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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

1.1 THE EFFECT OF LOAD OF SCHOOL BAG ON RATE OF HEARTBEAT/KESAN


BEBANAN BEG SEKOLAH KE ATAS KADAR DENYUTAN JANTUNG

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What is the effect of different load of school bag towards the rate of heartbeat of
students?
Apakah kesan beban beg sekolah yang berbeza terhadap kadar denyutan
jantung pelajar?
2. HYPOTHESIS

The higher the school bag load the higher the rate of heartbeat
Semakin tinggi beban beg sekolah, semakin tinggi kadar denyutan jantung.
3. VARIABLES

Manipulated variable : Mass/ Weight of school bag


Berat beg sekolah

Responding variable : Rate of heartbeat


Kadar denyutan jantung

Constant variable
: Time taken for students to carry the school bag// the
size of students// the size of school bag.
Masa yang diambil untuk mengangkat beg sekolah//
saiz pelajar// saiz beg sekolah
4. APPARATUS & MATERIAL

Students, stopwatch, stethoscope


Pelajar, jam randik, stethoscope
5. PROCEDURE (Sample answer)

1. Five students of the same gender and almost the same height and weight are K1,
selected to be sample. K2
Lima pelajar yang sama jantina dan lebih kurang sama ketinggian dan berat
badan dipilih sebagai sampel

2. Measure and record the initial normal heartbeat of every student before carry K1,
the school bag load in a minute using stathescope. K2
Ukur dan catatkan kadar denyutan jantung setiap pelaja sebelum
mengangkat beban beg sekolah dalam seminit menggunakan stathescope

3. Provide each student with different load of school bags as follows 1kg K1,
(student 1), 2kg( student 2), 3kg (student 3), 4kg(student 4), 5kg(student 5) K4
in 5 minutes to be carried.
Sediakan pelajar beg sekolah yang berbeza seperti berikut, 1kg (pelajar 1),
2kg(pelajar 2), 3kg (pelajar 3), 4kg(pelajar 4), 5kg(pelajar 5)

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

4. Simultaneously start the stopwatch as student starts carrying the bag. K1


Secara serentak mulakan jam randik setelah pelajar mula mengangkat beg.

5. After 5 minutes, immediately measure and record the heartbeat rate of each K2,
student in a minute using stethoscope. K3
Setelah 5 minit, dengan segera ukur dan catat kadar denyutan jantung setiap
pelajar dalam seminit menggunakan stethoscope

6. Repeat the steps 1 to 5 after the heartbeat of all students return to normal to K1,
get an average. K5
Ulang langkah 1 ke 5 setelah denyutan jantung pelajar kembali ke normal
untuk mendapatkan purata.
6. PRESENTATION OF DATA

Students Load of Initial Final Heartbeat Rate (minute-1)


school bag Heartbeat
Rate (minute- 1 2 Average
1
)

1 1kg
2 2kg
3 3kg
4 4kg
5 5kg

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

1.2 THE MAKING OF BREAD USING YEAST IN THE ABSENCE AND PRESENCE OF
SUGAR/MEMBUAT ROTI MENGGUNAKAN YIS DENGAN GULA DAN TANPA GULA

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What is the effect of sugar on the time taken for the dought to double its size?
Apakah kesan gula ke atas masa yang diambil untuk adunan menggandakan
saiznya?

2. HYPOTHESIS :

The dought with sugar needs less time to double its size.
Adunan bergula memerlukan masa yang singkat untuk menggandakan saiznya.

3. VARIABLES :

Manipulated variable : Presence of sugar


Kehadiran gula

Responding variable :Ttime taken for the dough to double its size
Masa yang diambil untuk saiz doh berganda

Constant variable: Quantity of flour, yeast and water used, water temperature
Kuantiti tepung, yis dan air yang digunakan, suhu air

APPARATUS & MATERIALS :


4.
Yeast, sugar, warm water, flour, electronic balance,boiling tube, mould of fixed
size, a small bowl, beaker, spatula and stopwatch.
Yis, gula, air suam, tepung,penimbang elektronik,tabung didih, acuan yang
bersaiz tetap, satu mangkuk kecil, bikar, spatula dan jam randik.

5. PROCEDURE :
K1 : Preparation of materials and apparatus
K2 : Operating the CV
K3 : Operating the RV
K4 : operating the MV
K5 : steps to increase reliability of result Accurately/Precaution
1. Weight 50g of flour K1
Timbangkan 50g tepung
2. Add two spatulas of yeast into a boiling tube and mix it with 20ml of K1,K2
warm water.
Tambahkan dua spatula yis ke dalam satu tabung didih dan
campurkannya dengan 20ml air suam.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

3. Mix the flour and yeast together. K1,K2


Campurkan tepung bersama dengan yis.
4. Knead the mixture into a dought. K1,K2
Uli campuran hingga menjadi doh.
5. Use the mould to fix the size of the dought and put it into a beaker. K2
Gunakan satu acuan untuk menetapkan saiz adunan dan letakkannya di
dalam bikar.
6. Repeat step 1-5 but add 15g of sugar into the mixture and put it into the K4,K1
beaker.
Ulangi langkah 1-5 tetapi tambahkan 15g gula ke dalam campuran
baru dan letakkannya di dalam bikar yang lain.
7. Cover both beaker with cloth dan leave it for a while. K5
Tutup kedua-dua bikar dengan sehelai kain bersih dan biarkan seketika.
8. Record the time taken for the dought to double its size. K3
Catatkan masa yang diambil oleh adunan untuk menggandakan
saiznya.
6. PRESENTATION OF DATA :

Presence of sugar Time taken for the dought to double


Kehadiran gula its size (minute)
Masa yang diambil untuk saiz doh
berganda (minit)
Dought with sugar
Doh dengan gula
Dought without sugar
Doh tanpa gula

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

3.1: MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS SEMI-PERMEABLE


MEMBRANE/PERGERAKAN BAHAN MERENTASI MEMBRAN SEPARA TELAP

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1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

Does the small molecules diffuse across a semipermeable membrane compared


to large molecules? BIOLOGY : FORM 4
Adakah molekul bersaiz kecil boleh meresap melalui membran separa telap
berbanding molekul besar?
2. HYPOTHESIS:

The smaller the size of the molecules, the easier the molecules to pass through a
semi permeable membrane.
Semakin kecil saiz molekul, semakin mudah untukmolekul melalui membran
separa telap.
3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated : Size of molecule


Saiz molekul

Responding : Food test result


Keputusan ujian makanan

Fixed : Volume of substance in the visking tubing.


Isi padu bahan di dalam liub visking
4. APPARATUS AND MATERIALS :

Apparatus :
Beaker, test tube, Bunsen burner, measuring cylinder, stop watch,
Bikar, tabung uji, penunu Bunsen, silinder penyukat, jam randik.

Materials :
Benedict's solution, iodine solution, Visking tubing, starch suspension, glucose
solution, distilled water, thread.
Larutan Benedict, larutan iodin,tiub visking, larulan kanji, larutan glukosa, air
suling, benang.
5. PROCEDURE :

K1 : Preparation Of Materials & Apparatus


K2 : Operating The CV
K3 : Operating The RV
K4 : Operating The MV
K5 : Steps To Increase Reliability Of Result Accurately/Precaution

1. A Visking tubing 8 cm is soaked in water for 5 minutes to soften it. K1,


Tiub Visking yang panjangnya 8 cm, direndam ke dalam air selama 5 K2
minit untuk melembutkannya.
2. The Visking tubing is tied at one end of the tube tightly with a piece of K1,
thread. K5
Tiub Visking diikat satu di hujungnya dengan ketat menggunakan
benang

3. Visking tubing is filled with 10ml glucose solution using a syringe K1,
Tiub visking diisi dengan 10 ml larutan glukosa menggunakan picagari. K2

4. The other end of the tube is tied tightly with a piece of thread. K1,
Hujung tiub visking yang satu lagi diikat dengan ketat menggunakan K5
benang.
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5. The outer surface of the Visking tubing is rinsed with distilled water. K5
Permukaan luar tiub Visking dibilas dengan dengan suling.
BIOLOGY : FORM 4

3.2 EFFECTS OF HYPOTONIC, HYPERTONIC AND ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS ON


ANIMAL CELLS./KESAN LARUTAN HIPOTONIK, HIPERTONIK DAN ISOTONIK
KE ATAS SEL HAIWAN.

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What are the effects of different concentration of sodium chloride solution to


the animal cells?
Apakah kesan kepekatan laruan natrium klorida yang berbeza terhadap sel
haiwan?
2. HYPOTHESIS:

1. Red blood cells burst in hypotonic solution.


Sel darah merah pecah di dalam larutan hipotonik.
2. Red blood cells shrink in hypertonic solution.
Sel darah merah kecut di dalam larutan hipertonik.
3. There is no change in the shape of red blood cells when they are put in an
isotonic solution.
Tiada perubahan pada bentuk sel darah merah apabila diletakkan dalam
larutan isotonik.
3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable : different concentration of sodium chloride solution.


Kepekatan larutan natrium klorida yang berbeza
Responding variable : condition/ shape of the cell.
Keadaan/ bentuk sel
Constant variable : type of animal cell// volume of sodium chloride solution.
Jenis sel haiwan// isipadu larutan natrium klorida

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS

Apparatus : Slides, cover slips, forceps, dropper, test tubes, stopwatch and
microscope
Slaid, sisip kaca, forsep, penitis, tabung uji, jam randik dan
mikroskop.

Materials : Chicken blood, 5% sodium chloride solution, 0.7% sodium chloride


solution, distilled water.
Darah ayam, 5% larutan natrium klorida, 0.7% larutan natrium
klorida, air suling.
5. PROCEDURE:
K1: Preparation of materials & apparatus.
K2: Operating the CV
K3: Operating the RV

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

K4: Operating the MV


K5: Steps to increase reliability of result accurately/ Precaution

1. Label three test tube as A, B and C. K1


Labelkan 3 tabung uji sebagai A, B dan C.
2. Fill 10ml of distilled water in test tube A. K1,
Isikan 10ml air suling ke dalam tabung uji A. K2
3. Put 2 drops of fresh chicken blood into test tube A. K1
Masukkan 2 titis darah ayam segar ke dalam tabung uji A.
4. Add sodium citrate to the chicken blood before the experiment to prevent it K1,
from clotting. K5
Tambahkan natrium sitrat kepada darah ayam tersebut sebelum ujikaji
untuk mengelakkannya daripada beku.
5. After 10 minutes, place a drop of solution from test tube A on the centre of K1
slide A. Then cover it by cover slip
Selepas 10 minit, letakkan 1 titis larutan dari tabung uji A di atas slaid A.
Kemudian tutup dengan sisip kaca.
6. Observe and record the condition of the red blood cell under a microscope. K3
Perhatikan dan rekodkan keadaan sel darah merah di bawah mikroskop.
7. Repeat steps 2 to 6 using 5% and 0.7% of sodium chloride solution on slide K4
B and C respectively.
Ulang langkah 2 hingga 6 menggunakan 5% dan 0.7% larutan natrium
klorida masing-masing di atas slaid B dan C.
8. Record all data in a table. K1
Rekodkan semua data di dalam jadual.
6. PRESENTATION OF DATA :

Concentration of sodium chloride A (0%) B (5%) C (0.7%)


solution (%)
Kepekatan larutan natrium
klorida (%)
Condition of the red blood cell
Keadaan sel darah merah
Drawing of the cell
Lukisan sel

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

3.3 CONCENTRATION OF AN EXTERNAL SOLUTION WHICH IS ISOTONIC TO


CELL SAP OF A PLANT/ KEPEKATAN LARUTAN LUAR YANG ISOTONIK
TERHADAP SAP SEL TUMBUHAN

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What is the concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to cell sap of


plant?
Apakah kepekatan larutan yang isotonic terhadap sap sel tumbuhan?

2. HYPOTHESIS:

When the external solution is isotonic to the cell sap of plant cells, there is no net
gain in size of plant cells.
Apabila larutan yang isotonic terhadap sap sel tumbuhan, tiada perubahan
terhadap saiz sel tumbuhan.

3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable: Concentration of sucrose solution / kepekatan larutan


sukrosa

Responding variable: Final weight of the potato strip / Jisim akhir jalur ubi kentang

Constant variable:Temperature and time / suhu dan masa

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:

Apparatus: Cork borer, beaker, weighing scales, tissue.


Penyumbat gabus, bikar, alat penimbang, tisu.

Material: Potato strip, distilled water, 0.1M sucrose solution, 0.2M sucrose
solution, 0.3M sucrose solution, 0.4M sucrose solution, 0.5M sucrose
solution and 0.6 sucrose solution.
Jalur ubi kentang, air suling, larutan sukrosa 0.1M, larutan sukrosa
0.2M, larutan sukrosa 0.3M, larutan sukrosa 0.4M, larutan sukrosa 0.5M
dan larutan sukrosa 0.6M

5. PROCEDURE :

K1 : Preparation of Materials & Apparatus


K2 : Operating the CV
K3: Operating the RV
K4: Operating the MV
K5: Steps To Increase Reliablity Of Result Accurately/Precaution
1. Prepare 7 potato strips using a cork borer. Wipe dry all potato strips using K1,K5

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

tissue.
Sediakan 7 jalur ubi kentang dengan menggunakan penyumbat gabus. Lap
kering semua jalur ubi kentang dengan menggunakan tisu.

2. Weigh all potato strips by using weighing scales and record the K1
data.
Ukur jisim semua jalur ubi kentang dengan alat penimbang dan
mencatatkan data.
3. Fill 7 different beakers with distilled water, 0.1M sucrose solution, 0.2M K4
sucrose solution, 0.3M sucrose solution,0.4M sucrose solution, 0.5M sucrose
solution and 0.6 sucrose solution
Isikan 7 bikar yang berbeza dengan air suling, larutan sukrosa 0.1M, larutan
sukrosa 0.2M, larutan sukrosa 0.3M, larutan sukrosa 0.4M, larutan sukrosa
0.5M dan larutan sukrosa 0.6M.

4. Immerse one potato strip in each beaker. K1


Rendam satu jalur ubi kentang ke dalam setiap bikar.

5. After 10 minutes, take out all the potato strip. K2


Selepas 10 minit, keluarkan semua jalur ubi kentang
tersebut.

6. Wipe dry all the potato strip using tissue. K1,K5


Lap kering semua jalur ubi kentang dengan menggunakan
tisu.

7. Weigh the potato strip again and record the data. K3

Ukur jisim jalur ubi kentang lagi dan mencatatkan data.


8. Record all data in a table. K1
Rekodkan data di dalam jadual.

9. Plot the graph of change in weight of the potato strips against the K1
concentration of sucrose solution.
Lukiskan graf perubahan jisim jalur ubi kentang melawan kepekatan larutan
sukrosa.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

Concentration of sucrose Iniatial weight (g) Final weight Change in weight (g)
solution(M) Jisim awal (g) (g) Perubahan jisim (g)
Kepekatan larutan Jisim akhir (g)
sukrosa(M)

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

3.4 CONCENTRATION OF AN EXTERNAL SOLUTION WHICH IS ISOTONIC TO CELL SAP OF A PLANT

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What is the concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to cell sap of


plant?
Apakah kepekatan larutan yang isotonic terhadap sap sel tumbuhan?
2. HYPOTHESIS:

When the external solution is isotonic to the cell sap of plant cells, there is no net
gain in size of plant cells.
Apabila larutan yang isotonic terhadap sap sel tumbuhan , tiada kesan terhadap
saiz sel tumbuhan.
3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable: Concentration of sucrose solution / kepekatan larutan


sukrosa
Responding variable: Final weight of the potato strip / Jisim akhir jalur ubi kentang
Constant variable:Temperature and time / suhu dan masa

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:

Apparatus: Cork borer, beaker, weigh scale, tissue.


Penyumbat gabus, bikar, skala berat, tisu.

Material: Potato strip, distilled water, 0.1M sucrose solution, 0.2M sucrose solution,
0.3M sucrose solution,0.4M sucrose solution,0.5M sucrose solution and 0.6 sucrose
solution.
Jalur ubi kentang, air suling, larutan sukrosa 0.1M, larutan sukrosa 0.2M, larutan
sukrosa 0.3M, larutan sukrosa 0.4M, larutan sukrosa 0.5M dan larutan sukrosa
0.6M

5. PROCEDURE :

K1 : Preparation Of Materials & Apparatus


K2 : Operating the CV
K3: Operating the RV
K4: Operating the MV
K5: Steps To Increase Reliablity Of Result Accurately/Precaution

1. Prepare 7 potato strips using a cork borer. Wipe dry all potato strips using K1,K5
tissue.
Sediakan 7 jalur ubi kentang dengan menggunakan penyumbat gabus. Lap
kering semua jalur ubi kentang dengan menggunakan tisu.
2. Weigh all potato strips and record the data. K1

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

Mengukur jisim semua jalur ubi kentang dan mencatatkan data.


3. Fill 7 different beakers with distilled water, 0.1M sucrose solution, 0.2M K4
sucrose solution, 0.3M sucrose solution,0.4M sucrose solution, 0.5M sucrose
solution and 0.6 sucrose solution
Isikan 7 bikar yang berbeza dengan air suling, larutan sukrosa 0.1M, larutan
sukrosa 0.2M, larutan sukrosa 0.3M, larutan sukrosa 0.4M, larutan sukrosa
0.5M dan larutan sukrosa 0.6M.
4. Immerse one potato strip in each beaker. K1
Rendam satu jalur ubi kentang ke dalam setiap bikar.
5. After 10 minutes, take out all the potato strip. K2
Selepas 10 minit, keluarkan semua jalur ubi kentang
tersebut.
6. Wipe dry all the potato strip using tissue. K1,K5
Lap kering semua jalur ubi kentang dengan menggunakan
tisu.
7. Weigh the potato strip again and record the data. K3
Mengukur jisim jalur ubi kentang lagi dan mencatatkan data.
8. Record all data in a table. K1
Rekodkan data di dalam jadual.

9. Plot the graph of change in weight of the potato strips against the K1
concentration of sucrose solution.
Lukiskan graf perubahan jisim jalur ubi kentang melawan kepekatan larutan
sukrosa.

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

Concentration of sucrose Iniatial weight (g) Final weight Change in weight (g)
solution(M) Jisim awal (g) (g) Perubahan jisim (g)
Kepekatan larutan Jisim akhir (g)
sukrosa(M)

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

4.1 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE ACTIVITY OF ENZYME AMYLASE ON


STARCH/KESAN SUHU KE ATAS AKTIVITI ENZIM AMILASE TERHADAP KANJI.

1 PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What is the effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme amylase on starch


Apakah kesan suhu ke atas aktiviti enzim amilase ke atas kanji
2 HYPOTHESIS:

The enzymatic reaction increases with the temperature until reaches the optimum
temperature.
Tindakbalas enzim bertambah dengan suhu sehingga mencapai suhu optimum
3 VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable : Temperature


Suhu

Responding Variable: the time taken for the hydrolyse the starch
Masa yang diambil untuk menghidrolisiskan kanji

Constant Variable: Volume of starch// volume of amylase/ / concentration of


amylase/ enzim// concentration of starch
Isipadu kanji// isipadu amilase// kepekatan amylase/ enzim //
kepekatam kanji
4 APPARATUS & MATERIALS:

Apparatus: Beaker, tile with grooves, thermometer, syringe, stop watch, bunsen
burner, tripod stand, wire gauze, glass rod
Bikar, jubin berlekuk, termoometer, picagari, jam randik, penunu
Bunsen, tungku kaki tiga, kasa dawai, rod kaca

Materials: Starch suspension, amylase enzyme, iodine solution, water bath, ice
cube,
Larutan kanji, enzim amilase, larutan iodin, pengukus, air batu,

5 PROCEDURE: 5correct -3m


4-5correct 2m
KI-Preparation of materials & Apparatus 1-2correct 1m
K2-Operating the CV
K3-Operating the RV
K4- Operating the MV
K5-Step to increase reliability of result accurately / precaution
K2, K1
1. 5.0 ml of starch suspension is poured into 5 different test tube, labelled
A,B,C,D and E

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

5.0 ml kanji dituangkan ke dalam 5 tabung uji yang berbeza yang berlabel
A,B,C, D dan E

K2,K1
2. 2.0 ml of 5% of amylase suspension is poured into 5 different test tube
which labelled A1,B1,C1,D1 and E1
2.0 ml larutan amilase 5 % dituangkan ke dalam 5 tabung uji yang berbeza
yang dilablekan A1,B1, C1, D1 dan E1
K3,K1
3. Test tube A and A1 , B and B1, C and C1, Dand D1 , E and E1 are immersed
respectively in 5 different water baths which are kept on temperature 00C,
250C, 370C, 450C and 550C
Tabung uji A dan A1 , B dan B1, C dan C1, D dan D1 , E dan E1 direndamkan
ke dalam 5 pengukus air pada suhu 00C, 250C, 370C, 450C and 550C.
K1
4.The test tube are left for 10 minutes
Tabung uji direndamkan selama 10 minit
K1
5.A drop of iodine is poured into each groove of the white tile.
Setitis iodin dituangkan ke setiap lubang yang ada pada jubin putih.
K1,K5
6.The starch suspension in test tube A is poured into test tube A1, B to B1, C to
C1, D to D1and E to E1. A stop watch is activated
Each mixture is stir with different glass rod.
Larutan kanji di dalam abung uji A dituangkan ke dalam A1, B ke B1, C ke C1 ,
D ke D1 dan E ke E1.Jam randik diaktifkan.
Setiap campuran dikacau dengan rod kaca yang berbeza
K1
7.A drop of mixture from A1,B1,C1,D1 and E1 is dropped into the first groove
tile containing the iodine solution.
Satu titis campuran dari A1,B1,C1,D1 dan E1 dititiskn ke lubang jubin yang
pertama yang mengandungi larutan iodin

8.The iodine test is repeated every minute for ten minutes. The time taken for the K4
hydrolisis of starch to be completed is recorded
until the mixture is no longer turns blue black/ remain yellow
Ujian iodine diulang setiap satu minit untuk 10 minit. Masa untuk kanji
dihidrolisiskan dengan sempurna direkodkan apabila
Campuran itu tidak bertukar ke warna biru/ tetap berwarna kuning keperangan
K5. K1
9.The result are recorded in the table and a graph showing the rate of enzymatic
reaction,1/t against temperature is plotted.
Keputusan dicatatkan di dalam jadual dan graf yang menunjukkan kadar
tindakbalas enzim, 1/t melawan suhu diplotkan.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

6 PRESENTATION OF DATA:
2m

Test tube Temperatue /0C Time taken for Rate of enzyme


Tabung Suhu / 0C hydrolysis of starch to reaction /1/t (s-1 )
uji be completed (s) Kadar tindakbalas
Masa yang diambil enzim/ 1/t (s-1)
untuk menghidrolisis
kanji lengkap / (s)
A1 0
B1 25
C1 37
D1 45
E1 55
* Temperature: at least 3
* Suhu: minima 3

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

4.2 THE EFFECT OF pH ON ENZYME ACTIVITY/KESAN pH KE ATAS ENZIM

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What is the effect of pH on enzyme activity?


Apakah kesan pH terhadap aktiviti enzim?

2. HYPOTHESIS:

Pepsin works best in an acidic medium.


Pepsin bertindak paling baik dalam medium berasid.

3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable: pH of solution / pH larutan

Responding variable: The colour/ condition of the solution


Warna / keadaan larutan

Constant variable : Temperature of solution, enzyme concentration, substrate


concentration, time of solutions immersion in water bath
Suhu larutan, kepekatan enzim, kepekatan substrat, tempoh
masa rendaman larutan di dalam kukus air

4. APPARATUS AND MATERIALS:

Test tubes, syringe, thermometer, 250 ml beaker, Bunsen Burner, tripod stand,
wire gauze,
albumen suspension, 1% pepsin solution, 0.1M hydrochloric acid, 0.1M sodium
hydroxide solution, pH paper, distilled water

Tabung uji, picagari, termometer, bikar 250 ml, penunu Bunsen, tungku kaki
tiga, kasa dawai, ampaian albuman, larutan pepsin 1%, asid hidroklorik 0.1M,
larutan natrium hidroksida 0.1M, kertas pH, air suling.

5. PROCEDURE:

1. Pour 5 ml albumen suspension into each three test tubes labeled P, Q and R. K1,
Masukkan 5 ml ampaian albumen ke dalam tiga tabung uji berlabel P, Q K2
dan R masing- masing.

2. Add the following solutions into each test tube according to the table below. K1,
Masukkan larutan ke dalam setiap tabung uji mengikut jadual di bawah.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

Test tube / Larutan / Solution


Tabung uji
P 1 ml 0.1M hydrochloric acid + 1 ml pepsin solution K4
Q 1 ml 0.1M sodium hydroxide solution + 1 ml pepsin solution
R 1 ml distilled water + 1 ml pepsin solution

3. Dip a piece of pH paper into each test tube. Record the pH value. K1
Celupkan sehelai kertas pH ke dalam setiap tabung uji. Rekodkan nilai pH.

4. Place all test tubes into a water bath at 37O C. K1,


Masukkan semua tabung uji ke dalam kukus air bersuhu 37O C. K2

5. Observe the colour/condition of the solution in each test tube after 30


minutes. K3,
Perhatikan warna / keadaan larutan di dalam setiap tabung uji selepas 30 K2
minit.

6. Record the observations into a table.


Rekodkan pemerhatian ke dalam jadual. K1

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

Test tube pH Colour/ condition of solution after 30


Tabung uji minutes immersion
Warna/ keadaan larutan selepas 30
minit rendaman
P 3
(acidic/berasid)
Q 9
(alkaline/ beralkali)
R 7
(neutral)

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

4.3 EFFECT OF ENZYME CONCENTRATION ON RATE OF BIOCHEMICAL


REACTION/KESAN KEPEKATAN ENZIM KE ATAS KADAR TINDAKBALAS
BIOKIMIA

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT

What is the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of biochemical reaction?


Apakah kesan kepekatan enzim ke atas kadar tindakan biokimia?

2. HYPOTHESIS

The higher the enzyme concentration, the higher the rate of biochemical reaction
until it reaches a maximum rate.
Semakin tinggi kepekatan enzim, semakin tinggi kadar tindakan biokimia.

3. VARIABLE

Manipulated variable : Enzyme concentration


Kepekatan enzyme

Responding variable : Time taken for breakdown of starch


Masa yang diambil untuk penguraian kanji

Constant variable : pH, temperature, substrate concentration


pH, suhu, kepekatan substrak

4. APPARATUS & MATERIAL

Apparatus: Beakers, test tubes, syringe, dropper, glass rod, white tile,
thermometer, wire gauze, Bunsen burner, tripod stand and stopwatch
Bikar,tabung uji, picagari, penitis, rod kaca, jubin putih, termometer,
kasa dawai, penunu Bunsen, tungku kaki tiga dan jam randik

Materials: 1% starch solution, iodine solution dan distilled water


1% kanji, iodin dan air suling

5. PROCEDURE K1

1. Label six test tubes as A, B, C, D, E and F.


Label enam tabung uji dengan A, B, C, D, E dan F.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

2. Fill each test tube with solutions as shown in the table below.
Isikan setiap tabung uji berdasarkan jadual berikut.

Test tube A B C D E F
Tabung uji
Volume of saliva (ml)
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 K1
Isipadu air liur (ml)
Volume of distilled
water (ml)
2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
Isipadu air suling
(ml)

3. Drop a few drops of iodine separately on a white tile.


Titiskan beberapa titik iodine berasingan di atas jubin putih. K1

4. Pour 4 ml of starch solution into test tube A.


Tuangkan 4 ml kanji ke dalam tabung uji A. K1

5. Start the stopwatch. Use a dropper to withdraw a small amount of the


mixture and add it to a drop of iodine on the white tile immediately.
Mulakan jam randik. gunakan penitis dan titiskan setitik campuran ke K5
dalam salah satu titik iodine dengan cepat.

6. Observe the colour change in iodine.


Perhatikan perubahan warna iodin. K3

7. Carry out the iodine test at an interval of 30 seconds until there is no more
colour change in the iodine.
Jalankan ujian iodine setiap 30 saat sehingga tiada lagi perubahan warna K2
iodin.

8. Record the time taken when the mixture no longer changes the colour of
iodine.
K3
Rekodkan masa apabila campuran tidak lagi menukar warna iodin.

9. Repeat steps 4 to 8 for test tubes B, C, D, E, and F.


Ulang langkah 4 hingga 8 untuk tabung uji B, C, D, E dan F. K4

10. Record all your observations in the table.


Rekodkan pemerhatian anda dalam jadual. K1

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

11. Calculate the rate of reaction using the following formula:

Hitunakan kadar tindakbalas dengan menggunakan formula berikut: K3

12. Plot a graph of rate of reaction against enzyme concentration.


Plotkan graf kadar tindak balas terhadap kepekatan enzim.
K3

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA

A B C D E F
Test tube
Tabung uji
Enzyme concentration
Kepekatan enzim
Time taken for breakdown of starch
Masa yang diambil untuk penguraian kanji

Rate of reaction (minute-1)

Kadar tindakbalas (minit -1)

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

6.1 ENERGY VALUE IN FOOD SAMPLES/NILAI TENAGA DI DALAM SAMPEL


MAKANAN

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

Do different types of food has different energy value?


Adakah pelbagai jenis makanan mempunyai nilai tenaga yang berbeza ?
2. HYPOTHESIS

Cashew nut have higher energy value compare to peanut and almond.
Buah gajus mengandungi nilai tenaga yang tinggi berbanding dengan kacang
tanah dan almond.

3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable: Type of food sample


Jenis makanan

Responding variable: Energy value


Kandungan nilai tenaga

Constant variable: Volume of distilled water


Isipadu air suling

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:

Apparatus: Retort stand, Boiling tube, Thermometer, Mounting pin, measuring 8A


cylinder, Bunsen burner, wire gauze, Electronic balance
Kaki retort, Tabung didih, Termometer, Jarum, selinder penyukat, penunu
Burner, Kasa Dawai, Penimbang Elektronik.

Material : Cashew nut, Peanut , Almond , Cotton, Distilled water, Plasticine 6M


Buah gajus, Kacang Tanah, almond, kapas, air suling , tanah liat
5. PROCEDURE :
K1 : Preparation of Materials & Apparatus
K2: Operating The CV
K3: Operating The RV
K4: Operating The MV
K5: Steps To Increase Reliability Of Ressult Accurately / Precaution
1. Weigh one fresh cashew nut and record the mass. K1
Timbang sebiji kacang gajus segar dan catatkan jisimnya.
2. Fill one boiling tube with 20 ml of distilled water. K1/K2
Isikan satu tabung didih dengan 20 ml air suling.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

3. Record the initial temperature of the water. K1


Catatan suhu awal air.
4. Burn the cashew nut near to the bottom of the boiling tube. K1 &K5
Bakar kacang gajus dan letakkan sedekat mungkin dengan tabung didih.
5. Place a shield around the experiment to make sure non of the heat is K5
escape.
6. Letakkan penghadang disekelilingi eksperimen.
7. Stir the water to distribute the heat evenly. K5
Kacaukan air supaya haba dapat disebarkan sekata.
8. Measure and record the final water temperature when the cashew nut K3
has stopped burning by using thermometer.
Ukur dan rekodkan suhu akhir air apabila kacang gajus telah habis
terbakar dengan menggunakan thermometer.
9. Calculate the energy value of the cashew nut using the following
formula:
Hitung nilai tenaga kacang gajus mengikut formula berikut: K3

Energy value: Mass of water(g) x Specific heat capacity of water (Jg-1 0C-1)X
Increase in temperature (t2-t1) kJg-1
Mass of the food(g) x 1000

10. Repeat the above experiments using peanut and almond nut. K4
Using eksperimen diatas menggunakan kacang tanah dan almond.
PRESENTATION OF DATA

Type of Mass of Mass of Initial Final Energy


food the water temperature of temperature Value
food (g) (g) the water after the kJ g -1
(t 1 0C) burning
(t2 0C)
Cashew
6. nut
Peanut
Almond

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

6.2 VITAMIN C CONTENT IN FRUITS JUICES/KANDUNGAN VITAMIN C DALAM JUS


BUAH-BUAHAN

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT :

Do different types of fruits juices contain similar amounts of vitamin C?


Adakah jus-jus buah yang berlainan jenis mengandungi kuantiti vitamin C yang sama
banyak?

2. HYPOTHESIS :

Lime juice contains a higher concentration of vitamin C compared to pineapple juice


and orange juice.
Jus limau mengandungi kepekatan vitamin C yang lebih tinggi berbanding dengan jus
nanas dan jus oren.

3. VARIABLES :

Manipulated variables : Type of fruit juices


Jenis jus buah

Responding variables: Volume of fruit juices needed to decolourise DCPIP


solution
Isipadu jus buah yang diperlukan untuk melunturkan warna
larutan DCPIP

Constant variable : Volume of DCPIP solution and concentration of ascorbic acid


solution
Isipadu larutan DCPIP dan kepekatan larutan asid askorbik

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:

Apparatus : Specimen tubes, a syringe (1 ml), syringes (5 ml) with needles, beaker
(50 ml), gauze cloth and a knife
Tiub spesimen , picagari berjarum 1ml dan 5 ml, bikar 50 ml, kain kasa
dan pisau

Materials : 0.1 % Dicholorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) solution, 0.1 % ascorbic acid


solution, freshly prepared lime juice, pineapple juice and orange juice.
Larutan diklorofenolindofenol (DCPIP) 0.1 % , larutan asid askorbik
tulen, jus limau, jus nanas, dan jus oren segar

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

5. PROCEDURE:
K1: Preparation of Materials and Apparatus
K2: Operating the CV
K3: Operating the RV
K4: Operating the MV
K5: Steps to increase reliability of result Accurately / Precaution

1. Fill a specimen tube with 1ml of DCPIP solution using a 1ml syringe. K1
Isikan 1 ml larutan DCPIP 0.1 % ke dalam tiub spesimen dengan menggunakan K2
picagari 1 ml.

2. Fill a 5 ml syringe with 0.1 % ascorbic acid solution K1


Penuhkan picagari 5 ml dengan asid askorbik tulen 0.1%. K2

3. Place the needle of the syringe into the DCPIP solution K1


Masukkan picagari berisi larutan berisi asid askorbik ke dalam tiub spesimen
berisi DCPIP.

4. Add the ascorbic acid solution to the DCPIP drop by drop, stirring gently with the K1
syringe needle. Continue adding the ascorbic acid solution until the DCPIP K5
solution become colourless. Record the volume of ascorbic acid solution used. K4
Campurkan asid askorbik setitis demi setitis sambil mengacau larutan tersebut
dengan jarum picagari. Terus campurkan asid askorbik sehingga larutan DCPIP
menjadi tidak berwarna. Catatkan isipadu asid askorbik yang telah digunakan .

5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 using freshly squeezed lime juice, pineapple juice and orange K1
juice. Each time record the volume of fruit juice required to decolourise DCPIP K3
solution K4
Ulang langkah-langkah 1 hingga 4 dengan menggunakan jus limau, nanas dan
oren segar. Catatkan isi padu jus buah yang diperlukan untuk melunturkan warna
larutan DCPIP.

6. Tabulate the results. Calculate the percentage and then the concentration of K1,K3
vitamin C in each of the fruits juices using the formulae below:
Catatkan keputusan dalam jadual. Kirakan peratus dan kepekatan vitamin C
dalam setiap jenis jus buah dengan menggunakan formula berikut:

Percentage of vitamin C = volume of 0.1 % ascorbic acid solution X 0.1


in fruit juice volume of fruit juice

Peratus kandungan vitamin C = isipadu larutan asid askorbik 0.1% X 0.1


dalam jus buah isipadu jus buah

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

Concentration of vitamin C = volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid solution X 1.0 mg cm- 3


in fruit juice volume of fruit juice

Kepekatan vitamin C = isipadu larutan asid askorbik 0.1% X 1.0 mg cm ³


dalam jus buah isipadu jus buah

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

Volume of solution or fruit Vitamin C concentration in


juice needed to decolourise fruit juice (mg cm-³)
Solution / fruit 1ml of DCPIP solution Kepekatan vitamin C dalam
juice Isi padu larutan atau jus jus buah (mg cm-³)
Larutan /jus buah buah yang diperlukan untuk
melunturkan warna 1 ml
larutan DCPIP (ml)
Ascorbic acid
solution
Lime juice
Pineapple juice
Orange juice

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

6.3 MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES THROUGH THE VISKING TUBING/


PERGERAKAN BAHAN MERENTASI TIUB VISKING

1 PROBLEM STATEMENT:

Does the size of molecules affect the diffusion across the visking tubing/
semipermeable membrane?
Adakah saiz molekul mempengaruhi resapannya merentasi tiub visking/
membran separa telap?
2 HYPOTHESIS :

Molecules with bigger size are not able to diffuse across visking tubing
compare to molecules with smaller size.
Molekul yang mempunyai saiz yang lebih besar tidak boleh meresap merentasi
tiub visking berbanding molekul yang mempunyai size yang lebih kecil

3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variables : size of molecules


Pemboleh ubah manipulasi : saiz molekul

Responding variables : results of benedict test and iodin test


Pemboleh ubah bergerakbalas : keputusan ujian benedit dan iodin

Constant variables: surrounding temperature/ time/type of visking tubing


Pemboleh ubah dimalarkan : suhu persekitaran/ masa/ jens tiub visking

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS

Apparatus : test /boiling tubes, beakers, bunsen burner, stopwatch, dropper,


scissors
radas : tabung uji/didih, bikar, penunu Bunsen, jam randik, penitis, gunting

Materials : Benedict solution, iodine solution ,1% starch suspension, , 30%


glucose solution, visking tubing, thread
Bahan: larutan Benedit, larutan iodin, ampaian kanji 1%, larutan glukosa

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

30%, , tiub visking, benang

5. PROCEDURES:
1. A Visking tubing is soaked in water for 5 minutes to soften it.
Tiub visking direndam di dalam air selama 5 minit untuk melembutkannya. K1

2. One end of the Visking tubing is tied firmly with a piece of thread to prevent
leakage. K1
Salah satu hujung tiub Visking disimpul dan diikat ketat dengan benang supaya
tidak bocor. K5
3. The Visking tubing is filled with 15ml of glucose solution and 15ml of starch K1
suspension.
Tiub Visking diisi dengan 15ml larutan glukosa dan 15ml ampaian kanji. K4
4. The other end of the Visking tubing is tied firmly with another piece of thread K1
. The colour of the solution is recorded.
Satu lagi hujung tiub Visking diikat dengan benang dengan ketat. Warna K5
larutan dicatat.

5.The outer surface of the Visking tubing is rinsed with distilled water. K5
Bahagian luar tiub Visking dibilas dengan air suling.
6. 400ml of distilled water and 15ml of iodin solution are mixed in a beaker.
The colour of the solution is recorded. K1
400 ml air suling dan 15ml larutan iodin dicampur di dalam sebuah bikar.
Warna larutan dicatat
7. The Visking tubing is immersed in the beaker and the stopwatch is started
Tiub visking direndam ke dalam bikar dan jam randik dimulakan K1
8.After 50 minutes, the colour of the solution in the beaker and Visking tubing
is observed and recorded. K2
Selepas 50 minit, warna larutan dalam bikar dan tiub visking diperhati dan
dicatat K3
9. The solution in the beaker and visking tubing is tested with iodine test and
benedict test. K1
Larutan di dalam bikar dan tiub visking diuji dengan ujian iodin dan ujian
benedict
10. Record all the data in a table/tabulate the data
Semua data direkodkan ke dalam jadual K1
6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:
Content Benedict test Iodine Test
kandungan Ujian Benedict Ujian Iodin
Beaker

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

bikar
Visking tubing
tiub visking
6.4 EFFECTS OF MACRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY IN PLANT/KESAN KEKURANGAN
MAKRONUTRIEN DALAM TUMBUHAN

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What is the effect of nitrogen deficiency in culture solution on the height/


growth rate of seedling?
Apakah kesan kekurangan nitrogen mempengaruhi kadar ketinggian biji benih?

2. HYPOTHESIS:

In complete Knop’s solution, the height of seedling / the growth rate is higher
Dalam larutan Knop’s yang lenglap, ketinggian biji benih/kadar pertumbuhan
adalah lebih tinggi.

3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable : Components of minerals in culture solution / the types


of culture solution.
Kandungan mineral dalam larutan kultur/Jenis larutan
kultur.

Responding variable : The height of seedling / the growth of seedling


Ketinggian biji benih/Pertumbuhan biji benih

Constant variable : The initial height of seedling/Amount of culture solution


Ketinggian awal biji benih/ Jumlah larutan kultur

4. APPARATUS AND MATERIAL:

Apparatus :Glass jar, glass tubing, L-shaped delivery tubes, air pump, rubber
bung, ruler.
Balang kaca, salur penghantar, salur penghantar bentuk L, pam
udara penyumbat getah dan pembaris

Materials : Tomato seedling / maize seedling, calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate,


potassium dihydrogen phosphate, magnesium sulphate, iron (III)
sulphate, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, distilled water,
cotton wool, black paper
Biji benih tomato, kalsium nitrat, kalium nitrat, kalium dihydrogen
fosfat, magnesium sulfat, ferum (III) sulfat, kalsium klorida, kalium
klorida, air suling, kapas kaca, kertas hitam.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

5. PROCEDURE :

K1 : Preparation Of Materials & Apparatus


K2 : Operating The CV
K3 : Operating The RV
K4 : Operating The MV
K5 : Steps To Increase Reliability Of Result Accurately/Precaution
1. Three glass jar are labelled A, B and C are prepared. K1
Tiga balang kaca dilabel sebagai A, B dan C disediakan.

2. In glass jar A, distilled water is fulfilled which serves as a control K1,K2


experiment
Dalam balang kaca A, air suling dipenuhkan sebagai eksperimen kawalan.

3. In glass jar B, a complete culture solution is prepared using the composition K1,K2
of the Knop’s solution as a guide
Dalam balang Kaca B, Larutan kultur lengkap disediakan dengan
menggunakan kandungan Larutan Kultur Knop sebagai panduan.

4. In glass jar C, a culture solution deficient in nitrogen is prepared by K1


replacing calcium nitrate with calcium chloride and potassium nitrate is
replaced by potassium chloride
Dalam balang kaca C, larutan kultur mengandungi kesan kekurangan
nitrogen disediakan sebagai ganti kalsium nitrat dengan kalsium klorida
dan kalium nitrat sebagai ganti kalium klorida.

5. Each jar is wrapped with black paper to prevent light from penetrating into K1
the culture solution which will cause the growth of green algae
Setiap balang kaca di bungkus dengan kertas hitam untuk mengelakkan
daripada terkena sinaran cahaya matahari yang mengganggu larutan
kultur dan boleh menyebabkan pertumbuhan alga hijau.

6. Three maize seedling of the same height are chosen and put into each jars. K1,K5
Tiga biji benih yang sama ketinggian dipilih dan dimasukkan ke dalam
setiap jar.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

7. Keep of the roots seedlings are fully immersed in each solutions. The
culture solution is aerated using an air pump to ensure the root of the
seedling obtain enough oxygen for respiration.
Pastikan akar biji benih direndam sepenuhnya dalam setiap larutan. Udara
akan dipam keluar dengan menggunakan pam udara untuk memastikan
akar menerima cukup oksigen untuk respirasi.

8. All set of apparatus are exposed to light so the seedlind are able to carry out K1,
photosynthesis K5
Semua radas akan di dedahkan di bawah cahaya, maka biji benih dapat
menjalankan fotosintesis.

9. The culture solution in each jar is replaced every week to ensure that the K5
nutrients which are supposed to be available are not depleted.
Larutan kultur pada setiap balang, akan digantikan setiap minggu untuk
memastikan kandungan nutrient mencukupi.

10. After one month, seedling jar A is taken out and the final height of seedling K1
is measured by using a ruler. The growth rate of seedling is calculated and
then is recorded in a table.
Setelah sebulan, biji benih balang A, akan diambil keluar untuk merekod
dan mengukur panjang akhir pertumbuhan biji benih dengan
menggunakan pembaris. Pertumbuhan anak benih akan dikira dan direkod
kan dalam jadual.

11. The experiment are repeated with seedling in glass jar B and glass jar C are K1
observed.
Eksperimen diulangi dengan menggunakan biji benih balang C dan
balang C dan perhatikan.

12. Record the result in a table and a plot a bar chart showing the rate of K1
seedlings against the types of solution.
Rekord keputusan di dalam jadual dan plot graf bar untuk menunjukkan
kadar ketinggian pertumbuhan bergantung jenis larutan yang digunakan.

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA :
Glass Jar Types of solution The height of seedling / The growth rate
Jenis larutan cm of seedling /
Ketinggian anak benih (cm/day)
Initial Final height Pertumbuhan
height Panjang anak benih
Panjang akhir
awal
A Distilled water
Air suling
B Complete Knop’s

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

solution
Larutan kultur
knop langkap
C Nitrogen deficient
in culture solution
Kesan kekurangan
nitrogen larutan
kultur
6.5 : EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ KESAN
KEAMATAN CAHAYA KE ATAS KADAR FOTOSINTESIS

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What is the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis?


Apakah kesan keamatan cahaya ke atas kadar fotosintesis?
2. HYPOTHESIS:
The higher the light intensity, the higher the rate of photosynthesis.
Semakin tinggi keamatan cahaya, semakin tinggi kadar fotosintesis.

3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated / Dimanipulasikan : Distance of the light source


Jarak sumber cahaya

Responding / Bergerak balas : Number of bubbles produced


Bilangan gelembung gas dihasilkan

Fixed / Dimalarkan : Temperature, concentration of carbon


dioxide
Suhu, kepekatan karbon dioksida

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:

Apparatus : Beaker, table lamp with 40W bulb, test tubes, filter funnel,
thermometer, stopwatch, ruler,
Bikar, lampu meja dengan mentol 40W, tabung uji, corong turas,
termometer, jam randik, pembaris.

Materials : Hydrilla sp., sodium bicarbonate powder and plasticine.


Hydrilla sp., serbuk natrium bikarbonat dan plastisin.

5. PROCEDURE :

K1 : Preparation of Materials & Apparatus


K2 : Operating the CV
K3: Operating the RV

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

K4: Operating the MV


K5: Steps To Increase Reliablity Of Result Accurately/Precaution

1. Cut the end part of a Hydrilla sp. stem. K1,K5


Potong bahagian akhir batang Hydrilla sp.

2. Place the Hydrilla sp. stem facing upwards in the filter funnel. K1
Letakkan batang Hydrilla sp. menghadap ke atas di dalam corong turas.
3. Place a test tube on the filter funnel in the beaker containing sodium K4
bicarbonate solution.
Letakkan tabung uji di atas corong turas yang berada di dalam bikar berisi
larutan natrium bikarbonat.

4. Place a table lamp 50 cm away from the beaker. Then switch on the lamp. K1
Letakkan lampu meja dengan jarak 50 cm dari bikar. Kemudian hidupkan
lampu meja.

5. Count and record the number of bubbles produced in one minute. K2


Kira dan rekodkan bilangan gelembung gas yang terhasil dalam satu minit.

6. Repeat step 3 to 4 by putting the table lamp at different distances of 40 cm, 30 K1,K5
cm, 20 cm and 10 cm from the beaker.
Ulangi langkah 3 hingga 4 dengan meletakkan lampu meja pada jarak yang
berbeza dari bikar iaitu 40 cm, 30 cm, 20 cm dan 10 cm.

7. The experiment is repeated using the same plant. K3


Eksperimen diulang menggunakan tumbuhan yang sama.
8. Record all data in a table. K1
Rekodkan semua data di dalam jadual.

9. Repeat experiment to get average reading.


Ulang eksperimen untuk mendapatkan bacaan purata.

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

Distance of the light source (cm) 10 20 30 40 50


Jarak sumber cahaya (cm)

Number of gas bubbles produced per


minit
Bilangan gelembung gas yang
dibebaskan seminit

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

7.1 ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN YEAST/RESPIRASI ANAEROBIK PADA YIS

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What are the products of fermentation?


Apakah hasil fermentasi?
2. HYPOTHESIS:

In the absence of oxygen, yeast undergoes anaerobic respiration to produce carbon dioxide,
ethanol and energy.
Tanpa kehadiran oksigen, yis menjalankan respirasi anaerob untuk menghasilkan karbon
dioksida, etanol dan tenaga
3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable : Presence of yeast


Kehadiran yis

Responding variable : Changes in the limewater and temperature/ smell of ethanol


Perubahan air kapur/ perubahan suhu/ bau etanol

Constant variable
: Anaerobic condition/ time
Keadaan anaerob/ masa
4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:

Apparatus : Boiling tubes, test tubes, thermometers, stoppers with delivery tubes,
measuring cylinder and a beaker.
Tabung didih, tabung uji, thermometer, penyumbat gabus berlubang dengan
tiub penghantar, silinder penyukat dan bikar.

Material
: 5% yeast suspension, 5% glucose solution, paraffin oil and limewater
Ampaian yis 5%, larutan glukosa 5%, minyak paraffin dan air kapur.
5. PROCEDURE:

K1 : Preparation Of Materials & Apparatus


K2 : Operating The CV
K3 : Operating The RV
K4 : Operating The MV

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

K5 : Steps To Increase Reliability Of Result Accurately

1. Remove oxygen from the 5% glucose solution by boiling and leaving it cool. KI,K5
Keluarkan oksigen daripada larutan glukosa 5% dengan pendidihan dan biarkan sejuk.
2. Fill boiling tubes A with 5 ml of yeast suspension and 15 ml of boiled glucose K4,K2
solution.
Isikan tabung didih A dengan 5 ml ampaian yis dan 15 ml larutan glukosa yang telah
dididihkan.

3. Fill boiling tubes B with only 15 ml of boiled glucose solution. K1


Isikan tabung didih B dengan 15 ml larutan glukosa yang telah dididihkan.
4. Add a little paraffin oil to both boiling tubes to cover its contents. K1,K5
Tambahkan sedikit minyak paraffin ke dalam kedua-dua tabung didih untuk menutupi
kandungannya.
5. Connect the stoppers with delivery tubes to their respective boiling tubes. K1
Sambungkan penyumbat dengan tiub penghantar kepada tabung didih.
6. Fill two test tubes with 2 ml of lime water. Then place each end of the delivery KI,
tubes into the respective test tubes. K3
Isikan dua tabung uji dengan 2 ml air kapur. Kemudian letakkan hujung setiap tiub
penghantar ke dalam tabung uji.

7. Record the initial temperature of the contents in both boiling tubes. K3


Catatkan suhu awal kandungan di dalam kedua-dua tabung didih.
8. Leave the apparatus for one hour. K4
Biarkan radas selama satu jam.
9. After one hour, record the final temperature and observe the change in lime water. K3
Selepas satu jam, catatkan suhu akhir dan perhatikan perubahan dalam air kapur.
10. Remove the stoppers and smell the gas was released from the boiling tubes. K1,K3
Tanggalkan penyumbat dan bau gas yang dibebaskan dari tabung didih.
11. Record the results in the table. K1
Catatkan semua keputusan di dalam jadual.

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

Boiling tube A B
At the beginning At the end of At the beginning At the end of
of the experiment the experiment of the experiment the experiment
Temperature
(C)
Condition of
Limewater
Smell

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

7.2 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INHALED AND EXHALED AIR IN TERMS OF


OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS/PERBEZAAN ANTARA UDARA
SEDUT DAN HEMBUSAN BAGI OKSIGEN DAN KARBON DIOKSIDA.

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

Are the contents of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inhaled air the same as those
on exhaled air? / does inhaled air contain the same amount of oxygen and
carbon dioxide as exhaled air?
Adakah udara sedutan mengandungi kandungan oksigen dan karbon dioksida
yang sama dengan udara hembusan?

2. HYPOTHESIS:

Inhaled air has a higher percentage of oxygen when compared to exhaled air.
Exhaled air has a higher percentage of carbon dioxide when compared to
inhaled air.
Udara sedutan mempunyai peratus oksigen yang tinggi berbanding udara
hembusan. Udara hembusan mempunyai peratus karbon dioksida yang tinggi
berbanding udara sedutan.

3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable: Inhaled air and exhaled air


Udara sedutan dan udara hembusan

Responding variable: Percentages of oxygen and carbon dioxide


Peratus oksigen dan karbon dioksida

Constant variable: Initial length of air column //Amount of Potassium


hydroxide solution / potassium pyrogallate solution
Panjang awal turus udara//Jumlah larutan kalium
hidoksida/ larutan kalium pirogalal

4. APPARATUS AND MATERIAL

Apparatus : J-tube, Boiling tubes, Rubber tubing, Ruler,Washbasin

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

Tiub-J, Tabung didih, Tiub getah, Pembaris, Besen

Materials : Potassium hydroxide solution, Potassium pyrogallate solution


Larutan Kalium hidroksida Larutan Kalium pirogalol

6. PROCEDURE :

K1 : Preparation of Materials & Apparatus


K2 : Operating The CV
K3 : Operating The RV
K4 : Operating The MV
K5 : Steps To Increase Reliability Of Result Accurately/Precaution
1. Turn the screw of J-tube clockwise to the end. K1
Pusing skrew tiub J mengikut arah lawan jam.

2. Lower the open end of the J-tube in the basin filled with water and turn the K1,K2
screw anticlockwise to draw a length of 5cm of water into the capillary
tube.
Letakkan hujung tiub J ke dalam besen yang berisi air dan pusing skrew
mengikut arah lawan jam serta menyalurkan turus air sepanjang 5 cm ke
dalam tiub kapilari.

3. Remove the tube from the water and turn the screw anticlockwise to draw a K1,K2
length of about 10 cm of air column into the J-tube.
Alihkan tiub daripada air dan pusing skrew megikut arah lawan jam untuk
menyalurkan udara sepanjang 10cm.

4. Place the open end of the tube in the water again to draw in a little more K1
water to seal the air column in the tube between the two lengths of water.
Letakkan hujung tiub yang terbuka untuk membenarkan sedikit air masuk
untuk menutup turus udara diantara dua turus air.

5. Adjust the screw, so that the air column is in the middle of the tube. K1
Laraskan skrew supaya turus udara berada ditengah-tengah tiub.

6. Immerse the J-tube in a basin about 2 minutes. K1,K5


Rendam tiub J di dalam besen selama 2 minit.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

7. After 2 minutes, the length of the air column is measure and record as x cm. K1,
Measure the air column while it is still immerse in the water. K5
Selepas 2 minit, panjang turus udara diukur dan direkod sebagai x cm.
Ukur turus udara ketika ia masih di dalam air.

8. Avoid touch the J-tube when the air column is being immersed. K5
Elakkan menyentuh tiub J apabila turus udara direndam di dalam air.

9. Turn the screw clockwise again to expel some of the water. K1


Pusing skrew semula mengikut arah jam untuk membenarkan sedikit air
keluar.

10. Dip the open end of the tube into the potassium hydroxide solution and turn K1
the screw anticlockwise to draw 2 to 3 cm of potassium hydroxide solution
into the capillary tube.
Celupkan hujung yang terbuka ke dalam larutan kalium hidroksida dan
pusing skrew mengikut arah lawan jam untuk membenarkan 2 ke 3 cm
larutan kalium hidroksida masuk ke dalam kapilari tiub.

11. Remove the tube from the solution and use the screw to move the air K1
column.
Alihkan tiub daripada larutan dan pusingkan skrew untuk menggerakkan
turus udara.

12. Measured the air column by repeating steps 6 and 7. Record the K1,K3
measurement as y cm.
Ukur turus udara dengan mengulangi langkah no 6 dan 7. Rekod bacaan
sebagai y cm.

13. Turn the screw clockwise to expel some of the potassium hydroxide K1
solution.
Pusing skrew mengikut arah jam untuk mengeluarkan sedikit larutan
kalium hidrosida.

14. Replace the potassium hydroxide with the alkaline potassium pyrogallate K1
solution. Repeat step 10 and 11.
Gantikan larutan kalium hidroksida dengan larutan kalium pirogalol.
Ulang langkah 10 dan 11.

15. Use the screw to mix the pyrogallate solution and air column. K1
Laraskan skrew untuk mencampurkan larutan kalium pirogalol dalam turus
udara.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

16. Immerse the capillary tube in the water for 1 minute and measure the final K3
length of the air column and record the measurement as z cm.
Rendam kapilari tiub selama 1 minit dan ukur panjang akhir turus udara
serta rekod bacaan sebagai z cm.

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA :

Measurement Inhaled air Exhaled air

Length of air column(inhaled air), x cm


Panjang turus udara(udara sedutan),xcm
Length of air column upon adding the
alkaline potassium hydroxide solution,y
cm
Panjang turus udara dalam larutan
kalium hidroksida beralkali, ycm
Length of air column upon adding
potassium pyrogallate solution, z cm
Panjang turus udara dalam larutan
kalium pyrogallate , z cm
Length of air column occupied by carbon
dioxide, (x – y)cm
Panjang turus udara yang mengandungi
gas karbon dioksida, (x – y)cm

Length of air column occupied by oxygen,


(y – z)cm
Panjang turus udara yang mengandungi
gas oksigen, (y – z)cm

Percentage of carbon dioxide in inhale air


Peratus gas karbon dioksida dalam udara
sedutan.
(x – y)cm X 100% = P%
x

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

Percentage of oxygen in inhale air


Peratus gas oxygen dalam udara sedutan.
(y – z)cm X 100% = Q%
x

7.3 EFFECTS OF VIGOROUS EXERCISING ON THE RATES OF RESPIRATION


AND HEARTBEAT/KESAN AKTIVITI CERGAS TERHADAP KADAR PERNAFASAN
DAN KADAR DENYUTAN JANTUNG.

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT

What is the effect of vigorous exercise on breathing and heartbeat rates?


Apakah kesan aktiviti cergas terhadap kadar pernafasan dan kadar denyutan
jantung?

2. HYPOTHESIS

Vigorous exercise increases breathing and heartbeat rates.


Aktiviti cergas meningkatkan kadar pernafasan dan kadar denyutan jantung.
3. VARIABLES

Manipulated variable: Relaxing or vigorous exercise


Keadaan rehat atau aktiviti cergas

Responding variable: Breathing rate and heartbeat rate


Kadar pernafasan dan kadar denyutan jantung

Fixed variables: Type and duration of exercise, gender and age of students
Jenis senaman dan tempoh, jantina dan umur murid

4. APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

A stopwatch
Jam randik

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

5. PROCEDURE

1. Work in pairs. Ask your friend to sit on a chair and rest for 5 minutes.
Kerja secara berpasangan. Minta rakan anda duduk di kerusi dan rehat
selama 5 minit.

2. Measure the heartbeat by putting 2 fingers on the wrist of your friend’s


hand, under the base of the thumb. Count the pulse for 15 second and
times by four to get the heartbeat rate per minute.
Ukur kadar denyutan jantungnya dengan meletakkan 2 jari pada
pergelangan tangan rakan anda, di bawah dasar ibu jarinya. Hitung
bilangan denyutan untuk 15saat damn darab dengan 4 untuk mendapat
kadar denyutan jantung per minit.
3. Then count the breathing rate by putting your palm on your friend’s
chest for one minute. Record the reading in a table.
Kemudian hitung kadar pernafasan dengan meletakkan tapak tangan
pada dada rakan anda untuk satu minit. Rekod bacaan dalam jadual.
4. Repeat step 2 and 3 for 3 times to get the average reading.
Ulang langkah 2 dan 3 sebanyak 3 kali untuk mendapatkan bacaan
purata.
5. Then ask your friend to jog on the spot for 5 minutes.
Kemudian minta rakan anda untuk berlari setempat selama 5 minit.
6. After 5 minutes, immediately measure the heartbeat rate and the
breathing rate of your friend.
Selepas 5 minit, ukur serta-merta kadar denyutan jantung dan kadar
pernafasan rakan anda.
7. Repeat step 5 and 6 for 3 times to get the average reading. Record the
reading in the table.
Ulang langkah 5 dan 6 sebanyak 3 kali untuk mendapatkan bacaan
purata. Rekod bacaan dalam jadual.
6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

Condition Breathing rate Heartbeat rate


Keadaan (breaths per minute) (beats per minutes)
Kadar Pernafasan Kadar denyutan jantung
(bilangan pernafasan per (bilangan denyutan per
minit) minit)
1 2 3 Average 1 2 3 Average
Purata Purata
Before vigorous
execise (relaxing)
Sebelum senaman
kuat (berehat)
Immediately after
vigorous execise
Sejurus selepas
senaman

8.1 STUDYING THE INTRASPESIFIC COMPETITION IN PLANTS/MENGKAJI


PERSAINGAN INTERSPESIES PADA TUMBUHAN

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT :
What is the effect of distance between maize seedlings on the average height of
the maize seedlings?
Apakah kesan jarak di antara anak benih jagung ke atas ketinggian purata anak
benih jagung?

2. HYPOTHESIS :
As the distance between maize seedlings increases, the average height of the
maize seedlings increases.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

Semakin bertambah jarak di antara anak benih jagung, semakin bertambah


ketinggian purata anak benih jagung.

3. VARIABLES :

Manipulated: : Distance between maize seedlings


Dimanipulasi: Jarak di antara anak benih jagung

Responding: : Average height of the maize seedlings


Bergerak balas: Ketinggian purata anak benih jagung

Fixed: : Amount of water / Light intensity


Dimalarkan: Kuantiti air / Keamatan cahaya

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS :


Apparatus : A ruler, a spade, string.
Alat radas Pembaris, alat penggali, tali.

Materials : Two seedling trays (2m × 1m each) with


Bahan garden soil, a packet of maize seeds and
distilled water.
Dua dulang semaian (2m × 1m setiap
satu) dengan tanah kebun, sebungkus biji
benih jagung dan air suling.

5. PROCEDURE :
K1 : Preparation of materials & Apparatus
K2 : Operating the CV
K3 : Operating the RV
K4 : Operating the MV
K5 : Step to increase reliability of result accurately / Precaution

K1,
K2

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

Tray A Tray B
Dulang A Dulang B

1. Fill two seedling trays, A and B of the same size with same amount of garden K1,
soil. K4
Isi dua dulang semaian, A dan B yang sama saiz dengan kuantiti tanah
kebun yang sama. K1
2. Plant the maize seeds at 5cm intervals in seedling tray A and 10cm intervals in
seedling tray B.
Tanam biji benih jagung pada jarak 5cm dalam dulang semaian A dan jarak
10cm dalam dulang semaian B. K1
3. Water the seeds carefully with distilled water every day.
Siram biji benih dengan cermat dengan air suling setiap
hari.
4. After 30 days, remove 10 maize seedlings randomly from K3
tray A. Clean the roots of the seedlings under running
water.
Selepas 30 hari, keluarkan 10 anak benih jagung secara
rawak dari dulang A. Bersihkan akar anak benih di bawah K5
air yang mengalir.
5. By using string and ruler, measure the height of each
seedlings. K4
Dengan menggunakan tali dan pembaris, ukur ketinggian
bagi setiap anak benih itu.
6. Calculate the average height of 10of the seedlings. K1
Kira ketinggian purata bagi 10 anak benih itu.
7. Repeat steps 4 until 6 for seedlings from tray B.
Ulang langkah 4 hingga 6 untuk anak benih dalam dulang
B.
8. Record all data in a table.
Rekod semua data dalam jadual.

6 PRESENTATION OF DATA :

Tray Distance between maize Average height of the


Dulang seedling (cm ) maize seedlings (cm)
Jarak di antara anak Ketinggian purata anak
benih jagung ( cm ) benih jagung (cm)
A 5
B 10

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

8.1 STUDYING THE INTERSPESIFIC COMPETITION IN PLANTS/MENGKAJI


PERSAINGAN INTERSPESIES PADA TUMBUHAN

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:
What are the effects of interspesific competition on the growth of plants?
Apakah kesan persaingan interpesies terhadap pertumbuhan pokok ?

2. HYPOTHESIS:
When the interspesific competition among plants increase, the effect of the
growth of plant decrease.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

Persaingan interspesies akan mempengaruhi pertumbuhan pokok jagung dan


pokok padi

3. VARIABLES:
Manipulated variables: Type of seedlings
Jenis anak benih

Responding variables: Dry mass of seedlings


Jisim kering anak benih

Constant variables: Amount and type of soil, amount of water, amount of light,
distance between seedlings and number of seedlings
Kuantiti dan jenis tanah kebun, kuantiti air yang disiram,
keamatan cahaya matahari, jarak antara biji benih dan
bilangan biji benih

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:


Apparatus: Spade, oven,metre ruler, electronic balance, paint, brush and
seedling trays.
Penyodok, ketuhar, pembaris meter, penimbang,cat,berus dan kotak
semaian.
Materials: Maize seeds, Paddy seeds, garden soil dan air
Biji benih jagung , biji benih padi, tanah kebun dan air.
5. PROCEDURE
K1 : Preparation Of materials & Apparatus
K2: Operating The CV
K3: Operating The RV
K4: Operating The MV
K5:Steps To Increase Reliability Of Result Accurately/Precaution
1. Three seedling trays with same size are prepared. K1
Tiga buah kotak semaian yang sama saiz disediakan

2. Seedling trays are labelled A and B by using paint. K1


Kotak semaian dilabel dengan A dan B dengan menggunakan cat.

3. The trays are filled with equal amount of garden soil. K1/K2
Kotak semaian diisi dengan tanah kebun yang sama banyak.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

4. The seeds are planted at a distance of 5 cm from each other as shown in K1/K2
the diagram below.
Biji benih ditanam pada jarak 5 cm antara setiap biji benih seperti
rajah di bawah.

Tray A Tray B
Paddy seedling
Maize seedling

5. Tray A are filled with maize seedling while tray B with paddy seedlings. K1/K4
Kotak A diisi dengan biji benih jagung manakala kotak B diisi dengan
biji benih padi dan biji benih padi.

6. The trays are place in under the sun. K5


Letakkan kotak semaian pada tempat yang mendapat sumber matahari.

7. Equal amount of water is given to each tray everyday. K2


Air suling yang sama banyak disiram pada setiap kotak semaian
setiap hari.

8. After 30 days, 10 seedling are picked randomly from tray A. K1/K2


Selepas 30 hari, 10 pokok jagung dicabut berhati-hati secara rawak
dari kotak A.

9. The roots of the seedlings are washed before drying them in an oven at K1
temperature 1000C.
Akar pokok dibasuh sebelum dipanaskan dalan ketuhar pada suhu
1000C.

10. Steps 8-9 are repeated for 10 maize seedlings and 10 paddy seedlings K4
from tray B.
Langkah 8-9 diulang bagi 10 pokok jagung dan 10 pokok padi dari
kotak semaian B.

11. Dry mass of maize seedlings and paddy seedligs from tray A and tray B K3
are measured and recorded by using electronic balance in the table.
Jisim kering bagi anak pokok jagung dan padi dalam kotak semaian A
dan B dicatatkan dan direkodkan dengan menggunakan penimbang
elektronik di dalam jadual.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA

Seedling tray/types of plants Dry mass of (g)


Tapak semain/jenis anak Berat kering (g)
benih

A –paddy plant
Kotak A –pokok jagung
B- paddy plant and maize
plant
Kotak B- pokok jagung dan
pokok padi

8.2 CAPTURE, MARK, RELEASE AND RECAPTURE METHOD/KAEDAH TANGKAP


TANDA DAN TANGKAP SEMULA

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT

What is the effect of light intensity on the population size of garden snail in the
school field?
Apakah kesan keamatan cahaya keatas saiz populasi siput babi di padang
sekolah ?
2. HYPOTHESIS

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

The higher the light intensity the smaller population size of garden snail.
Semakin tinggi keamatan cahaya semakin kecil saiz populasi siput babi.
3. VARIABLES

Manipulated variable
Light intensity
Keamatan cahaya
Responding variable
Population size of garden snail
Saiz populasi siput babi
Constant variable
Type /Spesies of snail
Jenis / Spesies siput
4. APPARATUS AND MATERIAL

Paintbrush, Indian ink, paper, pail, string.


Berus cat, dakwat india, kertas, baldi, tali.
5. PROCEDURE

K1 : Preparation Of materials & Apparatus


K2: Operating The CV
K3: Operating The RV
K4: Operating The MV
K5:Steps To Increase Reliability Of Result Accurately/Precaution

1. Chose one area in the field which more expose to the sunlight.
Pilih suatu kawasan di padang yang lebih terdedah kepada cahaya
matahari.

2. Capture as many garden snail within the location.


Tangkap sebanyak yang boleh siput babai dalam kawasan itu.

3. Count the garden snail that have captured and note the number of
garden snail in the first capture as a. Mark their shells with a small dot
of Indian ink.

Kira siput babi yang telah ditangkap dan catatkan bilangan dalam
tangkapan pertama sebagai a.Tanda satu titik kecil dakwat Indian pada
cengkerangnya.

4. Release them in the same place where they found them.


Lepaskan mereka pada tempat di mana mereka dijumpai..

5. Go back to the same place after three days. Capture once again as many
garden snail.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

Pergi ke tempat yang sama selepas tiga hari. Tangkap sekali lagi
sebanyak yang boleh siput babi.

6. Count the toatal number of garden snail in the second capture and note
the number as b.
Kira jumlah siput babi yang telah ditangkap dalam tankapan kedua dan
catat bilangannya sebagai b.

7. Count the number of garden snail which had been marked and note as
c.
Kira bilangan yang bertanda dan catatkan sebagai c.

8. Count the population saiz of garden snail by using following formula.

Saiz population : a x b
c

Kira populasi siput babi dengan menggunakan rumus di bawah :

Size populasi : a x b
c
9. Repeat the experiment by chosing the area which is less expore to
sunlight.
Ulangi eksperiment dengan memilih kawasan yang kurang terdedah
kepada cahaya.

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA

Light Number of Number of Number of Saiz


intensity garden garden snail garden snail population
Keamatan snail in the in the which had a x b
cahaya first second marked in the c
capture capture second capture
Bilangan Bilangan Bilangan siput Size
siput babi siput babi babi yang populasi

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

dalam dalam bertanda dalam a x b


tangkapan tangkapan tangkapan c
petama kedua kedua
High light
intensity
Keamatan
cahaya tinggi
Low light
intensity
Keamatan
cahaya
rendah

8.3 QUADRAT SAMPLING TECHNIQUE/TEKNIK PERSAMPELAN KUADRAT

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

How light intensity affects pattern distribution of Pleurococcus sp.?


Bagaimana keamatan cahaya mempengaruhi taburan Pleurococcus sp.?

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

2. HYPOTHESIS:

The higher the light intensity, the higher number of distribution of Pleurococcus
sp.
Semakin tinggi keamatan cahaya, semakin tinggi jumlah taburan Pleurococcus
sp.

3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable: The amount of sunlight received by Pleurococcus sp.


Jumlah cahaya yang diterima oleh Pleurococcus sp.

Responding variable: The amount of Pleurococcus sp. found on bark


Jumlah taburan Pleurococcus sp. pada batang pokok

Constant variable: Location of tree, species of tree, position of Pleurococcus sp.


on tree
Lokasi pokok, spesies pokok dan kedudukan Pleurococcus
sp. pada pokok

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:

Apparatus : Compass / marker on the ground showing direction of N, S, E and


W, a quadrat 10 cm x 10 cm, pen and notebook
Kompas/penunjuk dengan arah U, S, T dan B, kuadrat bersaiz
10cm x 10 cm, pen dan buku nota
5. PROCEDURE :

K1 : Preparation Of Materials & Apparatus


K2 : Operating The CV
K3 : Operating The RV
K4 : Operating The MV
K5 : Steps To Increase Reliability Of Result Accurately/Precaution

1. Choose a tree with Pleurococcus on its trunk. K1,


Pilih sebatang pokok dengan Pleurococcus pada batangnya. K2
2. By using a compass, determine the northern part of the tree trunk. K1
Dengan menggunakan kompas, tentukan arah utara pokok berkenaan.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

3. By using the quadrat, count the Pleurococcus on the northern zone of the K3
tree trunk. Observe the surrounding light intensity on that particular part.
Dengan menggunakan kuadrat, kira jumlah taburan Pleurococcus pada
bahagian batang pokok yang menghadap utara. Perhatikan jumlah cahaya
yang diperoleh oleh bahagian ini.

4. Repeat steps 2-3 for southern, western and eastern part of the tree trunk. K4
Ulang langkah 2-3 untuk bahagian pokok yang menghadap selatan, timur
dan barat.

5. Record the data in a table. K1


Rekodkan data di dalam jadual.
11. PRESENTATION OF DATA :

Area on tree trunk Amount of Percentage of coverage


Bahagian pada surrounding light (%)
batang pokok Jumlah cahaya Peratus litupan sepsis
matahari (%)
Northern / Utara

Southern / Selatan

Western / Barat

Eastern / Timur

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

8.4 THE EFFECT OF CHANGE OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE POPULATION


GROWTH RATE OF AN ORGANISM/KESAN PERUBAHAN KEAMATAN CAHAYA
KE ATAS KADAR POPULASI PERTUMBUHAN ORGANISMA.

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1. PROBLEM STATEMENT :

What is the effect of light intensity on the population growth rate of Lemna sp?
Apakah kesan keamatan cahaya BIOLOGY : FORM
ke atas kadar 4 populasi Lemna. sp?
tumbesaran

2. HYPOTHESIS :

The higher the light intensity, the higher the population growth rate of Lemna
sp.
Semakin tinggi keamatan cahaya, semakin tinggi kadar tumbesaran populasi
Lemna. Sp

3. VARIABLES :

Manipulated variable : Light intensity//Power Of bulb // Distance of Lemna .sp


from the light source
Keamatan cahaya// Kuasa mentol // Jarak Lemna .sp
dari punca cahaya.

Responding variable : Growth rate of Lemna sp // Number of Lemna sp //


Kadar tumbesaran populasi Lemna. sp // Bilangan
Lemna. sp

Constant variable : Type of plant///The volume of Knop Solution // Duration of


growth //Distance Lemna sp. from lamp
Jenis tumbuhan// Isipadu larutan Knops // tempoh masa
tumbesaran//Jarak Lemna sp dr lampu

4. APPARATUS &MATERIALS :

Apparatus : Petri dish//beaker,Lamp//Light Bulb 10 W, 40 W and 80 W, Ruler,


Measuring Cylinder
Petri dish//Bikar, Lampu//Mentol 10W, 40W dan 80W, Pembaris,
Silinder Penyukat

Materials : Lemna sp. shoot, Knop Solution, Distilled water


Lemna sp. , Larutan Knops, Air Suling

5. PROCEDURE :
K1 : Preparation Of Materials & Apparatus
K2 : Operating The CV
K3 : Operating The RV
K4 : Operating The MV
K5 : Steps To Increase Reliability Of Result Accurately/Precaution

1. Prepare three petri dish and label it as A, B and C. K1


Sediakan 3 piring petri dan label sebagai A, B dan C.

2. Fill each petri dish with 20 ml of Knopp Solution. K1 &


Isikan setiap piring petri dengan 20 ml Larutan Knopp. K2

3. Put 5 Lemna sp on to each of the petri dish. K1 &


Letakkan 5 Lemna sp di atas setiap piring petri. K2
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4. Place each petri dish at 30 cm distance from the lamps with light bulb K1,
10W, 40W and 80W K2 &
Letakkan setiap piring petri dalam jarak 30 cm daripada lampu/mentol K4
BIOLOGY : FORM 4

8.5 THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON THE ACTIVITY OF YEAST


(MICROORGANISMS)/KESAN SUHU KE ATAS AKTIVITI YIS (MIKROORGANISMA)

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

How does temperature affect yeast activity?


Bagaimana suhu mempengaruhi keaktifan yis?
2. HYPOTHESIS:

The activity of yeast increases with the increase in temperature until it reaches
the optimum temperature 35oC and after that the activity will decrease above
optimum temperature.
Keaktifan yis meningkat apabila suhu meningkat sehingga mencapai suhu

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

optimum iaitu 35oC dan selepas suhu optimum keaktifan yis menurun.

3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable: Temperature/Suhu


Responding variable: Height of coloured liquid in the manometer/Ketinggian
cecair berwarna dalam manometer.
Constant variable: Volume of yeast suspension// pH// light intensity// and time
taken.
Isipadu ampaian yis// pH// keamatan cahaya// and tempoh
experiment.

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS :

Apparatus: Boiling tubes, glass tubes, clips, rubber stoppers, rubber tubings,
retort stands, manometer tubes, strings, measuring cylinders,
stopwatches, thermometers and a ruler.
Tabung didih, salur kaca, klip, penyumbat tabung didih, kaki retort,
salur manometer, benang, silinder penyukat, jam randik,
termomemter, dan pembaris.

Materials: Yeast suspension (4 g of yeast in 100 cm3 of glucose solution) and


coloured liquid.
Ampaian yis( 4 g yis dalam 100 cm3 larutan glukosa) dan larutan
berwarna.

5. PROCEDURE:

K1:Preparing of Materials & Apparatus


K2: Operating The CV
K3: Operating The RV
K4: Operating The MV
K5: Steps To Increase Reliability Of Result Accurately/ Precaution
1.Five boiling tubes are labelled A, B, C, D, and E. K1
Lima tabung didih dilabelkan A, B, C, D, dan E.

2. The boiling tubes are filled with 15 cm3 of yeast suspension. K1,K2
Tabung didih diisikan dengan 15 cm3 ampaian yis

3. Boiling tube A is placed in a beaker of ice. The temperature is recorded after K1


5 minutes.
Tabung didih A diletakkan di dalam bikar yand diisi dengan ais. Suhu
dicatatkan selepas 5 minit.
4. The stopwatch is activated and the height of the coloured liquid in the K1,K3
manometer is recorded after 10 minutes.
Jam randik dimulakan dan ketinggian cecair berwarna dalam direkodkan

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

selepas 10 minit.
5. The procedure 4 to 5 is repeated by placing boiling tubes B, C, D and E into K4
water baths set at temperatures,
Langkah 4 dan 5 diulang dengan meletakkan tabung didih B, C, D dan E ke
dalam rendaman air yang bersuhu,
(i) 20°C,
(ii) 30°C,
(iii) 40 °C and/dan
(iv) 50°C respectively/masing-masing.

6. The results obtained are recorded in a table. K1


Keputusan direkodkan di dalam jadual.

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

Boiling Temperature (oC)/ Height of coloured liquid in the manometer


tube/tabung Suhu (oC) (cm)/
didih Ketinggian cecair berwarna dalam
manometer (cm)
A 0
B 20
C 30
D 40
E 50

9.1 SOLID POLLUTANTS IN THE AIR OF DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT / BAHAN


PENCEMAR PEPEJAL DI UDARA DALAM PERSEKITARAN YANG BERBEZA

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:
What is the effect between the number of solid pollutants in the air from
different location?
Apakah kesan bilangan bahan pencemar pepejal dalam udara dari lokasi yang
berbeza?

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

2. HYPOTHESIS:
The number of solid pollutants in the air at location P is higher than location Q,
R and S.
Lokasi P mempunyai bilangan bahan pencemar pepejal dalam udara yang
tinggi berbanding lokasi Q, R dan S.

3. VARIABLE:
Manipulated variable : Difference location
Lokasi yang berbeza

Responding variable : Number of solid pollutants


Bilangan bahan pencemar pepejal

Constant variable : Surface Area of the cellophane tape exposed


Luas permukaan pita pelekat yang terdedah

APPARATUS & MATERIALS:


Glass slide, cellophane tape, microscope, petri dish, ruler, knife, marker pen
Sisip kaca, pita pelekat, mikroskop, piring petri, pembaris, pisau, pen penanda

PROCEDURE:

Diagram 1//Rajah 1

1. 1. Four glass slides are cleaned and dried are label with P, Q R and S.
Empat sisip kaca dibersih dan dikeringkan di label dengan P, Q, R dan S
menggunakan pen penanda.
K1

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

2. 2. A strip of cellophane tape with surface area of the sticky surface 3cm x 2cm facing K1
upwards is placed on each
3. glass slide as shown in Diagram 1 K2
Pita pelekat yang mempunyai luas permukaan 3cmx2cm diletakkan pada setiap
sisip kaca dengan permukaan
yang melekat di sebelah atas seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 1.

3 Make sure your hands are clean and do not touch the sticky surface of the tape. K5
Tangan dipastikan dalam keadaan bersih dan tidak bersentuhan dengan permukaan
pita pelekat yang melekit.

4. 4. The glass slides are placed in different location which is refer the table below: K1
Sisip kaca diletakkan di lokasi yang berbeza dengan merujuk jadual dibawah:
K4

Glass slides Location


Sisip kaca Lokasi

P Bus Station/ Stesen Bus

Q Railway Station/ Stesen Keretapi

R Market /Pasar

S Recreation Park/ Taman Rekreasi

5. 5. After one week, the glass slides are collected and examined under the K2
microscope using a low power lens.
Selepas satu minggu, sisip kaca dikumpulkan dan diperiksa satu demi satu di bawah mikroskop cahaya dengan K1
kanta kuasa rendah.
6. 6. Count the number of solid pollutant on glass slide P, Q, R and S and record in K3
the table result.
7. Kira dan rekod bilangan bahan pencemar pepejal di atas sisip kaca P, Q, R dan
S dan rekod di dalam jadual
8. keputusan.
6. 7. Repeat the experiment to get average data and record all the data in the table K5
result
7. Ulang eksperimen untuk mendapat data purata dan rekod semua data di dalam
jadual keputusan.

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

PRESENTATION OF DATA:

Number of solid pollutants


Glass slides Location in air
Sisip kaca Lokasi Bilangan bahan pencemar
pepejal dalam udara

P Bus Station/ Stesen Bus

Railway Station/ Stesen


Q
Keretapi

R Market /Pasar

Recreation Park/ Taman


S
Rekreasi

9.2 LEVEL OF WATER POLLUTION IN DIFFERENT SOURCES OF WATER/TAHAP


PENCEMARAN AIR DALAM SUMBER AIR YANG BERBEZA

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:
What is the level of water pollution in different sources of water?
Apakah tahap pencemaran air daripada pelbagai sumber air?

2. HYPOTHESIS:
The more polluted the water sample which is drain water, the faster the time
taken for the methylene blue solution to decolourise.
Air yang semakin tercemar terutamanya air longkang mengambil masa yang
paling cepat untuk melunturkan warna larutan metilena biru.

3. VARIABLES:

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

Manipulated variable: Type of water


Jenis air
Responding variable: Time taken for methylene blue solution to turn colourless
Masa yang diambil untuk melunturkan warna larutan
metilena biru
Constant variable : Volume of methylene blue solution, volume of water
sample
Isipadu larutan metilena biru, isipadu sampel air.

4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:


Apparatus: Five reagent bottles, syringe and clock
Lima botol reagen, picagari dan jam
Materials: 0.1% methylene blue solution and water samples
0.1% larutan metilena biru dan sampel air

5. PROCEDURE:

1. Collect four samples of water from four different sources.


Kumpul empat sampel air dari empat sumber yang berlainan.

2. Label five reagent bottles as P, Q, R, S and T.


Label lima botol reagen sebagai P, Q, R, S and T.

3. Fill each reagent bottle with 200ml of the collected water samples
respectively.
Isi setiap botol reagen dengan 200ml sampel air yang dikumpulkan
masing-masing.

P: Drain water
Air longkang
Q: River water
Air sungai
R: Lake water
Air tasik
S: Pipe water
Air pili
T: Distilled water
Air suling
4. Using a syringe, slowly add 1ml of 0.1% methylene blue solution to the
water sample.
Dengan menggunakan picagari, tambahkan 1ml larutan metilena biru

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BIOLOGY : FORM 4

0.1% ke dalam sampel air dengan perlahan-lahan.

5. Close the reagent bottle immediately.


Tutup botol dengan segera.
 Do not shake the bottle.
 Jangan goncang botol reagen.

6. Place all the bottles in a dark area.


Letakkan semua botol dalam kawasan gelap.

7. Every one hour, check for the change in the colour for every bottle.
Periksa perubahan warna untuk setiap botol pada selang masa 1 jam
.
8. Record the time taken for the methylene blue solution to turn colourless.
Rekod masa yang dimbil untuk warna larutan metilena biru menjadi
luntur.

6. RESULTS:

Reagent Water sample Time taken for methylene blue


bottle solution to turn colourless (hours)
P Drain water
Q River water
R Lake water
S Pipe water
T Distilled water

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