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Ann AO An In-Depth Reference: Parts of Speech PRN TINUORIACD ET Paul G, +a Ph.D. alana Sentence Structure DTG ADET BOE Cents Word Formation #4 CHOICE IN LANGUAGE GUIDES German Grammar by Paul G. Graves, Ph.D. University of Colorado BARRON’S BARRON’S EDUCATIONAL SERIES, INC. New York ¢ London » Toronto « Sydney to my wife © 1990 Copyright by Barron’s Educational Series, Inc. Adapted from Master the Basics: German. © 1987 Copyright by Barron's Educational Series, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfiim, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the copyright owner. All inquiries should be addressed to: Barron's Educational Series, Inc. 250 Wireless Boulevard Hauppauge, New York 11788 Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 89-17821 International Standard Book No. 0-8120-4296-4 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Graves, Paul G. German grammar / by Paul G. Graves. em. “Adapted from Master the basics : German.” ISBN 0-8120-4296-4 1. German language—Grammar—1950- 2. German language— Textbooks for foreign speakers—English. |. Graves, Paul G. Master the basics : German. Il. Title. PF3112.G66 1990 438.2'421—dc20 89-17821 CIP PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA O12 550 98765432 Contents Preface How to Use This Book The Basics 1. PRONUNCIATION 1.1 The German Alphabet 1.2 Vowels, Umiauts, Diphthongs 1.3 Consonants 1.4 Stress 2. ORTHOGRAPHY 2.1 Capitalization 2.2 Syllabi¢ation 2.3 Punctuation 3. WORD ORDER 3.1 What is a Sentence? 3.2 Types of Sentences According to Function 3.2-1 Affirmative 3.2-—2 Negative 3.2-3 Interrogative 3.3 Types of Sentences According to Structure 3.3-1 Simple 3.3-2 Complex 3.4 Incomplete Sentences Parts of Speech 4. NOUNS 4.1 What Are Nouns? 4.2 Gender 26 28