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South East Asian Institute of Technology, Inc.

Department of Civil Engineering

CE 412: Geotechnical Engineering I (Laboratory)


Laboratory Report No. 5
Liquid Limit Test

Submitted by:
Psyche Maree P. Caminade
2014-0810
BSCE-IV

Date of Submitted: October 26, 2018


CE 412 (Lab) V

Introduction

Defined as the percentage moisture content at which a soil changes with


decreasing wetness from liquid to plastic consistency or with increasing wetness from
plastic to liquid consistency. It is the water content at which a soil changes from plastic
to liquid behaviour. It formed by a standard tool into the sample of soil taken in the
standard cup, closes for 10 mm on being given 25 blows in a standard manner.

Equipment

1. Casagrande liquid limit device - A mechanical device consisting of a brass cup


suspended from a carriage designed to control its mm (0.394 in.), and designed
such that the cup and cup hanger assembly is only attached to the carriage by
means of removable pin.

2. Grooving tool- A tool made of plastic or no corroding-metal having the


dimensions shown in Fig. 3. The design of the tool may vary as long as the
essential dimensions are maintained.

3. Moisture cans- Suitable containers which will prevent loss of moisture during
weighing (0.3kg [1 oz.] "Salve" can).

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CE 412 (Lab) V

4. Porcelain evaporating dish- A porcelain dish about 115mm (4 1/2 inches) in


diameter.

Procedures

1. Take representative soil sample of approximately 200gms passing through


number 40 sieve and mix thoroughly with distilled water in the evaporating
dish to a uniform paste.

2. The paste shall have a consistency that will require 30 to 35 drops of the cup
to cause the required closure of the standard groove.

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CE 412 (Lab) V

3. Place a portion of the paste in the cup above the spot where the cup rests on
the base, squeeze down and spread in to position with a few strokes of the
spatula as possible and at the same time trim to a depth of 1cm at the point
of maximum thickness.

4. Make a clean, sharp groove by a grooving tool along the diameter through the
centerline of the cam follower.

5. Drop the cup from a height of 10 + 0.25 mm by turning the crank at the rate
of two-revolutions/ sec, until the two halves of the soil cake come in contact
with the bottom of the groove along the distance of about 12mm.

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CE 412 (Lab) V

6. Record the number of drops required to cause the groove close for the length
of 12mm.
7. Collect a representative slice of sample of soil approximately the width of
spatula, extending from about edge to edge of the soil cake at right angle to
the groove in to an air tight container and keep in the oven for 24hrs,
maintained at a temperature of 1050 to 1100 C and express its moisture
content as the percentage of the oven dried weight.
8. Repeat the operation specified above for at least three more additional trials
(minimum of four in all) with soil collected in evaporating dish to which
sufficient water has been added to bring the soil to more fluid condition.

Data, Results, & Analysis

Test No. 1 2 3
Number of blows 30 27 21
Can No. 4 2 8
Mass of Can W1 (g) 18.3 9.5 27.5
Mass of Can+ moist soil W2 (g) 22 14 32
Mass of Can+ dry soil W3 (g) 21.2 12.7 30.6
𝑊2 − 𝑊3
𝑤% = 𝑋100 27.59 40.63 45.16
𝑊3 − 𝑊1

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CE 412 (Lab) V

Flow Curve
50

40
WATER CONTENT (%)

30

20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
NUMBER OF BLOWS

𝐿𝐿 = 37.8 %
22.5 + 39.3 + 36.6
𝑃𝐿 = = 32.8 %
3
𝑃𝐼 = 𝐿𝐿 − 𝑃𝐿 = 37.8 − 32.8 = 5%

Conclusion & Recommendation

In this laboratory experiment the clay sample is necessarily to pass through


no. 40 sieve. In the case of sandy soils plastic limit should be determined first.

Reference

AASHTO Designation T 90 (Mn/DOT Modified)

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