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It is the planning and implementation of language systems to achieve certain goals. These goals are
to determine how languages are used & cultivate and maintain language skills on different languages all
over the country.

A.1. Philippines and its Languages
---comprises of three geographical divisions inhabited by 94 million people (2010 estimate) with eight are
major languages Bikol,Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano or Iloko, Kapampangan, Pangasinan or
Pangasinense,Tagalog, Waray or Samarnon.

Language Status During Colonial Times:


Spain (1565-1898)
 Vernaculars remained in use
 Absence of organized primary education system
 Dissemination of Christian doctrine in Spanish language is the major focus
 2.46 of 4.6 adult population learned the language (Gonzalez, 1980)

America (1899-1902)
 English was introduced as the medium of instruction in the public-school system and in civil
 Opened-up educational system to Filipino children
 1939 census revealed that 4,264,549 out of 16,000,303 could speak English (Gonzalez, 1980)
*positive acceptance to English due to economic advantages, career opportunities

Japan (1942-1945)
 English remained to be the medium of instruction
 Inclusion of a subject learning Japanese
 Japanese language was not greatly learned by Filipinos

B. National Language Policies 1935 Constitution, Article 14, Sec. 3.

The Congress shall take steps toward the development and adoption of a common national language
based on one of the existing native languages. Until otherwise provided by law, English and Spanish shall
continue as official languages.

National Language Institute was established thru Commonwealth Act 184 (Romualdez Law) in 1935
(Constantino): to study the Philippine dialects in general for the purpose of developing and adopting a
common national language based on one of them.

Executive Order 134 (1937) proclaimed adoption, development and use of national language Nat’l.
Language Institute (1936) recommended Tagalog as basis of national language Use of “Pilipino” as official
name of national language declared (August 13, 1959) through Department of Education Order No. 7
1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines mandates that national language is “Filipino” and
further provides that for purpose of communication and instruction, official languages are Filipino and until
otherwise provided by law, English
Intellectualization of Language refers to the calls for the usage of a certain language in all domains and
disciplines. It also pertains to the written form for language.

According to Sibayan (1999) Why Intellectualize Filipino?

--- Filipino must be the made the language of aspirations, this can be done if it has a place in higher

Important Implications of the Intellectualization of Filipino (Sibayan, 1999)

1. Access to past, present, and future knowledge- it must be in written language, must be available
and accessible in various forms of recordings and retrievals such as journals, books, films, www.
2. Human populations in the controlling domains of language -government administration,
education, science and technology, business commerce, and industry, the professions, mass
communication, creative written literature, foreign relations and international business and
commerce, and information technology: must be educated and able to know and use the language;
problem is each has specific language register
3. Support institution- school, government, private institutions, population base (their acceptance)
Steps in the Intellectualization of Filipino (KWF): (a) training of authorities, (b) inventory of status
towards intellectualization, (c) compilation of works and annotated bibliographies, (d) translation
of documents, (d) lexicography works, (e) writing of grammars, (f) references

Present State of Intellectualization of Filipino in the Controlling Domains:

 Government administration, legislation and the judiciary- practically nothing almost
written government transactions and records are in English Education- Filipino is most
developed: BEP, written literature in social studies; secondary and college do little
 Professions- nothing. Language used in higher education is the language of the professions
Sciences and technology- practically nothing (UP-Diliman has a program in the writing of
science materials in Filipino
 Business, commerce, and industry- practically nothing, only collective bargaining
agreements for some business firms have been translated by KWF
 Mass communication-only popularized modernized Filipino, but not necessarily the highly
intellectualized variety is used Imaginative life and creative written literature-no university
degree is taught entirely in Filipino, Tagalog literature is written by Tagalogs.
 Foreign relations- oral and written transactions are in English and other foreign languages
 Information technology- language in the computer in the Philippines is English; google site
has Filipino language.


-Teaching academic content in two languages, in a native and secondary language with varying amounts of
each language used in accordance with the program model.
 1987 Constitution of the Philippines Department Order No. 53, s. 1987 - The 1987 Policy of
Bilingual Education "Aims for achievement of competence in both Filipino and English."

Why Bilingual Education?

---to establish common ground: 'where some, most or all curriculum content is learnt through more than
one language'.

Types of Bilingual Education in the Philippines:

1. Transitional Bilingual Education - Children most easily acquire fluency in second language.
2. Two Way or Dual Language Immersion -both languages are used during lessons. Its purpose is to
produce relatively balanced bilinguals which means efficient in both languages.
3. Late exit or Developmental Bilingual Education -Teaching academic context in English and Native
language. -Aim to produce total bilinguals.

Goals of Bilingual Policy Education in the Philippines:

1. Enhance learning through two languages to achieve quality education;
2. Propagate Filipino as language of literacy;
3. Develop Filipino as linguistic symbol of national unity and identity;
4. Cultivate and elaborate Filipino as language of scholarly discourse, i.e... continue its intellectualization;
5. Maintain English as international language and as non-exclusive language of science and technology.


Department of Education Order No. 16 s. 2012 – “Starting School Year (SY) 2012-2013, the Mother
Tongue-Based-Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) shall be implemented in all public schools, specifically
in Kindergarten, Grades 1, 2 and 3 as part of the K to 12 Basic Education Program.”
Republic Act No. 10533 – “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013”

Mother Tongue-Based-Multilingual Education

---It is a formal or non-formal education, in which the children's mother tongue is used in the classroom as
a bridge in learning Filipino and English.

12 Major Mother Tongues Considered in MTB-MLE:

 Ilokano
 Pangasinan
 Kapampangan
 Tagalog
 Bikol
 Waray
 Hiligaynon
 Cebuano
 Meranao
 Chavacano
 Maguindanaon
 Tausug

Benefits of MTB-MLE:
1. Reduced drop-out rate
2. Reduced repetition
3. Children are attending school
4. Children are learning
5. Parents and Community are involved.

Major Challenges in MTB-MLE:

1. Multilingual Environment
2. Difficulty Translating Academic Language
3. Lack of Materials
4. Attitude



Constantino, Pamela. 1991. Pagpaplanong Pangwika tungo sa Modernisasyon: Karanasan ng

Malaysia, Indonesia at Pilipinas.

Donoso, Isaac. Philippine Linguistic Policy in the Global Context. College of Languages,
Linguistics and Literature, PNU
Gonzalez, Andrew. Language Planning in multilingual countries: The Case of the Philippines.

Tupas, T. Ruanni & Beatriz Lorente: A new politics of language in the Philippines: Bilingual
education and the new challenge of mother tongues. National University of Singapore

Kilates, M. (2015). A truly developing Filipino Languages.


Department of Education. Retrieved on http://www.deped.gov.ph/2012/02/17/do-16-s-2012-


Renomeron, D. (2014). Mother Tongue Based - Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in Philippines.

Retrieved on https://www.slideshare.net/sVcdALe/mother-tongue-based-of-multilingual-education-

Medilo, C. (2012). The Experiences of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education Teachers in Southern
Leyte, Philippines. Retrieved on