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Crissie Williamson

Professor Dunham

English 1201

15 March 2019

Annotated Bibliography

My paper will attempt to answer the question if flu vaccinations are safe and effective for

most Americans. I will research what chemicals are used in the flu vaccination and it's safety. I

will also research how many Americans are getting the flu vaccination and the reasons some

Americans still aren't comfortable receiving them. In my research, I aim to show that there is

good reason for adults and children to receive these vaccinations.

Allen, Kent. “People Are Skipping Flu Vaccines This Year.” AARP, 6 Dec. 2018,


Kent Allen provided research for the American Association of Retired Persons(AARP) of

why more Americans aren't getting vaccinated for the flu this year. NORC at The University of

Chicago performed a survey of Americans. Of the Americans over 60 that were surveyed, 62%

were vaccinated, 24% were reluctant. The adults over 40 that were surveyed were much less

likely to get vaccinated, with less than 50% planned to get vaccinated. Two out of five of those

being surveyed stated reason of fear of side effects as being the main reason they aren't getting

the flu vaccine. Other reasons given were they didn't think the vaccine would work, or they
worried about getting sick from the vaccine. Some also said they didn't believe the vaccine

worked, or they never get sick so they didn't feel they needed the vaccination.

Allen's article was published by the AARP and aimed to reach the older public. this

article was published in December of 2018, so it is a new article with current beliefs from the

public. I plan to use this article to show the reason some people fear the flu vaccination. I plan to

disprove these theories with research from other credible websites.

“Influenza (Flu).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and

Prevention, 24 Oct. 2017, www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/vaccine/vaccinesafety.htm.

On the Center for Disease In this article and Prevention(CDC) website, they provide

information on the flu vaccine. Millions of Americans have safely been given flu vaccination for

50 years. The CDC recommends anyone over 6 months of age to get vaccinated. The flu vaccine

doesn't cause the flu, as a inactive, or particle that appears as the virus is used. Side effects of the

vaccine are soreness in the injection site, headache, fever, nausea, and muscle aches. Most of

these side effects are rare. Some studies have shown that Guillain-Barre syndrome(GBS) are

possible from the flu vaccine. The risk is fewer than 1-2 cases per million vaccines given. GBS is

more common following the flu than from the flu vaccine. Severe reactions from the flu are very

rare. If such a ration were to occur, it would happen within minutes to a couple hours. Risk

factors of the vaccine are babies under 6 months of age, egg allergies, have GBS, or are not

feeling well at the time of the vaccination.

This article was found of the Center for Disease and Preventions website and I believe it to be a

credible source. The date of this site was 2017 and is recent enough to be considered a relevant

source. I plan to use this information when I provide information about the flu vaccination. This

information can also be used to be used to back up the claims of safety for flu vaccinations.

MOHAMMED AL-KINANI. Withdrawal of flu vaccine batch from Saudi market sparks fears

over safety. Arab News, November 28, 2017 Tuesday. https://advance-lexis-


WWP1-F11P-X0HM-00000-00&context=1516831. Accessed March 15, 2019.

This article written by Al-Kinani Mohammed, was written for the Saudi Food and Drug

Authority(SFDA). The SFDA recently recalled their vaccinations for the flu. This was done

because there were concerns that of the effectiveness of the vaccine and not its safety. Twenty

nine batches were sent off for safety testing and no safety concerns were found.

This article was aiming at the general public. It was written in Saudi Arabia. Although I am

focusing my research here in America I thought it was relevant to show how other parts of the

world use the vaccination. I will use this article to prove that even when something appears to be

unsafe, we should look for the evidence to see if the rumors have any truth. In this case, the

rumors weren't true and can lead to distrust.

Sampson, Stephanie. "What Ingredients Are In The Flu Shot." Health Line, October 30, 2017.

This article is written by Stephanie Sampson a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine(DO) for

Health Line. the different thing s that can be found in vaccines can sound scary. Very little

amounts of these ingredients are found in the vaccine and in such small doses they aren't a

problem. Vaccines are made by growing viruses inside of fertilized chicken eggs, which leaves a

small trace of egg protein. New Flucelvax is available and grown in animal cells instead.

Thimerosal is used to prevent dangerous bacteria and fungi from forming in the vaccine. this

does contain very small amounts of mercury. Sucrose is used to keep the vaccine stable if it is

exposed to heat or light. This is a commonly used as an artificial sweetener. Small amounts of

antibiotics are used to stop bacteria from contaminating the vaccines. Polysorbate 80 is used to

keep the ingredients from separating. Formaldehyde is used in a very small amount to inactive

the virus and is removed before it is sent off to be used.

This is a credible source that is written by a DO. It was published in 2017 and therefore

credible. I plan to use this in my research of what a flu vaccination is. I t will also provide a

opposite stance on the safety of the vaccination, which I can prove that it has been shown to be

safe since it is such small doses.

Scott, Paula. Personal interview. 28 Feb. 2019.

Paula works for Premier Health in their Yellow Springs office. She is a medical assistant.

When asked about the safety of flu vaccinations, she stated they have never had any issues with

the vaccinations. It is their practice that pregnant women are given the vaccine. They encourage

these women to get the vaccination and well as all of their employees.
Paula is a medical assistant for a major local medical provider. She has proved to be very

knowledgeable. I plan to use her advice to support that vaccinations are in fact safe to use.

“UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.” Occupational Safety and Health

Administration, www.osha.gov/dts/guidance/flu/.

This article was found on the OSHA's website and is a government ran webpage. Workers


help from spreading the flu at the workplace by getting vaccinated. They do state that the flu

vaccine effectiveness varies from year to year. However, even if you do get the flu after being

vaccinated it is a much milder case. this website gives up tp date information about the currentflu

vaccination. The flu vaccine should have a least three types of viruses in it and this year has

included a fourth, quadrivalent intranasal(LIAV).

This site is a credible one as it is a government site. I plan to use this in my paper to back the

safety of flu vaccines and also provide what viruses are included in this year's vaccine.

Wells, Katie, and Katie WellsKatie Wells. “Is the Flu Shot Safe? | Wellness Mama.” Wellness

Mama®, wellnessmama.com/119/flu-shot/.

This article is written by Katie Wells. She is a blogger that gave a good opposing view point.

Some years the wrong strain of the viruses are in the vaccine. It is sometimes hard to

predict what strain we will have before it has hit. The CDC recommends that women over

14 weeks pregnant should get vaccinated. Wells argues that some of the ingredients

found in the vaccine aren't safe for the unborn baby to be exposed to.

I plan on using this is my paper to show the opposing arguments on vaccination safety.