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# Data diambil berdasarkan pengamatan langsung pada 15 Agustus 2018

24 jam/hari

## 5. Suhu Inlet nira mentah PP 1 = 60 C

Suhu Outlet nira mentah PP 1 = 78.2381 C
Suhu Inlet nira mentah PP2 = 75 C
Suhu Outlet nira mentah PP2 = 107.619 C
Suhu inlet nira mentah disufer = 30 C
Suhu outlet nira mentah disufer = 80 C

## 6. Tekanan Uap Bekas = 0.7286 kg/cm2 gauge

= 1.7286 kg/cm2 abs

## 8. Vakum BP 4 = 55.5 cmHg gauge

= (76 - 55,7867) cmHg abs
= 20.5 cmHg abs 1.0332
76
= 0.2787 kg/cm2 abs

## 9. Pressure Drop = (1,7643 - 0,2748) kg/cm2 abs

= 1.4499 kg/cm2 abs

Langkah Perhitungan

## 1. Distribusi Tekanan Tiap Badan Penguapan

Koefisien distribusi tekanan tiap badan penguapan diambil dari table
32.23 hal 579, Hugot. Untuk Quadrupple yakni 11/40 + 10,3/40 +
9,7/40 + 9/40

## BP I = (1,7643 - (11/40 x 1,4895)) kg/cm2 abs

= 1.3299 kg/cm2 abs
BP 2 = (1.3547 - (10,3/40 x 1,4895)) kg/cm2 abs
= 0.9565 kg/cm2 abs
BP 3 = (0,9711 - (9,7/40 x 1,4895)) kg/cm2 abs
= 0.6049 kg/cm2 abs

## BP 4 = (0,6099-(9/40 x 1,4895)) kg/cm2 abs

= 0.2786921053 kg/cmm2 abs

## 2. Distribusi Temperatur tiap Badan Penguapan

Distribusi Temperatur tiap BP diperoleh dari hasil interpolasi pada
Tabel 41.1A hal 1050, Hugot berdasarkan tekanan tiap Badan
Penguapan
BP 1
T (C) P(kg/cm2 abs) r (kkal/kg)
107 1.3196 534.30
108 1.3654 533.60
107.2244 1.3299 534.14

BP 2
T (C) P(kg/cm2 abs) r (kkal/kg)
97 0.9274 540.80
98 0.9616 540.20
97.8516 0.9565 540.29

BP 3
T (C) P(kg/cm2 abs) r (kkal/kg)
85 0.5894 548.20
86 0.6129 547.60
85.6605 0.6049 547.80

BP 4
T (C) P(kg/cm2 abs) r (kkal/kg)
66 0.2666 559.70
67 0.2787 559.10
66.9993 0.2787 559.10

## 3. Kebutuhan Bleeding I (Uap Nira 1)

Juice Heater (JH) PP2
Cp = 1 - (0,006 x brix)
= 0.9220 kkal/kg 0C

## Kebutuhan UNI I (Bleeding) :

= m Nira mentah x Cp x ∆T/r1
= 319,081 ton/jam x 0,9257 kkal/kg C x ( 107,619 - 75) C/ 533,76 kkal/kg
17.5591599482 Ton/jam
Vacuum Pan
Kebutuhan uap bagi Vacuum Pan sebesar 2/3 dari uap nira yakni
sebesar 120 kg/ton tebu (Hal 589, Hugot)

## Kebutuhan UNI I / Bleeding :

= 2/3 x 120 kg/ton x 6069,36 ton/hari
= 485095.20 kg/hari hari ton
24 jam 1000 kg
= 20.2123 ton/jam

## Total UNI I / Bleeding = 18,0474 +20,2312 ton/jam

= 37.7714599482 ton/jam

## 4. Kebutuhan Bleeding II / UNI II

Juice Heater (PP) I
Kebutuhan UNI 2/ Bleeding :
= m Nira mentah x Cp x ∆T/r2
= 319,081 ton/jam x 0,9257 kkal/kg C x (78,2381 - 60)C /r2
= 9.7061

## 5. Total air yang diuapkan

w= brix nira encer
G x (1- )
brix nira kental
= 0.1238
319,081 ton/jam x (1 - )
0.6167
= 246.9204 ton/jam

## 6. Air yang diuapkan tiap badan penguapan

x = Bleeding / Uap nira I ke PP 2 dan Vacuum Pan
= 37.7715 ton/jam
y = Bleeding / Uap Nira 2 ke PP 1
= 9.7061 ton/jam
z = UNI 3 / UNI 4

Maka
BP 1 = x+y+z
BP 2 = y+z
BP 3 = z
BP 4 = z
W = x + 2Y + 4z

## 246.9204 = 39,7123 + (2x10,7664) + 4z ton/jam

4z = 189.7368 ton/jam
z = 47.4342 ton/jam
BP 1 = 38,2786 + 9,974 + 49,1862 = 94.9117 ton/jam
BP 2 = 10,7664 + 49,1862 = 57.1403 ton/jam
BP 3 = 47.4342 = 47.4342 ton/jam
BP 4 = 47.4342 = 47.4342 ton/jam
Total = 246.9203876342 ton/jam

## 7, Nira Keluar Tiap Badan Penguapan

BP 1 = 319,081 - 97,4387 216.9483 ton/jam
BP2 = 220,1078 - 59.1602 159.8080 ton/jam
BP 3 = 160,9098 - 49,1862 112.3738 ton/jam
Bp 4 = 112,4783 - 49,1862 64.9396 ton/jam

## 8. % brix nira keluar tiap badan penguapan

Ton brix NE inlet BP = % brix NE x berat NE/100
= 12,38 x 319,018 ton/jam
100
= 40.5418 ton/jam

## % brix Nira encer inlet BP = Ton brix NE inlet BP

x100
Nira keluar tiap BP

## % brix Nira keluar BP 1 = 39,4976 ton/jam

x100
221,5793 ton/jam
= 18.6873 %
brix rata - rata BP 1 = 12,68 + 17,9447
= 15.8437
2
% brix Nira keluar BP 2 = 39,4976 ton/jam
x100
162,4191 ton/jam
= 25.3691 %

=
2 22.0282

x100
113,2329 ton/jam
= 36.0776 %

= 30.7233
2

## % brix Nira keluar BP 4 = 39,4976 ton/jam

x100
64,0467 ton/jam
= 62.4300 %
brix rata - rata BP 4 = 35,1158 + 61,67
= 49.2538
2

## 9. Perhitungan panas jenis tiap badan penguapan

C0 = 1-(0,006 x 12,38) = 0.9220 kkal/kg C
C1 = 1-(0,006 x17,8255 ) = 0.8879 kkal/kg C
C2 = 1-(0,006 x 24,3183) = 0.8478 kkal/kg C
C3 = 1-(0,006 x 34,8817) = 0.7835 kkal/kg C
C4 = 1-(0,006 x 61,67) = 0.6254 kkal/kg C

## 10. Perhitungan boiling point raise (BPR)

BPR = 1,78x + 6,22x² (Geankolpis 3th edition, hlm 506)

## BPR 1 = 1,78(15,1033) + 6,22(15,1033)² 0.4382

BPR 2 = 1,78(21,0719) + 6,22(21,0718)² 0.6939
BPR 3 = 1,78(29,6) + 6,22(29,6)² 1.1340
BPR 4 = 1,78(48,2759) + 6,22(48,2759)² 2.3857

## T Superheated BP 1 = 107,7661 + 0,4107 = 107.6625

T Superheated BP 2 = (98,2702 + 0,6513) = 98.5455
T Superheated BP 3 = 85,8785 + 1,0719 = 86.7945
T Superheated BP 4 = 66,6772 + 2,3089 = 69.3850

## Steam q(kkal/kg) T (C) λ (kkal/kg)

116.2 116 644.6
117.2 117 645
116.8923 116.6923 644.8769

## Uni BP 1 q(kkal/kg) T (C) λ (kkal/kg)

107.1 107 641.4
108.1 108 641.7
107.7625 107.6625 641.5988

## Uni BP 2 q(kkal/kg) T (C) λ (kkal/kg)

98 98 638.2
99 99 638.5
98.5455 98.5455 638.3637

## Uni BP 3 q(kkal/kg) T (C) λ (kkal/kg)

86 86 633.6
87 87 634
86.7945 86.7945 633.9178

## Uni BP 4 q(kkal/kg) T (C) λ (kkal/kg)

68.9 69 626.9
69.9 70 627.3
69.2850 69.3850 627.0540

## Neraca Massa dan Energi

Uap Bekas

Uap nira
Evaporator
Nira Encer
Nira kental

Kondensat
ms 115000 kg/jam

BP 1
Energi Masuk
Steam = ms x λ = 115000 kg/jam x 644,5126 kkal/kg = 74160846.2
Nira = mxcxT= 319018 kg/jam x 0,9257 kkal/kg C x 98 C 28178422.2
Total = 102339268

Energi Keluar
Kondensat= ms x q = 115000 kg/jam x 115,9088 13442615.3846 13442615.4
Uap nira = mxλ= 97438,7 kg/jam x 641,7707 kkal/kg 60895249.8
Nira = mxcxT= 221579,3 kg/jam x 0,893 kkal/kg C x107,766 20653896.4
Q loss = 7347507
Total = 102339268

= x100= 7.1796
Panas Input

## Efissiensi Panas termanfaatkan

= x100 = 59.5033
Panas Input

Neraca Massa
Komponen Input (ton/jam) Output (ton/jam)
Steam 115.0000
Nira 311.86 216.9483
Kondensat 115.0000
Vapor 94.9117
Total 426.8600 426.8600

Neraca Energi
Komponen Input Output
Q Steam 74160846.1538
Q Nira 28178422.1600 20653896.3734
Q kondensat 13442615.3846
Q Uni 1 60895249.7651
Q loss 7347506.7907
Total 102339268.3138 102339268.3138

BP 2
Energi masuk
Uni 1 = mxλ= 97438,7 kg/jam x 641,7707 kkal/kg 60895249.8
Nira = m xC xT = 221579,3 ton/jam x 0,893 kkal/kg C x 107,7 20653896.4
Total = 81549146.1

Energi keluar
Kondensat = mxq= 97438,7 kg/jam x 108,2768 kkal/kg = 10227926.1
Uap nira = mxλ= 59146,1 kg/jam x 638,4764 kkal/kg = 36476273.7
Nira = mxcxT 162482,8 kg/jam x 0,8541 kkal/kg C x 98,27 13257217.1
Q loss = 21587729
Total = 81549146

## % losse Panas hilang

= x 100 = 26.4720
Panas Input
Efisiensi Panas termanfaatkan
= x100 = 44.7292
Panas Input

Neraca Massa

## Komponen Input Output

Uni 1 94.9117
Nira 216.9483 159.8080
Kondensat 94.9117
Vapor 57.1403
Total 311.8600 311.8600
Neraca Energi

## Komponen Input Output

Q Steam 60895249.7651
Q Nira 20653896.3734 13257217.1162
Q kondensat 10227926.1258
Q Uni 2 36476273.6832
Q loss 21587729.2133
Total 81549146.1385 81549146.1385

BP 3
Energi masuk
Uni 2 = mxλ= 59160,2 kg/jam x 638,4764 kkal/kg = 36476273.7
Nira = m xC xT = 162419,1 kg/jam x 0,8541 kkal/kg C x98,270 13257217.1
Total = 49733490.8

Energi keluar
Kondensat= mxq= 59150,2 kg/jam x 98,9215 kkal/kg = 5630916.96
Uni 3 = mxλ= 49221,8 kg/jam x 633,9782 kkal/kg = 30069377.1
Nira = mxcxt 113264,8 kg/jam x 0,7907 kkal/kg C x85,87 7542296.22
Q loss = 6490900
Total = 49733491

## % loss Panas loss

= = 13.0514
Panas Input
Efisiensi Panas termanfaatkan
= = 60.4610
Panas Input

Neraca Massa

## Komponen Input Output

Uni 2 57.1403
Nira 159.8080 112.3738
Kondensat 57.1403
Vapor 47.4342
Total 216.9483 216.9483

Neraca Energi

## Komponen Input Output

Q Uni 2 36476273.6832
Q Nira 13257217.1162 7542296.2186
Q kondensat 5630916.9569
Q Uni 3 30069377.1274
Q loss 6490900.4965
Total 49733490.7994 49733490.7994

BP 4
Energi masuk
Uni 3 = mxλ= 49218 kg/jamx 630,3179 k30069377.12742
Nira = m xC xT = 113264,8 kg/jam x 0,7908 7642143.14952
Total = 37711520.27694

Energi keluar
Kondensat= mxq= 113264,8 kg/jam x 77,44494117025.904668
Uni 4 = mxλ= 49218 kg/jam x 607,9825 k29743798.67844
Nira = mxcxt 64046,7 kg/jam x 0,63 kkal2721147.169252
Q loss = 1129548.524585
Total = 37711520.27694

## % loss Panas hilang

= = 2.9952346559
Panas Input
Efisiensi Panas termanfaatkan
= = 78.8719162208
Panas input

Neraca Massa

## Komponen Input Output

Uni 3 47.4342
Nira 112.3738 64.9396
Kondensat 47.4342
Vapor 47.4342
Total 159.8080 159.8080

Neraca Energi

## Komponen Input Output

Q Uni 3 30069377.1274
Q Nira 7642143.1495 2721147.1693
Q kondensat 4117025.9047
Q Uni 4 29743798.6784
Q loss 1129548.5246
Total 37711520.2769 37711520.2769

## Efisiensi total 157184699.254226 57.9304591566

271333425.5287

BP 1 59.5033
Bp 2 44.7292
BP 3 60.4610
BP 4 78.8719162208
252.65375 Ton/jam

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## nterpolasi steam pada tabel 41.1 A, hal 1050 Hugot

kg/cm2 abs
cmHg abs
180

K 2/3 xUNI
Asumsi panas hilang
BP 1 = 1.25 %
BP 2 = 1%
BP 3 = 75.00% %
BP 4 = 0.5 %

73568204.2615385

% loss Efisiensi
7.179557673 59.5033077414

Input Output
steam kondensat losses
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

q loss
ms konstanta
0.0000 352230.2770
13442615.3846 81901376.4155

84919642.36 84919644.47
#VALUE! #VALUE!
% heatloss efisiensi
26.4720481274 0

output
Nira
#VALUE!

Y2 Konstanta
82.9571593223 17997411.9009 13257217.116
jumlah Y2
-82.9572 49813067.2399

Q out
#VALUE!
% loss efisiensi
13.0513671817 0

y3 konstantta
67.1179229205 10725980.54 7542296.2186
-67.1179
% loss Efisiensi
2.9952346559 78.8719162208
Ube Flow Nm Brix Nm Brix NK Tebu
Tanggal Jam (kg/cm ) 2
Vacuum Brik Nk (ton/jam) (%) (%) Tergiling

## Tanggal Jam Ube (kg/cm2) Vacuum Brik Nk

Flow Nm Brix Nm Brix Nk
A B A B A
13:50 0.7 56 60 60 59 314.7 12 59.5
14:00 0.7 56 60 58 58 315.3 12 58
14:10 0.75 56 60 58 57 316.3 12 57.5
14:20 0.8 56 61 58 61 289.8 12 59.5
14:30 0.75 56 61.5 61 63 297.4 12 62
14:40 0.75 56 61 63 60 332.8 12 61.5
14:50 0.75 56 61 64 60.5 330.6 12 62.25
15:00 0.75 55.5 61 63 62 331.5 12 62.5
15:10 0.75 55.5 61 62 63 331.7 12 62.5
15:20 0.8 55.5 61 60.5 64 328.5 12 62.25
15:30 0.8 55.5 61 61 64.5 332.1 12 62.75
15:40 0.9 55.5 61 63 64 333.9 12 63.5
15:50 0.9 56 60.5 66 65 330.5 12 65.5
16:00 0.85 57.5 60 60.5 62 332.6 13 61.25
16:10 0.75 55.5 60.5 63 59 325 13 61
16:20 0.7 55.5 61 63 62 309.2 13 62.5
16:30 0.75 55.5 61 64 60.5 304.2 13 62.25
16:40 0.7 55.5 61 62 59.5 311.1 13 60.75
16:50 0.7 55.5 61 62 59 312.5 13 60.5
17:00 0.7 55.5 60.5 65 57 309.4 13 61
17:10 0.8 55.5 60 58 57 311.6 13 57.5
0.7642857143 55.78571 60.71429 61.66667 60.80952 319.081 12.38095 61.2381

Steam Table
t : Temperatur (oC) r : laten heat of vaporisati
p : absolut pressure of vapor kg/cm2 X : q+r = total heat of 1 kg
p' : gauge pressure of vapor w : density of vapour at to
d : density of water at toC, in kg/dm3 v : specific volume of vapo
q : sensible heat to raise 1 kg of water from to toC , in kcal/kg

t p d q r X w v
0 0.01 1.00 0.00 597.20 597.20 0.00 206.30
5 0.01 1.00 5.00 594.40 599.40 0.01 147.20
10 0.01 1.00 10.00 591.60 601.60 0.01 106.40
15 0.02 1.00 15.00 588.80 603.80 0.01 77.99
16 0.02 1.00 16.00 588.30 604.30 0.01 73.39
17 0.02 1.00 17.00 587.70 604.70 0.01 69.10
18 0.02 1.00 18.00 587.10 605.10 0.02 65.10
19 0.02 1.00 19.00 586.60 605.60 0.02 61.35
20 0.02 1.00 20.00 586.00 606.00 0.02 57.84
21 0.03 1.00 21.00 585.50 606.50 0.02 54.56
22 0.03 1.00 22.00 584.90 606.90 0.02 51.49
23 0.03 1.00 23.00 584.30 607.30 0.02 48.63
24 0.03 1.00 24.00 583.80 607.80 0.02 45.94
25 0.03 1.00 25.00 583.20 608.20 0.02 43.41
26 0.03 1.00 26.00 582.60 608.60 0.02 41.04
27 0.04 1.00 27.00 582.10 609.10 0.03 38.82
28 0.04 1.00 28.00 581.50 609.50 0.03 36.73
29 0.04 1.00 29.00 581.00 610.00 0.03 34.77
30 0.04 1.00 30.00 580.40 610.40 0.03 32.93
31 0.05 1.00 31.00 579.80 610.80 0.03 31.20
32 0.05 1.00 32.00 579.30 611.30 0.03 29.58
33 0.05 0.99 33.00 578.70 611.70 0.04 28.05
34 0.05 0.99 34.00 578.10 612.10 0.04 26.61
35 0.06 0.99 35.00 577.50 612.50 0.04 25.25
36 0.06 0.99 36.00 577.00 613.00 0.04 23.97
37 0.06 0.99 37.00 576.40 613.40 0.04 22.77
38 0.07 0.99 38.00 575.90 613.90 0.05 21.63
39 0.07 0.99 39.00 575.30 614.30 0.05 20.56
40 0.08 0.99 40.00 574.70 614.70 0.05 19.55
41 0.08 0.99 41.00 574.20 615.20 0.05 18.60
42 0.08 0.99 42.00 573.60 615.60 0.06 17.70
43 0.09 0.99 43.00 573.00 616.00 0.06 16.85
44 0.09 0.99 44.00 572.40 616.40 0.06 16.04
45 0.10 0.99 45.00 571.80 616.80 0.07 15.28
46 0.10 0.99 46.00 571.20 617.20 0.07 14.56
47 0.11 0.99 47.00 570.70 617.70 0.07 13.88
48 0.11 0.99 48.00 570.10 618.10 0.08 13.24
49 0.12 0.99 49.00 569.50 618.50 0.08 12.63
50 0.13 0.99 50.00 569.00 619.00 0.08 12.05
51 0.13 0.99 50.90 568.40 619.30 0.09 11.50
52 0.14 0.99 51.90 567.80 619.70 0.09 10.98
53 0.15 0.99 52.90 567.30 620.20 0.10 10.49
54 0.15 0.99 53.90 566.70 620.60 0.10 10.02
55 0.16 0.99 54.90 566.10 621.00 0.10 9.58
56 0.17 0.99 55.90 565.60 621.50 0.11 9.16
57 0.18 0.98 56.90 565.00 621.90 0.11 8.76
58 0.19 0.98 57.90 564.40 622.30 0.12 8.39
59 0.19 0.98 58.90 563.80 622.70 0.12 8.03
60 0.20 0.98 59.90 563.30 623.20 0.13 7.68
61 0.21 0.98 60.90 562.70 623.60 0.14 7.36
62 0.22 0.98 61.90 562.10 624.00 0.14 7.05
63 0.23 0.98 62.90 561.50 624.40 0.15 6.75
64 0.24 0.98 63.90 560.90 624.80 0.15 6.47
65 0.26 0.98 64.90 560.30 625.20 0.16 6.21
66 0.27 0.98 65.90 559.70 625.60 0.17 5.95
67 0.28 0.98 66.90 559.10 626.00 0.18 5.71
68 0.29 0.98 67.90 558.50 626.40 0.18 5.48
69 0.30 0.98 68.90 558.00 626.90 0.19 5.26
70 0.32 0.98 69.90 557.40 627.30 0.20 5.05
71 0.33 0.98 70.90 556.80 627.70 0.21 4.85
72 0.35 0.98 71.90 556.20 628.10 0.21 4.66
73 0.36 0.98 72.90 555.60 628.50 0.22 4.48
74 0.38 0.98 73.90 555.00 628.90 0.23 4.30
75 0.39 0.97 74.90 554.40 629.30 0.24 4.14
76 0.41 0.97 75.90 553.80 629.70 0.25 3.98
77 0.43 0.97 76.90 553.20 630.10 0.26 3.83
78 0.45 0.97 77.90 552.60 630.50 0.27 3.68
79 0.46 0.97 78.90 552.00 630.90 0.28 3.54
80 0.48 0.97 80.00 551.30 631.30 0.29 3.41
81 0.50 0.97 81.00 550.70 631.70 0.30 3.28
82 0.52 0.97 82.00 550.10 632.10 0.32 3.16
83 0.54 0.97 83.00 549.50 632.50 0.33 3.05
84 0.57 0.97 84.00 548.80 632.80 0.34 2.94
85 0.59 0.97 85.00 548.20 633.20 0.35 2.83
86 0.61 0.97 86.00 547.60 633.60 0.37 2.73
87 0.64 0.97 87.00 547.00 634.00 0.38 2.63
88 0.66 0.97 88.00 546.40 634.40 0.39 2.54
89 0.69 0.97 89.00 545.70 634.70 0.41 2.45
90 0.71 0.97 90.00 545.10 635.10 0.42 2.36
91 0.74 0.96 91.00 544.50 635.50 0.44 2.28
92 0.77 0.96 92.00 534.90 635.90 0.45 2.20
93 0.80 0.96 93.00 543.30 636.30 0.47 2.12
94 0.83 0.96 94.00 542.70 636.70 0.49 2.05
95 0.86 0.96 95.00 542.00 637.00 0.50 1.98
96 0.89 0.96 96.00 541.40 637.40 0.52 1.91
97 0.93 0.96 97.00 540.80 637.80 0.54 1.85
98 0.96 0.96 98.00 540.20 638.20 0.56 1.79
99 1.00 0.96 99.00 539.50 638.50 0.58 1.73
100 1.03 0.96 100.00 538.90 638.90 0.60 1.67
101 1.07 0.04 101.00 538.30 639.30 0.62 1.62
102 1.11 0.08 102.00 537.60 639.60 0.64 1.57
103 1.15 0.12 103.10 536.90 640.00 0.66 1.52
104 1.19 0.16 104.10 536.20 640.30 0.68 1.47
105 1.23 0.20 105.10 535.60 640.70 0.70 1.42
106 1.28 0.24 106.10 535.00 641.10 0.73 1.37
107 1.32 0.29 107.10 534.30 641.40 0.75 1.33
108 1.37 0.33 108.10 533.60 641.70 0.78 1.29
109 1.41 0.38 109.10 533.00 642.10 0.80 1.25
110 1.46 0.43 110.10 532.40 642.50 0.83 1.21
111 1.51 0.48 111.10 531.80 642.90 0.85 1.17
112 1.56 0.53 112.10 531.10 643.20 0.88 1.14
113 1.61 0.58 113.20 530.40 643.60 0.91 1.10
114 1.67 0.64 114.20 529.70 643.90 0.94 1.07
115 1.72 0.69 115.20 529.10 644.30 0.97 1.04
116 1.78 0.75 116.20 528.40 644.60 0.99 1.01
117 1.84 0.81 117.20 527.80 645.00 1.03 0.98
118 1.90 0.87 118.20 527.10 645.30 1.06 0.95
119 1.96 0.93 119.20 526.40 645.60 1.09 0.92
120 2.02 0.99 120.30 525.70 646.00 1.12 0.89
121 2.09 1.06 121.30 525.10 646.40 1.16 0.87
122 2.16 1.12 122.30 524.40 646.70 1.19 0.84
123 2.22 1.19 123.30 523.70 647.00 1.23 0.82
124 2.29 1.26 124.30 523.10 647.40 1.26 0.79
125 2.37 1.33 125.30 522.40 647.70 1.30 0.77
126 2.44 1.41 126.40 521.60 648.00 1.34 0.75
127 2.52 1.48 127.40 520.90 648.30 1.38 0.73
128 2.59 1.56 128.40 520.30 648.70 1.42 0.71
129 2.67 1.64 129.40 519.60 649.00 1.46 0.69
130 2.75 1.72 130.40 518.90 649.30 1.50 0.67
131 2.84 1.80 131.40 518.20 649.60 1.54 0.65
132 2.92 1.89 132.50 517.40 649.90 1.58 0.63
133 3.01 1.98 133.50 516.70 650.20 1.63 0.61
134 3.10 2.07 134.50 516.00 650.50 1.67 0.60
135 3.19 2.16 135.50 515.30 650.80 1.72 0.58
136 3.29 2.25 136.60 514.60 651.20 1.77 0.57
137 3.38 2.35 137.60 513.90 651.50 1.82 0.55
138 3.48 2.45 138.60 513.30 651.90 1.86 0.54
139 3.58 2.55 139.60 512.60 652.20 1.92 0.52
140 3.69 2.65 140.60 511.90 652.50 1.97 0.51
141 3.79 2.76 141.70 511.10 652.80 2.02 0.50
142 3.90 2.87 142.70 510.40 653.10 2.07 0.48
143 4.01 2.98 143.70 509.70 653.40 2.13 0.47
144 4.12 3.09 144.80 508.90 653.70 2.19 0.46
145 4.24 3.20 145.80 508.20 654.00 2.24 0.45
146 4.36 3.32 146.80 507.50 654.30 2.30 0.43
147 4.48 3.44 147.80 506.80 654.60 2.36 0.42
148 4.56 3.57 148.90 506.00 654.90 2.42 0.41
149 4.73 3.69 149.90 505.30 655.20 2.49 0.40
150 4.85 3.82 150.90 504.60 655.50 2.55 0.39

## 5 3.97 151.11 152.10 503.70 655.80 2.62 0.38

5.5 4.47 154.71 155.80 501.10 656.90 2.87 0.35
6 4.97 158.08 159.30 498.50 657.80 3.11 0.32
6.5 5.47 161.21 162.50 496.10 658.60 3.36 0.30
7 5.97 164.17 165.60 493.80 659.40 3.60 0.28
7.5 6.47 166.96 168.50 491.60 660.10 3.84 0.26
8 6.97 169.61 171.30 489.50 660.80 4.09 0.24
8.5 7.47 172.12 173.90 487.50 661.40 4.33 0.23
9 7.97 174.53 176.40 485.60 662.00 4.57 0.22
9.5 8.47 176.83 178.90 483.60 662.50 4.81 0.21
10 8.97 179.04 181.20 481.80 663.00 5.05 0.20
10.5 9.47 181.16 183.40 480.10 663.50 5.29 0.19
11 9.97 183.20 185.60 478.30 663.90 5.53 0.18
11.5 10.47 185.17 187.70 476.60 664.30 5.77 0.17
12 10.97 187.08 189.70 475.00 664.70 6.01 0.17
12.5 11.47 188.92 191.60 473.50 665.10 6.25 0.16
13 11.97 190.71 193.50 471.90 665.40 6.49 0.15
13.5 12.47 192.45 195.30 470.40 665.70 6.73 0.15
14 12.97 194.13 197.10 468.90 666.00 6.97 0.14
14.5 13.47 195.77 198.90 467.40 666.30 7.21 0.14
15 13.97 197.36 200.60 466.00 666.60 7.45 0.13
16 14.97 200.43 203.90 463.20 667.10 7.93 0.13
17 15.97 203.35 207.10 460.40 667.50 8.41 0.12
18 16.97 206.14 210.10 457.80 667.90 8.89 0.11
19 17.97 208.81 213.00 455.20 668.20 9.37 0.11
20 18.97 211.38 215.80 452.70 668.50 9.85 0.10
21 19.97 213.85 218.50 450.20 668.70 10.33 0.10
22 20.97 216.23 221.20 447.70 668.90 10.81 0.09
23 21.97 218.53 223.60 445.50 669.10 11.29 0.09
24 22.97 220.75 226.10 443.20 669.30 11.78 0.08
25 23.97 222.90 228.50 440.90 669.40 12.26 0.08
26 24.97 224.99 230.80 438.70 669.50 12.75 0.08
27 25.97 227.01 233.00 436.60 669.60 13.23 0.08
28 26.97 228.98 235.20 434.40 669.60 13.72 0.07
29 27.97 230.89 237.40 432.30 669.70 14.21 0.07
30 28.97 232.76 239.50 430.20 669.70 14.70 0.07
32 30.97 236.35 243.60 426.10 669.70 15.69 0.06
34 32.97 239.77 247.50 422.10 669.60 16.68 0.06
36 34.97 243.04 251.20 418.30 669.50 17.68 0.06
40 38.97 249.18 258.20 410.80 669.00 19.69 0.05
45 43.97 256.23 266.50 401.70 668.20 22.25 0.04
50 48.97 262.70 274.20 393.10 667.30 24.85 0.04
60 58.97 274.29 288.40 376.60 665.00 30.21 0.03
80 78.97 293.62 312.60 346.30 658.90 41.60 0.02
100 98.97 309.53 334.00 317.10 651.10 54.21 0.02
150 148.97 340.56 381.70 243.20 624.90 93.90 0.01
200 198.97 364.08 431.40 150.70 582.10 161.20 0.01
225.6 224.57 374.15 501.50 0.00 501.50 315.00 0.00

P
H (cm) Brix density Temperatur
(Kg/cm²)
120 110 100 90 80 70
0 1 0.01 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7
10 1.04 0.0104 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7
20 1.08 0.0108 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.8
30 1.13 0.0113 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8
10 40 1.18 0.0118 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8
40.00 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.9
50.00 1.29 0.0129 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9
60.00 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 1
MC 1.47 0.0147 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 1
0 1 0.02 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 1 1.4
10 1.04 0.0208 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.5
20 1.08 0.0216 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.5
30 1.13 0.0226 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.6
20 40 1.18 0.0236 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.7
50 1.23 0.0246 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.7
60 1.29 0.0258 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.8
70 1.35 0.027 0.4 0.5 0.7 1 1.3 1.9
MC 1.47 0.0294 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.5 2.1
0 1 0.03 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.5 2.1
10 1.04 0.0312 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.1 1.6 2.2
20 1.08 0.0324 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.3
30 1.13 0.0339 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.7 2.4
30 40 1.18 0.0354 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.8 2.5
50 1.23 0.0369 0.6 0.7 1 1.3 1.8 2.6
60 1.29 0.0387 0.6 0.8 1 1.4 1.9 2.7
70 1.35 0.0405 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.5 2 2.8
MC 1.47 0.0441 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.2 3
0 1 0.04 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.4 2 2.8
10 1.04 0.0416 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.5 2.1 2.9
20 1.08 0.0432 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.6 2.1 3
30 1.13 0.0452 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.2 3.1
40 40 1.18 0.0472 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.7 2.3 3.2
50 1.23 0.0492 0.8 1 1.3 1.8 2.4 3.4
60 1.29 0.0516 0.8 1 1.4 1.8 2.5 3.5
70 1.35 0.054 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.9 2.6 3.7
MC 1.47 0.0588 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.1 2.9 4
0 1 0.05 0.8 1 1.3 1.8 2.5 3.4
10 1.04 0.052 0.8 1 1.4 1.9 2.5 3.5

50
20 1.08 0.054 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.9 2.6 3.7
30 1.13 0.0565 0.9 1.1 1.5 2 2.8 3.8
50 40 1.18 0.059 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.1 2.9 4
50 1.23 0.0615 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.2 3 4.1
60 1.29 0.0645 1 1.3 1.7 2.3 3.1 4.3
70 1.35 0.0675 1 1.3 1.8 2.4 3.3 4.5
MC 1.47 0.0735 1.1 1.5 1.9 2.6 3.5 4.9
0 1 0.06 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.1 2.9 4
10 1.04 0.0624 1 1.2 1.6 2.2 3 4.2
20 1.08 0.0648 1 1.3 1.7 2.3 3.1 4.4
30 1.13 0.0678 1 1.3 1.8 2.4 3.3 4.5
60 40 1.18 0.0708 1.1 1.4 1.9 2.5 3.4 4.7
50 1.23 0.0738 1.1 1.5 1.9 2.6 3.6 4.9
60 1.29 0.0774 1.2 1.5 2 2.7 3.7 5.1
70 1.35 0.081 1.2 1.6 2.1 2.9 3.9 5.3
MC 1.47 0.0882 1.4 1.7 2.3 3.1 4.2 5.8
0 1 0.07 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.5 3.4 4.7
10 1.04 0.0728 1.1 1.4 1.9 2.6 3.5 4.8
20 1.08 0.0756 1.2 1.5 2 2.7 3.6 5
30 1.13 0.079 1.2 1.6 2.1 2.8 3.8 5.2
70 40 1.18 0.0826 1.3 1.6 2.2 2.9 3.9 5.4
50 1.23 0.0861 1.3 1.7 2.3 3 4.1 5.6
60 1.29 0.0903 1.4 1.8 2.4 3.2 4.3 5.9
70 1.35 0.0945 1.4 1.9 2.5 3.3 4.5 6.1
MC 1.47 0.1029 1.6 2 2.7 3.6 4.8 6.6
0 1 0.08 1.2 1.6 2.1 2.8 3.8 5.3
10 1.04 0.0832 1.3 1.7 2.2 2.9 4 5.5
20 1.08 0.0864 1.3 1.7 2.3 3 4.1 5.7

80

## 60 1.29 0.1032 1.6 2 2.7 3.6 4.9 6.6

70 1.35 0.108 1.6 2.1 2.8 3.7 5.1 6.9
MC 1.47 0.1176 1.8 2.3 3 4 5.5 7.4
0 1 0.09 1.4 1.8 2.3 3.1 4.3 5.9
10 1.04 0.0936 1.4 1.9 2.4 3.3 4.4 6.1
20 1.08 0.0972 1.5 1.9 2.5 3.4 4.6 6.3
30 1.13 0.1017 1.5 2 2.6 3.5 4.8 6.6
90
40 1.18 0.1062 1.6 2.1 2.8 3.7 5 6.8
50 1.23 0.1107 1.7 2.2 2.9 3.8 5.2 7.1
60 1.29 0.1161 1.7 2.3 3 4 5.4 7.4
70 1.35 0.1215 1.7 2.4 3.1 4.2 5.7 7.7
MC 1.47 0.1323 2 2.6 3.4 4.5 6.1 8.3
0 1 0.1 1.5 2 2.6 3.5 4.7 6.5
10 1.04 0.104 1.6 2 2.7 3.6 4.9 6.7

100
20 1.08 0.108 1.6 2.1 2.8 3.7 5.1 6.9
30 1.13 0.113 1.7 2.2 2.9 3.9 5.3 7.2
100 40 1.18 0.118 1.8 2.3 3 4.1 5.5 7.5
50 1.23 0.123 1.9 2.4 3.2 4.2 5.7 7.7
60 1.29 0.129 2 2.5 3.3 4.4 6 8.1
70 1.35 0.135 2 2.6 3.5 4.6 6.2 8.4
MC 1.47 0.147 2.2 2.9 3.8 5 6.7 9
200 MC 1.47 0.294 4.3 5.5 7 9.2 12.2 15.9

H
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Tebu Tergiling

6063.69

6063.69

6063.69

le
: laten heat of vaporisation of water at toC, in kcal/gr
: q+r = total heat of 1 kg of water at toC
: density of vapour at toC. In kg/m3
: specific volume of vapour at toC in m3/kg

Interpolasi Tekanan
p 1.8214 T 116.6923
laten heat vaporisation
t1 116.0000 t1 116 #N/A
t2 117.0000 t2 117 INDEX(pst;MATCH(X_ist;pst;1))
p1 1.7809 q1 116.2 1.7809
p2 1.8394 q2 117.2
T 116.6923 q 116.8923
r1 528.40
r2 527.8
r 527.9846

INDEX(suhu_ktdh;MATCH(inputsuhuktdh;suhu_ktdh;-1)+1)
INDEX(ktdh_40;MATCH(bx1_ktdh40;brix_40_ktdh;0);MATCH(t1_ktdh40;suhu_ktdh;0))
INDEX(Table;MATCH(\$L\$39;Tekanan;1);1)
INDEX(suhu_ktdh;MATCH(inputsuhuktdh;suhu_ktdh;-1)+1)
INDEX(brix_tabel;MATCH(N232;brix_tabel;2))
ktdh 40
Interpolasi
60 50 H 41.66667 T1 100 H 33.33333
1 1.5 Brix 14.95923 T2 110
1.1 1.6 T 108.6456
1.1 1.7 bp 2
1.2 1.8 H1 0`
1.2 1.9 H2 10 10
1.3 1.9 brix 1 10
1.3 2 brix 2 20
1.4 2.1 k11 1.1
1.5 2.3 k12 1.1
2 3 k21 0.8
2.1 3.1 k22 0.9
2.2 3.2 Trend 1 1.1
2.3 3.4 Trend 2 0.849592
2.4 3.5 ktdh 40 0.883507
2.5 3.7
2.6 3.8 Ktdh 50
2.7 4 brix 1 10
3 4.3 brix 2 20
3 4.4 k11 1.4
3.1 4.6 k12 1.4
3.2 4.7 k21 1
3.4 4.9 k22 1.1
3.5 5.1
3.7 5.3
3.8 5.5
4 5.7
4.3 6.2
3.9 5.7
4.1 5.9
4.2 6.1
4.4 6.3
4.6 6.6
4.8 6.8
5 7.1
5.2 7.4
5.6 8
4.8 6.9
5 7.2
5.2 7.4
5.4 7.7
5.6 8
5.8 8.3
6.1 8.6
6.3 8.9
6.8 9.6
5.7 8.1
5.9 8.4
6.1 8.6
6.4 9
6.6 9.3
6.9 9.6
7.2 10
7.4 10.4
8 11.1
6.5 9.2
6.8 9.5
7 9.8
7.3 10.2
7.6 10.6
7.8 10.9
8.2 11.4
8.5 11.8
9.1 12.6
7.4 10.3
7.6 10.6
7.9 11

9.2 12.6
9.5 13.1
10.2 14
8.2 11.3
8.4 11.7
8.7 12
9 12.5
9.4 12.9
9.7 13.3
10.1 13.8
10.5 14.3
11.2 15.3
8.9 12.3
9.2 12.7
9.5 13.5
9.9 13.5
10.2 14
10.6 14.5
11 15
11.4 15.5
12.2 16.5
20.7 26.6
0;suhu_ktdh;0))
Vacuum Air yang diuapkan
55.7867 48.4315
58 48.4357
60 48.4392
62 48.4429
64 48.4465

+
Vacuum Bp 1 bp2 bp3 bp4
55.7867 60.67 45.04 60.66 79.12 61.3725
58 60.64 45.09 60.87 79.39 61.4975
60 60.6 45.13 61.12 78.81 61.415
62
64
Air yang diuapkan
48.45

## Air yang diuapkan (ton/jam)

48.445
48.44
48.435
48.43
48.425
48.42
55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

Vakum (cmHg)
64 65

mHg)
Data diambil berdasarkan Pengamatan pada tanggal 15 Agustus 2018

6063.69 ton/hari
1. Kapasitas Giling = =
24 jam/hari

## 2. Nira Encer = 331.54 ton/jam

Nira Mentah = 360.57 ton/jam
3. Brix Nira Encer = 12.14 %

## 4. Brix Nira Kental = 62.29 %

Suhu Nira masuk = 98.02 C
5. Suhu inlet NM PP 1 = 71.53 C
Suhu outlet NM PP1 = 78.24 C
Suhu inlet NM PP 2 = 78.24 C
Suhu outlet NM PP2 = 107.62 C
Suhu inlet NM diffuser = 65.46 C
Suhu outlet NM diffuser = 81.12 C

## 6. Tekanan Uap Bekas (UBE) = 0.8214 kg/cm² gauge

= 1.8214 kg/cm² abs

## 8. Vakum BP 4 = 55.86 cmHg gauge

= 76 - 55.86 cmHg abs
= 20.14 cmHg abs 1.0332
76
= 0.273798 kg/cm² abs

## 9. Pressure Drop = 1.8214 - 0.273798 kg/cm² abs

= 1.5476 kg/cm² abs
10. Laju alir massa UBE = 114081 kg/jam
Langkah Perhitugan

## 1. Distribusi Tekanan Tiap Badan Penguapan (BP)

Koefisien distribusi tekanan tiap badan penguapan diambil dari table 32,23 hal.
579, Hugot. Untuk Quadrupple yakni 11/40 + 10,3/40 + 9,7/40 + 9/40

11
BP 1 = 1.8214 - x 1.5476 kg/cm² abs
40
= 1.3958 kg/cm² abs
10
BP 2 = 1.3958 - x 1.5476 kg/cm² abs
40
= 0.9973 kg/cm² abs

9.7
BP 3 = 0.9973 - x 1.5476 kg/cm² abs
40
= 0.6220 kg/cm² abs

9
BP 4 = 0.6220 - x 1.5476 kg/cm² abs
40
= 0.2738 kg/cm² abs

## 2. Distribusi Temperatur tiap Badan Penguapan (BP)

Distribusi Temperatur tiap BP diperoleh dari hasil interpolasi pada Tabel 41.1
A hal 1050, Hugot berdasarkan tekanan tiap BP

BP 1
T (C) P (kg/cm² abs) r (kkal/kg)
108 1.3654 533.6
109 1.4125 533.0
108.6456 1.3958 533.2126

BP 2
T (C) P (kg/cm² abs) r (kkal/kg)
99 0.9969 539.5
100 1.0332 538.9
99.0111 0.9973 539.4934

BP 3
T (C) P (kg/cm² abs) r (kkal/kg)
86 0.6129 547.6
87 0.6372 547
88.6724 0.6220 545.6966

BP 4
T (C) P (kg/cm² abs) r (kkal/kg)
66 0.2666 559.7
67 0.2787 559.1
66.5949 0.2738 559.3431
3. Kebutuhan Bleeding 1 menggunakan Uap Nira (UNI) 1
Juice heater (JH) 2
Cp = 1 - ( 0.006 x Brix )
= 1 - ( 0.006 x 12.14 )
= 0.9272 kkal/kg C

## Kebutuhan UNI 1 (bleeding)

= (m Nira mentah x Cp x ∆T) / r1
360570 kg/jam x 0.9272 kkal/kg C x ( 107.62
=
533.2126 kkal/kg
= 18420.26 kg/jam

Vacuum Pan
Kebutuhan uap bagi Vacuum Pan sebesar 2/3 dari uap nira yakni 120 kg/ton
tebu (Hal 589, Hugot)

## Kebutuhan UNI 1 (bleeding)

2
= x 120 kg/ton tebu x Tebu tergiling TCD
3
2
= x 120 kg/ton tebu x 6063.69 ton/hari
3
hari
= 485095.2 kg/hari
24 jam
= 20212.3 kg/jam

## Total UNI 1 /Bleeding = 18420.255 + 20212.3 kg/jam

= 48450.84 kg/jam

## 4. Kebutuhan Bleeding 2 menggunakan Uap nira (UNI) 1

Juice heater (JH) 1
Kebutuhan UNI 2/ Bleeding
= (m Nira mentah x Cp x ∆T) / r2
360570 kg/jam x 0.9272 kkal/kg C x ( 78.24
=
539.49336 kkal/kg
= 4157.964 kg/jam

## 5. Total air yang diuapkan

brix nira encer
W = G X( 1 - )
brix nira kental
12.14
W = 331540 kg/jam x( 1 - )
62.29
W = 266924.5625 kg/jam

## 6. Air yang diuapkan tiap badan penguapan

x = Bleeding Uap nira 1 ke JH 2 dan Vacuum Pan
= 48450.84008 kg/jam
y = Bleeding Uap nira 2 ke JH 1
= 4157.963723 kg/jam
z = UNI 3 dan UNI4

Maka
BP 1 = x + y + z
BP 2 = y + z
BP 3 = z
BP 4 = z
W = x + 2y + 4z
266925 kg/jam = 48451 + 2 x 4157.964 +
z = 52539 kg/jam

## Sehimgga diperoleh air yang diuapkan tiap Badan Penguapan yakni :

BP 1 = (x+y+z) = 105148.25 kg/jam
BP 2 = (y+z) = 56697.412 kg/jam
BP 3 = z = 52539.449 kg/jam
BP 4 = z = 52539.449 kg/jam
Total yang diuapkan seluruh BP = 266925 kg/jam

## 7. Distribusi brix tiap badan penguapan

BP 1 = 331540 - 105148.25 kg/jam = 226391.747
BP 2 = 226391.7474469 - 56697.412 kg/jam = 169694.335
BP 3 = 169694.3349726 - 52539.449 kg/jam = 117154.886
BP 4 = 117154.8862213 - 52539.449 kg/jam = 64615.4375

## 8. % brix Nira keluar dari tiap badan penguapan

kg brix nira encer inlet BP nira encer
= % brix nira encer x berat nira encer
12.14
= x 331540 kg/jam
= x 331540 kg/jam
100
= 40248.96 kg/jam

## ton brix nira encer inlet BP

% brix nira keluar dari BP =
nira keluar dari tiap badan penguapan

40248.956
% brix nira keluar dari BP 1 = x 100
226391.747
= 17.7784555
Brix rata-rata BP 1 = 12.14 + 17.778455 /
= 14.9592277

40248.956
% brix nira keluar dari BP 2 = x 100
169694.335
= 23.718503
Brix rata-rata BP 2 = 17.7784555 + 23.718503 /
= 20.7484793

40248.956
% brix nira keluar dari BP 3 = x 100
117154.886
= 34.355337
Brix rata-rata BP 3 = 23.718503 + 34.355337 /
= 29.0369

40248.956
% brix nira keluar dari BP 4 = x 100
64615.4375
= 62.29
Brix rata-rata BP 4 = 34.355337 + 62.29 /
= 48.3227
9. Kenaikan titik didih (KTD) brix
e = 2B/(100-B) ... (pers 32.4 hal 497, Hugot)

Keterangan :
e = elevasi temperatur (C)
B = brix larutan (rata - rata)

= 0.3518 C

= 0.5236 C

= 0.8184 C

= 1.8702 C

## 10. Kenaikan titik didih hidrostatis

1. BP 1
Diketahui data :
P1 = 1.3958095 kg/cm² abs
T1 = 108.6456 C
r1 = 533.21262
Brix rata - rata BP 1 = 14.959228

Menurut Hugot hal 502, jika level hidrostatis nira didalam evaporator sebesar 1/3
dari tinggi tube/kalandria maka tekanan hidrostatis rata -rata setiap evaporator
adalah 1/6 dari tinggi tube ((1/3)/2 = 1/6)

## Tinggi tube BP 1 = 2500 mm = 250 cm

1
H` = x 250 cm = 41.666667 cm
6

## Interpolasi data dari Tabel 32.3, hal 516, Hugot diperoleh :

T
H (cm)
Brix 110 108.6456 100
10 0.8 1.1
40 20 0.9 0.8835 1.1
14.9592277333 0.8496 1.1
0.9191
T
H (cm)
Brix 110 108.6456 100
10 1 1.4
1.0971
50 20 1.1 1.4
14.9592277333 1.0496 1.4
2. BP 2
Diketahui data :
P2 = 0.9973019 kg/cm² abs
T2 = 99.0111 C
r2 = 539.49336 kkal/kg
Brix rata - rata BP 2 = 20.748479 %

## Tinggi tube BP 3 = 2500 mm = 250 cm

1
H` = x 250 cm = 41.666667 cm
6

## Interpolasi data dari Tabel 32.3, hal 516, Hugot diperoleh :

T
H (cm)
Brix 100 99.0111 90
20 1.1 1.6
1.1562
40 30 1.2 1.6
20.7485 1.1075 1.6
1.2063
T
H (cm)
Brix 100 99.0111 90
20 1.4 1.9
50 30 1.5 1.4569 2
20.748479254 1.4075 1.9075

3. BP 3
Diketahui data :
P3 = 0.6220085 kg/cm² abs
T3 = 88.6724 C
r3 = 545.69655 kkal/kg
Brix rata - rata BP 3 = 29.03692 %

## Tinggi tube BP 3 = 2000 mm = 200 cm

1
H3 = x 200 cm = 33.3333 cm
6

## Interpolasi data dari Tabel 32.3, hal 516, Hugot diperoleh :

T
H (cm)
Brix 90 88.6724 80
20 1.2 1.6
1.2651
30 30 1.2 1.7
29.0369 1.2 1.6903692
1.4029
T
H (cm)
Brix 90 88.6724 80
20 1.6 2.1
1.6784
40 30 1.6 2.2
29.0369 1.6 2.1903692

4. BP 4
Diketahui data :
P4 = 0.273798 kg/cm² abs
T4 = 66.5949 C
r4 = 559.34307 kkal/kg
Brix rata - rata BP 4 = 48.322669 %

## Tinggi tube BP 4 = 2000 mm = 200 cm

1
H4 = x 200 cm = 33.333333 cm
6

T
H (cm)
Brix 70 66.5949 60
40 2.5 3.5
2.9521
30 50 2.6 3.7
48.3227 2.5832 3.6665
3.249109
T
H (cm)
Brix 70 66.5949 60
40 3.2 4.6
3.8432
40 50 3.4 4.8
48.3226685114 3.3665 4.7665

## Perhitunganb panas jenis tiap badan penguapan

c0 = 1 - (0,006 x 12.14 ) = 0.92716 kkal/kg C
c1 = 1 - (0,006 x 17.7784555 ) = 0.893329 kkal/kg C
c2 = 1 - (0,006 x 23.718503 ) = 0.857689 kkal/kg C
c3 = 1 - (0,006 x 34.355337 ) = 0.793868 kkal/kg C
c4 = 1 - (0,006 x 62.29 ) = 0.62626 kkal/kg C

## 2. Kenaikkan titik didih total (KTD total) Badan Penguapan

KTD total = kTD brix + KTD hidrostatis
KTD total BP 1 = 0.3518 + 0.9191 C = 1.2709 C
KTD total BP 2 = 0.5236 + 1.2063 C = 1.7299 C
KTD total BP 3 = 0.8184 + 1.4029 C = 2.2212 C
KTD total BP 4 = 1.8702 + 3.2491 C = 5.1193 C

## 3. Titik didih Nira tiap Badan Penguapan

Titik didih Nira Badan Penguapan = Temperatur BP + KTD total BP
Temperatur didih nira BP 1 = 108.645636 + 1.2709 C
= 109.9165 C

= 100.7410 C

= 90.8936 C

= 71.7142 C

## 4. Panas Sensibel dan entalpy

Steam
q (kkal/kg) T (C) λ (kkal/kg)
116.2 116 644.6
117.2 117 645
116.8923 116.6923 644.8769

UNI 1
q (kkal/kg) T (C) λ (kkal/kg)
109.1 109 642.1
110.1 110 642.5
110.1165 109.9165 642.4666

UNI 2
q (kkal/kg) T (C) λ (kkal/kg)
100 100 638.9
101 101 639.3
100.9410 100.7410 639.1964

UNI 3
q (kkal/kg) T (C) λ (kkal/kg)
90 90 635.1
91 91 635.5
91.0936 90.8936 635.4575

UNI 4
q (kkal/kg) T (C) λ (kkal/kg)
70.9 71 627.7
71.9 72 628.1
71.9142 71.7142 627.9857
5. Neraca Energi

## Persamaan yang digunakan :

Energi Masuk :
1. Uap = mxλ
2. Nira Encer = mxcxt

Energi Keluar
3. Uap Nira = mxλ
4. Nira Kental = mxcxt
5. Kondensat = mxq
6. Bleeding = mxλ

Energi masuk :
Q1 = m x λ
= 114081 kg/jam x 644.87692 kkal/kg
= 73568204.262 kkal/jam

Q2 = mxcxt
= 331540 kg/jam x 0.9272 kkal/kg C x 98.02
= 30130429.2 kkal/jam

Energi Keluar :
Q3 = mxλ
= 56697.412474 kg/jam x 642.46662 kkal/kg
= ### kkal/jam

Q4 = mxcxt
= 226391.74745 kg/jam x 0.8933 kkal/kg C x 108.6456
= 21972751.309 kkal/jam

Q5 = mxq
= 114081 kg/jam x 116.89231 kkal/kg
= 13335191.354 kkal/jam

Q6 = mxλ
= 48450.840079 kg/jam x 642.46662 kkal/kg
= ### kkal/jam

## Q7 loss = (Q1 + Q2) - (Q3 + Q4 + Q5 +Q6)

= 836448.5434287

Q3 +Q6
Effisiensi = x 100%
Q1 +Q2
67554242.2553
= x 100%
= x 100%
103698633.4613
= 65.1448

Neraca Massa
Komponen Input (kg/jam) Output (kg/jam)
Uap Bekas 114081
Nira Encer 331540
Uap Nira 1 56697.41247427
Nira Kental 226391.7474469
Kondensat 114081
Bleeding 48450.84007884
Jumlah 445621 445621

Neraca Energi
Komponen Input (kkal/kg) Output (kkal/kg)
Q1 73568204.2615
Q2 30130429.1997
Q3 36426194.8681
Q4 21972751.3087
Q5 13335191.3538
Q6 31128047.3872
Q7 836448.5434
Jumlah 103698633.4613 103698633.4613

Energi masuk :
Q1 = m x λ
= 56697.412474 kg/jam x 642.46662 kkal/kg
= ### kkal/jam

Q2 = mxcxt
= 226391.74745 kg/jam x 0.8933 kkal/kg C x 108.645636
= 21972751.309 kkal/jam
Energi Keluar :
Q3 = mxλ
= 52539.448751 kg/jam x 639.1964 kkal/kg
= ### kkal/jam

Q4 = mxcxt
= 169694.33497 kg/jam x 0.8577 kkal/kg C x 99.0111
= 14410562.736 kkal/jam

Q5 = mxq
= 56697.412474 kg/jam x 110.11655 kkal/kg
= 6243323.238 kkal/jam

Q6 = mxλ
= 4157.9637229 kg/jam x 639.1964 kkal/kg
= 2657755.4394 kkal/jam

## Q7 loss = (Q1 + Q2) - (Q3 + Q4 + Q5 +Q6)

= 1504278.3101

Q3 +Q6
Effisiensi = x 100%
Q1 +Q2
36240781.89311
= x 100%
58398946.1768
= 62.0573

Neraca Massa
Komponen Input (kg/jam) Output (kg/jam)
Uap Bekas 105148.252553111
Nira Encer 226391.747446889
Uap Nira 1 52539.44875136
Nira Kental 169694.3349726
Kondensat 105148.2525531
Bleeding 4157.963722905
Jumlah 331540 331540

Neraca Energi
Komponen Input (kkal/kg) Output (kkal/kg)
Q1 36426194.8681
Q2 21972751.3087
Q3 33583026.4537
Q4 14410562.7355
Q5 6243323.2380
Q6 2657755.4394
Q7 1504278.3101
Jumlah 58398946.1768 58398946.1768

Energi masuk :
Q1 = m x λ
= 52539.448751 kg/jam x 639.1964 kkal/kg
= ### kkal/jam

Q2 = mxcxt
= 169694.33497 kg/jam x 0.8577 kkal/kg C x 99.0110726
= 14410562.736 kkal/jam

Energi Keluar :
Q3 = mxλ
= 52539.448751 kg/jam x 635.45745 kkal/kg
= ### kkal/jam

Q4 = mxcxt
= 117154.88622 kg/jam x 0.7939 kkal/kg C x 88.6724
= 8247022.8629 kkal/jam

Q5 = mxq
= 52539.448751 kg/jam x 100.941 kkal/kg
= 5303384.3811 kkal/jam

## Q6 loss = (Q1 + Q2) - (Q3 + Q4 + Q5)

= 1056597.5933

Q3
Effisiensi = x 100%
Q1 +Q2
33386584.35191
= x 100%
47993589.1893
= 69.5647

Neraca Massa
Komponen Input (kg/jam) Output (kg/jam)
Uap Bekas 52539.4487513618
Nira Encer 169694.334972622
Uap Nira 1 52539.44875136
Nira Kental 117154.8862213
Kondensat 52539.44875136
Jumlah 222233.783723984 222233.783724

Neraca Energi
Komponen Input (kkal/kg) Output (kkal/kg)
Q1 33583026.4537
Q2 14410562.7355
Q3 33386584.3519
Q4 8247022.8629
Q5 5303384.3811
Q6 1056597.5933
Jumlah 47993589.1893 47993589.1893

Energi masuk :
Q1 = m x λ
= 52539.448751 kg/jam x 635.45745 kkal/kg
= ### kkal/jam

Q2 = mxcxt
= 117154.88622 kg/jam x 0.7939 kkal/kg C x 88.6724091
= 8247022.8629 kkal/jam

Energi Keluar :
Q3 = mxλ
= 52539.448751 kg/jam x 627.9857 kkal/kg
= ### kkal/jam

Q4 = mxcxt
= 64615.43747 kg/jam x 0.6263 kkal/kg C x 66.5949
= 2694832.507 kkal/jam

Q5 = mxq
= 52539.448751 kg/jam x 91.093636 kkal/kg
= 4786009.4022 kkal/jam

## Q6 loss = (Q1 + Q2) - (Q3 + Q4 + Q5)

= 1158744.8140

Q3
Effisiensi = x 100%
Q1 +Q2
32994020.49163
= x 100%
41633607.2148
= 79.2485

Neraca Massa
Komponen Input (kg/jam) Output (kg/jam)
Uap Bekas 52539.4487513618
Nira Encer 117154.886221261
Uap Nira 1 52539.44875136
Nira Kental 64615.4374699
Kondensat 52539.44875136
Jumlah 169694.334972622 169694.3349726

Neraca Energi
Komponen Input (kkal/kg) Output (kkal/kg)
Q1 33386584.3519
Q2 8247022.8629
Q3 32994020.4916
Q4 2694832.5070
Q5 4786009.4022
Q6 1158744.8140
Jumlah 41633607.2148 41633607.2148
Evaporator Tekanan UBE Efiisiensi
BP 1 65.1448
BP2 62.0573
0.8214
BP 3 69.5647
BP 4 79.2485

0.7071 67.60
0.7429
0.8214

## koefisien Penguapan Spesifik (Desain formula)

C= 0,001 x (100 - B) (T - 54) .... (pers. 32.31 hal. 572)
Keterangan :
C = Koefisien Penguapan spesifik (kg uap/m²/C/h)
B = brix rata -rata nira keluar Badan Penguapan (%)
T = Temperatur Steam (C)

## C1 = C BP 1 = 0.001x (100 -14.9592) (116.6923 -54)

= 5.3314 kg uap/m²/C/h

## C2 = C BP 2 = 0.001x (100 -20.7485) (108.6456 -54)

= 4.3307 kg uap/m²/C/h

## C2 = C BP 3 = 0.001x (100 -29.0369) (99.0111 -54)

= 3.1941 kg uap/m²/C/h

## C2 = C BP 4 = 0.001x (100 -48.3227) (88.6724 -54)

= 1.7918 kg uap/m²/C/h

## Kecepatan Penguapan Spesifik

W = C x ∆T
Keterangan :
W = Kecepatan penguapan spesifik (kg/m²/h)
C = Koefisiensi penguapan spesifik (kg uap/m²/C/h)
∆T = Selisih suhu pemanas dengan suhu nira yang dipanasi

## W1 W BP 1 = 5.3314kg/m/C/jam (116.6923 -109.9165) C

= 36.1243 kg/m/jam

## W2 W BP 2 = 4.3307kg/m/C/jam (108.6456 -100.7410) C

= 34.2330 kg/m/jam

## W3 W BP 3 = 3.1941kg/m/C/jam (99.0111 -90.8936) C

= 25.9281 kg/m/jam

## W3 W BP 3 = 1.7918kg/m/C/jam (88.6724 -71.7142) C

= 30.3854 kg/m/jam

Si = (q/C x ∆T) ... (hal 591,Hugot)
Keterangan :
Si = Luas pemanas (m²)
q = Air yang diuapkan tiap badan penguapan (kg/jam)
C = koefisien penguapan spesifik (kg/m²/C/jam)
∆T = Selish temperatur steam

## Luas Pemanas terhitung Quadruple Effect Evaporator

Si 1 105148.25255 kg/jam
=
36.1243kg/m/jam
= 2910.7338397 m²

Si 2 56697.412474 kg/jam
=
34.2330kg/m/jam
= 1656.2205187 m²

Si 3 52539.448751 kg/jam
=
25.9281kg/m/jam
= 2026.3514429 m²

Si 4 52539.448751 kg/jam
=
30.3854kg/m/jam
= 1729.1005919 m²
252.65375 ton/jam
252.65375

= 91.948859
331.7244

NE = NMx 0,92

cmHg abs
1.0332 kg/cm² abs
76 cmHg abs

kg/cm² abs

## nguapan diambil dari table 32,23 hal.

40 + 9,7/40 + 9/40
- 78.24 ) C

## ap nira yakni 120 kg/ton

Juice Heater (JH) diffuser
= 9818.284583

- 71.53 ) C
4z kg/jam w1 101189.53
w2 62172.771
w3 51781.131
enguapan yakni : w4 51781.131
0.8214
w1 105148.25
w2 56697.412
w3 52539.449
w4 52539.449

kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam
kg/jam

- 14.959227733

- 20.748479254

- 29.0369
- 48.3227

## am evaporator sebesar 1/3

rata setiap evaporator
eroleh :
1.2709
1.7299
2.2212
5.1193

## KTD total BP 109.91655

100.741
90.893636
71.714154
Bp1
Qi = 103698633 E = 67.603846
Q3 = 36426195 170175629
Q6 = 31128047 251724776

bp2 i = 58398946
Q3 = 33583026
Q6 = 2657755.4

bp3 i = 47993589
Q3 = 33386584

bp4 i = 41633607
Q3 = 32994020

0.74
Bp1 E = 64.617176
Qi = 107103882
Q3 = 37426245
Q6 = 24413069

bp2 i = 58369266
Q3 = 30979290
Q6 = 6289827.2
bp3 i = 44370125
Q3 = 30835026

bp4 i = 38561917
Q3 = 30568962

C
C
C
C

C
C
C
0.74
Si1 = 2910.7338
Si2 = 1656.2205
Si3 = 2026.3514
Si4 = 1729.1006
0.8214
Si1 = 2773.6388
Si2 = 1782.0254
Si3 = 1897.2936
Si4 = 1703.748
0.74
Q1 = 105148.25
CT = 36.1243
Q2 = 56697.412
Ct2 = 34.2330
Q3 = 52539.449
Ct3 = 25.9281
Q4 = 52539.449
Ct4 = 30.3854
0.8412
Q1 = 101189.53
CT = 36.218782
Q2 = 62172.771
Ct2 = 34.260942
Q3 = 51781.131
Ct3 = 25.819448
Q4 = 51781.131
Ct4 = 30.301479
0.7643 0.7071
BP 1 60.676469 BP 1 60.84865 BP 1 60.64222 BP 1 56.18846
Bp 2 45.043181 Bp 2 44.65855 Bp 2 45.08501 Bp 2 44.10419
BP 3 60.661976 BP 3 60.13534 BP 3 60.86978 BP 3 57.92723
BP 4 79.128525 BP 4 78.65864 BP 4 79.38525 BP 4 75.75897
245.51015 244.3012 245.9823

## Evaporator Tekanan UBE Efiisiensi BP 1

BP 1 0.7071 74.22292 jam Ube
BP2 86.78008 14:00 0.7071
BP 3 86.86478 0.7286
BP 4 85.14088 rabu 0.7409
Evaporator
0.84 Tekanan UBE 87 Efiisiensi BP 2
BP 1
0.82 0.7286 86.95 76.57202 Ube
BP2
0.8 86.9 86.83941 0.7071
Tekanan UBE (kg/cm 2 )

BP 3
0.78 86.85 86.95989 0.7286
Efisiensi (%)

BP 4 Tekanan
86.17388 UBE 0.7409
0.76 86.8
0.74 0.84 86.75 86.9
Evaporator Tekanan UBE 86.85 Efiisiensi BP 3
0.72 0.82 86.7
BP 1 Badan Penguapan 1 0.7409 86.8 77.29292 0.7071
0.7 0.8 86.65
BP2
0.84 81 86.75 86.79497 0.7286
Efisiensi (%)
Tekanan UBE (kg/cm2 )

## 0.68 0.78 86.6 86.7 86.91468

BP
0.82 3 0.7409
17:00 0.76 15:00 80
16:00 86.65 86.14448 Tekanan UBE 0.8214
BP 4
0.8 Waktu (jam) 79 86.6 Efisiensi
0.74 BP 4
0.78 86.55
Effisiensi (%)
Tekanan UBE (kg/cm2 )

## Evaporator 0.72 Tekanan UBE78 Efiisiensi 0.7071

0.76 86.5Tekanan UBE
BP 1 0.7 0.8214 77 86.45 79.84695 0.7286
0.74 Efisiensi
BP2 0.68 86.4 86.57016 0.7409
0.72 76
BP 3 17:00 15:00 16:00 86.72013 0.8214
0.7 75
BP 4 85.66653
Waktu (jam)
0.68 74
17:00 15:00 16:00

Waktu (jam)
0.7429 0.8214 0.7786 0.7286
BP 1 60.16436 BP 1 62.43974 BP 1 62.92793 BP 1 59.527675944
Bp 2 44.96627 Bp 2 45.51384 Bp 2 44.31344 Bp 2 44.7291914268
BP 3 60.6838 BP 3 60.92683 BP 3 60.84931 BP 3 60.461022631
BP 4 79.15828 BP 4 79.46144 BP 4 79.47345 BP 4 78.8719162208
62.08546

BP 1
Efisiensi jam Efisiensi Tekanan UBE Tekanan Ube
Evaporator
74.22292 17:00 76.57202 0.7286 0.7286
76.57202 15:00 77.29292 0.7409 BP 1 76.5720
77.29292 16:00 79.84695 0.8214 BP2 86.8394
79.84695 BP 3 86.9599
BP 2 BP 4 86.1739
Efisiensi jam Efisiensi Tekanan UBE
86.78008 17:00 86.83941 0.7286
86.83941 15:00 86.79497 0.7409
86.79497 16:00 86.57016 0.8214 Evaporator Tekanan UBE (kg/cm2)
86.57016 0.7286
Efisiensi BP 3 BP 1 0.7409
86.86478 jam Efisiensi Tekanan UBE 0.8214
86.95989 17:00 86.95989 0.7286 0.7286
86.91468 15:00 86.91468 0.7409 BP2 0.7409
86.72013 16:00 86.72013 0.8214 0.8214
Efisiensi BP 4 0.7286
85.14088 jam Efisiensi Tekanan UBE BP 3 0.7409
86.17388 17:00 86.17388 0.7286 0.8214
86.14448 15:00 86.14448 0.7409 0.7286
0.84 86.3BP 4
85.66653 16:00 85.66653 0.8214 0.7409
0.82 86.2
0.8214
86.1
Tekanan UBE (kg/cm 2 )

0.8
Efisiensi (%)

86
0.78
85.9 Tekanan UBE
0.76
85.8 Efisiensi
0.74
85.7
0.72 85.6
0.7 85.5
0.68 85.4
17:00 15:00 16:00
Waktu (jam)
0.72

)
85.6

Tekanan
0.7 85.5
0.68 85.4
17:00 15:00 16:00
Waktu (jam)
Tekanan Ube
0.7409 0.8214
77.2929 79.8469
86.7950 86.5702
Effisiensi
86.9147 86.7201
86.1445 85.6665

Efisiensi (%)
76.5720220216 0.720903
77.2929249429
79.8469483198
86.8394063289 0.044435
86.794971317
86.5701637244
86.9598875049 0.04521
86.9146774553
86.7201323345
86.1738806907 0.029405
86.1444754715
85.6665310472
Evaporator Tekanan UBE (kg/cm2) Efisiensi (%)
0.7286 57.1961
BP 1 0.7409 57.7377
0.8214 59.3762
0.7286 63.7267
BP2 0.7409 63.8506
0.8214 63.6906
0.7286 69.2758
BP 3 0.7409 69.4950
0.8214 69.4349
0.7286 78.9970
BP 4 0.7409 79.2724
0.8214 79.0999
65.1448 65.1448
62.0573 62.0573
69.5647 69.5647
79.2485 79.2485

57.7376961975
63.8505836118
69.495017259
79.2724126423

## Waktu (Jam) Efisiensi (%) Tekanan UBE ((kg/cm²)

17:00 64.2351 0.7286
15:00 64.6172 0.7429
16:00 65.3515 0.8214
Tekanan UBE VS Efisiensi
0.84 65.60
0.82 65.40
65.20
Tekanan UBE (kg/cm2)

0.80
65.00
0.78 64.80
Efisiensi (%)
0.76 64.60 Tekanan UBE
64.40 ((kg/cm²)
0.74
64.20 Efisiensi (%)
0.72
64.00
0.70 63.80
0.68 63.60
17:00 15:00 16:00

Waktu (jam)
Q Termanfaatkan total
Effisiensi keseluruhan = x 100 %
Q Input Total
Ube = 1.8214
= 67.6038

U
5-Jan-00

## Tanggal Efisiensi (%) Tekanan UBE (kg/cm2)

6 67.5579 0.8214
7 64.086 0.7071
8 66.3411 0.7429
9 66.7573 0.7786
10 65.6299 0.7286
Pengaruh Tekanan U
68.00
Tekanan UBE (kg/cm2) Efisiensi (%) 67.00 Bpf(x)
2 = 26.6475288108x
R² = 0.8231533772
0.82 67.60 66.00

Efisiensi (%)
0.71 64.12
65.00
0.74 66.25
0.78 66.73 64.00
0.73 65.89 63.00
62.00
KTdh total tekanan UBE 0.7 0.72 0.74 0.76 0.78
0.8214 109.9165461623 Tekanan Ube (kg/cm2
100.7409978061
90.893635657
71.7141543523 93.31633
0.7071 108.1691685468
99.2867436935
89.6103439492
71.7138935101 92.19504
1.02 112.3147818772
102.7609965645
92.4548977064
71.7144808925 94.81129
0.6 109.9165461623
100.7409978061
90.893635657
71.7141543523 93.31633
0
f(x) = 26.6475288108x
Efisiensi (%) + 45.9725076956
Tekanan UBE (kg/cm2) Bp 3 Efisiensi (%) Tekanan UBE (kg/cm2)
0 R² = 0.8231533772
0
62.8036830664 0.6 70.190644926 0.6
Efisiensi (%)
0
Linear (Efisiensi (%))
0
0
0
0.7 0.72 0.74 0.76 0.78 0.8 0.82 0.84
Tekanan Ube (kg/cm2)
Bp 4 Efisiensi (%) Tekanan UBE (kg/cm2)
79.8197559394 0.6
0.7