Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 17

The Role of the Dual Form

in the Evolution of European Languages


Joannes Richter

Abstract
In one of his latest essays “About the Dual Form” („Über den Dualis“, 1828) Wilhelm von
Humboldt issues a warning, that we should not consider the dual form as a superfluous luxury in
linguistics. The dual form contributes to the precision in internal relations between words and
enhances the impressive and expressive powers.1
Von Humboldt does not really explain the fundamental backgrounds of the dual forms, which may
be concentrated in the 3-letter header-information of the runic alphabet, the identity of the dual form
“wit” („we two“) and the English word “wit” (“the Greek νοῦς or νόος ”).
In this essay the role of the Germanic dual form will be derived from concepts, which share the
linguistic evolution and the Creation Legends in Genesis and Greek legends such as Plato's
Symposium. The fundamental symbolism of the dual form “wit” or “wut” (“we two”) is explained
by the identity with the fundamental sky gods Tiw and Wut (Woden). The dual forms “wit” (in
English), “wat” (Frisian) or “wut “ (Dutch) are identical to the divine names Wut (Wodan)
respectively the mirrored word Tiw, respectively Tuw.
According to Udo Waldemar Dieterich the runes FuþiR and Faþir cover (1) birth and raise, (2)
fatness, (3) father, (4) food, (5) fostering, (6) madness, (7) female and (8) male genitals, (9) sex,
copulation. Additionally I include the special words (10) fetter, (11) the Dutch word “fut” for sperm
and (12) widows and widowers as abandoned partners.
These runes FuþiR and Faþir tend to refer to the first 3 symbols Fuþ of the Fuþark-array.
The list of Tiw-dictionary includes most of the FuþiR/ Faþir-symbols in some of the Germanic
languages, but only English language allows us to identify all 9 Fuþ-categories as integrated inside
FuþiR/ Faþir which are correlated to the “fuþ”-core in “fuþark”: (1) to feed up, (2) fat, (3) father,
(4) fodder, (5) foster, (6) wod, (7) fud, (8) butt, (9) futter, (10) fetter.
Most of these words had been listed in the vocabulary of William Barnes, who wrote a book named
TIW, which he had identified as the name of the god from which the Teutonic race seem to have
taken their name.
50% of the10 categories have been found in his list, but probably for prudency (?) the genitals fud
& butt (female resp. and male) and futter (copulation) as well as “fat” and “feed up” are missing.
The important entries “wit” and “witness” (Dutch “weten”, German “wissen”) are missing in
Barnes' view of the English as a Teutonic tongue.

1 Wilhelm von Humboldt: Über den Dualis. Berlin 1828.


Introduction
In one of his latest essays “About the Dual Form” („Über den Dualis“, 1828) Wilhelm von
Humboldt issues a warning, that we should not consider the dual form as a superfluous luxury in
linguistics. The dual form contributes to the precision in internal relations between words and
enhances the impressive and expressive powers.2
Von Humboldt does not really explain the fundamental backgrounds of the dual forms, which may
be concentrated in the 3-letter header-information of the runic alphabet, the identity of the dual form
“wit” („we two“) and the English word “wit” (“the Greek νοῦς or νόος ”).
In this essay the role of the Germanic dual form will be derived from concepts, which share the
linguistic evolution and the Creation Legends in Genesis and Greek legends such as Plato's
Symposium. The fundamental symbolism of the dual form “wit” or “wut” (“we two”) is explained
by the identity with the fundamental sky gods Tiw and Wut (Woden). The dual forms “wit” (in
English), “wat” (Frisian) or “wut “ (Dutch) are identical to the divine names Wut (Wodan)
respectively the mirrored word Tiw, respectively Tuw.

2 Wilhelm von Humboldt: Über den Dualis. Berlin 1828.


The position of the dual form in Germanic languages
Studying the archaic Germanic languages I felt impressed by the dominance of the dual form „wit“
(„we two“). Especially the Old-Dutch and Old-English word “wit” deserves our attention because
this root word seems to cover a number of fundamental concepts such as the Dutch words for the
color wit (white), wit (as a target), wit (in the sense of mind, spirit) and wet (the law).
Spectacular is also the mirrored correlation between the dual word “WUT” or „WIT“ („we two“)
and the sky-god's name “TUW”, respectively “TUW”, which probably interconnects WUT and
TUW.
These words WUT and TUW may be identified at the very beginning of the Futhark alphabet if we
do not interpret the initial letter of the Futhark as an “F”, but understand the old character digamma
as the ancient letter “Wau” for the phoneme /w/.
Originally the digamma (Ϝ, ϝ) represented the phoneme /w/. Depending on its role this character
intensely varied the interpretation. In the course of time and regions the phoneme region varied
between /f/, /v/, /u/, /y/,/g/, /b/, ….
In the course of time the root word “WUT” also represented “Wutan” or “Wodan”, which covered
the divine names “Wut” and “Tuw” which had been interlinked by mirroring. In Westphalia and the
Langobard countryside the extreme limits of the digamma range reached the phoneme “G”, which
transformed “WUT” to Guôd3 respectively God:
“WIT” o-o “TIW” (“wit” o-o “Deiwaz”)
“WUT” o-o “TUW” (“wit” o-o “Deiwaz”)
“WUT” o-o “VUT” (“wit” o-o “Wodan”)
“WUT” o-o “GUÔD” (“wit” o-o “Guôdan”)
“WET” o-o “WED” (“wet” o-o “Wêda”)

The law of Weda


In Dutch the word “wet” (English: law) correlates with the Frisian name “Wêda” for Wodan.
In English the word wedding (“marriage”) has been derived from “to wed4”, in which a promise
(“pledge”) is to be defined:
Old English weddian, from the Germanic base of Scots wed ‘a pledge’; related to Latin
vas ‘surety’, also to gage.

Also the “widower” and “widow” may have been derived from the “wed”-pledge.
Officially the etymology of widow and widower derives the root from the Latin adjective viduus.
The etymology seems to be uncertain. In archaic societies the widow and widower also beyond the
loss of their partners may still have been fettered by their pledges:
The basic concept may have symbolized ‘a divorce’, compare Latin dividere [split up,
divide] and orphan1. 5

3 The Longobards spelt it Wôdan or Guôdan, (Grimm's Teutonic Mythology)


4 wedding | Origin and meaning of wedding by Online Etymology ...
5 weduwe (vrouw van wie de man is overleden) – uit P.A.F. van Veen en N. van der Sijs (1997), Etymologisch
woordenboek: de herkomst van onze woorden, 2e druk, Van Dale Lexicografie, Utrecht/Antwerpen –
Bronverwijzing: Sijs, Nicoline van der (samensteller) (2010), Etymologiebank, op http://etymologiebank.nl/
Motivation
A fundamental set of symbolic Dutch words (1) wet (law), (2) wit (reason, mind), (3) widow, (4) the
dual form of the personal pronoun „wit“ („we two“), the names (5) Wêda, (6) Wodan, (7) Guodan,
(8) God, (9) Tiw and (10) Futhark share a number of good reasons to synthesize a reconstruction
model for the archaic religion and its associated linguistic implications.
The convincing integration of the dual form in a structured philosophical Germanic concept
requires a well designed role for the dual form of the personal pronoun. A dominant symbolic role
for the dual form is required as a proof for the thesis of the common Germanic concept for the
“wit”-words.
A successful archaic society will have felt the need to optimize “wit” (“knowledge”), “wisdom”
(“philosophy”) and “the nous” by creating, recording and praising religious myths, which represent
a cohesive and reliable concept in the fields of linguistics, (runic or alphabetic) alphabets, religion,
history and mythology. Even the large migration waves did not destroy the concepts but allowed the
philosophers to locally adapt and add details. These adaptations did lead to variants. In a few cases
the varying modifications may have been lost and ran into dead ends, where the symbolism had
been misunderstood or decayed by misinterpretations.
All Germanic languages, such as Old-Norse, Old-English and Gothic had been equipped wit a dual
form, but this dual form had been restricted to the first and second person.
In the Biblical Creation Legend we may notice that the Creator managed to organize the world by
splitting up the main elements in two antipodal poles: light and darkness, day and night, land and
sea, the sun and the moon, the birds and the fishes.
In the terminal phase of creation the human being has been created in two stages:
1. First of all Adam is created as an image of the Creator.
2. In the second phase Adam is to be split in man and woman in order to prevent the male
partner “to feel lonely”.

The re-uniting of the “other halves”


The Creation Phase concentrates on the creation the world and the splitting up of Adam in man and
woman. The dominant role of the dual form however is to be introduced at the stage of re-uniting
both individual “other halves” to reunite the original state of the “echtpaar” (English “a matrimonial
-true- couple”).
Obviously the “other halves” seem to belong to the remains of the original Creation Legend in
which both man and woman had been split up in two halves. According to Plato's dialogue
Symposium the Creator had summoned his halved creatures to search their original partners to
reunite their original status.
In the synthesis woman and man behaved like complementary shapes which resulted in a perfectly
re-united shape, which had been named “one flesh” (Genesis 2 verse 24):
24 That is why a man leaves his father and mother and is united to his wife, and they
become one flesh.
The adaptation of the matrimonial language
In the reunification phase the matrimonial couple had to be equipped with a special language in
which some subsets of words had been prepared for an improved cooperation as a specimen of the
first Man Adam. One of these details was the name Man for the matrimonial couple.

Old-German
Among these words we also consider the dual form. According to Grimm the dual form “wit” had
been formed by replacing the trailing “r” by an additional “t” to the standard plural form “wir”. The
relevant quotation of Grimm is found in the Teutonic dictionary:
Neben der pluralform steht im älteren germ. der dual wit (t ist angehängte zweizahl) 'wir
beide', vgl. got. ags. asächs. wit, anord. vit (viþ), der sich auf deutschem boden nur im
nordfries. erhalten hat, sonst durch den plural ersetzt und schon ahd. nicht mehr bezeugt
ist; vgl. lit. vèd.6

Old-Greek
In Old-Greek the personal pronoun νῶι, νῶ (“we two”) is found in Homer's Odyssey and Iliad7:
415 τούτῳ μὲν γὰρ κῦδος ἅμ' ἕψεται εἴ κεν Ἀχαιοὶ
Τρῶας δῃώσωσιν ἕλωσί τε Ἴλιον ἱρήν,
τούτῳ δ' αὖ μέγα πένθος Ἀχαιῶν δῃωθέντων.
ἀλλ' ἄγε δὴ καὶ νῶι μεδώμεθα θούριδος ἀλκῆς.

The personal pronoun νῶι, νῶ (“we two”) correlates to νοῦς or νόος (from Ancient Greek).8 This
correlation is also found between “wit” (“nous”) and “wit” (“we two”) in English:
Old-English Old-Greek
“wit” (“we two”) νῶι, νῶ (“we two”)
“wit” (“thoughts”, “mind”) νοῦς or νόος

Latin
In Latin most details of this special language have been lost and only a few remaining elements may
be found in the extensions of “ambō” (“both”), “duo” (“two”) and even “octō” (“eight”).
The dual was lost in Latin and its sister Italic languages. However, certain fossilized forms
remained, for example, viginti (twenty), but triginta (thirty), the words ambo (both, compare
Slavic oba), duo / duae with a dual declension. The Latin duo (“two”) has a highly irregular
inflection, derived in part from the old Indo-European dual number.9

6 wir, pron. In Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob Grimm und Wilhelm Grimm
7 The etymology of the Greek dual form νώ (νῶϊ)
8 Nous (“wit”)
9 duo (Appendix:Latin cardinal numerals )
Human beings
In contrast to matrimonial couples the individual citizens, bachelors, widows, widowers and
children were to be considered “halved” persons10.
In the Middle Age individual citizens could only be considered as human beings if they were
married. Of course the clergy had been excluded from these rules.
The completion of the reunification with the other half was to be symbolized by adding the letter “t”
in the pronoun wit (we two).

10 Homer: Ilias 4. Gesang, Eidbruch, Agamemnons Heerschau


The verification of the thesis Wit o-o Tiw
In order to find evidence for the role of the dual form we will have to analyze which divine names
“WUÞ”, “ÞUW”, “ÞOR” and “ROÞ” are correlating to the dual form “WUT” (“we two”).

The mirroring and the age of the divine names


Essentially the couples of divine names are mirroring each other. Each of these names may be
identified in the first five characters of the runic word “Futhor” (ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱ).
The fourth character is ᚩ (for the phoneme /o/ or /oː/), but for some runic alphabets is skipped or
replaced by a phoneme /a/.

Divine name Mirrored name Runic Origin


WUÞ (“Vut”) ÞUW (“Tuw”) ᚠᚢᚦ (“wuth” … “futh”, respectively mirrored “thuw” … “thuv”)
ÞOR (“Thor”) ROÞ (“Rod”) ᚦᚩᚱ (“thor”, respectively mirrored “roth”)
Table 1: The mirroring of divine names
Of course the mirroring effect and the derivation could be a pure coincidence.
Also the names WUÞ and ÞUW may be categorized as prior and/or minor than ÞOR and ROÞ. One
of the reasons is the stability of the most archaic roots ᚠᚢᚦ compared to ᚦᚩᚱ.

Tuisto as a derivation of ÞUW (“Tuw”)


According to Tacitus' Germania the legendary patriarch of all Germanic peoples had been named
Tuisto, which is a derivation of ÞUW (“Tuw”). Tacitus is the only source of these myths.
Tuisto's first human creature has been specified as the source of the Germanic peoples and was
named Mannus.
In ancient lays, their only type of historical tradition, they celebrate Tuisto, a god
brought forth from the earth. They attribute to him a son, Mannus, the source and
founder of their people, and to Mannus three sons, from whose names those nearest the
Ocean are called Ingvaeones, those in the middle Herminones, and the rest Istvaeones.
Some people, inasmuch as antiquity gives free rein to speculation, maintain that there
were more sons born from the god and hence more tribal designations—Marsi,
Gambrivii, Suebi, and Vandilii—and that those names are genuine and ancient.
(Germania, chapter 2)[3]

Mannus and Wit as thinking deities


We already identified “Tiw”, “Wit” and “Tuw”, “Wut”, as a deity of “wit” (“to think”), but also the
deity Mannus seems to be related to the root *men- ("to think").
Both words Man (o-o *men-) and “wit” (o-o Tiw) are related to “thinking activities”:11
Mannus o-o root *men- (1) "to think,"
In Tiw the word “wit“ ("to think") may be found in the mirrored word “Wut” (“Wodan”):
Tuisto, and Tiw / Tiwaz o-o “Wut” (“Wodan”) o-o “to wit” ("to think")
11 The names Mannus and Tuisto/Tuisco seem to have some relation to Proto-Germanic Mannaz, "man" and Tiwaz,
"Tyr, the god".[6][7]
The relation between Man and *men- (1) "to think has been documented in man (n.):
Sometimes connected to root *men- (1) "to think," which would make the ground sense
of man "one who has intelligence," but not all linguists accept this. Liberman, for
instance, writes, "Most probably man 'human being' is a secularized divine name" from
Mannus [Tacitus, "Germania," chap. 2], "believed to be the progenitor of the human
race." 12

Vut as Wôdan or Guôdan


Jacob Grimm describes the name “Vut” for “Wodan” as an “idol” in the Romansh dialect in
Graubunden (Switzerland):
Up in the Grisons country---and from this we may infer the extent to which the name
was diffused in Upper Germany----the Romance dialect has caught the term Vut from
Alamanns or Burgundians of a very early time, and retained it to this day in the sense of
idol, false god, 1 Cor. 8, 4. (2) (See Suppl.)13

The Longobards and Westphalians spelt Wôdan as Guôdan, which may be caused by the extended
range of the digamma. The Frisians used the name Wêda:
The Longobards spelt it Wôdan or Guôdan, the Old Saxons Wuodan, Wôdan, but in
Westphalia again with the g prefixed, Guôdan, Gudan, the Anglo-Saxons Wôdan, the
Frisians Wêda from the propensity of their dialect to drop a final n, and to modify ô
even when not followed by an i.

According to Grimm the name Wôdan had been based on “to wade” (“rushing”). Grimm suggests a
link to the characteristic “fury” for the word “Wut”:
It can scarcely be doubted that the word is immediately derived from the verb OHG.
watan wuot, ON. vaða [[to wade through, to rush]], ôð [[óðum – rapidly, vehemently]],
signifying meare, transmeare, cum impetu ferri, but not identical with Lat. vadere, as the
latter has the a long, and is more likly connected with OS. gavitan, AS. gewitan. From
watan comes the subst. wuot (our wuth, fury), as menoj and animus properly mean
mens, ingenium, and then also impetuosity, wildness; the ON. öðr [[óðr - frantic, mad,
furious, eager or mind, song, poetry]] has kept to the one meaning of mens or sensus.
(3) According to this, Wuotan, Oðinn would be the all-powerful, all-penetrating being,
qui omnia permeat; as Lucan says of Jupiter: Est quodcunque vides, quocunque
moveris, the spirit-god (4); conf. Virg. Georg. 4,221: Deum ire per omnes terras, and
Ecl. 3, 60: Jovis omnia plena. In the popular language of Bavaria, wueteln is to bestir
oneself, to swarm, grow luxuriantly, thrive, Schm. 4, 203 (see Suppl.)

These derivations however contrast to the dual forms “WUT” respectively „WIT“ („we two“), in
which no sign or traces of fury have been found.

12 man (n.)
13 Grimm's Teutonic Mythology
The word Fut as a model for the “Kingdom of Heaven”
There has been some comments to Grimm's claim that Wodan had been derived from “to wade”.
It all begins with a clergyman named “Christmann” who identifies a word “Vut” as a derivation of
“Wodan” in the evangelist's epistle I. Cor. 8/4. This resulted in a comment, dated as early as 181914:
(Translation):In a funny booklet, titled “Note from the so-called Romansh language in
Graubündten by the clergyman Christmann, Leipzig 1819, about the etymology derived
from Genesis and how the author in a New Testament in Overland Romansh dialect felt
inspired to identify the derivation of the word vut from Wodan.

(Original): Einem drolligen Büchlein, betitelt: Nachricht von der sogenannten


romanischen Sprache in Graubündten, von Pfarrer Christmann, Leipzig 1819, kann man
die Genesis dieser Etymologie entnehmen, und wie dem Verfasser, dem ein Neues
Testament in Oberländer Romansch in die Hände gerathen war, die plötzliche
Inspiration kam, dass das in I. Cor. 8/4. gebrauchte Wort vut von Wodan herkomme.

As a reaction to the derivation of “Vut” from “Wodan” the author U. A. v. H. M originally chose the
translation “image” for the word “vut”, which later transformed to the translation “idol”:
(Translation):
The oldest, available dictionary of 1729, which contains the Overland and
Overhalbstein dialect including Italian comments, delivers a quite correct translation
“image” for vut. (…..) - In contrast the latest dictionaries by Mutli, Conradi and Carisch
will merely list translations of the German-like “idol”-category.

(Original): Das älteste vorhandene Wörterbuch von 1729, welches den Oberländer und
Oberhalbsteiner Dialekt mit italienischer Erklärung enthält, überetzt vut ganz richtig mit
imagine, wie denn auch Bifrun in seiner Uebersetzung des Neuen Testaments vom Jahr
1560 die oben angeführte Stelle I. Corinther mit imaega wieder gibt. — Dagegen liest
man in den neuesten Wörterbüchern von Mutli, Conradi und Carisch allerdings nur eine
Verdeutschung mit Götze15.

The futility of “Fut”


The author (U. A. v. H. M) also describes Willem von Humboldt's opinion, that Vut is to be derived
from the Latin word futilis (“futile”), which according to Humboldt (?) turns “Vut” into a word with
a somewhat despicable character:
(Original): Die gerügte irrige oder doch mangelhafte Verdeutschung von Vut mag auch
W. von Humboldt zu der Annahme veranlasst haben, dass dasselbe zu jener
WörterfamiIie gehöre, welche vom lat. futilis abstammt, und den Begriff von etwas
Verächtlichem an sich trägt. —16

14 Ueber die von Grimm adoptirte Ableitung des churwäldischen Wortes vut (U. A. v. H. M)
15 Ueber die von Grimm adoptirte Ableitung des churwäldischen Wortes vut (U. A. v. H. M)
16 Ueber die von Grimm adoptirte Ableitung des churwäldischen Wortes vut (U. A. v. H. M)
The Fut as the ‘Sperm’
According to the Dutch Etymologiebank the Dutch word “fut” in West-Flemish also covers ‘Sperm’
[1873; WNT]. The etymology however seems to be “unclear”.17
(Original): Vooral in de zegswijze ‘er zit geen fut in hem’, of ‘alle fut (fuut) is er uit’, dat
wil zeggen alle kracht, opgewektheid, energie, kavok (Maastricht), is er uit, wat men te
Deventer fup noemt (Draaijer, 12). Zie Opprel, 56 a: fut, kracht, opgewektheid,
levenslust; ook in den zin van sperma (evenzoo in het Westvl.); 18

Originally the core “fut” had not been considered as a despicable substance and may even be
compared to the mustard seed, which according to Matthew 13:31-32 as a tiny crumb even
succeeded to transfer itself into a large tree:
(31) Another parable He put forth to them, saying: “The kingdom of heaven is like a
mustard seed, which a man took and sowed in his field, (32) which indeed is the least of
all the seeds; but when it is grown it is greater than the herbs and becomes a tree, so that
the birds of the air come and nest in its branches.19”

The Parable of the Fut as a Mustard Seed


In The Parable of the Mustard Seed the tiny mustard seed (“fut”) as the tree's “sperm” symbolizes
the “Kingdom of Heaven”.
Maybe the Germanic people also considered the human sperm “fut” as the core for a “Kingdom of
Heaven”, which for many believing peoples had been described as their legendary Heaven.
The Biblical verse Matthew 13:31-32 does not concentrate on the tiny dimensions, but highlights
the gigantic growth capacity from the tiny seed to the gigantic tree.
It may even be true that the Germanic parable of the “fut” belonged to a globally available canon of
creation legends and in due time has been included into the Biblical canon.

17 fut (geestkracht, lichaamskracht, pit) M. Philippa, F. Debrabandere, A. Quak, T. Schoonheim en N. van der Sijs
(2003-2009) Etymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands, 4 delen, Amsterdam, – Bronverwijzing:
Sijs, Nicoline van der (samensteller) (2010), Etymologiebank, op http://etymologiebank.nl/
18 F.A. Stoett (1923-1925), Nederlandsche Spreekwoorden, Spreekwijzen, Uitdrukkingen en Gezegden, drie delen, 4e
druk, Zutphen
19 The Parable of the Mustard Seed - Matthew 13:31-32
The word *fuþa as a model for the vulva
In English the fud belongs to the female genitals. In Scots it is understood as vagina or buttocks.
As a female antipodal element to the Dutch word fut, which represented the male semen a
comparable element existed which also deteriorated to a blasphemy and curse. The Dutch word is
known as “vot” in “hondsvot” (“vulva canis”: literally, dog's vulva ; English: † houndsfoot).
Both words, in English fud (vagina) and in Dutch fut (sperm) seem to be sharing a common root.
Both words also seem to be based on the digamma Ϝ, ϝ and may have been derived from the first
three letters ϝuþ of ϝuþork. The common root for fud and fut may be “*ϝuþa20” (‘vulva’).
In the original etymological phase the violating usage of these words in swearing and blasphemy
had been absent. Most of the swearing has been introduced after the introduction of Christianity.
The striking similarity between “ϝuþ” (Dutch: “sperm”) and “*ϝuþa” (“vulva”) suggests to consider
a common set of shared “genitals” for the unity as a matrimonial couple. Also there seems to be a
correlation between “ϝuþ”, “wut” (“we two”) and the sky-gods “Vut” (“Wodan”) and “Tuw”, which
all are based on the three initial letters ϝuþ of ϝuþork.

20 germ. *fuþa ‘vulva’ - defined in the Etymologiebank under vod (lap, lor, prul)
The word “father” based on the core “ϝuþ”
Among the numerous words we may also categorize “father” as a source for life, which in analogy
to the word “fut” (“sperm”) and “*fuþa” (‘vulva’) is equipped with a “ϝuþ”-core.
The runic alphabet discerns two types of father:
1. The first father is the “fut”-father (sperm-father) who is the biological father. In archaic
societies the biological father did not really play the dominant role for common people.
2. The more important role for children had been assigned to the “foster”-father or “food”-
father who was responsible for the cost of the feeding and raising expenses.21
Both the “fut”-father and the “food”-father share a common core “ϝuþ”, which also rules the human
genitals “ϝuþ” and “ϝuþa”.

The Ϝutiᛣ- and the Ϝaþiᛣ-runes


According to Udo Waldemar Dieterich the runes ϝutiᛣ and ϝaþiᛣ cover (1) birth and raise, (2)
fatness, (3) father, (4) food, (5) fostering, (6) madness, (7) the female and (8) male genitals, (9) sex,
copulation. Additionally I include the word (10) fetter.
In the course of time these archaic runic words evolved to common Dutch words, which even today
still contain their original ϝ*T-core, which had been designed to symbolize the energy for life.
In Germanic languages the linguistic concept had been designed to support the following tasks in
life:
• The word “food” may still be identified in the core Fuþ (“fut”) of “futhorc”, in which the
vowel “u” is replaced by the “oo”-phoneme in “food”.
• The word “fit” (“sound”) follows a V*T-pattern, in which the “u” has been replaced by an
“i”-vowel.
• Additionally “fat” (“well-nourished”) follows the same V*T-pattern, in which the “u” has
been replaced by an “e”-vowel.
• The word “father” may also contain the same Fuþ-core (“fut”) of the“futhorc”, in which the
“u” has been replaced by an “a”-vowel.
• The Dutch word “vot” and the English word fud (vagina)22 for the female genitals may have
been derived from “futhark”, in which for the Dutch version the “u” has been replaced by an
“o”-vowel. Of course these words had been as respected as the food, the father and fat (as a
valuable resource for survival and a source of energy for labour).
• The Dutch word “fut” for sperm has not been found in other Germanic languages. This
translation has not been listed in the runic overview of Dieterich's Runen-Sprach-Schatz,
which may be due to the fact this detail had never been found in the runic inscriptions.

21 Details for the biological father and the foster-father are documented in the Runen-Sprach-Schatz by Dieterich
22 or *Fuþa (“futa”, vulva)
The elementary dictionary based on the Futiᛣ and Faþiᛣ runes
In Notities rond het boek Tiw I listed the Dutch, English and German equivalent words categories
for “food”, “foster-father”, “father”, and “fud” and the fundamental core words ᚠᚢᚦ, “fut” and
“wut”.
Additionally I added the Dutch word “ϝuþ” (“sperm”) and the “ϝuþ”-father (“ϝuþerer”):
Category Dutch English German Remark
Basiswoordkern ᚠᚢᚦ (“fut”) ᚠᚢᚦ (“fut”) ᚠᚢᚦ (“fut”) The initial letters of Futhorc
“we both” wut or wit wit wat, wët (extinct word)
Copulate foeteren to futter futtern Fututio = intercourse
–> in French: foutre
Sperm fut In a Flemish dialect
23
Genitals (honds-) vot fodr, fud Fuodar, Fudloch, Gothic: fōdr
foedraal Füdle , futuz Old-Norse: fóðr (→ sheath)
The “ϝuþ”-father “Kuni” “Kuni” “Kuni” ϝuþerer
The “food”-father voedvader foster-father Nährvater → Modern version:
vader father Vater adoptive father
To feed up opvoeden to feed up fett mästen
Healthy Opgevoed Fed-up fett, gut ernährt
→ well-fed fit fit (?)
Food (→ fat) voedsel food Futter
Fat vet fat Fett
Fetter veter fetter fesseln

Law, Wedding Wet (law) Wed (-ding) Wit (?) - wettōn Engels: Wed (pledge)
Widow/widower weduwe widow Witwe
Table 2 The elementary dictionary based on the Futiᛣ and Faþiᛣ runes
The list of Tiw-dictionary includes most of the FuþiR/ Faþir-symbols in some of the Germanic
languages, but only English language allows us to identify all 9 Fuþ-categories as integrated inside
FuþiR/ Faþir which are correlated to the “fuþ”-core in “fuþark”: (1) to feed up, (2) fat, (3) father,
(4) fodder, (5) foster, (6) wod, (7) fud, (8) butt, (9) futter, (10) fetter.
• The English core-words are: wit, futter, fodr, fud, foster, father, feed, fed-up, well-fed, fat,
food, fit, fathom, fetter, fasten, foot, feast, Tiw. & Woden.
• The German core-words are: futtern, Fuodar, Fudloch, Füdle, futuz, Vater, Fett, Futter,
Faden, Fass, fesseln, Fessel, fasten, Fuss, Fest, Ziu & Wotan.
• The Dutch core-words are: vadem, vader, vasten, vat, vatten, feest, vet, veter, wet, fit, pit,
fut, futiel, wit, wut, vot, foeteren, opvoeden, voedsel, voedvader, voet, Wodan, resp. Tuw &
Thor.

23 Although "fud" is widely accepted in Scotland as being a slang term for the female reproductive organs, it is
generally used as a pejorative to describe someone who has just done something stupid, often in situations where
they've either been impulsive or it was blindingly obvious beforehand that it was a stupid thing to do.
The root ϝuþ
The overview of these words clearly illustrates the dominance of the keywords “ϝuþ” and “ϝuþa” at
the beginning of the “Ϝuþorc”-alphabet.
The majority of these words is founded on the root “ϝuþ”. Obviously these three letters represent
fundamental keys in which:
• the first letter digamma ϝ symbolizes a great variety of phonemes /f/, /v/, /u/, /y/,/g/, /b/...,
• the second letter (“u”) may represent any vowel (a, e, i, o, u, ij) and
• the third letter þ of the dual form represents the duality (“the number two”).
As a word “ϝuþ” symbolizes the Germanic religion in a nutshell, which implies a combination of
the two genitals “ϝuþ” and “ϝuþa”, the matrimonial couples “we two”, the law, the legal wedding,
food, to feed (up), the divine names Vut, Tuw, Wêda, Wodan, Guodan, God, Tiw and Futhark.
A list of fundamental philosophical Germanic principles may be composed from two consonants
“ϝ” and “þ” and the triad of archaic vowels “a”, “i”, “u” respectively the standard Latin vowels
“a”, “e”, “i”, “o”, “u”. The elementary words even may be categorized (in law, fetter, procreation,
father, food and gods) as follows:

Categories Law Fetter Procreation Father, Food Gods/Saints


English Wed, Fetter, Fud, Foster, Tiw.
Widower, Fasten, Fodr, Father, Woden,
Widow Foot, Futter, Feed, Wittekind,
Fed-Up, St. Vitus
Well-Fed,
Fat,
Food,
Fit,
German Witwer, Faden, Futtern, Vater, Ziu,
Witwe Fass, Fuodar, Fett, Wotan
Fesseln, Fudloch, Futter, Wittekind,
Fessel, Füdle, St. Vitus
Fasten, Futuz
Fuss,
Dutch Wet, Vadem, Fut, Vader, Wodan,
Weduwe Vasten, Vot, Feest, Tuw,
Vat, Foeteren, Vet, Thor,
Vatten, Foedraal Opvoeden, Wittekind,
Veter Voedsel, St. Vitus
Voedvader,
Table 3: List of fundamental philosophical Germanic principles
The role of St. Vitus
In Europa an impressive number of Saint Vitus churches have been founded around 1000AD. The
statistical distribution of these churches is varying on a large scale.
In the Benelux countries (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg) the Saint Vitus churches have been
concentrated at the northern half of the Netherlands. South of the Rhine only two Saint Vitus
churches are found and these churches have been attributed to German speaking territories.
Inside Germany the regional distribution of these churches also varies in considerable ranges. In the
diocese Augsburg (concentrated at the south-side of the Danube) at least 34 churches had been
devoted to St. Vitus24.
Some of these churches are quite impressive and archaic, such as the Sint-Vituscathedral25 (Prague,
930 AD) and the Basilica of St. Vitus, Mönchengladbach26, ~800-954 AD27. Other archaic churches
have been lost such as a Saint Vitus church which in the late 9th century had been built on the
artificial mound (terp) Oldehove at the Dutch city of Leeuwarden.
In Slavic regions the sky-god Svantevid (Saint “Vit”) may have been preferred for its analogy to the
Saint Vitus-cult (Svatý Vít in Czech). A great number of these Saint Vitus churches have been
concentrated in regions, in which the dual form “wit” (“we two”) for the personal pronouns of the
1st person and the associated Slavic sky-god “Vit” had been practiced. Slavic languages practiced a
dual form similar to the prototype “vé”.
Maybe the Germanic missionaries also practiced the same trick to easily convert the Saxons to their
new religion by building churches for saint Vitus as a replacement for the Germanic sky-god “Vid”
(Woden). Saint “Vitus” symbolically matches the dual form “wit” (“we two”) for the personal
pronouns of the 1st person as well as the Germanic sky-god's names “Vid”, “Vut 28” or “Vidvut29”
(according to Grimm related to “Woden”). In runic alphabets, which allow reversed reading we may
also consider Tuw and Tiw as reversed words for the dual formed pronouns wut and wit.
Also the name of Widukind, (Wittekind, the “Wit-child”) the Saxon leader and Charlemagne's
opponent, had been based on the the personal pronoun “wit” of the 1 st person and the sky-god
“Vid” (Woden). The Wit/Vid-roots symbolized the Saxon religion. Eventually the Vides (Lettons)
considered themselves as the people of “Vid”.30

24 Anm.: Allein im Bistum Augsburg sind mindestens 34 Kirchen dem heiligen Vitus geweiht.
25 Until 1997, the cathedral was dedicated only to Saint Vitus, and is still commonly named only as St. Vitus Cathedral.
26 An old Benedictine monastery, Pope Paul VI elevated it in 1973 to the rank of Minor Basilica.
27 Kirchenbau um 800
28 Up in the Grisons country (and from this we may infer the extent to which the name was diffused in Upper
Germany) the Romance dialect has caught the term Vut from Alamanns or Burgundians of a very early time, and
retained it to this day in the sense of idol, false god, 1 Cor. 8, 4. (2) (See Suppl.) - Northvegr - Grimm's TM - Chap.
7
29 Vidvut is the name for the Vodan of the Vides (Lettons), while Vogt 1, 141 makes Wideivud, Waidewud a Prussian
king ... (Grimm, Jacob - Teutonic Mythology - Volume 4 (1888)" )
30 The Correlation between Dual Forms, Vut, Svantevit and the Saint Vitus Churches
The book Tiw (1861) by William Barnes
In the book Tiw (1861) the author William Barnes claims that the English vocabulary has been
based on a core of approximately 50 German root words, in which numerous variants may be
generated by inserting different vowels. Barnes chose the title Tiw as the name of the god from
which the Teutonic race seemed to have taken their name.
50% of the relevant 10 categories of V*þ-words in this essay had been listed in the Tiw-vocabulary
of William Barnes:
(1) to feed up, (2) fat, (3) father, (4) fodder, (5) foster, (6) wod, (7) fud, (8) butt, (9) futter,
(10) fetter, but probably for prudery the genitals fud & butt (female resp. and male) and
futter (copulation) as well as “fat” and “feed up” are missing.
The important entries “wit” and “witness” (Dutch “weten”, German “wissen” are missing in Barnes'
view of the English as a Teutonic tongue.
According to the overview in Barnes' Tiw (1861) I found other categories of relevant V*þ-words,
such as “fetter”, “feet”, “with”, “widow”, etc.
Contents
Abstract.................................................................................................................................................1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................2
The position of the dual form in Germanic languages.........................................................................3
The law of Weda..............................................................................................................................3
Motivation........................................................................................................................................4
The re-uniting of the “other halves”............................................................................................4
The adaptation of the matrimonial language...............................................................................5
Old-German............................................................................................................................5
Old-Greek...............................................................................................................................5
Latin........................................................................................................................................5
Human beings.........................................................................................................................6
The verification of the thesis Wit o-o Tiw............................................................................................7
The mirroring and the age of the divine names...............................................................................7
Tuisto as a derivation of ÞUW (“Tuw”)..........................................................................................7
Mannus and Wit as thinking deities.................................................................................................7
Vut as Wôdan or Guôdan.................................................................................................................8
The word Fut as a model for the “Kingdom of Heaven”.................................................................9
The futility of “Fut”.........................................................................................................................9
The Fut as the ‘Sperm’..............................................................................................................10
The Parable of the Fut as a Mustard Seed.................................................................................10
The word *fuþa as a model for the vulva......................................................................................11
The word “father” based on the core “ϝuþ”..................................................................................12
The Ϝutiᛣ- and the Ϝaþiᛣ-runes.................................................................................................12
The elementary dictionary based on the Futiᛣ and Faþiᛣ runes.........................................................13
The root ϝuþ........................................................................................................................................14
The role of St. Vitus.......................................................................................................................15
The book Tiw (1861) by William Barnes......................................................................................16

Centres d'intérêt liés