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# KURSUS PENINGKATAN PRESTASI FIZIK

## DRAWING OF SCIENTIFIC GRAPH

Materials required :
1. Graph paper of smallest division of 2 mm x 2 mm,
[ 1 mm x 1mm graph is not recommended for form 5 ]
2. Sharp 2B pencil is recommended .
3. 30 cm Ruler ( recommended plastic type )
4. Eraser
5. Sharpener or pen-knife .

General procedures :
1. In all activities in Physics, a graph paper should not be cut into smaller pieces.
2. A piece of graph paper is normally used to plot one graph only.
3. A big graph to cover ¾ of the graph should be drawn.
4. A graph can be drawn either in portrait or in landscape format.
5. No point should be plotted outside the grid lines.
6. At least five pairs of data are required to plot a graph .
( note : numbers of data can varies depending on the investigation )
7. A sharp pencil is used to draw a graph .

## Procedures for drawing a graph

Title :
A graph should have a title . For example : a graph of the square of the period , T 2
against length, l.
Scales
A graph should have vertical and horizontal scales . The scales used should be easy
to read and do not used odd scales. For example 1 cm : 2 kg .
Axes :
 The axes must be drawn with lines and mark with arrows.
 X –axis is labeled as the manipulated variable.
 Y-axis is labeled as the responding variable.
 The axes labeled should correspond to the title of the graph.
 The axes to be labeled with quantities, symbols and units ( QSU)
 The axis is labeled at the end of the axis line.
 The values on the axes are to be marked clearly and uniformly.
 The values marked on the axes should indicate some accuracy .
 The x-axis should be placed at the bottom most of the graph.
 The y-axis should be placed at the left hand-edge .
 The axes should start from origin unless stated otherwise.
Plotting of graph :
All data from the table must be plotted accurately on the graph paper
 The point to be plotted will be the intersection of the horizontal and vertical values.
e.g , The point is found at the intersection by placing one vertical ruler and one
horizontal ruler corresponding to the vertical and horizontal values
 The point is plotted using a small cross of size not more than 2 mm x 2mm.
 Draw a curve or a line that best fits the data points.
 Do not draw graph with “ connect –the dots ” method.
 The pencil line should be even ( drawn with constant pressure ) and fine but
clear .

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KURSUS PENINGKATAN PRESTASI FIZIK
PPD KOTA BHARU

## DRAWING OF SCIENTIFIC GRAPH

 The best line does not have to touch all the data points but it should at least get
close to most of them. The data points should be distributed evenly above and
below the graph.
 The graph should be drawn passing through the origin if it is a directly
proportional graph.

Analysis of graph :
 A big triangle must be drawn to find the gradient.( It is recommended that the
triangle is drawn using the x-axis as the base of the triangle)
 Indicate the difference in vertical value as Δ y , shown substitution and units
 Indicate the difference in horizontal value as Δx, show substitution and units.
 The gradient is calculated using m =x
Y show substitution and units.
 The gradient is calculated with accuracy of 1, 2, 3 decimal places.
 The unit of the gradient must be written if there is.
 For a curve, the gradient is determined by drawing a big triangle tangent to the
curve at the given point.

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KURSUS PENINGKATAN PRESTASI FIZIK
PPD KOTA BHARU

## DRAWING OF SCIENTIFIC GRAPH

B. Interpolations
To obtain the value of a variable when value of another variable is given
 A line must be drawn from the required value of any axes to the graph and
projected at right angle to the other axes.

C. Extrapolation
To obtain a value or relationship beyond the experimental data.
 The graph is extended beyond its data range using dotted line.
 The values required are obtained using interpolation.

D. Interception
 A line is drawn to cut the vertical or horizontal axes .
Note : To obtain intercept point on the y-axis, the horizontal axis must begin from
zero.
 Similarly , to obtain the intercept point on the x-axis, the vertical axis must begin
from zero.

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