Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Inding vs Sandiganbayan July 14 2004 (Sandiganbayan Jurisdiction)

Relevant Facts/Issues

• On January 27, 1999, an Information was filed with the Sandiganbayan charging petitioner
Ricardo S. Inding, a member of the Sangguniang Panlungsod of Dapitan City, with violation of
Section 3(e) of Republic Act No. 3019. The above-named accused Ricardo S. Inding, a high-
ranking public officer, being a Councilor of Dapitan City and as such, while in the performance of
his official functions, particularly in the operation against drug abuse, with evident bad faith and
manifest partiality, did then and there, willfully, unlawfully and criminally, faked buy-bust
operations against alleged pushers or users to enable him to claim or collect from the coffers of
the city government a total amount of P30,500.00, as reimbursement for actual expenses
incurred during the alleged buy-bust operations, knowing fully well that he had no participation
in the said police operations against drugs but enabling him to collect from the coffers of the
city government a total amount of P30,500.00, thereby causing undue injury to the government
as well as the public interest.

• On June 2, 1999, the petitioner filed an Omnibus Motion for the dismissal of the case for lack of
jurisdiction over the officers charged or, in the alternative, for the referral of the case either to
the Regional Trial Court or the Municipal Trial Court for appropriate proceedings. The petitioner
alleged therein that under Administrative Order No. 270 which prescribes the Rules and
Regulations Implementing the Local Government Code of 1991, he is a member of the
Sangguniang Panlungsod of Dapitan City with Salary Grade (SG) 25. He asserted that under
Republic Act No. 7975, which amended Presidential Decree No. 1606, the Sandiganbayan
exercises original jurisdiction to try cases involving crimes committed by officials of local
government units only if such officials occupy positions with SG 27 or higher.

• The threshold issue for the Court’s resolution is whether the Sandiganbayan has original
jurisdiction over the petitioner, a member of the Sangguniang Panlungsod of Dapitan City, who
was charged with violation of Section 3(e) of Rep. Act No. 3019, otherwise known as the Anti-
Graft and Corrupt Practices Act.

Ruling

The Court rules in the affirmative.

Rep. Act No. 7975, entitled “An Act to Strengthen the Functional and Structural Organization of the
Sandiganbayan, Amending for that Purpose Presidential Decree No. 1606,” took effect on May 16,
1995. Section 2 thereof enumerates the cases falling within the original jurisdiction of the
Sandiganbayan. Subsequently, Rep. Act No. 7975 was amended by Rep. Act No. 8249, entitled “An Act
Further Defining the Jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan, Amending for the Purpose Presidential Decree
No. 1606, as Amended, Providing Funds Therefor, and for Other Purposes.” The amendatory law took
effect on February 23, 1997 and Section 4 thereof enumerates the cases now falling within the exclusive
original jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan

-------------------------------------------
For purposes of determining which of the two laws, Rep. Act No. 7975 or Rep. Act No. 8249, applies in
the present case, the reckoning period is the time of the commission of the offense. Generally, the
jurisdiction of a court to try a criminal case is to be determined by the law in force at the time of the
institution of the action, not at the time of the commission of the crime. However, Rep. Act No. 7975, as
well as Rep. Act No. 8249, constitutes an exception thereto as it expressly states that to determine the
jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan in cases involving violations of Rep. Act No. 3019, the reckoning period
is the time of the commission of the offense.

-------------------------------------

A plain reading of the above provision shows that, for purposes of determining the government officials
that fall within the original jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan in cases involving violations of Rep. Act No.
3019 and Chapter II, Section 2, Title VII of the Revised Penal Code, Rep. Act No. 7975 has grouped them
into five categories, to wit:

(1) Officials of the executive branch occupying the positions of regional director and higher, otherwise
classified as grade 27 and higher. . .

(2) Members of Congress and officials thereof classified as Grade “27” and up under the
Compensation and Position Classification Act of 1989;

(3) Members of the judiciary without prejudice to the provisions of the Constitution;

(4) Chairmen and members of Constitutional Commissions, without prejudice to the provisions of the
Constitution; and

(5) All other national and local officials classified as Grade “27” and higher under the Compensation
and Position Classification Act of 1989.

With respect to the first category, i.e., officials of the executive branch with SG 27 or higher, Rep. Act
No. 7975 further specifically included the following officials as falling within the original jurisdiction of
the Sandiganbayan:

(a) Provincial governors, vice-governors, members of the sangguniang panlalawigan, and provincial
treasurers, assessors, engineers, and other provincial department heads;

(b) City mayors, vice-mayors, members of the sangguniang panlungsod, city treasurers, assessors,
engineers, and other city department heads;

(c) Officials of the diplomatic service occupying the position of consul and higher;

(d) Philippine army and air force colonels, naval captains, and all officers of higher rank;

(e) PNP chief superintendent and PNP officers of higher rank;

(f) City and provincial prosecutors and their assistants, and officials and prosecutors in the Office of
the Ombudsman and special prosecutor;

(g) Presidents, directors or trustees, or managers of government-owned or controlled corporations,


state universities or educational institutions or foundations;
The specific inclusion of the foregoing officials constitutes an exception to the general qualification
relating to officials of the executive branch as “occupying the positions of regional director and higher,
otherwise classified as grade 27 and higher, of the Compensation and Position Classification Act of
1989.” In other words, violation of Rep. Act No. 3019 committed by officials in the executive branch
with SG 27 or higher, and the officials specifically enumerated in (a) to (g) of Section 4 a.(1) of P.D. No.
1606, as amended by Section 2 of Rep. Act No. 7975, regardless of their salary grades, likewise fall
within the original jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan.

Barriga vs Sandiganbayan April 26 2005 (Sandiganbayan jurisdiction)

Relevant Facts/Issues

• On April 3, 2003, the Office of the Ombudsman filed a motion with the Sandiganbayan for the
admission of the three Amended Informations appended thereto. The first Amended
Information docketed as Criminal Case No. 27435, charged petitioner Dinah C. Barriga and
Virginio E. Villamor, the Municipal Accountant and the Municipal Mayor, respectively, of
Carmen, Cebu, with malversation of funds.

• The petitioner filed a Motion to Quash the said Amended Informations on the ground that
under Section 4 of Republic Act No. 8294, the Sandiganbayan has no jurisdiction over the crimes
charged. She averred that the Amended Informations failed to allege and show the intimate
relation between the crimes charged and her official duties as municipal accountant, which are
conditions sine qua non for the graft court to acquire jurisdiction over the said offense.

• Issue : Whether or not Sandiganbayan has jurisdiction over the offense charged as act was
allegedly not intimately related to her official dues

Ruling

The petition has no merit.

We agree with the ruling of the Sandiganbayan that based on the allegations of the Amended
Informations and Rep. Act No. 8249, it has original jurisdiction over the crimes of malversation and
illegal use of public funds charged in the Amended Informations subject of this petition.

------------------------------------

Rep. Act No. 8249, which amended Section 4 of Presidential Decree No. 1606, provides, inter alia, that
the Sandiganbayan has original jurisdiction over crimes and felonies committed by public officers and
employees, at least one of whom belongs to any of the five categories thereunder enumerated at the
time of the commission of such crimes. There are two classes of public office-related crimes under
subparagraph (b) of Section 4 of Rep. Act No. 8249: first, those crimes or felonies in which the public
office is a constituent element as defined by statute and the relation between the crime and the offense
is such that, in a legal sense, the offense committed cannot exist without the office; second, such
offenses or felonies which are intimately connected with the public office and are perpetrated by the
public officer or employee while in the performance of his official functions, through improper or
irregular conduct.
The Sandiganbayan has original jurisdiction over criminal cases involving crimes and felonies under the
first classification. Considering that the public office of the accused is by statute a constituent element
of the crime charged, there is no need for the Prosecutor to state in the Information specific factual
allegations of the intimacy between the office and the crime charged, or that the accused committed
the crime in the performance of his duties. However, the Sandiganbayan likewise has original
jurisdiction over criminal cases involving crimes or felonies committed by the public officers and
employees enumerated in Section (a) (1) to (5) under the second classification if the Information
contains specific factual allegations showing the intimate connection between the offense charged and
the public office of the accused, and the discharge of his official duties or functions - whether improper
or irregular. The requirement is not complied with if the Information merely alleges that the accused
committed the crime charged in relation to his office because such allegation is merely a conclusion of
law.

Two of the felonies that belong to the first classification are malversation defined and penalized by
Article 217 of the Revised Penal Code, and the illegal use of public funds or property defined and
penalized by Article 220 of the same Code. The public office of the accused is a constituent element in
both felonies.

For the accused to be guilty of malversation, the prosecution must prove the following essential
elements:

(a) The offender is a public officer;

(b) He has the custody or control of funds or property by reason of the duties of his office;

(c) The funds or property involved are public funds or property for which he is accountable; and

(d) He has appropriated, taken or misappropriated, or has consented to, or through abandonment or
negligence, permitted the taking by another person of, such funds or property.

For the accused to be guilty of illegal use of public funds or property, the prosecution is burdened to
prove the following elements:

(1) The offenders are accountable officers in both crimes.

(2) The offender in illegal use of public funds or property does not derive any personal gain or profit;
in malversation, the offender in certain cases profits from the proceeds of the crime.

(3) In illegal use, the public fund or property is applied to another public use; in malversation, the
public fund or property is applied to the personal use and benefit of the offender or of another person.

We agree with the ruling of the Sandiganbayan that the public office of the accused Municipal Mayor
Virginio E. Villamor is a constituent element of malversation and illegal use of public funds or
property. Accused mayor’s position is classified as SG 27. Since the Amended Informations alleged that
the petitioner conspired with her co-accused, the municipal mayor, in committing the said felonies, the
fact that her position as municipal accountant is classified as SG 24 and as such is not an accountable
officer is of no moment; the Sandiganbayan still has exclusive original jurisdiction over the cases lodged
against her. It must be stressed that a public officer who is not in charge of public funds or property
by virtue of her official position, or even a private individual, may be liable for malversation or illegal
use of public funds or property if such public officer or private individual conspires with an
accountable public officer to commit malversation or illegal use of public funds or property.