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Health 8

UNIT 2: Family Life

Pregnancy-related Concerns
and Pre-natal Care


Malabanias Integrated School
Angeles City

Pregnancy is a
time of many
New Beginning
Humans are reproduced through
sexual reproduction.

◎is a reproductive process

wherein half of genes of the
father and mother combine to
form a single cell
◎the attachment of the
developing cells to the
◎ is the time when a
new cell is formed
during fertilization,
grows, and
develops into a
baby in the
woman’s uterus
◎is the time when
a woman carries
a developing
fetus in her
Embryo Fetus
◎ developing ◎ developing
human from the human from the
time that the 8th week until
ovum and the birth
sperm cell unite
until the end of
the 8th week
A normal
generally lasts
until 9 months
or 38-40 weeks.
Risks of Unplanned /
Unwanted Pregnancy
◎Emotional anguish
◎Possible health risks
◎Limited life options
Risks of Unplanned /
Unwanted Pregnancy
Teenage pregnancies
are premature because
they occur in mothers
who may be too young
and/or immature to care
for a child adequately.
1. Teens at 15 and younger face
a 60% higher risk of death
during pregnancy and child
birth than young mothers at
the age of 20.
2. Babies born to young teenage
mothers are 2 to 3 times more
likely to die during their first
year than babies born to older
3. Teen mothers are twice more
likely to have low birth weight
infants (at risk of physical and
mental defects as well as
increased risk of dying).
4. 70% of teen mothers get no
medical care at all during
critical first months of
pregnancy and 25% get no
prenatal care at all.
5. Even with good prenatal care,
teenager mothers are more
likely to have premature labor
and to deliver low birth-weight
6. Young teen mothers are likely
to drop out of school and face
high risk of unemployment,
poverty, and dependence on
7. If they marry due to
pregnancy, their risk of break
up or separation is high.
8. The young mother is more
likely to be angered and
disillusioned by her baby’s
demands and may become
an abusive parent.
Changes in the
Mother’s Body
◎Produces hormones that make
pregnant woman nauseated
(morning sickness)
◎Enlarged breasts and prepared
to produce milk
Changes in the
Mother’s Body
◎The woman’s uterus stretches
to hold a full-sized newborn
◎Experiences swelling of legs,
difficulty in sleeping,
restlessness, and irritability as
the fetus gets larger
Changes in the
Mother’s Body
◎Many women feel clumsy or
uncomfortable too because of
the changes taking place.
Nourishing the Baby
◎ The fetus gets its nutrition from food
the mother eats.
◎ To ensure the health of the fetus,
the mother needs to eat healthy
foods and takes special vitamins.
◎ She should get regular medical
checkups to protect her health and
health of the growing fetus.
Normal Phyical Changes and
Symptons Throughout
◎Sleep problems
◎Breast changes
◎Hair changes
◎Back pain/sciatica
Normal Phyical Changes and
Symptons Throughout
◎Morning sickness
◎Varicose veins
◎Leg cramps
◎Pelvic ache/hip pain
◎Nosebleeds/bleeding gums
Normal Phyical Changes and
Symptons Throughout
◎Stretch marks, itchiness, and other
skin changes
◎Hand pain, numbness, or weakness
(carpal tunnel syndrome)
◎Changes in the vaginal discharge
Phases of Pregnancy
 week 1 - 12
 missed menstrual
1st Trimester period
 breast tenderness,
morning sickness,
Phases of Pregnancy
 week 13 - 27
 start to look
2nd Trimester pregnant and
wear maternity
 physical
Phases of Pregnancy
 Week 16: The top
of the uterus
2nd Trimester (fundus) will be
about halfway
between the pubic
bone and the
Phases of Pregnancy
 Week 27: The
fundus will be
2nd Trimester about 2 inches
(5cm) or more
above the navel
Phases of Pregnancy
 week 28 to giving
3rd Trimester  discomfort as the
belly gets bigger
 sleep problems
Complications of Pregnancy
Special Condition Prevention and Management

Small frequent feedings instead of three large meals and high

carbohydrates, low fat foods such as crackers and jelly and
body weight
liquids should be taken between meals
Toxemia Proper nutrition, intake of iron and folic acid as prescribed by
(blood poison) the physician
Morning sickness Intake of folic acid as prescribed by the doctor
Anemia Proper nutrition
(RBC deficiency)

Diabetes Fluid intake, proper nutrition, and exercise

Constipation Fluid intake, eat fruits and vegetables

Activity: Paper Plate
Cut out pictures of different
foods and paste them on a
paper plate. Remember that
these foods are what a woman
should be eating during

◎ the passage of
a baby from its
mother’s uterus
to the outside of
her body
During birth, the
uterus contracts
many time and
pushes the baby
through the vagina
and outside the
mother’s body.
◎is the process that lasts from
the time contractions start
until the delivery of the child
and the placenta
◎lasts a different amount of
time for every woman and
every pregnancy
1st Stage
◎Begins with the first contraction and
lasts until the cervix has opened
enough to allow the baby to pass
2nd Stage
◎Starts when the cervix is completely
open and lasts until the baby is
3rd Stage
◎ is the final stage of labor
◎ is when the placenta is delivered
◎ In this stage, the mother’s uterine
contractions push the placenta or
“afterbirths” out of her body. At this
time, the birth is completed.
Mother’s Role During
and After Pregnancy
1. Avoid stressful activities
2. Do light exercises
3. Eat nutritious foods
4. Avoid vices
5. Have the regular and necessary
prenatal and post-natal checkups
Father’s Role During
& After the Wife’s Pregnancy
1. Take care of the mother and the baby
2. See to it that the mother gets the necessary
prenatal and post-natal checkups
3. See to it that the necessary immunizations
for the baby are followed as scheduled
4. Provide healthy diet meals for the mother
and the child
How to Take Care of
a Pregnant Woman
1. Accompany her in a daily exercise
2. Makes her relax by listening to music
3. Gives her lots of water to drink
4. Gives her nutritious food to eat
5. Checks if she sleeps by lying on the left
side of her body
6. Accompany her during regular and as
needed prenatal checkups
◎ is the best food since it contains
essential nutrients suitable for the
infant’s needs
◎ is the nature’s first immunization,
enabling the infant to fight potentially
serious infections
◎ is the traditional and ideal form of
infant feeding, meeting an
infant’s nutritional needs for his
first four to six months of life
◎ is the period of milk production
initiated by the prolactin hormone
in the mammary glands
Advantages of
1. It is economical and nutritious.
2. It promotes emotional bonding
between the child and the mother.
3. Mother’s milk has an antibody that
protects the infant from certain
◎ means a child from the time of
complete delivery to 30 days
Newborn Screening
◎ is a simple procedure to find
out if the baby has congenital
metabolic disorder that may
lead to mental retardation or
even death if left untreated
When is NBS done?
◎ NBS is ideally done on the 48th
to 72nd hour of life.
◎ However, it may also be done
after 24 hours from birth.
How is NBS done?
◎ A few drops of blood are taken
from the baby’s heel, blotted
on a special absorbent filter
card, and then sent to a
Newborn Screening Center
Who will collect the
sample for NBS?
◎ Physician
◎ Nurse
◎ Medical technologist
◎ Trained midwife
Where is NBS available?
◎ NBS is available in hospitals,
lying-ins, rural health units,
health centers, and some
private clinics.
◎ If babies are delivered at
home, babies may be brought
to the nearest institution
offering NBS.
Activity: Sing It!
Sing the songs “Anak” and “Sa
Ugoy ng Duyan”.
Mr. Carlo Justino J. Luna
Malabanias Integrated School
Angeles City

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