. The overflow pipe must be provided with a sight glass
or overflow alarm to indicate that the tank is overflowing. The over-
flow tank must also be provided with a high level alarm so that it is
nowadays unlikely that a serious overflow will occur when oil tanks
are being pumped up.
Ozone depletive substances Ozone depletive substances are alleg-
edly responsible for the thinning of the ozone level in the stratosphere
above Antarctica. The main source of the ozone depletion is due
mainly to the release of chlorine, both natural and man-made, into the
atmosphere where it eventually will find its way into the stratosphere.
In marine applications this chlorine is present in refrigerants of the
freon type and fire extinguishing mediums such as halon. Under
the terms of the Montreal Protocol (which see) all ozone depletive
substances will eventually be banned. See also CFCs and Halon.
Paint Paint systems used in marine applications have improved
considerably in recent years and have also become less labour inten-
sive both to apply and to maintain. Most shipyards shot blast and
apply a coat of holding primer to all steel when it is delivered from
the steelworks. This primer protects the steel during its sometimes
lengthy storage periods prior to fabrication. Zinc or zinc silicate is
becoming popular as a primer but health standards generally limit
the zinc content. Ballast tank paint systems perform an extremely
important duty and high build tat free epoxy paint having a light
colour to help locate any breakdown is currently popular. Underwater
paint systems suffered a blow when Tributyltin (TBT)was banned for
ecological reasons and the search for an alternative anti-fouling paint
continues. Each part of a ship has its own particular paint requirements
and the number of available formulations can easily cater for their
Panamax A ship is referred to as being of Panamax size when its
limiting dimensions permit it to pass through the Panama canal. It is
usually based on the beam restriction of closely 32.2 metres although
other restrictions regarding -length and draught also apply but are
only infrequently mentioned. Panamax bulk carriers are in the 65,000
tonnes deadweight region and Panamax container ships have twenty
feet equivalent (TEU) capacities of around 3,500.
Panting Panting is the action of a ship's side shell fore end and bow

plating when it moves in an in and out motion generally as a result of

fluctuating water pressure acting on the hull by wave action. The
forward end of a ship's structure has to be compensated for this
panting action. This usually takes the form of so-called panting strin-
gers attached to the side shell plating and connected to transverse
panting beams with suitable brackets. The thickness of the side shell
plating can be increased as an alternative to the panting structure in
suitable cases.
Paraffin based crude oil Paraffin based crude oils are one of the
three main classifications of crude oils, the others being naphthene
and aromatic. Paraffin based crudes contain a high proportion of the
so-called lighter ends, such as petroleum gas, naphtha and gas oil.
They also contain a fairly high proportion of wax and are usually
associated with high pour point fuels (which see). When paraffin based
crudes are used in the manufacture of lubricating oil it is important
that if used in low temperature applications the floc point (which see)
is suitably low.
Paris Memorandum The Paris Memorandum is the usual form of
abbreviation for the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on port
state control (PSC). This system relates to the inspection by port state
administration surveyors of ships not registered in the port state but
which are visiting their ports. (See Memorandum of Understanding.)
Particular average The basic cover offered by a standard hull and
machinery insurance policy is related to physical damage caused to a
ship by an insured peril, generally known as the Inchmaree clause. This
refers to a particular average and includes damage caused by one of
the following:
Accidents in loading, discharging or shifting cargo;
Explosions of boilers, breakage of shafts or any latent defect in
the hull or machinery;
Negligence of masters, officers, crew or pilots;
Negligence of repairers.
It does not cover any loss or damage resulting from the want of
diligence by the assured ie the owners or managers.
Passageways These are enclosures provided on certain types of ship
to facilitate the passage of crew members from the aft accommodation
block to the forecastle area. Ships ideally suited for such an arrange-
ment are container ships (which see) and fully open bulkers, (which see).
In these ships the passageway is incorporated into the ship's structure

at the side shell with the upper deck forming the deckhead and the
cargo hold the inboard bulkhead. Passageways can also be used to
locate various essential services for example the firemain, electric
cables and hydraulic pipes to keep these from the exposed upper deck.
Passenger details Mainly as a result of confusion following several
serious accidents to ro-ro passenger ferries it will shortly become a
requirement under Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) regulations for all
such vessels to record the total number and details of all passengers
prior to the ship's departure. These details will include the names and
genders of all passengers and classify them into adult, child or infant,
and state whether they suffer from any disability. These details will
be recorded onboard and also be held ashore and used in any search
and rescue operation. If this requirement is deemed to be impractical
by the flag state administration due to the exigencies of the service
then it may be waived.
Passenger ships So-called passenger ships are now enjoying a new
lease of life in the guise of cruise liners which cater for the seemingly
unending demand in this sector of the recreation industry. The tra-
ditional passenger ship carrying customers from port A to port B is
now almost exclusively dominated by the short sea ro-ro passenger
car ferry operating in such areas as the English Channel, the long
distance passenger having departed to the airlines many years ago.
Most passenger ships now operate in the cruise sector carrying pass-
engers from port A back to port A after calling at selected ports in a
carefully arranged itinerary.
Pentane insolubles Pentane is a solvent derived from the distillation
of light petroleum products and it is used for testing lubricating oil
taken from a diesel engine's system. In this so-called pentane insoluble
test a sample of used lubricating oil is washed under laboratory con-
ditions in pentane which dissolves most of the solid matter. The
amount of solid matter a detergency lubricating oil can tolerate is a
measure of its suitability for continued use, and the pentane insoluble
test gives such an indication.
Permeability Permeability is defined as the ratio of the volume of a
space aboard ship that could be occupied by water compared with the
total volume of that space. The permeability of spaces is an important
factor when calculating the damage stability and sub-division of each
ship type. In the case of cargo spaces the permeability depends on
whether or not the cargo is in liquid form or, if it is dry cargo, then its
density. The permeability of machinery spaces is generally assumed
Ph value

to be 0.85 when carrying out damage stability calculations.

Petcoke Petroleum coke, or petcoke as it is usually referred to, is a
bottom of the barrel by-product from the refining of crude oil now
produced by many modern refineries. Petcoke has many industrial
applications, for example in steel making and in the manufacture of
many carbon and graphite products ranging in use from pencils to
nuclear reactors. Petcoke is also carried aboard ships in dry bulk
form and the cargo holds of those vessels used require a considerable
amount of cleaning before such cargoes as grain are carried.
Petroleum The origins of petroleum are thought to be a result of the
decomposition of organic matter originating in the primeval forests of
prehistoric times. Crude petroleum is found in many parts of the
world, both under land and more recently under the sea. The essential
ingredients needed to convert organic matter into petroleum are
known to concern heat, pressure and time, all of which were involved
in the decomposition process. All petroleum has a similar chemical
composition namely 83-87 per cent carbon and 11-14 per cent hydro-
gen with small amounts of other elements, for example sulphur,
oxygen and nitrogen.
Petroleum Industry Response Organisation (PIRO) The Petroleum
Industry Response Organisation is responsible for overseeing all the
many oil spill response organisations that have evolved following the
introduction of the Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA90). It was created by
the US petroleum industry in response to many criticisms over its
lengthy response to previous oil spills, the notable example being the
Exxon Valdez in March 1989 which occurred 22 miles off the Alaskan
Phoenix World City The Phoenix World City is a long standing project
aimed at creating a 6,000plus passenger-cruise liner of around 250,000
gross tonnage (GT). It was originally proposed by Mr Knut Kloster's
World City Corporation in the early 1980s and it has been trying to
attract financial institutional backing since then. The technical speci-
fications of this mammoth are quite impressive and include an
installed gas turbine capacity of around 115,000Kilowatts, giving the
ship a service speed of 21 knots with dimensions given as 387m LOA,
77M Beam and a draught of 10M. The cost of the Phoenix World City is
believed to be in the region of $1 Billion and it would probably be
built in any country offering finance.
Ph value The Ph value is a measurement system used to indicate the
Ph value

alkalinity or acidity usually of a liquid, for example boiler water or

bilge water in the case of marine applications. The neutral value on
the Ph scale is 7, ~nd below this number the liquid is deemed to be
acidic, and above this number alkaline. Various means are available
to determine the Ph value of a liquid, for example Litmus paper which
changes colour depending on the acidity or alkalinity of the liquid
under test, which is then compared with a chart supplied with the kit.
Highly acidic liquids give rise to serious corrosion problems and
highly alkaline liquids give rise to a phenomenon called caustic
embrittlement (which see).
Pielstick Pielstick diesel engines were designed by Societe d'Etudes
de Machines Thermiques (which see), allegedly based on an engine
used in German submarines, and they are manufactured by many
licensees throughout the world. In 1988 SEMT was acquired by
MAN/B&W and Daimler Benz and research is mainly conducted at
MAN/B&W's centre at Augsburg in Germany. Pielstick engines are
of medium and high speed designs operating on the four-stroke (cycle)
principle. The engines are best known for their medium speed pro-
pulsion engines widely used in passenger ships, and their largest
current model is the PC 4.2 570which has a maximum output of 25,200
KW (33,800BHP).
Pilot ladders These are the means used by pilots to board and leave
ship and are affixed to the side of the ship at a suitable location, usually
that presenting a direct vertical drop without overhang. In stormy
conditions many pilots have been injured while attempting to board
or leave ship and the arrangement and design of pilot ladders is now
under the control of Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) regulations. The
original pilot ladder, or Jacob's ladder as it was called, consisted of
rope sides and wooden steps and is still used, but only for short
vertical distances. Nowadays mechanical pilot hoists are frequently
used and helicopters are also becoming more widely used by pilots in
an attempt to reduce the number of accidents while boarding and
leaving a ship.
Pinch point This is a thermodynamic parameter which in marine
technology is usually applied when determining the efficiency of an
exhaust gas boiler. The pinch point is defined as the lowest tem-
perature difference between the exhaust gas outlet from the boiler and
the temperature of the steam at its operating pressure. It could be said
that the lower the pinch point the larger the heating surface and the
higher the efficiency of the boiler. However, a low pinch point has

been associated with a somewhat higher incidence of soot fires (which


Pipe expansion arrangements Due to temperature variations and

the flexing action of a ship it is important to provide arrangements for
the expansion and movement of pipes on board ship. Sliding or sleeve-
type couplings incorporating a gland packed with appropriate
material compatible with the system are commonly used. For high
temperature duty, for example exhaust gas systems, stainless steel
bellows type expansion pieces are often used. If space is available
an expansion loop or bend can be formed in the pipe as a cheap
Pirate spare parts Pirate spare parts are those which are obtained
from an unauthorised source, usually at a fraction of the price quoted
by official sources. Many manufacturers of marine equipment market
spare parts relating to their equipment at a cost well above that at
which they manufacture them. The reason for this is probably tied up
with their marketing strategy, but it does give other manufacturers
without high overhead costs and having access to the official drawings
to produce and sell these parts at well below the original manu-
facturer's price. Purchasers of such pirate parts should be made aware
of the possible consequences if they fail in service and cause damage
or injury.
Piston speed Piston speed is an important parameter when con-
sidering the design aspects of marine diesel engines. It is generally
accepted that there is an upper limit at which the relative mean speed
between the piston rings and the surface of the cylinder liner (piston
speed) can safely operate. Above this empirical limit it would appear
likely that adequate lubrication at the piston ring interface would
prove to be difficult and scuffing of the liner and piston rings a distinct
possibility. Engine designers currently appear reluctant to exceed a
mean piston speed of 8.5 metres per second.
Pitting Pitting often occurs on the horizontal surfaces of steel struc-
tures located in such vulnerable spaces as ballast and cargo oil tanks
and is mainly caused by acidic deposits lying on these surfaces. Pitting
is a highly localised form of corrosion, as opposed to general corrosion
which takes the form of rusting and wastage. Lloyd's Register of
Shipping (LRS) uses several means of determining the effect that
pitting has on the strength of steel structures especially if occurring
on plating. If the depth and total area of pitting exceeds approximately
1.5per cent of the panel area then the affected plate must be dealt with

either by renewal of the plate or by conventional welding techniques.

Alternatively the pits may be filled with an approved plastic com-
pound if they are a.djudged to be of insufficient depth.

Planimeter A planimeter is an instrument used to measure areas

having an irregular boundary which cannot easily be measured by
conventional means. It consists of two metal bars connected to each
other by means of a hinge. A free end of one of these bars is anchored
outside the area to be measured. The other free end has a tracing point
which is carefully moved around the boundary of the shape to be
measured, preferably three times or so to obtain a more accurate
average result. The movement is recorded on a graduated roller and
dial and the results converted to give the area of the shape. In marine
applications the planimeter is used to calculate the area of a
pressure/volume diagram taken from an indicator connected to a
diesel engine's cylinders and from which the indicated horsepower
(which see) is derived.

Planned maintenance Planned maintenance first became popular

three decades or so ago, and it then owed its popularity to the shift
from a memory based to systematic approach. Memory based main-
tenance was satisfactory when ship's staff were more or less captive
to a certain ship or at least to a ship type and the maintenance needs
well known to all onboard. Nowadays many planned maintenance
schemes are computer based and need only a few seconds to tell ships'
personnel about the current situation of the ship's maintenance needs
enabling them to be rather easily planned. Running hour meters
attached to auxiliary machinery whose operating periods may be
difficult otherwise to determine are an extremely useful tool enabling
previously used elapsed time based intervals to be converted to a
more satisfactory running time interval.

Plastic pipes Plastic piping made from an approved material is

increasingly being used in shipboard applications. Plastic, unlike steel,
is sensitive to heat and fire damage and most classification societies
and many national authorities place restrictions on the use of plastic
piping. In pipe systems not regulated by classification or national
authority regulations, for example domestic water, plastic is now
invariably used by most shipbuilders. A recent trend is to use plastic
piping in ballast systems where its non-corrodable properties and
lightness make it an ideal substitute for the previously used steel. As
its potential is increasingly being recognised the use of plastic piping

will grow increasingly notwithstanding its poor fire retardant proper-

Plate coolers Plate coolers are a novel type of heat exchanger intro-
duced several years ago to replace conventional shell and tube heat
exchangers then the vogue. They consist of a nest of corrugated plates
firmly bolted together and provided with internal ports and channels
to allow both the system being cooled and the cooling medium to pass
through and achieve maximum heat transfer levels. They have several
alleged advantages over shell and tube coolers in that they are made
of corrosion resistant materials, they are rather easy to clean and have
low fouling tendencies.
Platformer The platformer is an important part of an oil refinery's
complex equipment in the many processes involved in converting
crude oil to its numerous products and components. The platformer
was first introduced in the late 1940s and is part of a so-called reform-
ing process in which platinum is employed as a catalyst, hence its
name. The platformer is mainly used to produce motor and aviation
spirits, also aromatic hydrocarbons for the petrochemical industry.
Plimsoll mark The Plimsoll mark is named after the British politician
who was a strong supporter of ship safety measures in a period during
the mid-19th century when the loss rate of ships through overloading
was extremely high. The Plimsoll mark is cut into the port and star-
board side shell plating amidships and it indicates the draught to
which the ship can be loaded under various geographical and weather
conditions. These range from Winter North Atlantic (WNA) cor-
responding to the lightest draught to Tropical Fresh (TF) the deepest
draught. The classification society which assigned the freeboard is
indicated within the Plimsoll markings by incorporating its initial
letters into the symbol at the summer freeboard mark.
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) PCB is a chemical, or noxious
liquid substance (NLS), which represents a serious environmental
hazard mainly on account of its persistence when introduced into the
marine environment. All signatories to the Marine Pollution
(MARPOL) Convention prohibit the bulk carriage of PCB. The dis-
posal of PCB is also prohibited aboard incineration ships by all con-
tracting parties to the MARPOL Convention.
Polymerise When a chemical substance is said to polymerise it
means that its molecules have joined together to form somewhat
larger molecules, and if the polymerisation process is not stopped

the product will become progressively more viscous and eventually

solidify. Polymerisation of certain hydrocarbon products is a problem
which must be catered for, especially when they are being carried
aboard chemical tankers in bulk. Polymerisation can be precipitated
by heat, light or by contamination with such matter as rust. Products
carried aboard chemical tankers which are candidates for poly-
merisation include acrylic acid, acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate, and
it is usual to add an inhibitor to such cargoes in order to prevent
Pond coal Pond coal appeared on the market several decades ago
and had its origins in stocks of coal which had been stored in ponds
after it had been mined or excavated. It was stored in this manner to
prevent deterioration and spontaneous heating which would have
occurred had it been left in the open air, and this practice also helped
stabilise costs in periods of low demand. When shipped aboard bulk
carriers pond coal was allegedly the cause of several incidents which
involved spontaneous heating and was also the cause of steelwork
corrosion within the hold spaces. It would appear that leaving the coal
submerged under water for long periods had precipitated both of
these problems.
Poop The poop of a ship is the aftermost part of the upper deck
which in former times was raised above the main deck to afford
protection against a following sea from breaking over the stern in
what is referred to as "pooping". The majority of cargo-carrying ships
are now built as flush deckers whereby a single upper deck extends
from the forecastle to the stern. The term poop is still frequently used
in marine circles to describe the aftermost part of the upper deck.
Portainer These are the large cranes located at container terminals
throughout the world used to load and unload containers from ships
berthed at the terminal. They are quite massive structures and can
handle both twenty-foot (TEU) and forty-foot (FEU) containers by
means of an adjustable spreader (which see). Their performance is
usually judged by the number of containers they can handle per hour,
itself dependent on the size of the electric motors used to drive the
crane movements. The advent of the post Panamax container ship has
resulted in even more massive portainers being built having greater
outreach and height to cater for the increased dimensions of these
Port state control (PSC) Port state control is related to the action of
surveyors employed by their national administrations when they
Post Panamax

board ships of other national administrations which are visiting their

ports usually for cargo handling operations. The operation is con-
trolled by the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on port state
control under what is usually referred to as the Paris Memorandum.
The surveyors boarding the ships inspect all certificates with respect
to validation and also examine the life saving appliances (LSA).More
recently the surveyors have extended the scope of their inspections
under PSC to include the efficiency of ships' staff to perform vital
safety operations, for example lifeboat and fire fighting drills.
Port State Information Exchange (PSIX) This is a United States
Coast Guard (USCG) database which records safety and operational
deficiencies found aboard ships visiting US ports. The United States
is currently not a member of the three main Memorandum of Under-
standing (MOU) regions operating port state control (PSC) activities.
These are the European, Latin-American and Pacific/Australasia
regions, but the United States does co-operate with these regions
through the PSIXsystem and also allows on-line access to its database
to authorised parties.
Posidonia Posidonia is one of the largest shipping exhibitions in the
world, and it is held at Piraeus, Greece, usually in early June every
two years. It is organised by the Greek Ministry of Mercantile Marine
and attracts thousands of visitors with well over 1,500 exhibitors
attending to demonstrate their wares in the many exhibition halls
available. All sections of the shipping industry attend Posidonia from
equipment manufacturers to the many service industries ranging from
broking to finance. Concurrently with the Posidonia exhibition several
conferences are held on topical items of interest to the marine com-
Post Panamax Post Panamax sized ships are those whose beam
exceeds that of the Panama canal limits with respect to its width
restriction. This is closely 32.2 metres or 105 feet and ships with beams
above these figures are referred to as being post Panamax. The term is
usually reserved for container ships and it would be most unusual for
other ships, with the possible exception of cruise liners, to use the
phrase. Post Panamax sized container ships are becoming increasingly
popular and range in size from 4,000 to 6,000 TEUs (twenty-foot
equivalent units). Even larger post Panamax container ships are on
the horizon, and it would appear that the outreach of existing container
cranes represents the major obstacle to further increases in size,
assuming the depth of water at the berth is adequate.

Pounding Pounding is the action of a ship in heavy seas when the

forward end rises above the water and then slams (or pounds) back
onto the surface of the water. In order to resist damage from pounding
the forward end of the bottom structure is strengthened as prescribed
in classification rules. In the case of Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS)
the additional bottom strengthening applies to ships of over 65 metres
in length and extends from the forward perpendicular (FP)back to 0.3
length. The slamming pressure is expressed as the equivalent head of
water from which the increased plate thicknesses and scantlings of
other components may be derived. Ships in the ballast or part loaded
condition having a forward draught of less than 0.045 length must
have the forward ballast tanks filled to reduce the risk of pounding
Pour point The pour point of a fuel oil or lubricating oil is defined
as 5 degrees Fahrenheit above the temperature at which a sample fails
to flow under prescribed laboratory controlled conditions. In general
terms fuels having a high pour point usually have a high wax crystal
content which form when the temperature is lowered towards that of
the pour point. There are so-called pour point depressants on the
market which have the ability to chlorinate the wax crystals and
effectively lower the pour point.
Power Power is a measure of work done and in marine applications
is used to determine the output of propulsion and auxiliary engines.
The UK version of power, as expressed by horsepower, is equivalent
to 550 foot pounds per second. The metric version of horsepower is
equal to 75 kilogram metres per second, which is equivalent to about
542 foot pounds per second or 1.5 per cent less work done than the
UK version. Horsepower is not a Systeme International (SI) unit and
work done is expressed as Kilowatts under the SI system. The Kilowatt
is equal to around 102 kilogram metres per second or 1.36 metric
horsepower and the trend is to express the power of all engines in
Power take in (PTI) Is a method of supplementing the output,
usually of a diesel propulsion engine, by the addition of power from
another source. One of the most common methods of PTI is by means
of what is called a power turbine (which see) in which surplus energy
in a diesel engine's exhaust gases is converted into mechanical energy
and fed back into the propulsion engine's crankshaft by a system of
gears. In the case of large powered diesel propulsion engines it is
possible not only to have a power turbine but in addition a steam
Power turbine

turbine driven alternator powered by steam provided from an exhaust

gas boiler, the output of which can also be fed back into the propulsion
engine. Using such methods the thermal efficiency of the whole plant
can be nearly 55 per cent, but it must be said that these schemes are
only popular when fuel costs are high.

Power takeoff (PTO) Power take offs are usually provided on pro-
pulsion diesel engines as a means of supplying auxiliary power,
usually but not always as a source of electricity. A typical PTO will
consist of an alternator driven by gearing from the main propulsion
engine crankshaft or in some cases from the intermediate shafting.
There are certain advantages in using a PTO, the first being a reduction
in maintenance costs for the diesel generators which are only
infrequently used, for example when in port. The second advantage
is that auxiliary power is obtained using poor quality fuel as used by
the main engine. The down side is that the speed of the ship is reduced
in proportion to the power absorbed by the PTO.

Power to weight ratio This relates to the propulsion machinery of a

ship, and in recent years it has received a remarkable increase when
expressed as brake horsepower (BHP) per tonne weight. The first
significant increase was when fabricated steel replaced cast iron for
such major engine components as the bed plate and frame box,
especially on slow speed two-stroke (cycle) engines. More recently
mean effective pressures have increased, which has a significant effect
on the power to weight ratio, and in the case of a modern two-stroke
diesel engine is in the region of 40 BHP per tonne weight. The really
high power to weight ratios are reserved for gas turbines and high
speed diesel engines as now used in the emergent breed of High Sea-
service Speed ships which are wholly dependent on such weight-
limiting factors.

Power turbine A power turbine is simply an additional exhaust gas

turbocharger attached to the diesel propulsion engine which, instead
of supplying combustion air to the propulsion engine, is used to
produce mechanical energy. Power turbines became popular when
the efficiency of exhaust gas turbochargers improved considerably,
which led to a reduced demand for exhaust gas and enabled the
surplus energy contained in the unwanted exhaust gas to be diverted
elsewhere. This could be accomplished either by providing less power-
ful exhaust gas turbochargers or by a power turbine. If the power
turbine option was chosen its output could either be fed back into the
Power turbine

propulsion engine (see PTI) or for providing electrical energy in what

is called a turbo compound system (which see).
Preference trip This is an arrangement whereby non-essential items
of equipment are electrically tripped to avoid an alternator from being
overloaded. The items delegated as being non-essential are grouped
together, and when the total electrical load approaches a pre-deter-
mined level they are electrically disconnected from the switchboard
by means of the preference trip. The main purpose of the preference
trip is to avoid a complete loss of electrical power for one reason or
Preparedness for response exercise program (PREP) PREP is a
United States Coast Guard (USCG) initiative to meet the intent of the
Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA90) with respect to being prepared for
major maritime incidents. Under OPA90 requirements shipowners
and operators of tankers entering US waters have to carry out emerg-
ency drills and exercises at regular intervals. The PREP computer
program was developed by the USCG in co-operation with the US
Department of the Interior and the Environmental Protection Agency
(which see). The program can simulate damage to various parts of a
tanker, for example a tank explosion or grounding damage and it gives
advice on action to be taken.
Prescriptive design The design of ships' structures has for many
years followed what is referred to as prescriptive design of an empiri-
cal nature which is not supported by such techniques as fatigue or load
and resistance design calculations. Prescriptive classification society
rules however have the advantage that they are supported by many
years' experience augmented by feedback from service results by field
surveyors. The recent introduction of optimised design criteria and
the use of high tensile steel have led to the need for what are called
direct calculations, and with it such methods as load and resistance
design concept (LRED) and fatigue design assessment (FDA), both of
which see.
Pressure ratio The pressure ratio in this instance refers to a measure
of the performance of an exhaust gas turbocharger. It is the ratio of the
air inlet to the discharge pressure and is closely aligned to turbocharger
efficiency. A modern exhaust gas turbocharger will have a pressure
ratio in the region of 5 and an efficiency of around 68 per cent. These
rather impressive figures are partially responsible for the increase in
the thermal efficiency of propulsion diesel engines of the slow speed
two-stroke type nowadays exceeding 50 per cent.
Propeller law

Product oil bulk ore carrier (PROBO) The PROBO combination

carrier was arguably the ultimate in a design of ship offering a full
portfolio of cargoes covering most of those carried in both the tra-
ditional dry bulk and liquid bulk trades. The operational and con-
structional aspects associated with the PROBO carrier proved to be
largely insurmountable, and as far as it is known none have survived
in their original role, but several were converted to perform a more
restrictive operation with respect to the cargoes carried.
Propellers The Archimedian screw propeller consisting of 4, 5 or 6
blades has seen many design changes since it was first introduced
around 150 years ago as a form of ship propulsion, when it replaced
the previously used paddle wheel. One of the main changes over this
period concerned the material used in propeller manufacture, and this
has progressed from cast iron to exotic nickel aluminium bronze alloys
enabling much higher blade loads to be employed. The conventional
propeller is still the preferred means of propulsion for the majority of
vessels with moderate speeds. Modifications to the basic design
include such features as high skew, contracted and loaded tip and
controllable pitch. Ships with high service speeds tend to use either
waterjets or supercavitating propellers (all of which see).
Propeller clearance The clearance between a ship's propeller blades
and the hull must be kept at a safe distance if propeller induced
vibrations transmitted to the hull are to be avoided. Propeller excited
vibrations are one of the most frequent sources of complaint aboard
ship, and little can be done if these are brought about by having
insufficient clearance between propeller blades and the ship's struc-
ture. Recommended clearances are published in classification soc-
ieties' rules and ship designers should also take into account the
importance of having a smooth water flow into the propeller disc and
any possibility of cavitational problems.
Propeller law This is a well known law relating the power require-
ments of a ship to its speed, and it is also known as the cube law. In
effect this means that power is proportional to the speed cubed or,
expressed in another way, a doubling of ship's speed would require
an eightfold increase in power although this is barely applicable, as to
double a ship's speed would require a fundamental change in both
the design and lines of a ship. For relatively small speed variations
the propeller law is reasonably accurate, and because modern diesel
engines have rather flat specific consumption curves it is nowadays
assumed that fuel consumption is proportional to speed cubed.
Propeller polishing

Propeller polishing Propeller blade polishing operations first

became popular when fuel costs started to increase in the 1970s,which
drew shipowners' attention to the importance of maximising pro-
pulsive efficiency. Surface finish identity gauges were introduced to
compare the roughness of the blades. Underwater propeller blade
polishing operations by divers were also introduced, and these were
claimed to be more effective than those carried out in drydock, in
that a smoother finish was obtained. Although claims of increased
propulsive performance were made by using underwater polishing
operations they were not supported, and nowadays the operation is
usually carried out concurrently with the routine drydocking.
Protection and Indemnity (P&I) Clubs They are mutual associ-
ations formed by shipowners to provide protection against financial
loss by one owner by the combined contributions of other owners in
the association. P&I clubs cover third party claims not covered by the
shipowners' hull and machinery policies (which see). A typical example
would be that of a ship making contact with and damaging a quayside
structure or facility. Any damage to the hull of the ship would be
covered by the hull and machinery policy, but the damage to the quay
would be for the P&I club.
Protectively located tanks (PLT) Protectively located ballast tanks
are an International Maritime Organisation (IMO) measure under the
Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention to reduce the amount of oil
pollution in the event of a tanker suffering side damage. When a
tanker has a PLT notation the ballast tanks adjacent to the side shell
form an effective barrier of around 30 per cent of the total side shell
area. PLT falls short of the double hull requirements of the US Oil
Pollution Act 1990(OPA90),and many shipowners build their tankers
to the more stringent OPA90pollution containment regulations which
effectively give 100per cent side damage protection.
Public address systems The International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) has recently introduced a new regulation into the Safety of
Life at Sea (SOLAS)Convention which requires all new ships to be
provided with a public address system, a system of loudspeakers
located throughout a ship. All crew and passenger spaces have to be
provided with means of accepting emergency broadcast messages
made from the navigating bridge or other approved position. The
messages must be audible above any ambient noise levels and must
also override other broadcasts being made. Existing ships must
comply with these requirements by their first periodical survey after

July 1997unless their existing systems substantially comply.

Pumproom The pumproom in this instance refers to the com-
partment on an oil tanker in which are located the cargo oil pumps
and also the ballast and stripping pumps. Because of the volatility of
the cargoes being handled and the confined nature of this com-
partment there are many dangers present. Accumulation of oil or gas
from a leaking pump gland or pipe joint and a hot bearing or gland
are typical examples of these dangers. The space has to be provided
with many safety features to avoid such incidents leading to a serious
Pump types There are various types of pump used aboard ship,
and probably the one utilised in the majority of applications is the
centrifugal pump used mainly for seawater and fresh water duties.
Centrifugal pumps are of simple construction consisting only of an
impeller within a housing, using the centrifugal force generated by
the rotating impeller to create a pressure difference across the pump,
thereby inducing water flow in the system. Gear and screw pumps are
generally used in fuel and lubricating oil services and work on the
positive displacement principle, and unlike the centrifugal pump they
are inherently self-priming.
Pure car carriers (PCC) The pure car carrier is a comparatively recent
development in ship design and was developed with the express
purpose of moving new cars from factory to sales outlets as quickly
as possible. Cars are driven on and off and turnaround times are
therefore rather short. Modern PCCs can carry about 6,000 units, and
they are easily identified by their high sided profile. Some PCCs have
both fixed and hoistable car decks to give full flexibility over a range
of potential vehicles. The car decks are divided into gastight divisions
and high capacity vent fans are provided to remove car exhaust fumes
quickly while loading and discharging.
Purifiers Purifiers are centrifugal machines which rapidly remove
.heavy particulate matter from liquids passed through, as well as sepa-
rating heavier liquids by the action of the extremely high gravitational
forces generated. In marine applications they are used to remove
unwelcome particulate matter as well as water from fuel and
lubricating oils. Modern purifiers are of the self-cleaning type
which perform the cleaning operation with the machine still running
and avoids the previously used method of dismantling and cleaning
the machines by hand, a time consuming and most unhygienic

Pyrotechnics Emergency distress signalling devices are those using

such appliances as rockets, flares and very lights. They are useful in
search and rescue operations and have an important part to play when,
for example, a ship has lost all power sources. They are also useful
when a ship has been abandoned and the crew has taken· to the
lifeboats. Emergency position indicating beacons (which see) have more
or less made the use of pyrotechnics less useful but they are still carried
aboard ship and also form part of the lifeboat equipment.
Quality assurance (QA) Quality assurance is a system usually
applied by a manufacturer which is designed to give comfort to cus-
tomers that his product has been manufactured under recognised
procedures using approved materials and is in conformity with the
International Standards Organisation (ISO) 9000/1/2 schemes as
appropriate. Many shipyards, enginebuilders and equipment sup-
pliers are approved to the ISO 9000 series of standards which ensures
that the quality of the delivered article is of an acceptable standard.
Some of the requirements of a QA system would include the provision
of a quality manual, identification of responsible personnel, docu-
mentation control, conformity with applicable regulations and many
other items.
Quality management system (QMS) A quality management system
is a scheme introduced to ensure tb.at the management structure'of a
company complies with the ISO 9000 series. Levels of responsibility,
control of all documentation, qualifications of personnel, reporting
procedures and all the other numerous activities which take place
within the organisation are all established and included in the QMS
scheme. The forthcoming introduction of the International Safety Man-
agement (ISM) Code by the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) is similar in content to a QMS system, and some shipowners
have adopted QMS as a precursor to compliance with the ISM Code,
Quality standards (QS) Yet another aspect of the current move
towards quality enhancement. There are numerous standards organ-
isations existing throughout the world, and each major manufacturing
nation and major industry has its own standards, for example the
British Standards Institute (BS1),American Standards of Testing and
Materials (ASTM)and the International Standards Organisation (ISO).
The aim of all these organisations is to ensure that the customer
receives a product of acceptable quality and is in compliance with the
relevant regulations.
Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) QRA is a system used in those

industries which have a high level of risk involving safety and accident
exposure to equipment and personnel. The QRA system involves
closely examining every operation which takes place and determining
the degree of risk by assessing all eventualities ranging from system
or equipment failure to human error. The QRA system has not yet
been extended into the shipping sector, but the introduction of formal
safety assessment (which see) could possibly serve as a basis sometime
in the future.
Quantity audit In the marine industry a quantity audit scheme has
been used to determine the amount of fuel oil delivered to a ship as
bunkers and then comparing the result with the supplier's delivery
or receipt note. It involves engaging a surveyor carefully to check the
bunker tank soundings before and after the fuel has been delivered.
Bunkers are sold by weight, but tank soundings give only volumetric
readings and it is necessary to convert volume to weight. This requires
an accurate hydrometer and thermometer, and armed with these the
surveyor can make the necessary calculations and then make a com-
parison with the supplier's figures.
Queen Elizabeth II (QE2) QE2 is the prestigious UK passenger ship
built in 1969originally with steam turbine propulsion but subsequently
converted to diesel electric propulsion in a $100 million refit which took
place in a German shipyard, arguably the most expensive refit on a
commercial ship ever. QE2 often hits the headlines for all the wrong
reasons, and in one particular incident her owners were sued for
around $7 million after an alleged incomplete refit spoilt their trip.
More recently QE2 struck an alleged uncharted object off the US coast
causing considerable damage to the bottom shell, and her insurers are
suing the hydrographic department involved for the repair of the
Racking Racking is the term used to describe the transverse dis-
tortion a ship's structure suffers when rolling in a heavy seaway. The
usually rectangular midship section of the ship then has a tendency
to assume a parallelogram shape which is restrained by ensuring that
the transverse structural strength is adequate. Structural damage due
to racking, usually referred to as racking damage, affects those parts
of the structure provided to enhance transverse strength and this
would manifest itself in buckled or crimped transverse bulkheads as
a typical example.
Radar Radar is an acronym for radio direction and range and it was
first satisfactorily developed during the Second World War (1939-

1945)when the magnetron was invented by UK based scientists. Radar

works by sending out radio wave pulses and then recording their
echoes from solid objects when they are reflected back and graphically
presented onto a cathode ray tube (CRT). From its original design
radar has progressed from relative and true motion versions to
automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA). More recently radar has been
integrated into electronic charts in what is called an electronic
chart display information system (ECDIS) which gives a high
resolution perspective of a ship's position with respect to the imme-
diate area.
Radio communications Marine radio communications were first
introduced in the early part of this century, and Marconi played an
important part in the development. Morse Code was then the com-
munication method employed, and shore based radio stations at
Portishead and Rugby catered mainly for marine traffic.The methods
used barely changed until satellite communication appeared on the
scene in the 1970s and the role of the dedicated radio operator pre-
viously carried aboard all ships, expert in the use of Morse Code, was
gradually eroded away as the signal quality improved. This allowed
voice and digitised computer transmission techniques to be employed,
and a modern cargo ship will nowadays not carry a radio operator,
although cruise liners with their extremely high message traffic still
employ radio operators.
Radio direction finder (RDF) RDFis a device fitted to ships to enable
them to fix their position in relation to shore based beacons. It is
independent of modern satellite or terrestrial navigational systems
such as GPS and Decca (both of which see). The RDF consists of a
mechanically tuned loop which homes into the radio beacons and
enables the operator to fix the ship's position. The RDF is nowadays
considered to be an emergency back up to the many other navigational
fixing devices on the market.
Raft inspections Inspections by means of inflatable rafts are prob-
ably still the most convenient and cost effective means of examining
the upper regions of the cargo and ballast tank spaces aboard large
single hull tankers as required under what are called close-up surveys
(which see). They are accomplished by simply pumping up the cargo
or ballast tank with ballast water, thereby allowing the classification
surveyor situated in the raft to inspect the condition of the steel struc-
ture or coating from close-up range. Great care must be taken to
avoid the raft occupants from being isolated between deep structural

members and walkie talkie radios are usually provided to avoid any
such problem arising. The ballast tanks of modem double hull tankers
are usually provided with fixed platforms so that surveyors can
examine the upper regions without recourse to a raft.
Raking Raking is the term used to describe the bottom damage
suffered by a ship when it strikes an underwater object such as a
submerged rock at speed. Raking damage can cause severe stability
problems because the sub-division is comprised by flooding between
two or more watertight compartments. It is this type of damage that
allegedly caused the Titanic to sink after it struck an iceberg in 1912.
Modem ships have to survive bottom raking damage of around 60
per cent of their length between perpendiculars (LBP)depending on
ship type.
Range The range of a ship is usually based on its bunker capacity
and is expressed as being so many miles. For ships having critical
cargo deadweight capacities it is usual to limit their range so that the
maximum weight of cargo can be carried. In the case of large sized
bulkers and tankers the cargo deadweight is not so important when
compared with the bunker capacity, and these vessels tend to have
ranges in the region of 20,000miles. Smaller vessels with cargo dead-
weight limitations tend to have a range much less than this, but the
availability of bunkering ports and fuel cost differentials must always
receive due consideration when considering bunker capacity.
Rapid evacuation system (RES) The rapid evacuation system con-
sists of an inflatable tubular chute, which can be provided with flame
retardant cover, into which those persons being evacuated from the
emergency stations aboard ship can descend onto an inflatable plat-
form. The inflatable liferafts associated with the RES system can be
positioned alongside the platform enabling the occupants to board
easily. The system is aimed for use primarily with passenger ships and
is considered to be faster than conventional davit launched lifeboats
and they are eminently suited for use on High Sea-service Speed (HSS)
ships where weight is a problem.
Reagglomeration Reagglomeration is the ability of a residual type
of fuel oil to reform into a sludge after it had previously been treated
by purification or even pulverisation techniques. Reagglomeration is
a time based process, and providing the fuel is used immediately after
first being treated then no problems should occur. It is only when the
treated fuel oil is stored for a period that reagglomeration can occur.
A test method referred to as the total sediment-aged test has been

introduced to determine whether a fuel oil is likely to reagglomerate

or not during storage onboard .
Reasonable weather The interpretation of what can be referred to
as reasonable weather has been defined by various organisations. In
the case of ship charterers the general feeling is that up to and includ-
ing force 5 on the Beaufort scale is the normally accepted link above
which the weather might then be called unreasonable. The tendency
nowadays is to include a specific Beaufort number as an additional
clause in the charterparty. Weather plays an important function when
calculating performance claims and it is for this reason that it is
included in the charterparty.
Reception facilities Under the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention all signatories to this
Convention must provide reception facilities. These take various
forms, for example under Annex I of the Convention facilities for
receiving dirty ballast water, oily slops and sludge should be provided
at ports where these facilities are needed. Under Annex II of the
Convention reception facilities for chemical wastes should be pro-
vided and under Annex IV facilities for ship's garbage should be
provided ashore. In practice these facilities are not always adequate
and shipowners often face problems in obtaining reception facilities
so as not to infringe MARPOL regulations.
Recreational Craft Directive (RCD) This is a recently introduced
European Community (EC) directive which applies to all recreational
craft having hull lengths of between 2.5 and 24 metres intended to be
used for sport or leisure purposes. Part of RCD relates to safety issues
and it is a requirement that an approved notified body such as a
classification society gives prior approval of production quality and
also the many safety issues involved in the construction and equip-
ment relating to these craft.
Redundancy The term redundancy in this instance refers to the
duplication of various machinery and systems forming part of a ship's
main and auxiliary propulsion machinery. In the case of a conventional
tanker or bulker the single main engine represents a zero redundancy
factor which is generally considered satisfactory on this type of vessel.
It should be mentioned that the main engines on these vessels can be
operated with one or more cylinder units out of action which could
be considered a form of redundancy. On passenger and cruise liners
the modem tendency is to have a high redundancy factor, those with
the lowest redundancy are usually twin engine twin screw ships and
Refrigerated containers

those with high redundancy multi-engine units with two or more

electric propulsion motors driving the propellers.
Reforming Reforming is part of an oil refinery's process in which
products from the catalytic cracker are reformed using somewhat less
aggressive pressures and temperatures than those employed in the cat
cracker. The reforming process enables more useful refined products
to be obtained from the barrel. As in the case of the cracking process
a catalyst, usually platinum, improves the efficiency of the reforming
process and such equipment is then called a platformer (which see).
Refrigerants Marine refrigerants have been in use for over 100 years
and one of the first to be used was ammonia. Ammonia fell out of
favour mainly as a result of the distressing effect it had on personnel
who inhaled its vapours or had skin contact with it. Carbon dioxide
(C02) was another refrigerant used in the early days but its high
operating pressure led to difficulties in maintaining the system gas-
tight. The freon group of refrigerants entered into the marine industry
around 50 years ago and these are identified as R12 and R22. Under
the terms of the Montreal Protocol (which see) R12 is not permitted to
be used and R22 has only a limited future. Replacement refrigerants
are now entering the market and even ammonia is making a comeback.
Refrigerated cargo ships (reefers) These are the specialised cargo
ships used to carry perishable foodstuffs between the producing coun-
tries and the consumer outlets. The first such ship was thought to be
the Frigorifique built around 1887 which was quickly followed by the
Strathleven and Dunedin several years later. These early ships were
only designed to carry meat, but a modern day reefer will be able to
carry a whole range of frozen and chilled products from meat to exotic
fruits. Cargo temperatures are automatically controlled and these
ships usually have speeds in excess of 20 knots with a cargo capacity
of around 650,000 cubic feet. The choice of the refrigerant used in the
refrigerating machinery aboard these ships is now somewhat restric-
ted due to concern over the ozone layer. (See also Refrigerants and
Ozone depletive substances.)
Refrigerated containers There are two basic types of refrigerated
container carried aboard container ships. The first is the self-contained
unit which plugs into the ship's electricity supply and also has con-
nections for temperature monitoring and alarm equipment. It usually
has its own diesel engine used to drive the refrigerating unit during
its road or rail journey to the ship. The second type of refrigerated
container uses a centralised system of cooled air supplied to the con-
Refrigerated containers

tainer via a system of ducts passing through the container hold spaces
with suitable connections arranged for each container.

Refrigerated storerooms All ships are provided with refrigerated

storerooms usually comprising separate compartments or chambers
for meat, fish, deep freeze and a handling room for miscellaneous
usage. The refrigerating machinery is usually located in the engine-
room and temperature control and defrost operations are fully auto-
matic. Most of the existing refrigerants used in these systems have
been banned under the terms of the Montreal Protocol (which see), and
shipowners are faced with the cost of converting the plants to use
more ozone friendly refrigerants under an agreed timetable.

Register of Ships The Register of Ships is a rather voluminous set

of three registers published annually by Lloyd's Register of Shipping
(LRS)and sent to all those who subscribe. It lists all ships registered in
alphabetical order and gives many details relating to a ship's registry,
dimensions, tonnage and machinery, as well as the owners and classi-
fication society. Ten supplements are published annually which list
the numerous change of ownership and ship's name during the period.
Around 80,000ships are listed and the International Maritime Organ-
isation uses the official number allocated to each ship in the Register
of Ships as an identification number. (See Ship identification number.)

Registry The choice of a ship's registry as determined by the flag

state is nowadays a very important commercial decision for those
shipowners who have no compelling need to adopt any particular
country of registry. Open registers are the obvious choice for the
majority of those shipowners who only see the bottom line of a balance
sheet. Other shipowners prefer partially to support their country of
origin by appointing senior officers from that country, and this may
restrict their choice of registry. The impending introduction of the
International Maritime Organisation (lMO) International Safety Man-
agement (ISM) Code will possible restrict choice of registry in that
qualified personnel may not be available.

Registro Italiano Navale (RINA) RINA is one of the members of the

International Association of Classification Societies (lACS) formed to
rationalise rules and regulations with respect to important basic safety
standards relating to ships' structures. Most, if not all, Italian registered
ships are classed with RINA and a considerable proportion of them
have dual classification with another society, perhaps due to RINA's
limited worldwide representation.

Regulatory Negotiating Committee (REG NEG) The so called REG

NEG (regulatory negotiating) committee was set up by the United
States Coast Guard (USCG)in order to clarify the many issues involved
in the introduction of the Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA90). All the
numerous parties having an interest in OPA90 were invited to take
part in the discussions which involved defining the exact meaning of
the terms used and then translating them into actual regulations which
would eventually be included in the final version of OPA90.
Reheating In this context reheating is a method used to enhance .the
thermal efficiency of a steam turbine. It is similar in principle to the
superheater (which see), in that the heat present in the boiler flue gas is
used to elevate the steam temperature. The reheater section is usually
arranged between the high pressure (HP) turbine and intermediate
pressure (IP) turbines, and steam exiting from the HP turbine is led
into the boiler reheater section consisting of banks of tubes where its
temperature is increased, and it is then returned to the IP turbine. The
provision of a reheater can increase the thermal efficiency of a steam
turbine plant by approximately 2 per cent.
Reid vapour pressure Reid vapour pressure is that which is exerted
from oils at a given temperature when enclosed in an airtight container.
The American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) has stan-
dardised the method to be used in determining the Reid vapour
pressure which is published as ASTM 323.23. The Reid vapour pres-
sure is an indication of the ability of volatile petroleum products to
vaporise at certain temperatures, and it is extremely useful to know
what this temperature is when such products are carried aboard
chemical tankers, so that vapour locks are avoided when they are
being handled onboard.
Relief valves Relief (or safety) valves are used to prevent a build up
of pressure in various systems aboard ship, and they are usually spring
loaded to keep the valve closed when normal pressures are in the
system. They have a facility for being adjusted to lift at the designed
pressure to avoid a dangerous situation developing. One of their most
important applications is on the drums and superheaters of steam
boilers. Relief valves are also provided on various other systems,
for example compressed air, fuel oil bunkering and diesel engine
crankcases and any other system in which over pressure could result
in a serious accident occurring.
Reliquefaction When liquid petroleum gas (LPG) is carried aboard
gas tankers a small amount of cargo is vaporised by heat leaking

through the tank insulation from the atmosphere. It is not allowed to

use this so-called boil off gas as fuel for the main engines or boilers,
and the provision of a reliquefaction plant is therefore necessary. This
is essentially a refrigeration plant, in duplicate, which receives boil off
gas from the cargo tanks, cools it to below its liquid temperature and
then returns it to the cargo tanks in what is a continuous process.
Reliquefaction is not normally practised aboard liquid natural gas
(LNG) tankers as it is more convenient to use the boil off gas as fuel
for the main boilers.
Rescue boats A fast rescue boat is required to be provided on all ro-
ro passenger ferries under forthcoming regulations to be introduced
into the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention. The rescue boat has
to be provided with an approved launching davit and the ship's crew
qualified in the manning and operation of the boat. Provision has to
be made rapidly to recover passengers or personnel in the water or
from the means of survival in use should this be necessary. Rescue
boats are already required on cargo ships, tankers and other ships
under existing SOLAS regulations in order to retrieve personnel from
the water and to tow a liferaft with all personnel aboard at a speed of
about two knots.
Residual fuel oil Residual fuel oil is another term for heavy viscosity
fuel oil and is so named because it is the residue from the refinery
after all the lighter ends have been removed by the primary and
secondary refining processes. The quality of residual fuel oil has
deteriorated in recent years mainly because more lighter ends have
been removed by the introduction of more vigorous refining tech-
niques. The density of residual fuel oil has increased from around
0.96 to its current level of 0.991 as prescribed in the latest fuel oil
Residual stress Residual stress usually arises when a welded joint
is not executed in satisfactory manner. The plastic deformation
throughout the cross-section of the weld then becomes non-uniform
leading to locked up internal stresses. One part of the material will
have a residual tensile stress and another part a residual compressive
stress. Residual stress can be induced as a consequence of the heating
and cooling process during the welding operation and can be present
even though the joint is not being subjected to any external force. The
situation can be aggravated when external forces are present, and this
could lead to fatigue fractures being developed in extreme cases.
Resilient mounts Resilient mounts are mainly used to absorb exci-
Reverse osmosis

tational forces emanating from reciprocating or rotating machinery

when in operation aboard ship. They are never used on direct drive
slow speed propulsion engines and their. use is mainly confined to
medium and high speed diesel engines. Resilient mounts are usually
located between the bed plate and engine seating and are typically of
coiled spring or oil resistant rubber material which permits a restrictive
movement of the engine but at the same time minimises the exci-
tational forces. They are also used on reciprocating air compressors
and have even been used to isolate accommodation blocks from main
hull excitational forces to satisfy strict regulations asked for by certain
authorities, notably German.
Resonance Resonance occurs when the excitational forces usually
emanating from a reciprocating or rotating machine match the natural
frequency of the adjacent structure to which it is mechanically con-
nected and usually results in a high level of vibration. If the machine
is dynamically balanced then no problems should arise, but it is rather
difficult to balance such items as propellers, diesel engines and other
rotating machines. In order to reduce the possibility of resonance
occurring various counter-measures can be employed which include
such items as bracings between the engine and hull, second order
moment compensators attached to the engine and ensuring sufficient
clearance exists between hull and propeller.
Responsible Organisation for Protection of the Marine Environment
(ROPME) ROPME is an organisation comprising the eight Gulf
states bordering the Arabian Gulf which are committed to the pro-
tection of the environment in the surrounding sea. ROPME was
actively involved in removing the navigational hazards occasioned by
the inter-country conflicts in this sensitive area. These hazards
included sunken ships, minefields and other debris arising from the
consequences of these conflicts, most of which have now been located
and removed.
Reverse osmosis Osmosis is a phenomenon in which liquids per-
colate through porous partitions due to natural forces. Reverse
osmosis, when used in marine applications, refers to a method of
converting seawater into fresh water. Instead of natural forces a high
pressure is introduced and the seawater then forced through a mem-
brane which removes the particulate matter and results in fresh water
of good quality as the end result. Reverse osmosis is an alternative
method of converting seawater to fresh water to that of evaporation,
the previous method used.
Reverse power trip

Reverse power trip When two electric alternators are connected in

parallel onto the main switchboard there is always the possibility that
one of them will suffer a mechanical breakdown. This situation can
result in the sound alternator attempting to drive the faulty machine
through their electrical connection on the switchboard. A reverse flow
of electrical energy would then occur, and to prevent this from hap-
pening a reverse power trip is installed which disconnects the faulty
machine from the electrical system and thus avoids any possibility of
damage to the healthy machine.
Rhumb line On a plane surface a rhumb line would be the shortest
distance between two points as represented by a straight line. In
marine navigation the curvature of the earth must be taken into
account, but it must be said that the shortest distance between two
points could still be considered to be a straight line for all practical
purposes. When long distances are being considered the shortest dis-
tance between two points is known as a great circle route, and this
method is employed particularly on North Atlantic and North Pacific
passages. It is not convenient for the ship's navigation equipment to
adhere to a great circle course and a number of rhumb line (straight
line) courses are made purely as a matter of convenience.
Rise of floor This is a term used to describe the distance the bottom
plating of a ship is increased in height from zero on the centre line to
that measured at the side shell. This distance is referred to as the rise
of floor, floors being the transverse structural members located within
the double-bottom tanks. The main purpose of the rise of floor is to
promote drainage from the extremities of the tank to the pump suc-
tions normally located near the centreline. Many ships are now built
without any or with very little rise of floor.
Risk analysis Is a system of analysing the various risks associated
with all types of operations ranging from the financial! commercial
to the purely technical. Such methods as fault trees, consequence
assessment, formal risk and failure analysis can all be included and a
mathematical model produced. If thought necessary human factor
behavioural patterns can also be included in what is becoming an
ever-expanding rather imaginative subject.
Roll on-roll off (ro-ro) ships One of the first examples of the ro-ro
ship was the landing tank craft (LTC) developed during the Second
World War (1939-1945). They have been considerably developed since
then and are now actively used on numerous short sea routes usually
in the capacity of passenger car ferries. Several tragedies have occurred
Rubbing band

on this type of vessel, for example Princess Victoria, Herald of Free

Enterprise and Estonia. There have been criticisms made over the design
of these vessels mainly on account of their poor stability in the event
of seawater entering the vehicle decks. In the case of the vessels
mentioned above, seawater entered the vehicle decks via the stem or
bow doors. Recent regulations by the International Maritime Organ-
isation (IMO) will ensure that the stability of these vessels will be
improved by the provision of transverse bulkheads on the car decks
and the door securing arrangements will also be improved.
Rotary vane steering gears Rotary vane steering gears are used as
an alternative to the previously archetypal ram type of steering gear.
Both the rotary vane and ram type are operated by hydraulic pressure
supplied by electrically driven hydraulic pump units. The rotary vane
unit is directly mounted onto the rudder stock and consists of a series
of hydraulic chambers in which the vanes rotate, and in so doing exert
a torque on the rudder stock thus turning the rudder. Hydraulic
pressure is induced to act on either side of the vanes, thus determining
the direction of rudder movement.
Rotating pistons Rotating pistons were developed by Sulzer Bro-
thers and used in certain of their medium speed four-stroke <Cycle)
diesel engines. The rotation of the piston is induced by means of a
spherical bearing located at the upper end of the connecting rod
coupled to an activating mechanism. Rotational speed is rather low at
around 10 revolutions per minute and advantages claimed by using
the system are improved gas tightness of the piston ring interface, less
danger from scuffing and more even thermal stress levels. Lubricating
oil consumption is also claimed to be lower and the wear pattern of
cylinder liners more uniform.
Royal Institution of Navar Architects (RINA) RINA is a UK based
professional body of naval architects founded in 1860 which is very
active in the promotion of ship design and safety. RINA has been
involved in many problem areas relating to safety, and in recent years
has concentrated its efforts on ro-ro safety. It publishes many learned
papers on various subjects relating to ship safety, also constructional
and design aspects of shipbuilding. It is also associated with other
learned societies and co-operates with them on important issues.
Rubbing band This is a band running around the hulls of those
ships engaged in frequent movements through locks, canals and other
such objects likely to cause damage to the hull if it comes into contact
with them. The rubbing band is usually made of convex steel bar
Rubbing band

welded to the hull at a height at which contact with the object is

anticipated. Internal stiffening is provided adjacent to the rubbing
band to spread the force of any impact. In some parts of the world
timber rubbing bands are popular.
Rudder angle indicator This is a device used to indicate the actual
position of the rudder to ship's personnel and pilots in the wheelhouse,
bridge wings and engine control room. The rudder angle indicator
consists of a transmitter connected to the rudder stock by a system of
levers or by means of a chain. The action of turning the rudder sends
a signal to the transmitter which is then sent to the indicators located
in the above positions.
Rudder carrier A rudder carrier is provided to support the weight
of the rudder and prevent this weight from being transmitted to the
steering gear. The rudder carrier is usually mounted on the steering
flat deck and incorporates a thrust bearing, rudder stock bearing and,
if appropriate, a gland to prevent seawater or dirt from entering the
bearing surfaces. It is usual to arrange for a lubricating system to be
provided for the rudder carrier, and this can either be independent or
mechanically driven by the steering gear.
Rudder propeller The rudder propeller is a device used to provide
a steerable propulsion and manreuvring system and its use obviates
the need for a conventional rudder or rudders, as the case may be. A
typical installation will comprise twin ducted propellers driven by
diesel engines mounted inside the ship's hull with transmission by
means of bevel gear drives. The propellers and associated ducts can
also be rotated about their axis to provide the required steering func-
tion. The system has extremely good manreuvrability and it is par-
ticularly useful on ships requiring this particular facility.
Rudder roll stabilisers Rudder roll stabilising systems are a fairly
recent novel idea which uses the controlled movements of the rudder
to reduce the rolling angle of ships when in a seaway. The system relies
on sophisticated automatic pilots to control the rudder movement and
requires the provision of increased capacity steering gears to cater
for the more frequent use expected of it when performing the joint
functions of steering and roll reduction. They are particularly suited
for use on small high speed ships and offer roll reductions of 50-75
per cent.
Rudders Various types of rudder are used in modem shipbuilding
practice and in general terms the area of a ship's rudder is usually
Running costs

calculated from the area of the ship in profile and varies between 1.5-
1.7 per cent of this figure. The ratio of depth to width of a rudder is
also an important indication of its effectiveness, and this is in the
region of 2 to 1. Most rudders are now of double plate construction
with internal webs and arms supporting the plating. The scantlings of
the various components supporting the rudder such as stocks, pintles
and coupling bolts are given in classification rules and are a function
of ship's speed, rudder area and the lateral forces. When operating in
ice conditions the thickness of the rudder plating and the scantlings
of the supporting components have to be increased and an ice knife
provided to protect the rudder while a ship is backing into ice.
Rulefinder Rulefinder is a CD (compact disc) ROM (read only
memory) computer system introduced by Lloyd's Register of Shipping
(LRS) and gives those who subscribe to the system and have the
necessary computer hardware easy access to all the numerous classi-
fication rules and regulations. Also included on the disc are the various
codes issued by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and
many other items of a technical nature of use to shipowners, ship-
builders and other interested parties. Other classification societies also
have similar computer systems for accessing their rules and regu-
Rules of the road These are the navigational rules covered in the
collision regulations (which see) and include around 30 internationally
agreed rules covering the conduct of ships in open sea and inshore
movements. The rules cover operations in good visibility, fog and in
the hours of darkness. They also cover sailing procedures for ships
approaching each other or in close proximity and define which ship
has the right of way in these situations. Display of lights and fog
signals is also included in these very comprehensive instructions.
Running costs Most shipowners or their managers analyse the
running costs of the ships under their control into various categories
and then express these in terms of daily rates, usually as so many US
dollars per day to match the currency of the charter rates. Manning
costs are usually the single highest cost factor if we exclude capital
finance and fuel costs, which are usually dealt with separately. Also
included are maintenance and repair, spare gear and supplies, lub-
ricating oil, insurance and miscellaneous items, for example agency
fees and radio traffic. Each owner I manager will have his own system
of breaking down these costs depending on his inhouse accounting
system but they all share the common object of controlling costs.

SAFEHULL 96 SAFEHULL 96 is an American Bureau af Shipping

(ABS) windaws based camputerised system aimed primarily at
increasing the safety perfarmance af ships' structures by using
dynamic based design and evaluatian techniques. The system is pre-
sently canfined to. cantainer ships, tankers and bulk carriers and it
embraces all canstructianal aspects af these ships fram a safety paint
af view. SAFEHULL 96 has basically been intraduced to. use dynamic
laads as the basis far ship design as an alternative to. the prescriptive
design (which see) techniques previausly used by ABS and seen by it
as having failed in preventing the high lass rate particularly af large
bulk carriers.
Safe manning levels Safe manning levels abaard ships were intra-
duced when the cambined effect af autamatian and cast cutting exer-
cises appeared to. have campromised safety, in that taa few crew
members wauld be available in the event af a serious emergency
developing aboard ship. In the case of UK registered ships it must
be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the administration that crew
members are capable of dealing with all anticipated emergencies. It
must be said that many ships, operating under ather registries with
traditional seafarers forming the majority of the crew members even
on high powered post Panamax container ships, can operate with only
a total complement of 13.
Safer Ships Cleaner Seas This is the title af the report issued by
Lord Donaldsan follawing the inquiry into the grounding of the ail
tanker Braer (which see) in January 1993off the Shetland Islands. Such
was the outcry following the amount of oil spilled as a result of this
accident that the UK government set up the so-called Donaldson
inquiry. Many recommendations contained in the subsequent Safer
Ships Cleaner Seas report have been introduced by the UK government,
for example the strategic stationing of tugs around the UK coast,
increased port state control (which see) inspections and the adoption
of recammended routings keeping clear of dangerous or environ-
mentally sensitive areas.
Safety committee All UK registered ships must appoint a safety
committee under the chairmanship of the ship's master. A safety
officer must also be appointed whose task it is to. repart and recard
all accidents in a record book. Dangerous accurrences must also be
reported to the safety committee and recommendations made to the
shipawner to prevent such occurrences from recurring. The subject is
covered by Statutory bistrument No 876 entitled "Safety Officials and
Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)

the Reporting of Accidents and Dangerous Occurrences". Many other

traditional seafaring nations also apply such procedures for the safety
of their seagoing staff on similar lines to those adopted by the United
Safety construction certificate The purpose of the safety con-
struction certificate is to indicate to those concerned that the ship has
been constructed in accordance with the published rules of the relevant
classification society and that applicable safety regulations contained
in the Safety of Life at Sea (SaLAS) Convention have also been applied
in the construction of the ship. The flag state has the responsibility for
SaLAS regulations, but in many cases this is delegated to an approved
cla,ssification society and it ensures that the ship has been constructed
in accordance with those safety features appropriate to the type of
ship not included in classification rules and regulations.
Safety equipment certificate All ships must be in possession of a
safety equipment certificate, which is usually issued with a five-year
validity period endorsed annually by means of a survey conducted
by a national administration surveyor or an appointed surveyor acting
on behalf of the relevant national administration. The safety equip-
ment certificate lists all the numerous items of safety equipment pro-
vided on board and any amendments or improvements carried out
must be approved by the national administration and the certificate
endorsed accordingly. During the annual survey all the safety equip-
ment is checked against the certificate and its condition verified. Spot
checks on the safety equipment under the Memorandum of Under-
standing (which see) are occasionally made by port state surveyors.
Safety factor Safety factors are always built into the design of any
engineering project involving the safety of operating personnel, and a
ship and its machinery are no exception. There are well known safety
factors used in the construction of boilers and other such pressure
vessels, and these factors are broadly similar in both the marine and
industrial sectors. Ships' structures, with the many complex dynamic
and static loads likely to be encountered in service, represent a chal-
lenge to the designers, and recognised methods of calculating the
relevant safety factor are not readily applicable mainly on account of
the environmental extremes met with in service (see also Factor of
Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) The very first international Safety of
Life at Sea (SaLAS) Convention entered into force in 1948 prior to the
establishment of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). Since
Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)

IMO came into being in 1958, the SOLAS Convention has been
developed and extended, and now covers all aspects of marine safety
and is constantly updated and amended to meet challenges arising
from serious marine accidents. The SOLAS Convention is the responsi-
bility of the Marine Safety Committee (which see) at IMO and there are
presently 11 sub-committees dealing with all the varied aspeCts of
marine safety. The stability of ships is one of the main concerns of
SOLAS and this is currently under review with respect to bulk carriers
and ro-ro ferries.

Sagging Sagging is a phenomenon caused when the distribution of

weights aboard a ship is such that the draught recorded amidships is
greater than that recorded at the stem and stem and the structure sags.
Sagging can be caused by the cargo loading pattern or when the ship
is in a seaway and the bow and stem sections are supported on
adjacent wave crests. The longitudinal strength of a ship's structure is
designed to withstand the stresses induced by sagging. Sagging is the
exact opposite of hogging (which see) whereby the draught amidships
is less than that recorded at the fore and aft ends.

Sailing ships Until the mid-19th century all ships were driven by
wind power captured by the use of sails, and it was only when first
steam, then diesel, power became popular that sailing ships dis-
appeared from the commercial scene. In recent years sail assisted ships
have reappeared, mainly as an energy conservation measure, but they
have not proved to be popular and only a handful were built. It would
appear unlikely that they would ever become a serious threat to a
modem diesel engine propelled ship even in a sail assist role. A small
number of sail rigged passenger ships were also built in recent years
which relied on sail power as their main propulsion needs but this
was only to capture the interest of those passengers with a romantic
view of this form of travel.

Salvage Association Is a London based organisation formed in 1856

to protect the joint interests of both shipowners and insurers of ships
and their cargoes placed on the London insurance market. A network
of around 30 offices throughout the world is manned by qualified
marine surveyors available to visit ships suffering damage resulting
from an insured peril. These surveyors have expert knowledge relating
to the extent and cost of repairs necessary to restore the damaged ship
to its original condition at minimum cost to shipowner and insurer.
Outside the ports having resident (staff) surveyors a network of

approved consultants is readily available, and on occasions surveyors

from classification societies are used as consultants.
Sankey diagram This is a useful method of illustrating the dis-
tribution of heat energy within a heat engine. The total heat energy
contained in the fuel is shown as 100 per cent by two vertical and
parallel lines at the upper part of the diagram. Heat carried away by
such systems as cooling water, lubricating oil, exhaust gas and by
radiation are indicated by individual-broad arrows whose width is
proportional to their heat content. The various arrows are led away
from the parallel part leaving the useful work done as the remainder
at the base of the diagram.
Satellite communications (SATCOM) SATCOM is nowadays the
recognised method of transmitting radio communications via satellite
from ships having this facility, which probably accounts for 99 per
cent of all ocei;lngoing ships. Conventional radio communications via
land stations were becoming very congested and it was therefore
physically impossible to extend the number of radio wavelengths
available. The introduction of SATCOM in the 1970s virtually elim-
inated this problem, and it is now the preferred method in use.
SATCOM is controlled by the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) through the International Maritime Satellite Organisation
(INMARSAT)convention which first entered into force in 1979.
Satellite navigation (SATNAV) SATNAV is the now standard
method of accurately determining a ship's position using the global
positioning system (which see). GPS is a US controlled system which
uses 12 orbiting satellites and it can offer worldwide cover over those
parts of the world used for seaborne trade. In the event of hostilities
breaking out involving the United States there is always the possibility
that the GPS satellites could be switched off, and for this reason most
ships are also provided with terrestrial navigation systems as well as
conventional sextant based navigational techniques.
Scanning electron microscope These are scientific instruments gen-
erally used in association with non-destructive test methods, and in the
case of maritime applications they are used for checking the physical or
chemical composition of materials against their original specification.
In the case of an investigation into a component failure the scanning
electron microscope can help identify the cause of the failure if for
example this is as a result of a metallurgical defect in the material.
Scantlings Used in this context, scantlings refer to the dimensions

of the numerous component parts that make up a ship's structure. It

is a measure of the strength of these components, and to increase the
scantlings is simply another way of expressing an increase in strength.
Classification rules relating to the constructional aspects of ships fre-
quently refer to the scantlings of various components, typically shell
frames and longitudinals used to support the side and bottom shell
Scavenge fires Scavenge belt fires are peculiar to slow speed two-
stroke (cycle) diesel engines of crosshead design and are usually attri-
buted to the passage of hot gases or sparks through the piston ring
pack into the scavenge space. To avoid scavenge fires it is essential
that the spaces are regularly cleaned of oil and sludge, thus depriving
any incandescent particles of a fuel source. Piston rings should be
changed before becoming excessively worn and cylinder liners having
excessive ovality or taper should also be changed to avoid the passage
of hot gases. If a fire occurs it is considered better to slow the engine
down although a steam smothering system, if provided, has also been
found to be effective.
Scraper boxes These are provided on all two-stroke (cycle) diesel
engines of the crosshead type. Scraper boxes form the seal between
the scavenge space and the crankcase and prevent acidic products
from entering the crankcase from the scavenge space. They consist of
scraper and gas tight rings in contact with the piston rod which, as
well as forming a seal, lead any oil leaking past the rings to a drain tank.
It is important that the oil collected in this tank is not reintroduced into
the lubricating oil system until it has been checked for acidity or for
the presence of particulate matter.
Scrapping policy In periods when the freight market is depressed
there are calls to scrap ships of vintage age in order to increase freight
rates for the remaining ships and to reduce their average age, therefore
eliminating older, more accident prone ships from the system. It can
be shown that statistically speaking the older the ship the more likely
it is to suffer a serious accident. The problem involved with the intro-
duction of a scrapping policy is that it is extremely unlikely that
wholehearted support from all sections of the shipping industry
would be forthcoming. Shipbuilders, as would be expected, are always
in favour of introducing a scrapping policy but shipowning organ-
isations tend not to support such schemes except in special cir'-
Screwshaft condition monitoring (SCM) SCM is an arrangement
Sea margin

introduced by Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS)whereby the with-

drawal of the propeller shaft from the stern tube for survey can be
deferred indefinitely, provided certain alternative arrangements are
carried out. SCM only applies to propeller shafts with approved
methods of attachment to the propeller, which usually means keyless
propellers (which see). Part of the SCM scheme includes the propeller
shaft lubricating oil system which must be periodically analysed, and
metallic particle counts carried out to ensure the shaft bearing material
is not breaking down. The SCM approach saves the shipowner the
considerable expense of withdrawing the propeller shaft for exam-
ination at the prescribed survey intervals.
Scuppers Scuppers are pipes and/ or valves provided on the decks
of ships to drain any free water which may have collected. Scuppers
located above the freeboard deck can have free access and be led
directly overboard and this usually applies to the upper decks. Scup-
pers located beneath the freeboard deck must be so arranged that
flooding between compartments or back from the sea cannot take
place, and this is usually accomplished by the provision of non-return
scupper valves sometimes referred to as storm valves. Scuppers
serving the vehicle decks of ro-ro ferries which are provided with a
water sprinkler fire extinguishing system can either be led to drain
tanks or led overboard via non-return valves and the size of these
scuppers has to be at least 150mm in diameter.
Sea chests Sea chests are provided on the outer shell of a ship to
form a convenient platform on which to mount the various valves
used for such duties as cooling water and ballast. The chests are
fabricated from heavy steel plates welded to the bottom plating. A
perforated grid is bolted to the entrance leading to the sea valve to
keep out unwelcome debris such as molluscs and weeds. A steam or
compressed air supply is connected to the sea chest for weed-clearing
purposes and the internal surfaces protected by a sophisticated paint
system supported by zinc anodes.
Sea margin This is a form of allowance relating to the propulsive
power required during acceptance sea trials of a new ship to obtain
its service speed compared with the power required to achieve this
speed actually in service. Because sea trials are conducted in sheltered
waters in good weather conditions and with the hull and machinery
in pristine condition it follows that the speed achieved during sea
trials will be somewhat greater than that achieved in service. The
additional power required to achieve the speed recorded during sea
Sea margin

triaLs to that when in service is in the order of 15 to 20 per cent, and

this is referred to as the sea margin.
Search and rescue (SAR) This is an International Maritime Organ-
isation (IMO) initiative intended to provide guidance to both ship-
masters and coastal states as to the action to be taken in the event of a
serious marine accident whereby passengers or crew require urgent
help. The SAR convention entered into force in 1985 but to date
member states representing only 51 per cent of the world's tonnage
have ratified the Convention. IMO has published manuals to assist
shipmasters, coastal states and rescue personnel by giving guidance
on action to be taken and how to organise SAR operations.
Sea trials Sea trials are carried out on newly constructed ships to
satisfy flag state, classification society and the shipowners' contractual
requirements and to ensure that these have been met. Flag state and
classification requirements concern mainly safety measures, for
example the anchoring, steering and stopping capabilities of the ship.
The shipowners' requirements usually concern mainly commercial
aspects such as speed and fuel consumption and the performance of
all the various equipment under seagoing conditions. (See also Accept-
ance sea trials.)
Seawater composition Seawater has an average density of around
1.025 kilograms per litre, and although salt (sodium chloride) is the
main chemical substance seawater also contains many other ingredi-
ents, for example magnesium chloride, magnesium sulphate, calcium
sulphate and calcium bicarbonate. Rare metals such as gold, silver
and uranium are also present in seawater although in extremely small
quantities by percentage. Plants to extract various substances from
seawater are always being investigated, but only those used to extract
sodium chloride, bromine and magnesium appear to be currently
attractive from a commercial point of view.
Second order moments These are forces emanating from the rotating
masses of a diesel engine when running at normal revolutions, and
they manifest themselves at twice engine speed, hence the expression
second order. Certain cylinder configurations are more likely to have
high second order moments and six cylinder engines are notorious
in this respect. Second order moments can be compensated for by
providing counter-balance weights on the camshaft or any shaft
running at twice engine speed and they are then referred to as moment
compensators. Independently electrically driven second order
moment compensators can also be provided if, for example, a main
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)

engine driven compensator would prove to be impractical due to

space limitations.
See bee The See bees were a class of ship especially designed to
carry barges which were floated on or off the ship by the simple
expedient of ballasting the ship down so that the barge deck was
flooded and the barges towed off or on as appropriate. See bees have
a limited commercial capability in a dedicated trade and broadly
follow the operating principle of the lighter aboard ship (which see)
except that loading/unloading- equipment is not required on the See
Segregated ballast tanks (SBT) One of the first major steps in pre-
venting oil pollution of the sea resulting from tanker operations was
the introduction of SBT by the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) under Annex I of the Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention.
An SBTtanker has separate ballast tanks which allow ballast and cargo
to be kept completely separate and avoids the alternate carriage of
cargo oil and ballast water in the cargo tanks of crude oil tankers. This
practice was previously employed for many years and resulted in
much oil pollution when tankers discharged their ballast water carried
in the cargo tanks previously filled with crude oiL Nowadays cargo
and ballast tanks are completely segregated, but there are still some
tankers built before 1982 which operate without SBTbut are allowed
to do so providing they are provided with crude oil washing (which
see) facilities.
Selandia Recognised by many as the first diesel propelled ocean
going cargo ship Selandia was built at the Burmeister and Wain ship-
yard in Copenhagen for the account of the East Asiatic Company, also
from Copenhagen. Built in 1912 her twin 8 cylinder main engines
only developed around 4,000 horsepower, which gave her a speed of
around 10 knots. Selandia had a distinctive appearance for a vessel of
that era in that it did not have a conventional funnel and the main
engine exhausts were simply led up the mast posts. This arrangement
was employed on many of the early diesel engined ships, but the idea
was not popular and shortly afterwards conventional albeit smaller
funnels than those used on steam ships were adopted.
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) SCR is a method used to reduce
harmful particles contained in the exhaust emissions of a ship's diesel
engine. Those emissions which are targeted by the SCR system are
nitrous (or nitrogen) oxide (NOx) (which see) and they can be sub-
stantially reduced when using a catalyst such as urea in the SCR unit.
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)

The SCR plant consists of a converter, storage tank containing urea

and a metering device for introducing the urea into the exhaust gas.
The SCR process is costly, time consuming and labour intensive, and
the need for such-equipment aboard ship is currently under review,
although the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is expected
to issue regulations covering allowable NOx levels in a new Annex to
the MARPOL Convention which will apply to all gaseous emissions
and will follow recommendations made in the Montreal Protocol
(which see) for other atmospheric pollutants.

Selective digital calling (SDC) SDC is a VHF radio communication

technique used to identify ships when they are in radio com-
munication with each other or when in traffic separation schemes.
One of the main aims of SDC is its use as an electronic identification
system in order positively to locate ships violating traffic separation
schemes or not following recommendations laid down in the Inter-
national Collision Regulations. SDC could then be used as evidence
in the event of a collision, or other such incident, and help identify
any culprit. It is also referred to as digital selective calling.

Self-closing cocks Sounding pipes in general terms must terminate

above the main, or freeboard deck, so that flooding via an open or
damaged pipe cannot occur. The exception to this is the so-called short
sounding pipes serving those tanks located in the machinery space,
for example double-bottom tanks. These must be provided with self-
closing parallel cocks with screwed caps at their upper ends, and in
addition other precautions must be taken. For example the sounding
pipes must be located away from places where spillage could create a
fire risk. It is also recommended that these cocks should be provided
with a foot-operated weighted mechanism to prevent those taking the
sounding from jamming the cock in the open position.

Self-discharging bulk carrier These rather specialised ships should

not be confused with the range of usually handy sized bulk carriers
equipped with a variety of above deck cargo handling systems ranging
in complexity from derricks to traversing gantry cranes collectively
known as geared bulkers. Self-discharging bulk carriers are usually
provided with below deck cargo handling equipment typically com-
prising a horizontal endless belt conveyor located at tank top level
which transfers the cargo to a vertical bucket or belt conveyor, and
thence by discharge chutes to the quayside stockpiles. Discharge rates
of around 6,000 tonnes per hour can be achieved, but unlike that of
Sensitivity calculations

the geared bulker the equipment is not suitable for loading bulk
Self-polishing copolymer (SPC) SPC is a specially formulated anti-
fouling paint system applied to the underwater surfaces of a ship's
hull in order to discourage the attachment of marine growth in the
form of weed or crustaceans. SPC has the property of being slowly
abraded away by the action of the ship passing through the seawater,
and this exposes fresh toxins dispersed throughout its formulation.
As well as its anti-fouling properties SPC also presents a progressively
smoother interface between the hull and seawater, and this allegedly
improves the hydrodynamic performance of a ship. Toxicity levels of
underwater paints are subject to control in many parts of the world
and they will shortly be controlled by the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO). (See also Ablative paint.)
Self-tensioning winches Self-tensioning winches are provided on
the upper deck of a ship and were primarily developed as a labour
saving device when such activities first became popular three decades
or so ago. They work by the provision of a limiting device which
maintains the tension in the mooring wire or rope at a preset level.
This then allows the wire or rope to heave or payout without the
intervention of a crew member previously needed, especially when a
ship was moored in a port or harbour with large tidal fluctuations. In
certain circumstances the provision of self-tensioning winches can
cause a ship to walk along the quay unless preventive measures are
taken in the form of additional back springs, for example.
Semi-planing monohull (SPMH) The SPMH is only one of several
of the emergent breed of High Sea-service Speed (HSS) ships now
entering service. The SPMH is apparently not as popular as the twin
hull designs, but it does have its supporters. At speed the hull partially
lifts out of the water, thereby reducing the wetted area and with it
the frictional resistance. This leads to an improved hydrodynamic
performance and therefore much less propulsive power is required
than that needed on an equivalent sized conventional ship with what
might be called full immersion of the hull.
Sensitivity calculations These are resorted to when it is necessary
to judge the merit of a financial outlay. The financial outlay could
either be a labour saving or energy conservation measure to quote two
typical examples of making financial savings over a period of time.
There are several means of assessing the merits of such a financial
outlay one being the net present value (which see) approach and
Sensitivity calculations

another being by the adoption of sensitivity calculations. In this

method the variable cost of fuel oil and the cost of hiring labour would
be used to show what effect any changes in these would have on the
capital outlay over an anticipated range of costs during the period.
Service restrictions Classification societies generally apply service
restrictions when ships are built with scantlings somewhat less than
those of a ship intended to operate on a worldwide unrestricted
service. Restrictions are applied to such ships when so built, for
example they usually can only operate in sheltered waters, proceed
only a limited distance from a shoreline or sail between specified ports.
Geographical areas where inclement weather is not normally a feature
can also be included in their area of operation and all the relevant
details included in the register book.
Sewage treatment The discharge of sewage into the sea from ships is
dealt with under Annex IV of the International Maritime Organisation
(lMO) Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention but this particular
Annex has not yet entered force. Most ships nowadays are provided
with a sewage treatment plant, as most of the authorities in the major
seaports prohibit the discharge of raw sewage into their waters. It is
of course possible to provide a holding tank for sewage and then
pump it overboard when the ship is in open waters, thus obviating
the need for a treatment plant. Sewage treatment plants come in
several forms, the most common being by biological action cultivating
aerobic bacteria to oxidise the solids. Other forms include
physical! chemical plants and those using electrolytic oxidisation.
Sextant The sextant is a navigational instrument which was first
introduced in the middle of the eighteenth century. Its purpose is to
measure the angles of various celestial bodies to that of the observer
and so fix a ship's position. It consists of a system of mirrors mounted
on an adjustable quadrant which allows the navigator to take a sight
of whatever heavenly body he has chosen. He can then determine its
angle of altitude and thence, by reference to nautical tables, the pos-
ition of the ship. The sextant is nowadays only used as a back up in
case the Global Positioning System (which see) or the other navigational
fixing devices are out of commission.
Shaft seals Shaft seals form a seal between a shaft and a pump casing
and in this instance refer to those used to replace conventional stuffing
boxes and gland packing previously used on all the various types of
pump in a typical machinery installation. The gland packing had a
limited, somewhat unpredictable, life and if not correctly adjusted
Shell expansion

could cause excessive wear or grooving to the pump shaft. Lip-type

shaft seals have a somewhat longer life in many instances and rarely
cause damage to the pump shaft. It is however important to carry
spare seals of each type fitted as it is not normally possible to effect a
temporary repair or adjustment to a leaking seal as it is with a gland.
Shaft tunnel A shaft tunnel is used to protect the propeller shafting
on those ships which have their propulsion machinery located amid-
ships or somewhere forward of aft. The tunnel is a watertight com-
partment usually located in the lower cargo hold and is integral with
the ship's structure. It is provided with a watertight door at its entrance
from the machinery space and an emergency escape trunk leading up
to the aft deck. The tunnel contains the lengths of intermediate shafting
and their bearings. Most modern ships have their propulsion machin-
ery located aft and the shaft tunnel in this case can therefore be
dispensed with.
Shear force Shear force in this instance is the mechanical force acting
on a ship's hull by the combined effect of cargo, ballast and other
weights including of course the ship proper through its gravitational
effect. It could simply be described as one part of the ship attempting
to separate (or shear) from its immediately adjacent section. Shear
force diagrams can be produced to illustrate where these forces are
acting and the loading manual, also the loading instrument issued to
each ship, indicates the allowable shear forces.
Sheer Sheer is the curvature usually of the freeboard deck on a ship
in a longitudinal direction and is typically in the form of a parabola.
At midships the sheer is taken to be zero and it rises to a maximum at
the forward perpendicular (FP) and has a somewhat lower reading at
the aft perpendicular (AP). Apart from giving additional longitudinal
strength to the hull, sheer also improves the seaworthy aspect in that
the increased height forward reduces the amount of seawater shipped
onboard when a ship is in bad weather.
Sheer strake The sheer strake (see Strake) of plating is one of the
most highly stressed parts of a ship's structure. It is the strake of
plating situated immediately adjacent to the main deck and is the
uppermost part of the side shell at each side of the ship at main deck
level. The sheer strake is either made of increased thickness or made
of high tensile steel,to cater for the high bending stresses it is subject
Shell expansion This is a plan produced by a shipyard which shows
Shell expansion

all the various plates that make up the side and bottom shell of a ship
and is illustrated in an expanded projection. It is used primarily both
to identify and record any structural damage that the ship may suffer
to the shell or bottom as a result of a grounding, collision or by contact
with a quay. Shell plate thicknesses and the position and scantlings of
all supporting members are all clearly indicated, so that a repair
contractor and the underwriter's surveyor can quickly arrive at an
estimated cost of carrying out a repair.
Shifting boards Were used aboard general cargo tweendeckers
when they were used to transport cargoes likely to shift in heavy
weather, for example grain and phosphate. They were used on a
temporary basis, made from timber and when not in use, for example
on a ballast voyage, could be stowed in the tweendecks. Prior to
loading cargo a team of carpenters and riggers would erect and secure
the shifting boards on the longitudinal centreline in each lower hold
and another team would dismantle them after discharge of cargo.
The advent of the modern bulk carrier with its self-trimming hold
configuration has dispensed with the need for shifting boards.
Shipboard oil pollution emergency plan (SOPEP) SOPEP is an
International Maritime Organisation (IMO) requirement under regu-
lation 26 of Annex I to the Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention.
This regulation is now in force for both new and existing ships and
applies to tankers of 150gross tonnes and above and to all other ships
of 400 gross tonnes and above. The plan includes the procedures to be
followed in the event of an oil pollution incident and it also includes
a description of the action to be taken and various other items, mainly
of a procedural nature.
Shipbuilding Machinery and Marine Technology Exhibition
(SMM) This is almost certainly the world's largest exhibition
devoted to marine technology and its numerous sub-disciplines. It is
held at Hamburg, Germany, during the month of October every two
years, and well over 1,000 exhibitors from dozens of countries attend
to demonstrate their wares, ranging from mighty shipyards and major
engine manufacturers to the makers of the humble toilet. Concurrently
with the SMM exhibition various conferences take place within the
confines of the exhibition centre and its many exhibition halls, usually
on topical themes.
Ship design Ship design nowadays has dramatically changed since
the days when many shipowners produced their own design for ship-
builders to follow. Except possibly for cruise liners and car ferries, this
Ship inspection report (SIRE)

practice is rarely followed and ship designs broadly follow similar

lines. For example many basic designs have emerged, and if we take
a typical Panamax bulk carrier it will have an almost identical midship
section. Classification rules for such a ship would also follow broadly
similar lines with respect to strength, and many other bulk carriers
are also similar. A modern tanker does have various design possi-
bilities, for example single or double hull.
Ship emergency response services (SERS) SERS is an optional
facility offered to shipowners by Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS)
which gives advice on a round-the-clock basis to those ships enrolled
in the scheme which may become involved in a major accident com-
promising safety or causing pollution. LRS would have all the par-
ticulars of the vessel concerned on computer disc and in the event of,
say, a grounding LRS would use computer simulations to advise the
ship or shipowner about what action should be taken to reduce the
risk of pollution or to avoid a stability problem developing. SERS is
part of the LRS Ship Right program (which see).
Ship event analysis (SEA) SEA is also an optional facility offered
by Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS) and is aimed at reducing stresses
in the hull structure of a ship by alerting the staff to the level of stress
being monitored. The SEA system uses strain gauges and acceler-
ometers located at vulnerable parts of the hull, all connected to a
personal computer (PC). If the stresses being monitored during heavy
weather or while loading/unloading cargo exceed acceptable limits
an alarm is initiated in the wheelhouse console thereby alerting staff
as to the inherent dangers so that they can take evasive action. SEA is
also part of the ShipRight program (which see).
Ship identification number This is an International Maritime
Organisation OMO) initiative to issue each ship with its own dedicated
identification number which will remain with the ship throughout its
life, regardless of whether it changes name, ownership, flag state or
classification society. It applies to passenger ships of 100 gross tonnes
and above and to cargo ships of 300 gross tonnes and above. The
number will be that given in Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS) Regis-
ter of Ships and will be known as the IMO number, and the scheme
came into effect on 1 January 1996.
Ship inspection report (SIRE) SIRE is a programme introduced by
the Oil Companies' International Marine Forum (OCIMF) aimed pri-
marily at allowing all OCIMF members to access information on the
condition of oil tankers. Other approved organisations having a per-
Ship inspection report (SIRE)

ceived need to access this information, for example national admin-

istrations and oil terminal operators, will also be included. When a
tanker is inspected by an OCIMF member under the SIRE system,
usually for chartering purposes, a detailed report is entered into the
SIRE database for use of participating members. The tanker owner is
also sent a copy of the report for his comments. The format of these
inspection reports is not yet standard, but moves are afoot to introduce
this feature.
Ship losses Ship loss statistics are published annually by various
organisations, for example Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS). The
loss statistics can be broken down into ship type, registry and age and
also the reason for the loss, whether it be fire, collision or structural
failure or from other reasons. In general terms the annual loss rate is
around 0.3 per cent based on gross tonnage (GT). This varies con-
siderably when ship type, age and registry are taken into account, and
the loss rate for large bulk carriers has been rather high in recent years,
for example in 1994, 45 per cent of ship losses were suffered by these
ships when expressed in terms of GT. It is mainly for this reason that
the design and operation of these ships is being looked at by the
regulatory authorities.
Ship Right Ship Right is a set of computer programs introduced by
Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS) which offers lifetime care of a
ship's hull as well as design and construction facilities. The design
section of the programs includes such items as rule compliance, hull
form and powering requirements as well as an assessment of the static
and dynamic loads expected in service, taking fatigue performance
into account. Increased corrosion margins at vulnerable locations can
be selected if thought necessary, and a section relating to construction
monitoring is included. The actual condition of the hull in service can
be illustrated with a pictorial graphic representation and tank coatings
can be included if thought necessary.
Ship type statistics Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS) is one of the
larger organisations which produce all manner of statistics relating to
shipping activities. Ship types are one of the categories included in its
range of statistics which LRS has divided into 16 separate sections.
Recent figures show that the largest category of ship type in terms of
deadweight (DWT) is the oil tanker with around 270 million tonnes
but with only around 6,650 units. The largest type in terms of number
of units is the general cargo ship, with around 17,000 ships but only
80 million tonnes total deadweight. The average age of each ship
Side loading cargo systems

type is also included in the statistics and the oldest ship type is the
passenger / general cargo ship with an average age of a remarkable 28
Ship types Ship types have broadly fallen into an acceptable pattern
usually forced on shipowners by the demands of the market place. In
the case of crude oil tankers these can be categorised in ascending
order of size as handy sized, Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, very large
crude oil carrier (VLCC) and finally ultra large crude oil carrier
(ULCC), although it must be said that ULCCs are not currently
popular. Chemical and clean product tankers are usually in the handy
sized bracket, but many smaller and larger designs are available built
for specific business. Bulk carriers fall into several designated types
ranging from handy sized, Panamax, cape sized to very large bulk
carrier (VLBC).There are variations in both tanker and bulker types,
but the majority fall roughly into the above designations unless built
for a specific trade or charter. Shipyards find that producing different
designs is rather costly, and they prefer to market specific ship types.
Shuttle tanker This is a term used to describe an oil tanker engaged
in a ferry-type operation usually over a regular route but involving
short distances. A so-called mosquito fleet of tankers trading between
Venezuela and Aruba in the 1950s was probably the first example of
this type of operation. More recently shuttle tankers have been opera-
ting in the North Sea between offshore loading terminals and shore
refineries. They can vary greatly in size but 120,000tonnes deadweight
(DWT) seems a popular choice. They are equipped with either single
point mooring or submerged turret loading (both of which see) equip-
ment, and a recent development is the multi-purpose shuttle tanker
which is provided with such equipment as deck cranes and ondeck
storage facilities.
Side chocks Side chocks are used to prevent a main propulsion
engine moving in a lateral direction in the event of a collision or other
such incident, and they also take the strain off the holding down bolts
when a ship is pitching and rolling in heavy weather. They are typically
fabricated in the form of tapered steel blocks hammered into position
along the perimeter of the bed plate and secured with set pins. At
regular intervals or if the ship has been in extremely heavy weather
they are hardened up to compensate for the working of the engine.
More recently they have been made of resin and simply poured into
their allocated space around the perimeter of the engine bed plate.
Side loading cargo systems Side loading cargo systems are used to
Side loading cargo systems

handle a large variety of cargoes ranging from motor cars to palletised

and general cargo. In this system a large side shell opening is served by
several internal elevators operating between the various deck levels. A
door is provided which acts as a ramp while loading and discharging
cargo in port and is closed to form a watertight connection when the
ship is at sea. The internal elevators can accommodate all the many
types of cargo envisaged including the fork lift trucks used to transfer
the cargo within the cargo holds and around the quayside.
Single acting engines All modern marine diesel engines are of the
single acting type, whereby the combustion forces act on one side of
the pistons only. The alternative to the single acting design was the
double acting diesel engine (which see), and this was arranged so that
the combustion forces acted on both sides of the pistons and an almost
doubling of power was achievable for the same engine dimensions as
those of the single acting engine. The modern single acting diesel
engine can meet the power requirements needed for the majority of
cargo ships, even the post Panamax container ships on a single screw,
and the complexities of the double acting engine are thereby avoided.
Single hull ships The single hull concept of ship design was accept-
able for many years, but there has recently been a concerted move to
ban such ships on account of their vulnerability to sinking when the
hull is pierced. Tankers were invariably built with a single hull mainly
because their stability was generally not compromised when the hull
was pierced. However mainly for pollution reasons most tankers are
now built with a double hull, although single hull tankers are accept-
able with certain reservations (see Double hulls). Bulk carriers must
be provided with a double bottom, but a single hull is presently
acceptable at the side shell area. Bulk carriers must be able to survive
the flooding of one cargo hold, and this is presently under review for
bulk carriers when carrying heavy cargoes. The eventual outcome
may well be the need to provide a double hull for not only bulk carriers
but other vulnerable ships, for example ro-ro ferries.
Single point mooring (SPM) The SPM system is mainly employed
by tankers in the offshore oil industry where conventional mooring
systems would not be appropriate due to the lack of multiple fixed
mooring positions. The SPM system usually incorporates such items
as a powerful windlass associated with suitably dimensioned bow
stoppers and Smit-type brackets. A line handling crane with facilities
for varying the line tension and a quick release arrangement is also

Skylights Skylights are either fixed or openable window frames

used to allow daylight or air to enter into a compartment situated
beneath. If located on the upper decks they are made watertight and
are also provided with armoured glass protected by metal bars. The
most common place for a skylight was above the machinery com-
partment in order to dissipate the heat generated by the machinery.
Nowadays skylights are only infrequently used aboard ship as air
conditioning and artificial lighting standards have greatly improved.
Slip Slip is defined as the calculated distance a ship advances when
taking into account the pitch of the propeller compared with the actual
distance it advances. This apparent loss of distance is referred to as
the slip and is usually expressed as a percentage. Hydrodynamicists
usually use what is called the true slip, in which the wake speed of
the stream is taken into account, but this is rather difficult to obtain
and for practical purposes the apparent slip is normally used which
uses ship speed over the ground rather than through the water as
defined by the true slip. Slip increases as the underwater hull or
propeller blade surfaces become fouled by marine organisms and the
deterioration in slip can be used to illustrate this particular feature.
Slipways Slipways were used as the standard means of ship con-
struction for countless years and consisted of an inclined berth leading
to a convenient stretch of water into which the completed hull was
launched, and many famous large ships, for example Queen Mary
and Queen Elizabeth, were built on a slipway. Small shipyards and
boatyards around the world still use slipways for ship construction
and numerous small ship repair yards also use a slipway to haul up
ships to enable underwater repairs to be carried out and then launch
them back into the water on completion. It was necessary to attach
drag lines and chains to the launch ways carefully to ensure that the
ship being launched did not travel too far into the water.
Slops Slops in this context refer to the residues left in the cargo tanks
of crude oil tankers after the cargo has been pumped ashore and the
tanks washed. In days gone by slops created a severe environmental
problem, in that they were pumped overboard into the sea after most
of the oil had been decanted from the washing water. Progressively
more severe anti-pollution measures introduced by the International
Maritime Organisation (IMO) have virtually eliminated problems
created by the generation of slops. Crude oil washing (which see) was
arguably the most significant factor in the virtual elimination of the
problems caused by the generation of slops aboard tankers, and in
Soot fires

economisers are of the expanded surface heat transfer type. This type
of economiser relies on fins or gills attached to the economiser cir-
culating tubes to extract more heat from the exhaust gas. The fins or
gills can also attract soot deposits, especially if gas velocities are low,
if running at iow speed for example. These soot particles can ignite
under certain circumstances, particularly when the main engine has
been shut down and water circulation through the economiser prema-
turely Curtailed, thus preventing the dissipation of residual heat in the
soot particles and the risk of fire.
Spare parts Most classification societies include a recommended list
of spare parts they suggest be carried aboard ship for the main engine
and other essential machinery. The philosophy relating to the number
of spare parts carried is that the ship should be able to make a port of
refuge in the event of most foreseeable component failures. Bearings,
cylinder liners, pistons and valves are included in the rec-
ommendations as are essential items such as packings, tools and equip-
ment. Spare parts for main propulsion machinery and auxiliary
machinery for essential purposes are included in the recommended
lists and ships operating on a restricted service have less onerous
recommendations than those with unrestricted service.
Special sea areas The International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
under the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution
from Ships (MARPOL) designated certain sea areas being particularly
vulnerable in the event of pollution arising from oil, garbage and
chemicals. These are referred to as special sea areas and include the
Baltic, Black, Red and Mediterranean Seas. In these areas it is com-
pletely prohibited to pump any oil or chemicals into the sea or to
dispose of garbage overboard.
Special service craft (SSC) Special service craft in this instance is a
Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS) definition covering high speed
craft, light displacement craft, yachts greater than 24 metres in length
and service craft not covered elsewhere in its rules and regulations.
SSC rules and regulations relate to ships constructed in steel, alu-
minium alloys, composites and other materials. Ship types included
comprise catamarans, air cushion vehicles, foil assisted craft and many
other of the emerging breed of novel ships. Safety of Life at Sea
(SOLAS) regulations relating to high speed craft (HSC) are also
Special surveys These are classification surveys which take place
at five-year intervals when all parts of the ship are examined by
Spot test

classification surveyors. As vessels age the extent and severity of

special surveys increase as befits the expected deterioration of the
steelwork due to corrosion and fatigue. Because of the poor condition
certain vulnerable ship types were found to be in after the allotted
five-year interval intermediate surveys were introduced on bulk car-
riers and tankers. Machinery surveys are sometimes arranged on a
special survey basis, but many owners survey their machinery on a
continuous survey (which see) basis.
Spherical bearings As far as is known so-called spherical bearings
were only used by the Doxford diesel engine (which see). Although
that part of the bearing actually in contact with the matching journal
or shaft is of necessity cylindrical, the surfaces in contact with the
bearing housing at the back of the bearing shell are spherical. This
allows any distortion or deformation in the shafting system to be
compensated for by the self-aligning properties of the spherical
housing. Adjustment of spherical bearing is an accomplished art form
and consists of two separate operations, one to control the oil clearance
and the other to control the clearance between housing and bearing.
Sponsons Sponsons are fabricated steel appendages welded to the
side shell of a ship, usually to enhance stability or buoyancy. In recent
years they have been provided on certain older ro-ro passenger ferries
to meet the improved damage stability criteria introduced by the
International Maritime Organisation (IMO) under the Safety of Life at
Sea (SOLAS) Convention. Serious accidents to ro-ro ferries resulting
from flooding of the car decks indicated that their damage stability
criteria were inadequate, and the provision of sponsons partially
retrieved the situation, although many feel that the complete answer
is to sub-divide the car decks.
Spontaneous heating Certain dry bulk cargoes carried aboard ships
are likely to be affected by spontaneous heating, which in certain
instances can lead to combustion of the cargo. Coal is one such cargo
and laid down instructions must be carried out to minimise this risk.
These include the levelling of cargo in the holds and the regular
recording of cargo temperatures during passage using deep probes.
Many other cargoes are also susceptible to spontaneous heating, and
these are listed in the International Marine Dangerous Goods (IMDG)
Code (which see). It is a prerequisite when carrying these cargoes that
the cargo spaces are protected by an approved fire extinguishing
system such as CO2 total flood.
Spot test Spot tests are in maritime circles usually applied to fuel
Spot test

and lubricating oils to give an indication of the oil's suitability to

perform well in service. The spot test when applied to fuel oil is carried
out by allowing a drop of the treated fuel to be tested to fall onto a
piece of blotting-type paper and studying the formation of the spot
when it has stabilised. A series of sample spots are provided with the
test kit to give a comparative indication of the level of asphaltenes
identified with a 1 to 5 rating. The lubricating oil spot test follows
similar lines to the fuel test except that this indicates the level of
insolubles instead of asphaltenes.
Spreaders Spreaders are used in association with portainer cranes
(which see) to load and discharge containers from a container ship.
They consist of a steel framework which is adjusted to match the
dimensions of the container being handled, usually either twenty-foot
(TEU)or forty-foot (FEU).At each corner of the spreaders framework,
hydraulically activated protrusions are located which lock into the
container corner sockets and either engage or disengage depending
on whether or not the container is being lifted or placed in its intended
position onboard or on the quayside. They are also provided with a
centralising device to facilitate engagement with the container corner
Squat Squat is a phenomenon experienced when a ship travelling at
speed in shallow water registers an increase in draught as the ship
apparently sinks or squats in the water. It is a function of the speed,
water depth and size of the ship, and various means have been
developed to determine the amount of squat likely to be experienced.
The maximum squat would be expected to be experienced on a large
ship proceeding at speed through shallow water. Using the infor-
mation currently available, a ship of 300 metres in length proceeding
at 14knots in a water depth of 20 metres would have a squat of around
two metres. It is very important that squat is taken into account when
determining what the under keel clearance of a ship should be if it is
scheduled to pass through shallow water.
Stabilisers Stabilisers are used on passenger ships to reduce rolling
motion in bad weather and therefore improve the passengers' well-
being. There are two basic types of stabiliser generally referred to
as active or passive. The active stabiliser usually comprises fin-type
structures situated at each side of the ship which are extended from
housings in the underwater hull in bad weather and are controlled by
electronic means and perform in a similar way to that of a ship's
rudder. The passive type comprises a twin tank arrangement which
Standards of training certification and watchkeeping (STCW)

rapidly exchanges water from one tank to the other to counterbalance

the ship's heeling moment. (See also Flume stabilisers.)
Stability Stability is the ability of a ship to return to an upright
position after it has been subjected to a heeling moment on one side
or another. To be stable a ship must have a positive metacentric height,
or GM as it is usually referred to. Intact stability refers to the stability
of a ship in an undamaged condition, whereas damage stability refers
to a ship whiCh has suffered damage affecting the watertight integrity
of the hull. Each ship type has its damage stability criteria defined by
the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention.
Stability of double hull tankers Double hull tankers of the larger
deadweight size are now being built with no longitudinal division
within the cargo tanks, whereas single hull tankers usually had two
longitudinal divisions. The cargo tanks of these double hull tankers in
many cases now extend the full width of the cargo containment area.
This design greatly increases the free surface effect, and coupled with
the raising of the centre of gravity by having double bottom tanks,
could lead to a reduction in intact stability during loading, discharging
and ballast operations. It is generally accepted that cargo and ballast
operations on double hull tankers must be carefully planned if stability
problems are to be avoided.
Stack weight Stack weight is an expression generally used in con-
nection with container ships and refers to the cumulative weight of
containers when concentrated on the ship's support structure, usually
the inner bottom or tank top. Stack weights can become extremely
high, especially on the recent breed of coverless container ships (which
see) which cannot rely on the hatch covers partially to absorb the
weight of containers. The tank top structure and its supports need to
be especially considered to deal with whatever stack weight is
expected and due allowance also made for the forces imposed when
containers are landed heavily while being loaded.
Standards of training certification and watchkeeping (STCW)
STCW is an International Maritime Organisation (IMO) convention
which first entered into force in 1984. In its original form the STCW
convention was open to many interpretations and was subject to
exploitation by those wishing to do so. It was never uniformly applied,
and this led to various levels of competence for seemingly identical
qualifications. In recent years the STCW convention has been revised
by IMO and the new version is expected to enter force in 1997. The
new STCW convention will ensure that national administrations have
Standards of training certification and watchkeeping (STCW)

proper procedures in place to ensure that adequate training and cer-

tification procedures of an acceptable standard are available.
Standard ship designs Standard ship designs probably originated
in the First World War (1914-1918)when many ships were built to a
similar design. During the Second World War (1939-1945) Liberty
ships from the USA, Park and Fort ships from Canada and Empire
ships from the United Kingdom dominated the shipping scene. Many
other standard ship designs also evolved, for example Victory ships,
T2 Tankers and Hickory Isle ships, to name but a few. In post Second
War years the SD14, Friendship, Fortune, Freedom and Santa Fe
designs emerged, and in addition each shipyard had a standard design
covering a range of ships, but they were not identical in the true
sense of the word in that the methods of construction and general
arrangements were not the same.
Statutory instruments (SI) Statutory Instruments are a means by
which the UK government issues regulations applicable to ships on
the UK register. SIs are enforced by various Merchant Shipping Acts
after they have been passed by Parliament. Some of the more import-
ant Statutory Instruments relate to such matters as crew accom-
modation, lifesaving appliances and tonnage. They are periodically
reviewed in line with experience gained, usually as a result of a serious
shipping casualty, often resulting in an official inquiry.
Steam engines Steam engines formed the basis for marine pro-
pulsion, first by reciprocating engines and then by turbines. Triple
expansion steam reciprocating engines were the norm for the vast
majority of cargo ships and steam turbines for large passenger ships,
and this situation existed until the arrival of the diesel engine in
the second decade of the 20th century. Steam reciprocating engines
adopted various means to improve their rather low thermal efficiency,
culminating in the high speed uniflow engine developed in the United
States. Steam turbines employed elevated steam pressures and tem-
peratures, not appropriate for reciprocating engines, and multi-stage
feed heating as a means of increasing thermal efficiency.In spite of all
of the various measures taken the thermal efficiency at around 32 per
cent fell far short of the 50 per cent or so of the modem diesel engine
and the few remaining steam turbines are employed on liquid natural
gas tankers to utilise boil off gas as boiler fueL
Steering gear For many years the steering gear of early cargo ships
consisted of a small steam engine driving a worm gear, itself driving
the tiller attached to the rudder quadrant by shock absorbing springs.

Electric steering then arrived on the scene, and this was either of the
Ward Leonard type (which see) or the electric hydraulic type. Most
steering gears now in use are of the electric hydraulic type which is
divided into either ram or rotary vane types. The former can either be
two or four ram types connected to the tiller by means of crossheads.
The rotary vane steering gear is directly connected to the rudder stock
and does not require a tiller. The rules for steering gear, especially
tankers, were updated by the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) following the Amoco Cadiz incident in March 1978 and now
incorporate various redundancy factors, as well as other operational
features aimed at avoiding a complete loss of steering as occurred on
the Amoco Cadiz.
Steering flat This is the deck which houses the ship's steering gear
and is situated beneath the upper deck at the aft end of a ship. On
many ships the steering flat forms the crown (top) of the aft peak
tank (which see). This part of a ship is exposed to vibrational forces
emanating from the propeller located directly underneath, especially
if there is insufficient clearance between propeller tips and the hull.
The steering flat is strengthened against vibrational forces and also to
absorb the forces transmitted by the steering gear. A trunk is usually
provided between the steering flat and the open sea in which the
rudder stock is located.
Stem The stem of a ship is the foremost part of the shell where it
terminates. Stems can be constructed either in steel bar or plate form
or as a combination of both methods. Bar construction is usually
confined to that part of the stem below the load waterline and can be
either by way of steel castings or forgings. Fabricated plate stems are
nowadays more commonly used and their scantlings, together with
that of their supporting structure, is given in classification rules. The
plating is of increased thickness and must be supported with hori-
zontal diaphragm and breast hooks as befitting their vulnerable pos-
ition if involved in a collision.
Step In this context STEP is an International Standard Organisation
(ISO)standard devised to cover a wide range of engineering industries
which enables participating members to share technical information
via digital data exchange applications. One of the participating com-
panies in the STEPproject is Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS)which
uses STEP to exchange ships' plans and drawings with considerable
savings in the time taken compared with conventional means and at
much reduced cost. STEP is officially known as ISO 10303 and data

exchange between classification societies and the various shipyards

involved in the STEP scheme are well advanced with significant
savings indicated.
Stem anchors Stern anchors are in general only provided at the stern
end of ships which have occasion to anchor in restricted waters where
swinging the ship under a tidal or current influence could cause
problems if only the traditional anchors were used. Such an area is the
St Lawrence River in Canada, and no doubt there are many other
locations throughout the world where the provision of a stern anchor
would be a distinct advantage.
Stem design There are various forms of design for the stern of a
ship, although in recent years the tendency has been to cut construction
costs by having a comparatively simple stern. Many ships are now
built with a transom stern which, when viewed from behind the ship,
is seen as a flat surface either completely vertical or sloping in a
forward direction at its lower end. Cruiser sterns have a rounded
streamlined look and are favoured by passenger ships for their ascetic
appearance. Counter (which see) sterns are no longer fashionable but
were favoured for many years. The stern end has to be suitably stif-
fened to absorb the slamming forces generated when a ship is in a
seaway and also to house the steering gear.
Stem frame The stern frame of a ship is nowadays fabricated as a
composite construction utilising cast steel and rolled or forged steel
components. It is a massive structure which is securely welded into
the stern end structure of the ship and its main purpose is to house
the stern tube (which see), although some designs of ship use the stern
frame to support the rudder. A twin screw ship usually has a more
complicated stern frame, then called an "j!{' frame or Bossing.
Stern tube The stern tube is usually of fabricated steel construction
and is welded into the stern frame at its aftermost end and to the aft
peak bulkhead at its forward end. A cast iron whitemetallined bush
is secured into the stern tube and the propeller shaft revolves in this
bush. The stern tube bush is lubricated by an enclosed lubricating oil
system, and the stern tube is cooled by being immersed in a cooling
tank located underneath the aft peak tank and permanently filled with
Stem sealing arrangements The effective sealing of the propeller
shaft has been a source of trouble for many years. The original method
was by means of a conventional gland located at the inboard end of
Stirling engine

the stern tube in which a soft packing impervious to seawater was

used and this allowed adjustment, even if the engine was running.
Grooving of the propeller shaft liner leading to excessive seawater
leakage often occurred if the gland was incorrectly adjusted. The
advent of oil lubricated stern tube bushes led to the development of
lip-type seals made from oil-resistant rubber running on stainless steel
liners which are located at both the inboard and outboard ends of the
stern tube has largely cured the leakage problem and the majority of
ships nowadays use such type of seal.
Stiction temperature The stiction temperature when related to
marine diesel engines is that at which the metallic element vanadium
deposits itself on those parts of the engine exposed to high tem-
peratures. These are typically the exhaust valve seats on four-stroke
medium speed engines when fuel having a high vanadium content is
being used. Various chemical additives are claimed to be able to raise
the stiction temperature above the temperature of the parts likely to
be affected, thus preventing harmful vanadium deposits forming.
Still engine The so-called still engine was developed by Scotts of
Greenock, a well-known marine engineering and shipbuilding facility,
which has long since departed from the scene. The basic principle
behind the still engine was to extract the heat contained in a diesel
engine's exhaust gas and convert this into steam and then use it on
the steam side of the engine. Two versions .of the still engine were
available, one which introduced the steam so produced to the under-
side of the diesel engine pistons and the other which used separate
steam cylinders in tandem with the diesel cylinders. The ther-
modynamics of the still engine were sound, but the technical problems
proved to be a deterrent and only a few engines were built.
Still water bending moment (SWBM) The SWBMis used to deter-
mine the longitudinal strength of the ship's hull girder and usually
equates this to inport operations, such as when loading or discharging
cargo or while ballasting or deballasting. The permissible SWBM is
determined by the hogging or sagging of the hull, and it is calculated
at various positions along the hull. Each ship is provided with a
loading manual, also a loading instrument, which gives the allowable
SWBM under the various loading conditions met up with in service.
The designed wave bending moment (which see) is derived by using
what is called, a ship service factor based on the severity of the.weather
in the vessel's expected operating area.
Stirling engine The Stirling engine is based on a steam cycle
Stirling engine

developed by Stirling as long ago as 1829.The principle is based on a

steam cycle having an infinite number of bled steam stages whereby
the condensate temperature is progressively raised until it approaches
that of the steam temperature in the boiler. This is referred to as a
completely regenerative cycle, which is not achievable in practice but
multi-stage feed heating is now employed in the few remaining marine
steam plants in order to improve cycle efficiency. In recent years the
Stirling principle has been applied to internal combustion engines for
use in submarines operating on the so-called air independent power
(AlP) system.
Stool tanks These are the tanks which form the upper and lower
void spaces on the transverse bulkheads separating the hold spaces
on bulk carriers. They are also provided on general cargo ships which
carry ballast seawater in a cargo hold. Their main purpose is to provide
additional support for the transverse bulkheads against the load
imposed by the cargo or ballast water. They have sloping ends and
are rather wide at their connection to the tank top or upper deck, and
reduce in width as they connect to the bulkhead.
Stowage factor The stowage factor is a term used to determine the
capability of a ship to carry a weight of cargo, given the total volume
of the cargo space and the density or specific gravity of the cargo to
be carried. Knowing the stowage factor of the cargo, now usually
expressed as so many tonnes per cubic metre, and extracting the cargo
space volume from the ship's capacity plan it is a fairly straightforward
calculation to obtain the weight of cargo if the cargo is light and the
hold is fulL In the case of oil tankers it is the aim of ship designers to
arrange sufficient cargo tank volume to enable a full cargo deadweight
to be carried, knowing the stowage factor of the oil expected to be
carried. This is not so easy on bulk carriers, given the vast range of
stowage factors of the many cargoes offered in this sector of the market.
Stowage plan Is a document used accurately to record the weight,
location and brief description of the various cargoes loaded aboard
ship. In the case of ships such as general cargo, multi-purpose and
even parcel tankers the stowage plan is a comprehensive document
requiring many hours' work to complete with the faithful recording
of all details relating to the cargo and its port of destination. On crude
oil tankers and bulk carriers carrying homogeneous cargoes the task
of completing the stowage plan is a comparatively straightforward
Straddle· carriers These are wheeled vehicles used to transport con-
Stroke bore ratio

tainers around a container terminal. Unlike the transtainer (which see)

the straddle carrier has no lateral movement and simply straddles the
container, lifts it and then carries it to the stack, awaiting transport or
to the portainer (which see). The straddle carrier is not as versatile as
the much larger transtainer and has a somewhat limited function.
Strake A strake in marine technology terms refers to a row of plating
which continues in a complete band embracing the side, bottom and
deck of a ship from bow to stern. To facilitate the identification of
every individual plate on a ship each strake is given its own letter of
the alphabet and each plate a number so that plate B7 port would be
the 7th plate in B strake on the port side. These are all clearly indicated
on the shell expansion plan (which see). The strakes of plating start at
the keel and continue up to the sheer strake (which see). As the ship's
lines become finer at the forward and aft ends a so-called stealer strake
is introduced whereby two narrow strakes will be replaced with one
broader strake.
Strength The definition of strength when applied to a ship's struc-
ture could be said to be its resistance to failure resulting from the
varibus forms of attack it receives during its service life in the hostile
marine environment. These are usually in the form of both dynamic
and static loads and also fatigue, and a ship's structure is specifically
designed to withstand these actions by incorporating sufficient
strength. A ship's structure is nowadays designed on the basis of
direct calculation methods which take into account these factors, and
most classification societies adopt this approach, which is seen as
an improvement over the prescriptive rules (which see) previously
Stripping pumps These are used aboard oil tankers to drain the last
vestiges of cargo from the cargo oil tanks after the main cargo pumps
have discharged the majority of the cargo. Stripping pumps are usually
of the self-priming or positive displacement type, or alternatively a
vacuum stripping system can be employed. Separate stripping lines
of much smaller diameter than the main cargo lines are usually pro-
vided to enhance the stripping operation.
Stroke bore ratio When applied to an internal combustion engine
the stroke bore ratio relates to the length of stroke compared to the
cylinder bore of the engine, both measured in millimetres. In the case
of marine diesel engines of the crosshead two-stroke design the stroke
bore ratio was for many years in the order of 2 to 1. However to
improve the hydrodynamic performance of a ship low propeller rev-
Stroke bore ratio

olutions are a prerequisite, and the most cost effective way of

accomplishing this is to increase the stroke bore ratio. Modem two-
stroke diesel engines on ships with no propeller diameter restrictions
tend to have stroke bore ratios of around 4 to 1. In the case of medium
speed four-stroke diesel engines the stroke bore ratios are in the region
of around 1.2 to 1, but as they are usually geared down the stroke bore
ratio is not so important as in the slow speed sector.

Strong acid number (SAN) The SAN is usually used in connection

with lubricating oil or fuel oil sampling techniques. It consists of
laboratory tests which identify the presence of either strong mineral
or inorganic acids in the sample of oil under review. In general terms,
if the pH value of the sample of oil is below a numerical value of
four then strong acid is likely to be present. Acid content is usually
measured in terms of mg/KOH/ g (milligrams of potassium hydrox-
ide per gramme of oil), and if this is above a numerical value of around
eight then the presence of strong acid is to be expected and operational
problems highly likely.

Structural optimisation Structural optimisation of ships' structures

was introduced in the early 1980s, arguably as a result of the
implementation of Marine Pollution (MARPOL) regulations under
which the ballast capacity of tankers was increased by the adoption of
segregated ballast tanks (SBT).This course of action concentrated the
minds of ship designers to devise means to counter the increased
steelweight needed to build SBT tankers compared with a pre-SBT
tanker having a similar cargo deadweight. Structural optimisation
enabled such a reduction in steelweight to take place leading to the
introduction of tankers having a shorter economic life. More recently
the potential risks occasioned by the introduction of structural opti-
misation have been recognised and constructional details are now
given priority treatment by most classification societies.

Structural survivability In this context structural survivability

refers to the safety of bulk carriers carrying heavy cargoes when a
cargo hold has been flooded due to an accident. It has been found that
the transverse watertight bulkheads separating the cargo holds are
generally unable to withstand the hydrodynamic loads imposed when
one hold has flooded. Because bulk carriers are designed as one-
compartment ships flooding of two compartments will invariably lead
to serious problems. The situation is being actively investigated at the
International Maritime Organisation (IMO) who have sought advice
Submerged turret loading (STL)

from the International Association of Classification Societies (lACS)

in this matter.

Stulken derrick One of the first departures from the previously used
union purchase (which see) derrick system of handling cargo on dry
cargo ships was the German designed Stulken derrick. Primarily
developed for use with extremely heavy loads the Stulken derrick was
rather easily identified by its outwardly inclined, rather than vertical,
derrick posts of extremely heavy section. Stulken derricks are of the
so-called swinging type which permit accurate placement of the cargo
on ship or quayside and loads of up to 200 tonnes can easily be

Subdivision The sinking of the Titanic way back in 1912 first drew
attention to the need to subdivide a ship into watertight compartments
in order for it to survive such an accident. The International Maritime
Organisation (lMO) through the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Con-
vention, controls the subdivision of ships by designating the number
of flooded compartments a ship can survive. The subdivision of ro-ro
ferr~es and bulk carriers is presently under review by IMO in view of
recent calamities involving these ships.

Submerged arc welding This is probably the most commonly used

method of welding in the shipbuilding industry. In this process the
electrode is a bare wire coil mounted on a drum and the welding flux
is in powder form, which is deposited slightly ahead of the arc. The
submerged arc method permits the use of rather high welding speeds
and also results in deep penetrative welds and is particularly suited to
fully automatic techniques requiring only minimal manual assistance.
The consistency of weld quality is also superior to manual welding,
and the higher welding speed leads to less distortion of the structure
being welded.

Submerged turret loading (STL) The STL is a recently developed

system for loading crude oil tankers from a turret moored 30 metres
or so underwater and secured to the seabed by around eight anchors.
The STL system is claimed to permit loading even when wave heights
of 10 metres are encountered against the five metre or so wave heights
usually considered to be the limit when using conventional floating
type loading equipment. A tanker being loaded from a STL system
has an unrestricted turning movement of 360 degrees around the
turret, and it can therefore position itself in a favourable position
taking into account the prevailing weather conditions. STL is ideally
Submerged turret loading (STL)

suited for use in harsh environmental conditions, for example the

North Sea.
Suez canal searchlight When a ship transits the Suez Canal it must
be provided with an approved type of searchlight mounted in the
bow. To avoid the high cost and inconvenience of hiring a searchlight
many ships are provided with an appropriate searchlight. This is
usually stowed in the forecastle store space and a davit is usually
provided to haul the searchlight into position at the bow of the ship.
The searchlight itself is of 3,000 watts rating and, in addition to the
searchlight, it is usual to install a set of Suez Canal signal lights of
Christmas tree pattern on the Radar mast or other suitable mast.
Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) It has been found that severe
corrosion of ferrous materials can occur in wet, anaerobic (without
oxygen) conditions. This is a result of depolarisation of the cathode by
the action of anaerobic sulphate reducing bacteria in absorbing the
cathodic hydrogen. This form of corrosion is fortunately quite rare
and difficult to identify, and it would appear that several cases have
been attributed to conventional corrosion by electrolytic action.
Samples of any unfamiliar looking sludge at the corrosive interface
can be placed on culture slides to enhance bacterial action if SRB is
Sulphur When carried aboard a bulk carrier in dry form sulphur
poses various problems, the most important of which is arguably
corrosion of those parts of the hold structure in direct contact with the
cargo. For this corrosion to take place, moisture must be present and
this can occur as a result of leaking hatch covers or when trading in
humid geographical areas, or even if the cargo has been in contact
with moisture prior to or during loading operations. Sulphur which
is normally present in heavy fuel oil is another problem which has to
be addressed, and during the combustion process it can be converted
into sulphur dioxide (which see). Sulphur in crude oil being carried as
cargo aboard tankers can also contribute to corrosion of the steelwork
within the tank structure.
Sulphur dioxide (S02) Sulphur dioxide (S02) is formed in the com-
bustion process when fuel containing sulphur is burnt in either the
combustion chamber of a diesel engine or the furnace of a steam boiler.
To remove this sulphur dioxide from the exhaust emanating from the
diesel engine or boiler is presently the subject of much research. The
International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recently targeted
gaseous emissions from ships and 502 is one of those involved. It is
Superheater slagging

expected that legislation will be introduced by either IMO or various

national administrations that will reduce 502 emissions by an expected
30 per cent compared with current levels. S02 can be removed from
flue gas by passing it through a scrubbing device whereby jets of water
impinge directly onto the gas and remove S02 particles. One school of
thought is that the sulphur in the fuel should be removed at the
refinery, thus avoiding the use of complex equipment aboard ship.
Super-cavitating propellers Super-cavitating propellers are gen-
erally used in applications where high propeller revolutions are
applied, and they are invariably associated with comparatively small
sized high speed ships. A conventionally designed propeller running
at pigh revolutions would in all probability suffer from cavitational
attack on the blade surfaces resulting from the collapse of vapour
bubbles at the blade area so affected. This would manifest itself in an
extremely high noise level and physical damage to the propeller
blades. A super-cavitating propeller design would ensure that this
attack area is removed to a position outwith the blade surfaces, and
therefore avoid cavitational attack.
Supercharging A supercharged internal combustion engine is one
in which air at above atmospheric pressure is introduced into the
engine, thereby allowing more fuel oil to be burnt, which in turn leads
to more power being developed for a given engine size. The first
supercharged two-stroke crosshead diesel engine was introduced in
1952, and since that time the degree of supercharging has risen dra-
matically, leading to perhaps a sixfold increase in power for engines
with similar dimensions, but not all of this can be put down to
increased supercharging. It should be mentioned that the term super-
charging is rarely used in marine applications, and it is more usual
to refer to it as turbocharging indicative of the exhaust gas driven
turbocharger used to provide the excess air.
Superconductivity Superconductivity is a phenomenon in which
the electrical resistance of a substance falls to an extremely low level,
thereby enhancing its conductivity. It is necessary to use cryogenic
(extremely low) temperatures approaching the lowest practical limit
and also use a conductor material that has the capability of with-
standing these low temperatures and at the same time possesses low
electrical resistance properties. Superconductivity has been proposed
for use with an electromagnetic ship propulsion system (which see)
and other applications involving electric propulsion methods.
Superheater slagging Superheating slagging is a phenomenon
Superheater slagging

caused when slag deposits precipitate on the heating surfaces of super-

heater tube banks in a watertube boiler, and in extreme cases it can
severely restrict the gas flow through the boiler. Superheater slagging
is generally attributed to a high level of vanadium in the fuel oil
being burnt in the boiler. If undetected the slag deposits can rapidly
accumulate, and it is not unknown for superheater tube banks to
collapse due to the combined effect of overheating and the additional
weight of slag. Steam turbine propelled ships taking bunkers in areas
known for their high vanadium content can use fuel additives and
increase sootblowing activities to reduce the risk of slagging.
Superheating Superheating is a method used to increase the ther-
modynamic performance of steam engines of both reciprocating and
turbine designs. Steam from the boiler at its saturated temperature
relating to its pressure is passed through the superheater tubes located
in the gas side of the boiler, and thereby has its temperature elevated
above that corresponding to its saturated temperature. The additional
heat picked up by the steam in the superheater section of the boiler is
released during its passage through the steam engine and its efficiency
enhanced. Most of the few steam turbine propelled ships still in oper-
ation employ high levels of superheating and have thermal efficiencies
of around 32 per cent compared with the 52 per cent of a modern
diesel engine.
Super long stroke diesel engines The so-called super long stroke
diesel engine has recently been developed to cater for the propulsive
needs of those ships with no practical limitations as to the diameter of
their propellers. In the main these ships are large deadweight tankers
and bulk carriers having rather deep loaded draughts and with it
the possibility of utilising large propeller diameters as a means of
improving hydrodynamic performance. The stroke bore ratios (which
see) of the super long stroke diesel engine are in the region of 4 to 1
and propeller revolutions can be as low as 70, or even lower in certain
SuperSeaCat The SuperSeaCat is a catamaran designed by an Italian
shipyard, the largest version of which can currently accommodate
1,800 passengers and 460 accompanied cars, although larger versions
are a possibility. The hull of the SuperSeaCat is of all-aluminium
construction and propulsion is by high speed diesel engines driving
waterjets at a service speed of around 37 knots.
Superstructure The superstructure of a typical ship is nowadays
usually contained wholly within the accommodation block, and it is
Surface roughness

most unusual for other superstructures to be provided. The strength

and scantlings of the superstructure are somewhat less than those of
the below-deck structure of a ship. Accommodation blocks forming
the superstructure are nowadays prefabricated and completely fitted
out before being lifted aboard and welded to the deck. It is important
that discontinuities of the structure are avoided at the ends of super-
structures to prevent localised stresses developing. Vibration of the
superstructure must be reduced to acceptable limits and precautions
taken at the design stage. Most modern passenger liners have their
superstructures made in aluminium to reduce top weight and enhance
Surface effect ship (SES) The SES is only one of the recent breed
of High Sea-service Speed (HSS) ships entering service, and in one
particular application it has been designed as an air cushion catamaran
(which see). The SES can be propelled by either waterjets or surface
piercing propellers, unlike the original air cushion vehicle (which see)
which was usually driven by deck mounted fans, for example the
Surface preparation The surface preparation of the steel used in
ship construction is nowadays given careful attention by most ship-
builders. Prior to the application of the paint coating the most effective
method is to blast the surface using sand, shot or various other abrasive
particles, not forgetting that sand blasting is not permitted in many
countries for health reasons. Various surface preparation standards
are in use throughout the world, but probably the most widely known
is the Swedish SIS 05 59 00 1967. This uses a scale based on photo-
graphic standards, and the highest standard is designated Sa 3, only
rarely used in marine applications. It is more usual to specify either
Sa 2! or even Sa 2 if the steelwork is not exposed to severe conditions.
Surface roughness Surface roughness in marine applications is
usually confined to three main areas of operation. First is that involv-
ing underwater roughness of a ship's hull and is mainly related to the
hydrodynamic performance, and the smoother the hull surface the
more efficient the ship from a propulsive point of view, and surface
roughness meters are available to check this at each drydocking. Pro-
peller blade roughness can also be checked and monitored in a similar
manner to underwater hull roughness using comparative gauges
having various degrees of roughness. Finally the surface roughness
relating to the crosshead bearing journals of certain diesel engines
has been found to be critical, and these are usually machined to an
Surface roughness

extremely fine surface finish of perhaps six micro inches (six millionths
of an inch).
Surging In this context surging is a phenomenon experienced by
exhaust gas turbochargers which is usually identified by a loud cough-
ing-type noise emanating from the turbocharger air intake. It is usually
caused either by dirty deposits on the turbine blades, air impellers or
restrictions in the air filters or air intercoolers. It goes without saying
that the inherent stability of the turbocharger must be satisfactory as
demonstrated at the shop trial. Thermal overloading of the propulsion
engine can also lead to air starvation and the onset of surging.
Swim ends These are the simple bow and stern designs used for
craft not engaged in deep sea operations. They consist of an angled
shape which extends across the full width of the craft and have very
limited wave-piercing and seakeeping qualities. They are generally
employed on vessels engaged in inshore duties for example barges,
pontoons and other such craft.
Swinging derricks Swinging derricks are used to load and discharge
cargo and represent an intermediate or transitional stage between the
archetypal fixed derricks used in a union purchase (which see) mode
and the deck crane. The swinging derrick is seen as an improvement
over the union purchase method, in that only one derrick is needed
per cargo hold instead of two. As well as swinging, a topping or luffing
function is also incorporated so that all parts of the hold or quayside
are capable of being quickly spotted to a high degree of accuracy.
Many types of swinging derrick have been manufactured, for example
Stulken, VelIeand Thompson, to name but a few.
Switchboard A ship's main switchboard contains numerous items
of electrical equipment and is the nerve centre of the electrical supply
and distribution network. On a modern ship the switchboard is
usually located within the Machinery Control Room (which see).
Switchboards are usually self-supporting sheet steel structures with a
dead front so that no electrical connections are exposed. Circuit break-
ers for each alternator and each important feeder circuit are provided,
as are various ammeters, voltmeters and wattmeters. An emergency
switchboard is also required and this is usually located adjacent to
the emergency alternator (which see). It is usual to arrange a shore
connection so that whilst a ship is in drydock shore power can be
connected to the switchboard.
Syncroconverter A syncroconverter is one of several variable speed
Systeme International (SI)

drives used to control the electric propulsion motors on those ships

with such means of propulsion. The actual power source is usually
medium or high speed diesel engines driving constant voltage and
constant frequency alternators at constant revolutions. In a typical
syncroconverter installation the power switching is controlled by thy-
ristors and the alternator output is transformed to 13 MVA/6.6KV
with a 12 pulse syncrodrive controlling double wound synchronous
propulsion motors. This enables the propulsion motors to be operated
at various outputs while the alternators are operating under constant

Syncrolift Is a shipyard system used to inspect or repair the under-

water parts of ships without the need for a dedicated drydock. In the
syncrolift system a submersible elevator raises the ship to a level equal
to a quayside complex and, by then using a system of bogies, transfers
the ship to its allocated space where above ground facilities exist for
such activities as underwater repairs and painting. Other so-called
ship elevator and transfer systems are available, and they are ideally
suited for the repair and inspection of small to medium sized ships.

Synthetic lubricants Synthetic lubricants are different from those

based on a mineral oil content, in that the former use synthesized base
stocks which are considerably more expensive than conventional base
stocks. Synthetic lubricants have a high viscosity index (which see) due
to their enhanced molecular structure and they are superior to mineral
oil in many of their other lubrication properties. The lubrication of air
compressors, gas turbines and purifiers is now entrusted to synthetic
lubricants by many shipowners. Other machinery ideally suited for
the use of synthetic lubricants are turbochargers and refrigerator com-
pressors. The main benefit of using synthetic lubricants is to extend
the mean time before overhaul (MTBO) interval and therefore reduce
manpower costs.

Systeme International (SI) The 51 system of measurement is

endorsed by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) and is
being progressively introduced throughout the world. There are seven
basic 51 units of measurement as listed below; Metre is the unit of
length defined by reference to radiation of Krypton 86. Kilogram is
the unit of weight compared with the standard held at 5evres. Second
is the unit of time compared with the radiation of Caesium 133.
Ampere is the unit of electrical current expressed as a force in Newtons.
Kelvin is the unit of temperature related to the equilibrium point of
Systeme International (51)

water, ice and water vapour. Candela is the unit of luminous intensity
related to platinum. Finally, Mole is the unit of amount of substance
related to Carbon 12.
Tank cleaning Tank cleaning techniques, especially in the case of
tankers, have improved considerably over the years. Many years ago
it was standard practice to clean the cargo tanks of oil tankers by what
were called Butterworth machines which simply directed jets of hot
seawater over the tank surfaces in what was a time-consuming labour
intensive activity. The Butterworth tank cleaning machines were port-
able, and had to be manhandled from tank to tank and then connected
to portable flexible hoses. Cleaning oil with salt water was barely
effective and the whole operation most inefficient. By contrast, modern
tank cleahing techniques using crude oil washing (which see) tech-
niques are extremely effective and much less labour intensive.
Tank coatings Tank coatings are applied to protect the steel surfaces
of the tanks from corrosive or other forms of attack occasioned either
by the cargo being carried or from ballast water. Cargo tank coatings
must be chosen carefully having regard to the portfolio of possible
cargoes carried by oil product and chemical tankers. It is not possible
to apply one particular coating that will satisfactorily protect the steel-
work from all the many cargoes currently offered, and some sort of
compromise must be made. Ballast tank coatings only have to deal
with one identifiable attack mechanism in the form of seawater, but
even so there are many formulations available. Currently fashionable
coatings for cargo tanks include polyamine epoxies, polyamide
epoxies, epoxy phenolic and zinc silicate.
Tank drainage All double-bottom tanks must be provided with
adequate means to allow free passage of air and water from all parts
of the tanks to the air pipes and pump suctions. This is accomplished
by arranging sufficient air holes at the top and drain holes at the
bottom of all non-watertight structural members forming components
of these tanks. The combined area of these holes must exceed the
capacity of the filling and pumping arrangements.
Tankers The first purpose-built oil tankers which used the hull
envelope as the tank boundary were built in the United Kingdom
around 1886. Prior to this date most oil was transported aboard con-
ventional ships in barrels or casks but the rapid growth in oil con-
sumption made this impracticaL Early purpose-built tankers were
built with transverse shell framing in similar fashion to dry cargo
ships built at the time. In the early part of the 20th century longitudinal
Tank level gauging

framing, then referred to as the Isherwood system in honour of its

designer, became popular and is still used for tanker construction. The
size of large crude oil tankers continually grew until they peaked at
around 570,000DWT in the late 1970sbut has nowadays stabilised at
around 300,000 DWT. In recent years double hull tankers (which see)
are gradually replacing conventional single hull tankers especially if
they are trading to the United States.
Tanker safety and pollution prevention (TSPP) Shortly after the
International Maritime Organisation (IMO) introduced the 1973
Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention a series of tanker accidents
took place in the winter of 1976-1977.These accidents led to increased
calls for further preventive measures to be taken and the TSPP con-
ference was held in 1978. This resulted in the adoption of a protocol
to the 1973 MARPOL Convention which is now known as MARPOL
73/78. Further measures included in the 1978 protocol mainly con-
cerned the introduction of crude oil washing (which see), and pro-
tectively located segregated ballast tanks (see Segregated ballast
Tanker structure co-operation forum (TSCF) TSCF is a joint effort
consisting of members drawn from the major classification societies,
oil majors, independent tanker owners and others concerned in the oil
industry whose joint aim is to eliminate structural problems in tankers
by promulgating advice developed to overcome a known fault found
in service. One such problem concerned premature fractures found in
the side shell longitudinal frames of a very large crude oil (VLCC)
tanker and it was postulated that the use of asymmetrical sections in
this highly stressed region was to blame and advice given not to use
these sections at this particular location. Other such incidents are
circularised among members made to improve the design detail of
affected parts.
Tank level gauging To determine the level of liquid in a tank, hence
its contents, has been the subject of much development over the years.
In the early days hand held sounding rods, lines or tapes were
employed, usually under the control of the long gone ship's carpenter,
who took daily tank soundings and entered the results on a sounding
board and in a book held onboard. Pneumercator sounding devices
using air pressure to balance the column of liquid in the tank became
popular around four decades or so ago and are still in use. Sounding
devices using electrical resistance tapes are also in general use. More
recently tank sounding devices based on the radar principle are
Tank level gauging

gaining in popularity. These consist of a radar transmitting device

mounted on the top of the tank which measures the distance between
itself and the liquid level, so allowing the contents to be determined.
Tank testing In this connection tank testing refers to a ship model
test tank of which there are many located throughout the world (see
Model test). A test tank can also be used for various other means, for
example the design of fixed structures such as bridges and offshore
oil production modules. In the case of ship design a model is towed
through the tank and its frictional resistance through the water mea-
sured in an attempt to obtain the most efficient design. The test tank
can also assimilate various weather conditions and give a good indi-
cation of a ship's seakeeping capabilities.
Tank Top The tank top or inner bottom of a ship is a flat steel
platform running the full length of the ship from collision bulkhead
to the aft peak bulkhead. The tank top plating within the machinery
space is of increased thickness and is also reinforced where the main
engine seating is placed. On bulk carriers designed to carry heavy
cargoes such as iron ore the tank top plating within the cargo holds is
also of increased thickness to prevent damage from cargo discharge
grabs. The tank top plating of container ships is also of increased
thickness and with additional stiffening where the container stacks
are supported.
Tank vessel examination letter (TVEL) The TVEL is one of many
documents that have arisen directly or indirectly as a result of the
Exxon Valdez incident which occurred off the coast of Alaska in March
1989. The main outcome of this incident was the introduction by
the United States Coast Guard (USCG) of the Oil Pollution Act 1990
(OPA90).Since then certain refinements have taken place, and one of
these is the TVEL which has been introduced to show evidence that
any tanker employed in lightering operations within an area coming
under US jurisdiction complies with all the many aspects of OPA90,
and a USCG inspector will ascertain that this is the case.
Taper In this connection taper refers to the gradual reduction in
strength and thickness of the shell envelope and deck plating from its
maximum value at midships to the minimum allowed at fore and aft
ends of the ship. The static forces and loads acting on the hull structure
are assumed to be at their maximum midships and the scantlings and
plate thicknesses are also at a maximum at this position. Classification
rules allow a gradual reduction in these parameters towards the fore
and aft ends, except for ships classed for operation in ice conditions
Test kits

or for those ships requiring a high level of longitudinal strength, for

example container ships and fully open type bulk carriers which have
restrictions on the amount of taper allowed.
Techno super-liner (TSL) The TSLis a recent Japanese research and
development (R&D)programme aimed at producing a high speed but
rather small ship having a limited range suitable only for inter-island
voyages around Japan. Designs considered during the programme
included hybrid versions of both hydrofoil and air cushion vehicles
(ACV) capable of operating in the sea states expected in the area of
operation. Several of the major Japanese shipyards took part in the
programme and large scale models of each of the two basic designs
were constructed. Both models were powered by gas turbine driven
waterjets and the chosen full scale design will eventually be con-
structed only after port facilities are made available.
Telegraph .The telegraph was used for many years to enable the
officer on the bridge of a ship to give the engineroom staff instructions
about how many revolutions the propeller should turn during docking
or undocking a ship. These were indicated on the telegraph dial as
Full, Half, Slow, Dead Slow in either direction, also Stop, Stand By and
Finished With Engines were also shown on the dial. A mechanical
system of wires and chains transmitted the signal between bridge and
engineroom. Electric telegraphs are nowadays more frequently used,
and even more recently the bridge control system (which see) has
replaced the telegraph on many ships.
Tensile strength Is the standard method used to determine the
strength of a metal and is based on its ability to withstand various loads
in service. It is usually expressed in units as Newtons per millimetre
squared (N/ mm2) and is verified in a tensile test machine in which a
specimen is "pulled". The ultimate tensile stress is that at which the
material fails in the test machine, and for shipbuilding quality steels
this is between 400 and 490 N/mm2. The minimum yield stress is
adjudged to be a material's safe working limit, and this is around 230
N/mm2 for shipbuilding-quality steels. Steels with a higher tensile
strength of around 350 N/mm2 minimum yield stress are nowadays
frequently used in shipbuilding practice (see High tensile steeD.
Test kits Test kits, in this particular instance are portable kits sup-
plied to ships to enable ships' staff to carry out limited tests on the
quality of either fuel or lubricating oils. They are not intended to
replace laboratory tests carried out ashore either by independent
organisations in the case of unused fuel oils or by the oil suppliers in
Test kits

the case of used lubricating oils. Fuel oil test kits usually incorporate
means for testing density, viscosity, water content, compatibility and
carbon residue and can give a reasonable indication of the fuel oil's
suitability. Test kits for use on used lubricating oils tend to be much
simpler and concentrate on the viscosity, water and insoluble content,
also the acidity of the sample.
Thermal efficiency The thermal efficiency of a heat engine could
quite simply be described as its ability to convert the heat contained
in the fuel into mechanical work. The mechanical equivalent of heat
was defined by Joule and it was he who illustrated that heat and work
are mutually convertible. So that, knowing what this conversion factor
is, it becomes a rather straightforward task to convert the heat value
in the fuel into mechanical work, and when comparing this with the
mechanical work actually produced by the heat engine we can arrive
at the thermal efficiency. '{he thermal efficiency of a modem steam
turbine is around 32 per cent and that of a modem two-stroke marine
diesel engine around 52 per cent.
Thermal oil systems Thermal oil heating systems have been
employed aboard several ships as an alternative to the more com-
monly used steam heating systems. In a thermal oil system the cir-
culating medium is oil, which is usually heated in an oil fired coil type
boiler and circulated around the consumers by means of a pump.
Several advantages over the traditional steam heating systems are
claimed, for example higher temperatures at corresponding lower
pressures to steam can be employed and thinner tubes or coils used
in the pipe systems and heat exchangers. The need for a condenser or
drains cooler is also eliminated. It must be said that thermal oil systems
are currently not as popular as steam heating systems.
Thermal overload Thermal overload on a marine diesel engine
occurs when the heat load cannot be satisfactorily removed by the
jacket or piston cooling system usually due to the introduction of a
mechanical overload. This can occur if the underwater hull is heavily
fouled or if the propeller has suffered mechanical damage. If insuf-
ficient combustion air is being supplied to the engine due to a fouled
turbocharger or air cooler, or if the quality of the fuel oil is poor,
then thermal overload can also occur. It manifests itself by fractured
cylinder liners or piston crowns in severe cases.
Thermodynamics The study of thermodynamics is concerned with
the relationship between heat, work and the properties of those sub-
stances used in the thermodynamic process, for example steam and
Threshold limit value (TLV)

air. There are two basic laws of thermodynamics, the first being that
heat and work are mutually convertible as postulated by Joule and
used to calculate the thermal efficiency (which see) of a heat engine.
The second law of thermodynamics states in simple terms that heat
cannot flow from a cold to a hot body and it must always be the
reverse. This second law inhibits the amount of ingenuity available to
increase the thermal efficiency of a heat engine, and it would appear
unlikely that further significant improvements can ever be made under
its constraints.
Thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) TMCP is a
method employed by Japanese steelmakers to manufacture high
tensile steel (HTS) as used in shipbuilding, and it differs from what
might be called conventional HTS. The carbon equivalent content of
TMCP high tensile steel is below 0.36 per cent, whereas the carbon
equivalent content of conventional high tensile shipbuilding steel is
between 0.39 and 0.43 per cent which contributes to giving TCMP
high tensile steel an increased toughness. The use of TMCP high
tensile steel is a comparatively recent development and problems have
allegedly been reported in service. These concern premature fractures
in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of welds connecting TMCP sections.
Thickness measurement This relates to the determination of plate
thicknesses in order to comply with the requirements of classification
societies during a ship's special survey. In the case of Lloyd's Register
of Shipping (LRS) and other classification societies the thickness
measurements are nowadays taken with ultrasonic test equipment,
usually by a specialised firm approved by the relevant society. Thick-
ness measurements vary in content and scope depending on the age
and type of ship involved, with tankers and combination carriers
having more onerous requirements than other ship types of similar
age. Prior to the acceptance of ultrasonic devices thickness deter-
mination was by a drill test whereby holes were drilled in the plates
under test.
Threshold limit value (TLV) The TLV is a reference used to deter-
mine the exposure levels capable of being tolerated by human beings
under controlled conditions. It is usually expressed as the con-
centration of a substance in air measured in parts per million (ppm),
or in milligrams per centimetre cubed, which must not be exceeded if
an eight-hour exposure over lengthy periods is experienced by the
persons involved. In the shipping industry TLVis used aboard chemi-
cal tankers which often carry substances posing dangers to ships'
Threshold limit value (TLV)

personnel in contact with them either by inhalation or by being

absorbed by the body. Carbontetrachloride is one such substance
carried aboard chemical tankers which has a TLV of only two ppm.
Many organisations connected with the chemical industry publish
lists of substances and their recommended TLVsfor the use of ships'
Throwaway tankers The so-called throwaway tanker was an
expression used to describe oil tankers built under what were referred
to as optimised design techniques introduced by classification societies
and shipbuilders in an attempt to reduce steelweight, and therefore
construction costs in a competitive market. Structural problems with
tankers built under optimised design techniques arose which led to a
much shorter operational life, hence the expression. The situation
appears to have been retrieved by the adoption of direct calculation
methods more aligned to the actual stress and fatigue factors imposed
on a tanker's hull structure in service.
Thrust bearings Thrust bearings usually embody a flanged collar
and are provided on propulsion engines of all types to absorb the
thrust generated by the propeller and thereby prevent damage to the
engine or gearing should the propeller shaft move axially as a result
of this thrust. Steam turbines also have to be provided with thrust
bearings on each rotor shaft to absorb the steam thrust imparted to
the turbine blades. Thrust bearings are available in various forms
either of the fixed or tilting pad design, and they incorporate a wedge
action to provide an effective hydrodynamic lubricating oil film
between pad and shaft collar.
Tie bolts These are the massive vertically positioned bolts which
hold the bedplate, frame box and cylinder jackets firmly together.
These parts are the major components of slow-speed crosshead-type
main propulsion engines. The tie bolts run the full height of the engine
from bedplate to the top of the jackets and keep the parts in tension
and also absorb the combustion forces when the engine is running.
They are tensioned by means of hydraulic pressure usually of around
700 Kg/ cm2 and this is periodically checked.
Timber freeboards Ships intending to carry timber deck cargoes on
a regular basis can be assigned a timber freeboard or load line. In order
to obtain the freeboard various classification requirements have to be
met, the most important being that the freeboard deck is capable of
supporting the weight of stowed cargo at its intended height. Other
arrangements usually asked for by the classification society include
Title XI finance

the provision of a forecastle, subdivision of certain double bottom

tanks and permanent bulwarks or strong ship's side guard rails. More
obvious requirements are the provision of uprights to secure the deck
cargo complete with a lashing system. Access arrangements including
a walkway over the deck cargo with access to all essential equipment,
for example fire hydrants, vent flaps and sounding pipes must also be
provided. A reduced freeboard is then usually assigned, characterised
by an additional freeboard mark alongside the original mark and
prefixed with the letter L at each of the load lines.
Tin babbit corrosion Tin babbit corrosion was a phenomenon which
mainly affected the rotor bearings of steam turbine propelled ships
several years ago. It manifested itself by a glazed hardened look about
the normally soft white metal surfaces of these bearings, which in
some instances resulted in scoring of the rotor shafts in contact with
the bearings. Most cases appeared to occur when water was present
in the lubricating oil system and was exacerbated if molybdenum was
used in the turbine rotor material. By keeping the lubricating oil
system free from water and maintaining the various additive content
at prescribed levels the problem largely disappeared. The problem
first appeared when the steam turbine was in decline and the lack of
further problems could be statistically linked to this.
Titanic The sinking of the Titanic in 1912 with the loss of 1,517
lives drew the attention of the authorities first to providing adequate
subdivision on passenger ships to spaces below the freeboard deck
and for the need to have adequate lifeboat capacity on each side of the
ship to cater for extreme lists. The incident also led eventually to Safety
of Life at Sea regulations, then exercised on an individual basis but
now controlled by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). A
modern passenger ship could survive an incident which befell Titanic
with the possible exception of the ro-ro passenger ferry whose sub-
division requirements are presently under review. Lifeboat capacity
supplemented by liferafts is nowadays capable of evacuating all pass-
engers and crew even if the ship is listing as seriously as the Titanic.
Title XI finance Title XI finance is a US Marine Administration
(MARAD) arrangement which was first introduced way back in the
1930sto encourage US shipowners to build their ships in US shipyards
by offering them attractive finance terms. More recently it has been
extended to allow non-US shipowners to build their ships in US ship-
yards, also on attractive terms. US shipyards can also receive funding
from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (which see).
Tokyo Mou

Tokyo Mou The so-called Tokyo Memorandum of Understanding

(Mou) on port state control (PSC) is a spin off from the original Paris
MOU (which see). 12 countries in the Pacific and Australasia regions
have entered into a voluntary agreement which was first introduced
in April 1994. A database maintained in Canada records details of
ships found with safety deficiencies visiting the ports of member
states. Canada is also a member of the Paris MOU and therefore
has access to deficiencies found in both Atlantic and Pacific coastal
Tonnage measurement The definition of a ship's tonnage was
subject to several interpretations. The matter was finally resolved by
the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) which formulated a
universal system of tonnage measurement by the introduction of the
International Convention on Tonnage Measurement, which entered
force in 1982. This Convention relates to the gross and net tonnages
of a ship, which are generally used for commercial aspects of ship
operation, for example dues and fees and the like. Displacement
tonnage is the weight of a ship and its contents at any particular
draught. Deadweight tonnage is the weight of cargo aboard and can
include fuel, water and stores if so defined. Finally the lightship
tonnage (or weight) is that of the ship proper and is the difference
between displacement and deadweight tonnages for all practical pur-
Tonnes per centimetre (TPC) The TPC is a method used to deter-
mine the weight of cargo in tonnes needed to either increase or reduce
the mean draught of a ship by one centimetre. It is an extremely useful
method when used during loading or discharging cargo, and gives
those responsible a means of acquainting terminal operators on how
cargo movement is proceeding. Prior to the introduction of metric
draught marks the method was known as the tons per inch (TPI). A
TPC for a Panamax built carrier would be in the region of 60 and for
a VLCC about 150.
Top bracings Top bracings are in the form of a stay and are used to
secure large marine diesel engines of slow speed two-stroke design to
the hull structure. Not all these engines require top bracings, but
certain cylinder configurations are so provided. They are basically
required to dampen guide force moments generated by the revolving
masses which, if unrestrained, would excite vibration. Modern think-
ing is to use hydraulic bracings which dampen the guide force
moments but at the same time allow for normal deformation of the

hull structure to which they are attached, as for example when working
Topping winch In a traditional cargo handling derrick system
working in the union purchase mode (which see) a topping winch is
used to secure the position of the derricks relative to cargo hold or
quayside. The topping winch is permanently connected to the wire
(topping lift) itself attached to the derrick, and each time the derrick
is raised or lowered the topping winch is used, usually driven by a
wire attached to the cargo winch drum end. In a modem cargo system
the topping winch can be incorporated into the derrick slewing oper-
ation, and both these functions are power operated giving full control
of derrick movement with instantaneous response at all times.
Torsional vibration Torsional vibration is a phenomenon caused by
the oscillating forces acting on the crankshaft of an internal combustion
engine by the reciprocating masses. The stresses so induced can lead
to operational problems and the crankshafts of all marine diesel
engines are subject to torsional vibration calculations by the classi-
fication society involved, and in some cases these are verified by
taking torsiograph readings during sea trials. If the stresses induced
by torsional vibration exceed classification society limits a barred
speed range will be imposed restricting continuous operation of the
engine through the range of revolutions so effected. In severe cases it
has been found that the provision of a torsional vibration damper or
detuner will reduce torsional stresses to an acceptable level.
Torsion box girder Most container ships of modem design are con-
structed with what are called torsion box girders. Because of the
comparatively low level of structural steelwork members within the
container hold spaces to enhance carrying capacity torsion box girders
are provided at port and starboard sides of the hold space at freeboard
deck level. These box girders are integral with the hull and are typically
of rectangular cross section and can be used as access passageways to
the forward end of the ship if considered necessary. Their main
purpose is however to enhance the structural strength somewhat
depleted on these ships by having large hatch openings and wide
cargo holds.
Torsionmeters Torsionmeters are used to measure the power being
transmitted in the shafting, usually of a propulsion engine. They work
by measuring the angle of twist in the shaft which is directly pro-
portional to the power. The angle of twist is first converted to torque,
and when multiplied by the revolutions the transmitted power either

in horsepower or kilowatts can then be derived. The angle of twist in

the shafting is comparatively small, and torsionmeters must be capable
of measuring this. One type of torsionmeter uses the change in fre-
quency of oscillating wires, and another the change in direction of a
beam of light to measure the angle of twist.
Total acid number (TAN) Total acid number is obtained as a result
of a test carried out usually on used lubricating oils, although it can
be employed on unused fuel oils if considered necessary. From the
result of the TAN test on used lubricating oils it is possible to conduct
further tests in order to establish what proportion of the total acid is
of the strong or weak variety. This then can give an insight into the
reason for the presence of acids. Contamination of the lubricating
oil by combustion products (notably sulphur) usually leads to the
presence of strong inorganic acids, whereas the presence of weak acid
would indicate ageing or oxidation of the oil. Oil refiners also test the
TAN of fuels at the refinery as a quality control measure.
Total base number (TBN) The TBN is usually given to indicate the
level of alkalinity in either new or used lubricating oils. It is the
amount of potassium hydroxide needed to neutralise an oil having an
equivalent amount of acid added. The result is expressed in milligrams
of potassium hydroxide per gramme of oil (mgm KOHl gm). Modern
cylinder oils used on two-stroke crosshead type diesel engines will
use oils having a rather high TBN of around 70 to combat acidic
attack from the products of combustion. Lubricating oils used in the
crankcase systems will have TBNs ranging from 10 to 30 depending
on engine type and quality of the fuel in use. Tests are periodically
taken on system oils to check whether the alkalinity reserve is at a
satisfactory level.
Totally enclosed motors These are electric motors intended to drive
essential equipment located in a space or compartment liable to be
affected by seawater or bilge water and are sealed against ingress of
water. Typical examples would be motors located at tank top level in
a machinery space or motors driving deck machinery located on the
exposed upperdeck. Such electric motors are likely to be wholly or
partially immersed in sea or bilge water for infrequent periods, and it
is essential that the motor enclosure is capable of preventing water
Total sediment tests These are laboratory tests carried out on fuel
oil samples to identify what type of sediment is present in the fuel
under test. A simple total sediment test will give the percentage of all

the sediment present, and if the samples are then washed in toluene
any asphaltenes present will be dissolved, leaving only comparatively
harmless inorganic sediment. More complicated total sediment tests
are now used to indicate whether asphaltenes present in the fuel have
the capability to precipitate out during prolonged storage aboard
or during treatment. Both of these undesirable features can lead to
operational problems.
Tovalop Tovalop is a voluntary scheme entered into by tanker
owners to provide them with cover in the event of liability if an
accident involving oil pollution were to occur. Tovalop is only one of
several schemes available to shipowners to protect their interests in
the event of oil pollution, and it is specifically aimed at meeting clean
up costs involved by a governmental department of the country whose
coastline or beaches are fouled. Tovalop does not cover oil pollution
from oil cargoes and only covers that resulting from oil being carried
as bunkers.
Traffic separation schemes (TSS) There are various traffic sep-
aration schemes in existence, usually in congested or restricted
stretches of water, posing a high risk of collision between passing
ships. Most of these schemes embody a central prohibited area which
can only be entered under carefully controlled regulations or in
extreme emergency. Typical high density areas in which TSS are
employed include the English Channel and the Straits of Istanbul, and
adjoining areas. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is
the authority controlling TSSs which formulates the various control
features necessary to ensure that safe navigational practices are avail-
able for all expected conditions.
Tramp Ship The tramp ship was a term applied to the numerous
ships employed in non-liner shipping activities and was typically a
10,000 tonne deadweight tween-decker provided with five holds/
hatches and a set of derricks. A whole range of cargoes could be
carried, although not as successfully as a purpose-built bulk carrier
which has largely replaced the tramp ship, and the term nowadays is
hardly ever used.
Transtainers Transtainers are a form of wheeled crane used to move
freight containers around a container terminal to and from their
stowed position in a row of containers to either a vehicle called a
straddle carrier or more recently a computer controlled trolley, and
thence to the portainer (which see) or to the road/rail transport vehicle.
They are designed so that they can readily pass along a high stack of

containers to seek out their target and then move it to its intended
position. They can be manufactured with either four, eight or sixteen
rubber tyred wheels or even be provided with wheels suitable for rail
tracks, depending on the arrangements at the container terminal.

Tribology Tribology is a comparatively new word introduced to

describe the science of lubrication and all its many facets. The subject
of tribology covers not only the properties of the numerous lubricants
available but also such matters as frictional resistance in its many
forms and the materials used in bearing design. The various types of
motion met up with in machinery design are also included, for
example linear sliding motion as in a diesel engine piston, rotary
motion as in bearings and that involved in gears and cams, all of
which apply to the marine sector.

Tricat The tricat is a novel form of high speed catamaran distinctive

because of a central bow mounted between the twin hulls. When at
service speed in rough weather all vessels tend to pitch uncomfortably,
and the catamaran is no exception. By employing a central bow it
gives added buoyancy forward similar to that of a bulbous bow and
significantly reduces pitching and slamming in poor weather con-
ditions. Tricats first entered service on the Hong Kong-Macau route in
1995 and are of aluminium construction. Propulsion is by gas turbine
driven waterjets giving a service speed of around 45 knots.

Trim Trim is the forward and aft position a ship assumes in the water
on account of the distribution of weight relating to the cargo, ballast
or bunkers. If a ship has equal draughts forward and aft she is on an
even keel and therefore has no trim. Most ships tend to trim by the
stem for performance enhancement reasons and also to promote tank
drainage towards the pump suctions, always placed at the aft end of
a tank. Classification societies and national administrations specify
allowable limits of trim for stability and safety reasons.

Trim and stability calculations Every ship has to be provided with

trim and stability calculations under various conditions of loading
based on the ship's centre of gravity as determined by the Inclining
Experiment (which see). These calculations are usually submitted in
booklet form and cover such conditions as: light ship, ballast, various
loading possibilities, arrival and departure conditions and various
fuel capacity conditions. These can be referred to by the ship's staff
when considering the stability of the ship. The allowable range of trim
and stability with respect to structural survivability and propeller
Tug barge systems

immersion must not be exceeded and ballast water may have to be

taken onboard to correct the situation.
Trunk piston engines These are internal combustion engines which
use the piston skirt or trunk to absorb the side thrust generated when
converting reciprocating to rotary motion, unlike the crosshead engine
which uses crossheads and guides for this purpose. Trunk piston
diesel engines used in marine applications are invariably of four-
stroke design, and they form the vast majority of engines used for
electricity generation and can be either medium or high speed.
Medium speed trunk piston diesel engines are also used for the pro-
pulsion of passenger cruise liners and ro-ro ferries. More recently high
speed trunk piston diesel engines have been used for the propulsion of
High Sea-service Speed (HSS) ships as an alternative to gas turbines.
Tributyltin (TBT) TBT is one of the main ingredients in self-pol-
ishing copolymers (which see) and other anti-fouling paints applied to
the underwater surfaces of ships to discourage the attachment of
marine growth. TBT is effective because of its high level of toxicity,
and it is this which is causing problems with the environmentalists.
The use of paint containing TBTis already banned in certain countries,
for example Japan, and other countries have imposed restrictions on
its use, especially on small pleasure ships. It is expected that the
International Maritime Organisation (IMO) will formulate recom-
mendations on the use of TBTin the near future. Meanwhile the paint
manufacturers are researching alternative acceptable paints.
Tug A tug performs a valuable service to the shipping industry, both
as a help in docking and undocking a ship and when saving a stricken
ship. Harbour tugs used for docking purposes are comparatively
simple vessels of moderate power usually specified as their bollard
pull (which see). Salvage tugs are considerably larger and more power-
ful vessels, and are usually provided with comprehensive fire-fighting
equipment. Propulsion is usually by controllable pitch propellers
located in a duct or nozzle to enhance bollard pull. Under recent
legislation enacted by the UK government salvage tugs are supposed
to be located around the UK coastline (see Safer Ships Cleaner Seas).
Tug barge systems Tug barge systems are those which integrate the
separate functions of each participant for what usually is a specific
trade in somewhat sheltered waters. In a typical application the aft end
of the barge will be provided with a notch into which a corresponding
protrusion on the bow of the tug will fit, therefore making a secure
connection without the need for tow lines. Particularly on short sea
Tug barge systems

routes fewer tugs than barges can be utilised leading to a cost effective
operation both with respect to capital cost and operating expenses.

Tumble-home Tumble-home is the distance by which the side shell

of a ship is reduced in width at freeboard deck level from that of its
maximum beam. The vast majority of ships are nowadays built with
vertical sides and therefore have no tumble-home. However certain
ships are still built with a tumble-home, for example small passenger
cruise liners in order to improve their appearance. The original
purpose of tumble-home was to accommodate the under-deck guns
of wooden warships.

Turbines Turbines are rotary machines used for producing energy

whether they are driven by steam, water, wind or combustion gases.
In marine applications steam and gas turbines consist of a bladed rotor
revolving in a casing also provided with blades and are in fairly
limited use, the former for the propulsion of liquid natural gas (LNG)
tankers and the latter for the propulsion of High Sea-service Speed
(HSS) ships in conjunction with waterjets. The steam turbine is gen-
erally acknowledged to be the invention of Sir Charles Parsons and
the gas turbine was developed by Sir Frank Whittle.

Turbochargers Turbochargers are a form of gas turbine used to

provide more combustion air into the combustion space of marine
internal combustion engines, and in other industries they are some-
times referred to as superchargers. In marine applications turbo-
chargers are now provided on all diesel engines used for propulsion
or electricity generation purposes. They are driven by the energy
contained in the exhaust gases of the engine to which they are attached.
Recent improvements in the design of turbochargers have led to
extremely high efficiencies and pressure ratios and with it the possi-
bility of increasing both the output and power-to-weight ratio of
marine diesel engines.

Turbo compound systems (TCS) The TCSwas developed at a period

when fuel oil costs reached their peak in the mid 1980sand shipowners
made strenuous efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of their ships.
A typical TCS system then favoured by the owners of high powered
ships would comprise a power turbine (which see) and also a steam
turbine driven by steam supplied by an exhaust gas economiser. Both
these turbines would be connected by gearing to an alternator which
could supply electricity either to the auxiliary circuits or to a motor
connected to the propeller shaft. The high cost and complexity of the
Twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU)

TCS coupled with a softening in fuel oil costs have made them less
T~bulent flow In simple terms water flow can be either uniform or
turbulent depending on its velocity having regard to the operating
conditions. In water pumping systems turbulent flow can be caused
by abrupt changes in piping sections or from using valves and fittings
having irre~larly shaped internal parts, and it is for this reason that
sluice valves are in general use. Water flow into a ship's propeller can
also be turbulent if the aft end geometry is poor. Turbulent flow here
represents a loss of energy and can also result in cavitational erosion
to propeller and rudder nose.
Turning circles The steering capabilities of a ship can be illustrated
with the use of turning circles. These are in graphic form and are
usually taken during acceptance sea trials of a newly built ship. They
are posted adjacent to the helm in the wheelhouse and are particularly
useful to pilots who are generally unfamiliar with all the varying
steering capabilities of the numerous ships they are asked to navigate
in and out of port. The speed of the ship and the diameter of the
turning circle are clearly shown in the graphic illustration.
Turn of bilge This is the radiused part of the bottom shell where it
joins the lower end of the side shell at port and starboard sides of a
ship, and is also known as the bilge radius. It is made this shape to
avoid any abrupt change in section at what is a highly stressed part of
the structure. It is at this part of the hull that the bilge keel (which see)
is attached.
Tween decks This is an abbreviation of between decks, so called
because they were placed between the upper deck and the tank top
which formed the lowermost deck of a ship. It was not uncommon for
large cargo liner type ships built for the carriage of general cargo to
have more than one tween deck, then referred to as the upper and
lower tween decks. This type of ship could then be built as open or
closed shelterdeckers which determined if the upper deck or the tween
deck was designated as the main strength, or freeboard, deck for
classification purposes. The open shelterdeck ship is not now per-
mitted to be built.
Twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) TED is the term used to describe
the standard size of container which is nominally 20 feet in length.
The width of the standard container is eight feet, but this is rarely
given when describing the size of containers. The height of containers
Twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU)

can vary between eight feet and nine feet six inches, but whatever
their height they can still be located in the standard 20 by eight feet
cell guide arrangement onboard, albeit fewer of the maximum hei&ht
could be carried. Other lengths of container are in general use, for
example forty-foot equivalent unit (which see), and there are also
several non-standard lengths in use generally restricted to the North
American trade.
Two-cycle engine The two-cycle (stroke) diesel engine now reigns
supreme as the first choice of propulsion for the majority of medium
to large sized dry cargo ships and tankers and is also making inroads
into the smaller size ships. It owes its popularity to its high thermal
efficiency, ease of maintenance, mean time between overhaul (MTBO)
and the fact that it can be used as a direct drive and therefore does not
require a gearbox to reduce propeller revolutions. It is invariably of
crosshead design and has the ability to bum poor quality fuel oil
without the risk of contaminating the lubricating oil system.
Ullage In this connection ullage .refers to the space above the cargo
level in the tanks of oil or chemical tankers and it extends to the
underside of the deck. The ullage space on oil tankers contains highly
explosive gases, and for this reason it is filled with inert gas under the
International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) requirements relating to
the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention. The liquid contents of
tanks aboard oil and chemical tankers are usually determined by their
ullage reading rather than by sounding, as is the case on other ships.
This is probably on account of the comparatively short distance
between liquid level and tank top compared with the lengthy distance
between liquid level and tank bottom, making the measurement of
ullage that much easier.
Ultimate container carrier (UCC) The DCC is a term used to describe
the large post Panamax coverless container ships built in Japan for the
Dutch Nedlloyd group in the early 1990s. The main aim of the DCC
concept was to reduce inport times by virtually eliminating the hand-
ling and stowage of hatch covers. Hatch covers are provided on the
forward two holds so that hazardous cargoes can be carried in the
upperdeck containers. The lack of a horizontal division eliminated by
not having hatch covers on the other five holds enhances cargo plan-
ning and the ondeck cell guides eliminate the need for the numerous
container securing devices previously required.
Ultimate dream passenger ship The ultimate dream passenger ship
concept was the brainchild of Ravi TIkko who attempted to build such
Ultraviolet sterilisers

a vessel in the 1980s. It was designed to carry over 3,000 passengers

in a high level of comfort, and many novel features were included in
the design. In the event it was not possible to obtain the necessary
finance for the project and it was not proceeded with, although recently
ordered passenger cruise liners are approaching the size of the ultimate
Ultimate tensile strength The ultimate tensile strength of any
material is that at which it will fail under a sustained load. In the case
of a ship's structure or its components a factor of safety is introduced,
so that the ultimate tensile strength is not reached in service. Certain
improper construction methods can result in the ultimate tensile
strength being exceeded, and probably the most common of these is
due to misalignment of adjoining structural members. Such factors as
fatigue and corrosion can also result in the ultimate tensile strength of
the material being exceeded.
Ultra large bulk carrier (ULBC) The largest ULBC so far is the
Korean built Berge Stahl which entered service in 1986and is of 363,767
tonnes deadweight. ULBCs have not proved to be popular and are
usually built with a specific trade or charter in mind which includes
having the necessary port facilities to handle such large dimensioned
ships. The design of ULBCs follows that of the conventional bulk
carrier having a single hull, double bottom and topside tank con-
Ultra large crude carrier (ULCC) The largest ULCC is the Seawise
Giant which claimed the record after being lengthened in 1980. Seawise
Giant is 564,739 tonnes deadweight and has a length of 458.45 metres
or 1,504feet. She is also the largest merchant ship in the world. Because
of her large dimensions Seawise Giant is severely restricted as to her
area of operation, and very few ULCCs were built probably for this
reason, and it would appear unlikely they will reappear in significant
numbers again.
Ultra violet sterilisers These are very effective in eliminating germs
or harmful microbes in fresh water systems used for human con-
sumption aboard ship. They usually consist of a cylindrical chamber
in the form of a transparent annulus which allows the ultra violet rays
to bombard the water particles as they pass through. To be effective
two sterilisers are recommended, one in the outlet from the fresh
water generator or reverse osmosis plant and one in the shore filling
connection. This ensures that all fresh water is sterilised before con-
sumption onboard. The UK authorities do not permit the use of ultra
Ultra violet sterilisers

violet sterilisers as the sole means of disinfecting fresh water and

chlorine or another approved method must also be provided.
Under piston supercharge This was an arrangement employed on
large four-stroke (cycle) marine diesel engines used for ship pro-
pulsion. The reciprocating actiGn of the underside of the main engine
pistons is utilised to draw atmospheric air into the space on the
upstroke and then compress it on the downstroke. Large disc-type
valves were used to avoid back flow of the compressed air which was
delivered to the inlet valves at pressure. The system has been replaced
by exhaust gas driven turbochargers.
Under pressure loading method Following the Exxon Valdez inci-
dent in 1989many proposals were put forward to limit the outflow of
cargo oil in the event of a similar accident occurring. Basically these
proposals were introduced as alternatives to the double hull tanker
design then thought to be too draconian a measure by many tanker
owners and their representative organisations. The under pressure
method followed the principle that if the cargo tank pressure/vacuum
valves were closed or had their settings altered then bottom damage
suffered by the tanker would result in only a small quantity of oil
escaping before the underpressure in the tank would prevent further
outflow. In the event the underpressure method was not proceeded
with as it was not acceptable to either the United States Coast Guard
(USCG) or the International Maritime Organisation (IMO).
Underwater exhaust systems These are exhaust gas systems which
lead the exhaust gases from main and auxiliary diesel engines to
an underwater position rather than upwards to conventional funnel
uptakes. They avoid the need for a funnel and also allow the space
previously allocated to the uptake pipes to be used for other purposes,
mainly revenue earning if on a passenger ship. When using the under-
water exhaust system it is important that the exhaust pipes are led
directly to the nearest underwater position and that the gases then
breaking through the water surface are clear of air conditioning
intakes. It should also be established that the gases cannot percolate
into areas frequented by passengers under all prevailing wind direc-
Underwater scrubbing Underwater scrubbing refers to a method of
removing marine growth from the bottom and sides of a ship without
the need for or expense of dydocking. There are many organisations
located around the world which can undertake such operations which
are usually costed on the overall length of the ship. Powerful com-
Uniflow steam engine

pressed air driven rotary brushes manipulated by trained divers

quickly remove all marine growth, and video cameras can show the
results of the scrub to the ship's personnel.
Unidirectional construction Unidirectional construction is a
method of building usually double hull tankers with the majority of
supportive steelwork members arranged in a longitudinal direction.
Only a minimum of structural members in a transverse direction are
resorted to, for example double plate transverse bulkheads separating
cargo tanks or ballast tanks. The system lends itself to efficient drain-
age.of cargo oil into the pump suctions, and when used in conjunction
with a crude oil washing (which see) system leads to extremely clean
cargo tanks and also of course ballast tanks.
Unified requirements These refer to rules formulated by the Inter-
national Association of Classification Societies (lACS) which period-
ically publishes rules which have been agreed to by all lACS members
and which are identical in all respects. One of these unified require-
ments is that relating to the hull surveys of bulk carriers with particular
reference to the enhanced survey programme (ESP). In a united
approach all lACS members have targeted specific safety issues and
bulk carriers are only one such area causing concern. Other unified
requirements relate to increased strength of side shell frames and
brackets, coatings in ballast tanks and many other items leading to
increased structural safety.
Uniflow scavenge engines All three surviving two-stroke crosshead
designs of marine diesel engines adopt the uniflow scavenge principle.
In this scavenge system a centrally mounted exhaust valve is located
in the cylinder cover and scavenge ports are radially arranged around
the lower end of the cylinder liners. When the piston uncovers the
exhaust ports approaching its bottom dead centre scavenge air under
pressure enters the cylinder and evacuates the products of combustion
through the now open exhaust valve in a repetitive uniflow action
conducive to a highly efficient scavenging operation.
Uniflow steam engine The uniflow steam engine was developed by
Skinner, a US company, many years ago. In appearance the uniflow
steam engine is similar to a marine diesel engine and employs a similar
welded fabrication construction technique for the framework and
crankcase. The operating principle is that of a compound tandem
layout with the high pressure cylinder mounted directly above the
low pressure cylinder with typically four identical inline units. The
thermal efficiency of the uniflow engine is allegedly close to that of a
Uniflow steam engine

stearn turbine operating at similar pressures and temperatures. If coal

ever became competitively priced with oil then the uniflow engine
could provide a niche in the market for medium powered ships.
Unimak Pass The Unirnak Pass is a passage between two of the
Aleutian Islands in the North Pacific used by many ships sailing from
such ports as Los Angeles to Japanese or Korean ports usually in a
westbound direction to avoid prevailing easterly weather systems ..
After passing through the Unirnak Pass vessels are protected by the
Aleutian chain of islands and can therefore expect more favourable
weather conditions. To conform with Institute Warranty Limits (IWL)
(which see) most insurers insist that vessels using this route are pro-
vided with all modern navigational equipment in full working order
and that up-to-date hydrographic charts covering the area are avail-
able onboard.
Union purchase Union purchase is a system of combining the wires
of derricks used to load and discharge cargo ships equipped with
conventional winches and derricks. In this system each hold is pro-
vided with one or two pairs of derricks and winches and each pair is
provided with wire runners the ends of which are attached to the
winch barrels and the other ends shackled together to form a hook or
similar attachment suitable for the cargo being handled. By man-
ipulating the speed and direction of the winches the wire runner with
its cargo can be positioned at various parts of the hold or quayside. To
facilitate cargo handling operations the angled position of the derricks
can be manually adjusted using slewing guys and topping winches
although these operations can also be mechanically controlled if
United States Coast Guard (USCG) The USCG is the authority
entrusted with the enforcement of the numerous marine regulations
passed. by the US government which apply to all US registered ships,
also vessels of other countries when operating in US waters or when
carrying US citizens as passengers. The US regulations cover a mul-
titude of operational matters ranging from the financial responsibility
of shipowners, drug and alcohol abuse to purely technical matters
such as ship construction and navigational equipment. The safety and
environmental aspects of ship operation are the USCG's main concern
and it has virtually unlimited power in exercising its authority when
the situation demands.
Unmanned machinery spaces (UMS) VMS is a Lloyd's Register of
Shipping (LRS)classification notation which indicates that the machin-
Untrimmed ends

ery spaces can be left unmanned, usually during overnight periods,

and other classification societies have similar notations allowing for
unmanned operation. To obtain the unmanned notation numerous
requirements have to be met so that in the event of any anticipated
system malfunction the machinery is protected against subsequent
damage. This includes alarm and shut down devices on essential
services, also automatic start up of the stand-by equipment all initiated
by carefully thought out signals. An emergency manual override is
usually provided· on the bridge so that the safety of the ship and its
crew is assured if shut down of the main engine would compromise
their safety.
Unseaworthy Is a term used to denote that a ship is not in a safe
condition to put to sea and complete its intended voyage. The legal
definition of unseaworthy has been tested in the courts and can have
far-reaching consequences for a shipowner. Almost any accident suf-
fered by a ship or a member of crew could be put down to the ship
being unseaworthy, although this is only rarely the case. Any known
mechanical, structural or electrical fault or an incompetent crew
member, insufficient bunkers or spare parts, or even incomplete
hydrographic charts have all been used to describe a ship as being
unseaworthy. It is in the shipowner's interest that he makes every
effort to ensure that no fault or shortage exists before the start of a
voyage. If it is found otherwise then the owners of the cargo may
refuse to contribute to their part of any salvage claim.
Unscheduled surveys Most of the major classification societies
reserve the right to conduct unscheduled surveys of either a ship's
structure or its machinery. These surveys are held if the classification
society has reason to believe that its rules and regulations are not being
complied with. Most societies have a clause which makes it incumbent
on a shipowner to inform them if a serious structural defect has
been discovered aboard his ship, and this is usually a condition of
maintaining class. If the society suspects that this has occurred it can
conduct an unscheduled survey for verification.
Untrimmed ends Untrimmed ends is an expression used in con-
nection with cargoes having a high stowage factor expressed in cubic
metres per tonne when they are carried aboard bulk carriers. These
cargoes, for example grain, usually fill the available hold spaces on
bulk carriers and those with small hatch openings can end'up with
large void spaces between hatch opening and transverse hold bulk-
head at a position under the deck. If this is not trimmed then there is
Untrimmed ends

a possibility of the cargo shifting to fill the void in heavy weather

and therefore compromising stability. Each bulk carrier has to have a
document showing the extent of trimming required.
Unwanted aquatic organisms in ballast water This is an Inter-
national Maritime Qrganisation (IMO) initiative introduced mainly to
prevent the spread of viruses from one part of the world to another
by the action of ballasting and deballasting tanks aboard ship. Several
suspected cases of spreading infectious diseases by this operational
practice which is carried out by most ships in the course of their
normal trading patterns have been reported. Solutions to the problem
include heating the ballast water in the tanks to above 45 degrees
centigrade and transferring the ballast water taken aboard in estuarial
waters in mid ocean.
Upper deck This is the uppermost continuous deck which runs the
full length of a ship. In classification terms the upper deck on most
ships is called the freeboard deck or strength deck. This is because the
majority of ships are nowadays built as single deckers, and of course
the upper deck is the only deck and must therefore be the freeboard
deck. On ships built with more than one deck then the upper deck
may not necessarily be the freeboard deck, but it is in the vast majority
of cases.
Vacuum condenser The vacuum condenser is typically a shell and
tube heat exchanger and was first introduced when so-called atmo-
spheric steam engines such as those used on steam railway trains were
replaced by condensing steam engines many years ago. Atmospheric
steam engines were not conducive to marine use, in that a supply of
replacement fresh water to make up the steam vented to the atmos-
phere was not a practical proposition. Vacuum condensers now used
aboard the few remaining steam turbine ships or diesel propelled
tankers. with large steam plants utilise extremely high vacuums
approaching absolute.zero. They are nowadays very reliable mainly
because of the materials used in their construction and rarely give
Vacuum distillation Vacuum distillation is a method used to take
advantage of the reduction in the evaporation temperature of various
liquids by reducing the pressure above the liquid when in a closed
container. The evaporation temperature of water at atmospheric pres-
sure is close to 100degrees centigrade, but by reducing the pressure to
below that of the atmosphere a much lower evaporation temperature is
possible. This principle is used aboard ship in vacuum distillers which,

by mechanically reducing the pressure in the distiller shell, permit the

jacket cooling water at around 80 degrees centigrade to evaporate
seawater into fresh water for consumption onboard. In the oil industry
vacuum distillers are used to refine crude oil into various products
using the same technique.
Vacuum method This is a method proposed for loading oil tankers,
and is similar to the underpressure method (which see) except that a
vacuum is permanently maintained in the ullage space above the
cargo tanks by means of a vacuum pump. This vacuum would ensure
that no oil would leak out in the event of a tanker suffering bottom
damage. Problems relating to the condition of the tank structure and
its ability to withstand the vacuum induced, coupled with the problem
of maintaining an inert gas blanket, virtually sealed the fate of this
Vacuum stripping (Vac-Strip) The Vac-Strip system is designed to
enhance the cargo stripping efficiency of oil tankers without the need
for an independent stripping system with its separate stripping lines
and pumps. The Vac-Strip unit is attached to the main cargo suctIon
lines and consists of a cylindrical separation tank adjacent to each
cargo pump. The separation tank is connected to a vacuum pump and
it also contains a level control unit. When the level of oil in the cargo
tank approaches the lower end of the tank the control unit in the
separation tank starts the vacuum pump, which then evacuates any
air or vapour in the suction lines and at the same time slows down the
speed of the cargo pump so avoiding any vapour locks developing.
The Vac-Strip system is fully automatic and is very efficient in strip-
ping the cargo tanks of oiL
Vacuum toilets Vacuum toilets are becoming increasingly popular
on large cruise liners mainly because of their low weight and reduced
size of piping compared with conventional gravity systems. They are
also considered to be safer than gravity systems, in that noxious gases
such as hydrogen sulphide cannot back up the waste pipes and enter
the passenger or crew spaces, as recently happened with fatal results.
The system is maintained under vacuum which draws the waste into
a collecting tank when the toilet is flushed. Water consumption is low
and the size of the sewage treatment plant needed lower than with a
conventional system.
Vanadium Vanadium is a naturally occurring metallic element
found in many crude oil sources throughout the world. It is not poss-
ible to remove vanadium during the refinery process, nor is it possible

to remove it during purification or treatment onboard. Crude oils

originating from Venezuela are recognised as having the highest
vanadium content but other sources also have high vanadium. A
maximum vanadium content of 600 parts per million (ppm) is
included in the International Standards Organisation Fuel Oil Stan-
dard (ISO 8217) for fuel of the lowest grade and the use of fuel with
this level of vanadium could lead to problems on sensitive plants.
Vanadium pentoxide During the combustion process in either a
boiler furnace or the combustion chamber of a diesel engine or gas
turbine any vanadium contained in the fuel oil will be converted into
vanadium pentoxide. Vanadium pentoxide can give rise to certain
operational problems, namely corrosive attack and metallic deposits
in the high temperature regions especially if sodium is present. Parts
likely to be affected by vanadium pentoxide attack are the rotor blades
of gas turbines, the superheater tubes in steam boilers and the exhaust
valves and piston crowns of diesel engines.
Vane wheel The vane wheel is a freely rotating propeller positioned
directly behind and on the same axis as the main propeller and was
invented by Professor Grim (see Grim wheel).
Vapour emissions Vapour emissions from ships are expected to form
the basis of a new annex to the International Maritime Organisation's
(lMO) Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention in the not too distant
future. They are also referred to as gaseous emissions (which see) and
volatile organic compounds (which see).
Vapour emission control systems (VECS) VECS are located at oil
and chemical tanker terminals and are piping systems designed to
collect vapours emitted from flammable and dangerous cargoes while
they are being loaded into the cargo tanks or while ballast water is
being taken onboard by a tanker at a discharge terminal. The need to
provide a VECS is usually a decision taken by the port authorities
responsible for the terminal and its function is to process, dispense or
destroy the vapours emanating from the tanks to avoid them entering
the atmosphere and contaminating the local environment. Safety
devices are provided on the VECS to avoid the possibility of an acci-
dent occurring on the ship in the event of a malfunction of the system.
Vapour pressure Vapour pressure is usually defined as that pressure
at which a substance in its liquid state is prevented from boiling. When
the pumping of liquids at elevated temperatures is being considered
it is essential to know its vapour pressure so that the suction lift
Variable exhaust valve timing

capabilities of the pump are not exceeded. Pumping seawater rarely

presents a problem as its temperature is usually well below that at
which vapour is formed. In the case of fresh water and petroleum
products being pumped at elevated temperatures it is essential to
know the vapour pressure if vapour locks are to be avoided in the
suction lines.
Vapour return lines These are provided aboard oil and chemical
tankers for use in conjunction with a vapour emission control system
(which see), but are also used in a stand alone function. At the moment
only vapours from crude oil, benzine and petroleum cargoes are
affected and these only at potts in certain US states which have
adopted vapour control requirements. The vapour control lines collect
vapour from the tanks being loaded or ballasted. In conjunction with
the vapour control lines other equipment needed aboard a tanker
includes a pressure monitoring arrangement, closed gauging system
to measure liquid level in the tank and high level alarms on each tank.
The equipment is expensive to install and some tanker owners have
ceased trading to ports which require vapour return lines in order to
avoid this expense.
Variable area nozzle (VAN) This is a mechanical device incor-
porated into a gas turbine in order to enhance specific fuel con-
sumption at part load, a significant factor when considering ship
propulsion systems. Modern diesel engines have extremely good spec-
ific fuel consumptions at part load, whereas gas and steam turbines
do not share this desirable feature. By introducing a VAN system the
gas flow entering the power turbine section can be reduced at part
load and allow higher temperatures to be maintained in crucial parts
of the regenerative system. Gas turbines are starting to enter the
merchant ship propulsion field usually for use in High Sea-service
Speed (HSS)ships and the VAN could prove to be an added attraction.
Variable exhaust valve timing Variable exhaust valve timing is a
recently introduced facility offered for use with slow speed two-stroke
diesel engines of crosshead design. The single centrally mounted
exhaust valve in the cylinder cover can have its timing altered when
the engine is running, previously an impossible task without stopping
the engine and altering the cam position. Variable control is now
effected by electronic or pneumatic means and the benefit of variable
timing is seen at part engine load when earlier closing of the exhaust
valve has the effect of increasing the compression ratio and thereby
reducing specific fuel consumption.
Variable injection timing (VIT)

Variable injection timing (VIT) VIT has long been employed by the
designers of marine diesel engines in a joint attempt first to enhance
specific fuel consumption at part load, and secondly to improve the
engine's ability to deal with poorer quality fuel. VIT enables the critical
period of fuel injection relative to the position of the piston to be varied
either by mechanical or electronic means while the engine is running.
This allows the maximum combustion pressure (P Max) to be main-
tained at optimum value, a prerequisite in enhancing performance
from both a thermal efficiency and combustion efficiency point of
Vee engines The majority of marine diesel engines are built in an
inline configuration whereby a single row of cylinders is served by a
single crankshaft. In a vee engine two banks of cylinders in a V
configuration drive a single crankshaft with opposing pistons in each
bank usually connected to a common crank throw. Veeengines permit
higher powers to be developed in a given machinery space volume,
and they are popular in small fast ferries and similar craft. They are
occasionally used on larger ships when a 16 cylinder engine is needed
to supply the powering requirements, a cylinder configuration not
feasible with an inline engine, mainly because of length restraints, but
often employed in vee engines.
Very large bulk carrier (VLBC) These ships are generally in the
200,000 to 250,000 tonnes deadweight range and are usually purpose
built for dedicated trades, typically iron ore or coal to Japan. They
have not proved to be commercially popular and uncertainty sur-
rounding the future design of bulk carriers, having regard to their loss
rate when carrying heavy cargoes, will not improve their chances.
Very large crude carriers (VLCC) These tankers are in the 250,000
to 300,000 tonnes deadweight range and they have had a somewhat
chequered career. They were first introduced in the mid-1960s after
the first closure of the Suez Canal prompted a move towards larger
and larger tankers. During the several depressions experienced in the
tanker business over recent years many VLCCs bore the brunt of the
effect by spending sometimes months at anchor in the Gulf awaiting
an upturn in rates. More recently VLCCs in the 300,000 tonnes dead-
weight region, many with double hulls, are being built, probably in
anticipation of the large number of aged single hull tankers being seen
as candidates for breaking up.
Very lights (pronounced veery) These are coloured pyrotechnic
lights fired from a starter-type of pistol. They are used as distress
Vibration analysers

signals to signify that a ship is in serious difficulties. Modern radio

techniques have made the use of Very lights more or less obsolete, and
they are nowadays only rarely used for distress purposes.
Vessel response plans (VRP) The VRP is a document required under
the US Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA90) for all tankers trading in US
waters. The Federal Government via the United States Coast Guard
(USeC) is responsible for the implementation of VRPs, but certain US
states have their own requirements which in some cases are different.
The VRP must contain details of what steps a shipowner will take in
the event of an oil spillage occurring on his ship. This will include the
appointment of an oil spill clean up contractor and a qualified US
based individual available on a 24 hours a day basis who would co-
ordinate operations. The VRP is completely different from the ship-
board oil pollution emergency plan (which see) which is required under
regulations issued by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO).
Vessel traffic information systems (VTIS) VTISare complementary
to traffic separation schemes (which see) and they monitor vessel move-
ments using radar, electronic and computer based techniques. They
are basically used to ensure that procedures laid down by approved
traffic separation schemes are followed and they are particularly
useful in high density traffic areas, for example the English Channel
and Singapore Straits, which already have VTIS in operation.
Vibration The most likely cause of vibration aboard ship nowadays
is that emanating from excitation forces from the propeller, especially
if the clearance between the ship's hull and the propeller is insufficient.
Main engines were also the source of vibration excitation forces, but
in the main these are nowadays taken care of by careful design based
on years of experience. Main engine sources of vibration in the past
include first and second order external moments caused by the rotating
masses at engine revolutions and twice engine revolutions respect-
ively. These can be taken care of by the provision of moment com-
pensators attached to the engine if thought necessary. Guide forces
emanating from the engine tend to rock it about its foundations, and
this can be overcome by the use of top bracings (which see). Axial
vibration of the crankshaft can also lead to vibration and this can be
dampened by the use of an axial detuner.
Vibration analysers These are portable instruments used to detect
vibration emanating from rotating machinery aboard ship, for
example pumps, fans and compressors. The use of such equipment can
be accepted as an alternative to dismantling the unit for classification
Vibration analysers

purposes when due its periodical survey. Vibration analysers give the
acceptable range of vibration for the unit in question, and they can
give early indication of the onset of possible faults developing, for
example due to a worn bearing. If the results obtained are plotted over
a period on a time elapsed basis a clear picture of the units performance
will emerge.
Vibrorig This is a comparatively recent device used aboard bulk
carriers to dislodge any cargo that may have become lodged between
frames or stiffeners located within the cargo hold spaces. Some steve-
dores use pneumatic jack hammers to dislodge the cargo, and this
extreme course of action has led to physical damage to the hull struc-
ture in several instances. The Vibrorig is a portable device which
vibrates the hull structure adjacent to the lodged cargo without
causing any physical damage and is reportedly effective with even
wet cargoes. By locating the topside tank longitudinal stiffeners inside
the tanks instead of within the cargo hold greatly reduces the amount
of lodged cargo in the holds. If it is intended to carry cargo in the
topside tanks it is probably better to locate these stiffeners in the hold.
Victory ships Victory ships were built in comparatively large
numbers in US shipyards at the end of and immediately after the
Second World War (1939-45). They were built to replace the large
number of merchant ships lost during this war and were of a higher
standard than the Liberty ships (which see). Victory ships were built
with turbine propulsion and were provided with fully automatic wat-
ertube boilers with combustion control and they had a speed of around
16 knots compared with the 10 knots or so of the Liberty ship.
Virtual reality (VR) VR is a computer imaging device giving par-
ticipants a lifelike perception of direct involvement in whatever scen-
ario is being depicted. VR is ideally suited to simulating operating
conditions, for example as used in training techniques for aircraft
flightdeck and ship navigating or machinery control room procedures.
In the future VR is considered to be a suitable candidate for ship
design and production techniques already adopted in the aircraft
Visbreaker Is an abbreviation for a viscosity breaker, a piece of
equipment used in the oil refining industry. Its basic purpose is to
extract more light ends from the residual fuel oil emanating from
primary refining methods at the refinery. The introduction of vis-
breakers more or less coincided with a deterioration in the quality of
residual fuel oil as supplied for use in marine diesel engines. Vis-
Volatile organic compounds (VOC)

breakers use thermal cracking techniques to reduce the heavy fractions

into lighter products, therefore obtaining more product from the barrel
and a deterioration in the quality of the residuum.
Viscosity Viscosity is defined as a liquid's ability to resist flow, for
example when being pumped through a piping system. Hydrocarbons
in the form of f11eland lubricating oils have quite dramatic changes in
viscosity over a temperature range between zero and 100 degrees
centigrade, unlike water which has no significant change in viscosity
between these temperatures. A typical heavy fuel oil will have a
viscosity of around 1400 centistokes at a temperature of 20 degrees
centigrade, and at this viscosity cannot be pumped. It needs to be
heated to around 50 degrees centigrade before it can be pumped and
to around 130 degrees centigrade before being burnt in a diesel engine.
Viscosity index (VI) The VI is used to indicate the change in viscosity
that lubricating oils experience with a change in temperature. It is a
measure of the gradient on a graph plotted between the viscosity of
an oil between different temperatures. A lubricating oil having the
least change in viscosity between these temperatures is considered to
be more stable and will have a high VI. In the case of lubricating oils
operating under large variations in temperature the choice of an oil
with a high VI is essential if operating problems are to be avoided.
Viscotherm A viscotherm is a proprietary device used aboard ships
automatically to control the delivered temperature of fuel oil so that
its viscosity is at its predetermined value when being burnt in the
cylinders of a diesel engine. It is important that the correct viscosity is
maintained, otherwise both combustion and mechanical problems can
arise, the former by incomplete burning of the fuel and the latter by
increased resistance on the fuel pump drive gear if the viscosity of the
fuel is too high. Delivery notes issued by fuel oil suppliers rarely give
the correct viscosity of the fuel delivered and the viscotherm ensures
that whatever its viscosity it will be burnt in the engine at the correct
Visual display unit (VDU) A visual display unit (VDU) is some-
times called display screen equipment (DSE) and is the standard
means of viewing electron bombardment onto a screen, whether it be
a radar, television or electronic chart display. They are essentially
cathode ray tubes (CRT) tailor-made to suit the equipment it is associ-
ated with.
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) VOCs are the vapours emitted
Volatile organic compounds (VOC)

from tankers when being loaded at a terminal. The release of these

vapours contravenes the Clean Air Acts of some countries notably the
United States (see Vapour emission control systems). When loading a
tanker vaporised cargo is released into the atmosphere through the
tank vents, and this can lead to environmental problems especially
when terminals are located near densely populated areas. The whole
subject of VOCs, also gaseous and vapour emissions, are targeted for
attention of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in the not
too distant future.
Voyage data recorders (VDR) Voyage data recorders have been used
in the aircraft industry for many years and are then usually referred
to as flight or black box recorders. VDRs used in marine applications
are generally associated with the recording of stress and acceleration in
the main hull girder caused by severe weather conditions or improper
cargo loading or ballast practices in the case of stress. They are not
mandatory, and although the International Maritime Organisation has
recommended that they be provided on vulnerable ships, for example
bulk carriers, very few have been fitted.
Voyage hull response analyser A voyage hull response analyser has
been developed by Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LRS) to further its
investigations into the rather high loss rate of bulk carriers. The ana-
lyser will use a combination of weather and sea state forecasts pro-
vided by meteorological offices en route. Recourse to theoretical
calculations will also help predict critical paths on a voyage where
high levels of hull stress and ship motion are expected to be
encountered. The analyser is seen as being complementary to the
Black box recorder (which see).
Wake Wake is defined as the entrained water following behind a
ship in which the propeller(s) operate and is caused by the friction
between the hull and the adjacent seawater. When calculating the
percentage slip of a ship there are two methods available, one being
the apparent slip which takes into account the ship's speed over the
ground, and the other being the true slip which takes into account the
wake speed. The former method is that normally used by ship's staff
who do not have the facilities for calculating the wake speed. The true
slip is preferred by hydrodynamicists, but in practice it is difficult to
measure the wake speed and various assumptions are made. (See also
Wake fraction.)
Wake fraction When a ship moves in a forward direction it imparts
a forward motion to the seawater due to the friction of the ship's hull.
Waste disposal

The speed of the seawater into the propeller is therefore less than the
speed of the ship over the ground. This difference in speed is known
as the wake fraction and is usually expressed in decimal form, and is
used by propeller designers. In general terms the higher the block
coefficient (which see) of the ship the higher the wake fraction, and it
can be estimated by using the expression: wake fraction = 0.5 block
coefficient minus 0.05.
Wake improvement duct A ship's wake has a somewhat random
chaotic motion which can interfere with the efficient working of the
propeller. In an attempt to improve the situation a wake improvement
duct was developed some time ago which smooths out irregularities
in the motion of the wake. It consists of a fabricated steel structure
made in halves and welded to the stern frame immediately in front of
the propeller. This forms a duct-like shape and it greatly improves the
wake pattern, especially on ships with a poor aft end geometry. Claims
in propulsive efficiency in the order of 6 per cent have been made.
Ward Leonard system Is an electrical system designed to regulate
the speed of motors by varying the voltage. Ward Leonard systems
were used to control such equipment as electric propulsion motors,
steering gear motors and any other electric motors driving equipment
requiring sensitive speed control. They are generally associated with
direct current (DC) systems, and in a modern ship would probably
only be used by converting the conventionally used alternating current
(AC) into DC current as several cruise liners have recently employed
for electric propulsion.
WcirtsiUidiesel Is a diesel engine manufacturer located at Vassa,
Finland, and is well known for its four-stroke (cycle) medium speed
diesel engines, referred to as the Vasa design. Wartsila was at the
forefront of the application of the use of heavy viscosity fuel in its
Vasa engines, which are generally of smaller cylinder bore than their
main rivals. In 1992 Wartsila took over Stork Werkspoor, the Dutch
based engine builder, and other diesel engine manufacturers have
been absorbed into the Wartsila group. More recently Wartsila has
taken over New Sulzer Diesel (which see). The current largest output
engine from the Wartsila stable is around 18,900 Kilowatts (25,300
Waste disposal Waste disposal from ships is covered by Annex V of
the International Maritime Organisation's (lMO) Marine Pollution
(MARPOL)Convention which entered into force in 1988.The disposal
of waste overboard is now strictly controlled and many ships, for
Waste disposal

example cruise liners, install waste disposal and processing equipment

onboard. One such piece of equipment is a compacter which can
reduce the size of waste matter by a factor of eight to one and enable
it to be stored onboard until port is reached. If a shredder is combined
with the compacter a reduction factor of around 15 to one can be
accomplished. Incineration onboard is another technique used to
dispose of waste matter, although future legislation relating to emis-
sions from incinerators may restrict this activity. Under certain cir-
cumstances waste may be placed overboard but not in special sea
areas (which see), and plastic material is completely banned from being
dumped into the sea..
Waste heat recovery Waste heat recovery systems aboard ship are
generally·associated with exhaust gas schemes (which see). Other waste
heat recovery schemes are also used aboard ship, the most common
being that used to convert the heat contained in a diesel engine's jacket
water system into the production of fresh water by an evaporation
process. It is also possible to use the heat in the jacket water system to
provide accommodation heating by means of a heat exchanger in the
ventilation system. Jacket water systems are nowadays maintained at
a much higher temperature than that used previously and are now
around 85 degrees centigrade. However too much heat taken away by
waste heat recovery systems if carried too far could interfere with
system temperatures.
Waterjets Are the preferred means of propulsion for many of the
High Sea-service Speed (HSS)ships now entering service in increasing
numbers. They consist of a pump-like impeller working in a housing
the inlet duct of which is usually mo.unted flush with the bottom of
the hull and the outlet at the aft end positioned just above the waterline
when at speed and are usually arranged as twin or quadruple units.
Reversing is accomplished by a system of deflectors and buckets
without the need to reverse the prime mover. Most waterjets are driven
by either gas turbines or high speed diesel engines, and at ships'
speeds of 40 knots and above are more efficient than Super-cavitating
propellers (which see) from a propulsive point of view, not forgetting
that conventional propellers are not suitable at high ship speeds.
Water mist Water mist (or fog) fire extinguishing systems have
recently been introduced into the marine sector following the ban on
the use of halon for environmental reasons. Water mist systems are
somewhat different from conventional water sprinkler (which see)
systems in that the water particles are much smaller and therefore
Water washing

have superior what are called fire knock down qualities. They require
much smaller water quantities than conventional sprinklers and cause
much less damage to equipment and fittings in the surrounding area
of a fire. In the past many ships which caught fire capsized due to the
amount of water used to fight the fire and water mist systems make
this less likely.
Waterplane area coefficient This is a term used by ship designers to
demonstrate the ratio between a ship's waterplane area and the
product of its length and breadth at the waterline. It represents a
slightly different approach to that of the Block Coefficient (which see)
and invariably has a numerically higher number. For example a ship
with a Block Coefficient of 0.8 would probably have a Waterplane
Area Coefficient of 0.9.
Water sprinklers Water sprinkler fire extinguishing systems have
only recently been made compulsory on passenger ships, even though
their excellent fire extinguishing properties have been well known
both in shore based and shipboard applications for many years.
Sprinkler systems are brought into operation by the bursting of a
temperature sensitive bulb arranged in the sprinkler head located in
all vulnerable areas throughout the ship. This immediately operates
an alarm and automatically starts the sprinkler pump, and because of
this almost instantaneous action quenches the fire before it has a
chance to spread in most instances. In the unlikely event of the fire
spreading then further bulbs in adjacent areas would be automatically
brought into action, thereby containing the risk.
Watertight doors Watertight doors are vertically or horizontally
sliding doors of steel construction and they are used mainly aboard
passenger ships to subdivide working spaces beneath the freeboard
deck to meet damage stability criteria laid down by the Safety of Life
at Sea (SOLAS) Convention. They are needed mainly because quick
access between the working spaces is necessary at sea so that the
essential movement of stores and catering equipment can be carried
out. They are also used to subdivide the machinery spaces on pass-
enger ships with large compartmental facilities. In restricted coastal
waters and during periods of poor visibility the watertight doors
should be in the closed position. The location of local and remote door
operating controls and alarms are included in SOLAS regulations.
Water washing Water washing techniques are used to clean the
turbine blades of turbocharger rotors and nozzles while the machines
are still running, albeit at part-load output. Water is introduced into
Water washing

the turbocharger gas inlet casing using compressed air, then drained
at the lower end of the casing, bringing with it the removed carbon
particles. The air impeller side of the turbocharger can also be water
washed using a light detergent, but special precautions have to be
taken to avoid interfering with the cylinder liner lubricating oil film.
Even air coolers attached to the turbochargers can be water washed in
situ, also using a detergent. Water washing the tube banks of watertube
boilers has also been practised for many years.
Wave bending moments The hull of a ship in still water conditions
is subject to bending moments imposed on it by the distribution of
cargo, ballast and other weights, including of course the weight of the
ship itself. The allowable still water bending moments (SWBM) are
regulated by the relevant classification society which approves a
loading manual giving these limits which is issued to each ship. While
at sea especially in rough weather the support of the ship's hull
becomes somewhat unpredictable as a result of wave action, and the
bending moments are not so easily calculated. Classification societies
based on their experience therefore apply factors to convert SWBMs
into wave bending moments taking into account the sea state and
weather conditions expected in the area of operation.
Wave line theory When ships pass through the water they produce
waves due to the reaction of the sea to the motion of the hull. The bow
wave is the obvious example of this, and as the bow forces its way
through the water the bow wave is produced, and emanating from
this is a pattern of waves and troughs travelling along each side of the
ship and joining together at the stern to form the ship's wake. The
study of this phenomenon is embraced in the wave line theory, and
its effect on propulsive resistance was fully investigated by William
Proude in the last century. The relationship between wave and fric-
tional resistance at various ship speeds and with various hull forms
can all be explained using the wave line theory.
Wave piercing catamarans (WPC) Wave piercing catamarans are
only one of many in the emerging breed of High Sea-service Speed
(HSS) ships now entering service in ever increasing numbers. The
WPC owes its name to the unique bow shape of its twin hulls which
are designed to pierce through the waves when the catamaran is at
high speed. Because of their extremely fine lines WPCs have a tend-
ency to pitch in heavy weather and recent designs have incorporated
a central bow to dampen the pitching motion (see also Tricats).
Wave piercing propellers Wave or surface p