Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

Experiment 2:

1. Enumerate the different impurities found in raw water. Describe the ill effect of each item in
relation to boiler operation.

adds to solids content of water,


but in itself is not usually
Sulfate SO42- significant, combines with
calcium to form calcium sulfate
scale
adds to solids content and
Chloride Cl - increases corrosive character of
water
adds to solids content, but is not
usually significant industrially:
high concentrations cause
Nitrate NO3-
methemoglobinemia in infants;
useful for control of boiler metal
embrittlement
cause of mottled enamel in
teeth; also used for control of
Fluoride F-
dental decay: not usually
significant industrially
adds to solids content of water:
when combined with OH-,
Sodium Na+
causes corrosion in boilers
under certain conditions
scale in boilers and cooling
water systems; insoluble turbine
Silica SiO2
blade deposits due to silica
vaporization
discolors water on precipitation;
source of deposits in water
Fe2+ (ferrous)
Iron lines, boilers. etc.; interferes
Fe3+ (ferric)
with dyeing, tanning,
papermaking, etc.
Manganese Mn 2+ same as iron
usually present as a result of
floc carryover from clarifier; can
Aluminum AI3+ cause deposits in cooling
systems and contribute to
complex boiler scales
corrosion of water lines, heat
Oxygen O2 exchange equipment, boilers,
return lines, etc.
Hydrogen cause of "rotten egg" odor;
H2S
Sulfide corrosion
corrosion of copper and zinc
Ammonia NH3 alloys by formation of complex
soluble ion

2. Enumerate the different methods of water treatment. Explain/discuss each method


elaborately.
Boiling
n this method, clean water should be brought to boil and left at rolling-boil for 1-3 minutes

Filtration
Filtration is one of the effective ways of purifying water and when using the right multimedia filters it’s
effective in ridding water of the compounds. This method uses chemical and physical processes to purify
water and make it safe for human consumption. Filtration eliminates both large compounds and small,
dangerous contaminants that cause diseases with a simple and quick filtration process.

Distillation
Distillation is a water purification method that utilizes heat to collect pure water in the form of vapor. This
method is effective by the scientific fact that water has a lower boiling point than other contaminants and
disease-causing elements found in water. Water is subjected to a heat source until it attains its boiling
point. It is then left at the boiling point until it vaporizes

Chlorination
Chlorine is a powerful chemical that has been in use for many years to treat water for home consumption.
Chlorine is an effective water purification method that kills germs, parasites and other disease-causing
organisms found in ground or tap water. Water can be purified using chlorine tablets or liquid chlorine

Experiment 3

1. What is viscosity?

The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear


stress or tensile stress.[1] For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness": for
example, syrup has a higher viscosity than water.[2]

2. What is the principle involved in measuring Kinematic and


Dynamic viscosity of oil using Saybolt viscosity?
Saybolt Universal Seconds (or SUS) is an alternative unit for measuring viscosity. The
efflux time is Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) required for 60 milliliters of a petroleum
product to flow through the calibrated orifice of a Saybolt Universal viscometer - under a
carefully controlled temperature and as prescribed by test method ASTM D 88. This
method has largely been replaced by the kinematic viscosity method. Saybolt Universal
Seconds is also called the SSU number (Seconds Saybolt Universal) or SSF number
(Saybolt Seconds Furol).

Saybolt universal seconds (t) can be converted to kinematic viscosity (v) by the following equations:
When t < 100 secs, v = 0.226t - 195/t Centistokes When t >100 secs, v = 0.220t - 135/t Centistokes.

3. How is falling of sphere method differs from Saybolt


Universal viscosimeter? Can you slight advantages and
disadvantages of these in comparison to Saybolt?
Stokes' law is the basis of the falling-sphere viscometer, in which the fluid is stationary in a vertical
glass tube. A sphere of known size and density is allowed to descend through the liquid. If correctly
selected, it reaches terminal velocity, which can be measured by the time it takes to pass two marks
on the tube. Knowing the terminal velocity, the size and density of the sphere, and the density of the
liquid, Stokes' law can be used to calculate the viscosity of the fluid. Advantages
Disadvantages

 Small and portable


 Easy operation

 Limited to Newtonian fluids


 Restricted to translucent fluids (need to be able to see the object's movement)
Expt 7

PIPINGS

FRICTION LOSSES IN PIPE FITTINGS, VALUES AND TRANSITIONS

1. Prepare the necessary apparatus for the experiment proper


2. To enable the pump, plug the pipe friction apparatus in the electricity
3. Connect the rubber tubes of the manometer to the pipe outlet
4. Allow the pump to run for an ample of time to let the bubbles flow out of the manometer
5. Perform the first trial on the pipe, the trial will be with the bend or elbow. Connect the
rubber tubes to the outlets and read the head loss from the manometer.
6. Perform three trials and subtract the corresponding heads of the trial.
7. Perform the second trial on the pipe, the trial will be the contraction pipe. Connect the
rubber tubes to the outlets and read the head loss from the manometer.
8. Perform three trials and subtract the corresponding heads of the trial.
9. Perform the third trial on the pipe, the trial will be the valve. Connect the rubber tubes to the
outlets and read the head loss from the manometer.
10. Perform three trials on both half-opened valve and full-opened valve. Subtract the
corresponding heads of the trial.
11. Measure the volume flow rate on each trial using graduated cylinder by getting the time it
takes to fill the cylinder.
12. Record the necessary data for the computations.

Final Report

1. The necessary apparatus were prepared for the experiment proper


2. The pipe friction apparatus was plugged in the electricity to enable the pump
3. The rubber tubes of the manometer were connected to the pipe outlet
4. The pump was allowed to run for an ample of time to let the bubbles flow out of the
manometer
5. The first trial on the bend/elbow pipe was performed, the rubber tubes were connected to the
outlets and the head loss were read from the manometer.
6. The three trials were performed and the corresponding heads of the trial were subtracted.
7. The first trial on the contraction pipe was performed, the rubber tubes were connected to the
outlets and the head loss were read from the manometer.
8. The three trials were performed and the corresponding heads of the trial were subtracted.
9. The first trial on the valve pipe was performed, the rubber tubes were connected to the outlets
and the head loss were read from the manometer.
10. The three trials of both half-opened valve and full-opened valve were performed and the
corresponding heads of the trial were subtracted.
11. The volume flow rate on each trial was measured using the graduated cylinder by getting the
time it takes to fill the cylinder.
12. The necessary data were recorded for computation purposes.
what causes pressure loss in given flow in the pipe or duct?

Certain factors cause pressure factors in the pipes are listed below:

1. Fluid Density
2. Fluid Viscosity
3. Pipe roughness measurement
4. Reynold’s number
5. Friction factors that are acquired through the Moody Chart
6. Friction losses in pipes through the Darcy Weisbach Method

Explain the significance of “equivalent length of straight pipe” in engineering applications

Fittings such as elbows, tees and valves represent a significant component of


the pressure loss in most pipe systems. The equivalent length method (L/D
ratio) allows the user to describe the pressure drop through a fitting as a
length of pipe. In theory the pressure drop through the fitting is equivalent
to the pressure lost through a certain length of piping at that corresponding
flow rate. The advantage of the equivalent length method is that it is very
simple to calculate. All pipe runs and fittings can be summed up to make
one total length, and the pressure loss calculated from this length.
Enumerate pipe flow situations that are classified as minor loss
Minor losses in pipe flow are a major part in calculating the flow, pressure, or energy reduction
in piping systems. The pressure drop or the minor loss in a component correlates to the dynamic
pressure
Conclusions