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1 Chapter Objectives

X Understand construction and operation of


BJT.
X Sketch input and output characteristics
of common-base, common-emitter and

BJT common-collector configurations.


X Discuss the need for biasing in BJT circuits
and draw DC load line and quiescent point.
X Analyze fixed bias, collector to base

Biasing bias and voltage-divider bias circuits to


determine Q-point and comment on
stability.
X Compare the different biasing circuits.
X Discuss bias compensation method.

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Transistor was invented by Walter H. Brattain and John Bardeen at Bell Laboratories in 1947.
Transistor replaced vacuum tubes due to smaller size, light weight, less power consumption,
lower operating voltages, etc. Transistors can perform the function of current amplification
and voltage amplification as well as power amplification. The amplification in transistor is ob-
tained by passing the weak signal from low-resistance region to high-resistance region. Hence,
the device is named ‘transistor’ (transfer resistor).

1.2 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS


A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a three-terminal semiconductor device containing two pn
junctions. When a p-type layer is placed between two n-type layers, an npn transistor is formed.
Similarly, when an n-type layer is placed between two p-type layers, a pnp transistor is formed.
In each type of transistor, the middle region is called base of the transistor and other two
regions are called emitter and collector. The physical size of the collector is greater than both
emitter and base. The emitter is heavily doped while the base is lightly doped. The doping of
the collector is in between that of emitter and base. The pn junction joining the base region and
the emitter region is called the emitter-base junction. The pn junction joining the base region
and the collector region is called collector-base junction. The term ‘bipolar’ refers to the use
of both holes and electrons as charge carriers in the transistor structure. Figure 1.1 shows the
transistor types and its symbols.

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1.2   Electronic Circuits I

E n p n C B

B
E
npn Transistor and Its Symbol

E p n p C B

B
E
pnp Transistor and Its Symbol
Fig. 1.1 Transistor Types and Symbols

In the symbols shown in Fig. 1.1, the arrowhead in the emitter indicates the direction of conven-
tional current which is opposite to the flow of electrons. In the npn transistor, conventional current
flows out of emitter, while in the pnp transistor, the conventional current flows into the emitter.

1.3 BJT OPERATION
For proper working of BJT, the emitter-base junction is forward biased by the voltage VEE and
collector-base junction is reverse biased by the voltage VCC. The forward bias from the base to
the emitter narrows the emitter-base depletion region and the reverse bias from the base to the
collector widens the collector-base depletion region. Figure 1.2 shows the BJT operation with
direction of conventional currents.

n p n

VEE VCC

Fig. 1.2 BJT Operation

When the emitter-base junction is forward biased, the large number of majority carriers, i.e.
electrons from the n-type emitter, will get pushed towards the base junction. If the forward-
biased voltage is more than the cut-in voltage (0.7 V for the silicon transistor and 0.3 V for the
germanium transistor), electrons will be diffused into the base junction. Since the base region
is very thin and lightly doped, a very few of the electrons injected into the base recombine

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1.4 Common-base Configuration    1.3

with holes. This constitutes the base current IB. These diffused electrons are minority carriers
in the base region. The minority carriers can easily cross the reverse-biased junction. Hence,
most of the electrons diffuse to the reverse-biased collector-base junction and are swept across
that junction under the influence of the electric field established by VCC. This constitutes the
collector current IC. Applying Kirchhoff’s current law to the transistor, IE = IB + IC which is
graphically depicted in Fig. 1.3.

IE IC

n p IB n
VEE VCC

Fig. 1.3 Graphical Depiction of the Relationships Among the Emi er, Base and Collector Currents

BJT can be operated in three regions:


(i) Cut-off: In this region, both emitter-base and collector-base junctions are reverse
biased.
(ii) Active: In this region, the emitter-base junction is forward biased and the collector-
base junction is reverse biased.
(iii) Saturation: In this region, both emitter-base and collector-base junctions are forward
biased.

1.4 COMMON-BASE CONFIGURATION
Most of the circuits employing BJT are two-port networks. Since a two-port network has four
terminals and BJT has three terminals, one of the terminals of BJT is made common to input
and output circuits.
In common-base configuration, input is applied between the emitter and the base and output
is taken from the collector and the base. Thus, the base is common to both input and output
circuits as shown in Fig. 1.4.
E C
Input Output

B B

Fig. 1.4 Common-base Configuration

Figure 1.5 shows the experimental set-up to draw input and output characteristics in
common-base configuration.

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1.4   Electronic Circuits I

IE IC

mA mA

VEE V VBE IB V VCB VCC

Fig. 1.5 Experimental Set-up to Draw Input and Output Characteristics

1.4.1 Input Characteristics
The input characteristics show the relation between input current IE and input voltage VBE for
different values of output voltage VCB. For a given VCB, the input characteristic resembles the
characteristic of forward-biased diode. Input current IE increases as input voltage VBE increases
for a fixed value of VCB. For a given value of VBE, IE increases with increase in VCB due to early
effect.
As VCB increases, the width of the depletion layer in the base increases. Hence, the width
of the base available for conduction decreases. The reduction in the width of the base due to
increase in reverse bias is known as Early effect. Due to Early effect, the chance of recombi-
nation of electrons with the holes in the base decreases. The base current decreases but more
electrons can travel from emitter to collector terminals. Hence, collector current increases with
increase in emitter current IE.
As reverse-biased voltage VCB further increases, at one stage the depletion region com-
pletely occupies the base at which the collector-base junction breaks down. This phenom-
enon is known as punch-through. Figure 1.6 shows the input characteristics of common-base
configuration.
IE (mA)

VCB = 10 V
5 VCB = 20 V VCB = 0 V
4

VBE (V)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Fig. 1.6 Input Characteristics

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1.4 Common-base Configuration    1.5

1.4.2 Output Characteristics
The output characteristics show the relation between output current IC and output voltage VCB
for different values of input current IE. There are three different regions in output characteristics
as shown in Fig. 1.7.
(i) Cut-off region: In this region, both the junctions are reverse biased. When the
emitter-base junction is reverse biased, the current due to majority carrier, i.e. IE, is
zero. Since the collector-base junction is reverse biased, current due to minority car-
riers flows from the collector to the base which is represented as ICBO. The current ICBO
is so small (microamperes) in magnitude compared to the vertical scale of IC that it
appears on the same horizontal line as IC = 0.
(ii) Active region: In this region, the emitter-base junction is forward biased and the col-
lector-base junction is reverse biased. Once VCB reaches a value large enough to ensure
a large portion of electrons enter the collector, collector current IC remains constant as
shown by horizontal lines. As IE increases, IC increases.
(iii) Saturation region: In this region, both the junctions are forward biased. When VCB
is negative, the collector-base junction is actually forward biased. Thus, graphs are
drawn on the negative side of VCB. In this region, there is large change in collector cur-
rent with small increase in voltage VCB.
IC (mA)
Saturation
region
Active region
IE = 5 mA
5
IE = 4 mA
4
IE = 3 mA
3
IE = 2 mA
2
IE = 1 mA
1
IE = 0 mA
VCB (V)
0 2 4 6 8
Cut-off region

Fig. 1.7 Output Characteristics


Current amplification factor (α): It is defined as the ratio of change in collector current to
the change in emitter current at constant collector-base voltage VCB.
Δ IC
αAC =
Δ IE VCB = constant

If only DC values are considered,


IC
αDC =
IE

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1.6   Electronic Circuits I

1.5 COMMON-EMITTER CONFIGURATION
In common-emitter configuration, input is applied between the base and the emitter and output
is taken from the collector and the emitter. Thus, the emitter is common to input and output
circuits as shown in Fig. 1.8.

Input Output
E E

Fig. 1.8 Common-emi er Configuration

Figure 1.9 shows the experimental set-up to draw input and output characteristics in common-
emitter configuration.

IC

IB mA

μA

V VCE VCC
VBB V VBE

IE

Fig. 1.9 Experimental Set-up to Draw Input and Output Characteristics

1.5.1 Input Characteristics
The input characteristics show the relation between input current IB and input voltage VBE for
different values of output voltage VCE. It resembles the characteristics of the forward-biased
diode. Input current IB increases as input voltage VBE increases for fixed value of VCE.
Figure 1.10 shows the input characteristics of common-emitter configuration.
As reverse-biased voltage VCE increases, the depletion region in the collector base increases
which decreases the width of the base available for conduction. Hence, IB decreases due to
early effect and the graph shifts towards the X-axis.

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1.5 Common-emi er Configuration    1.7

IB (μA)

VCE = 10 V
50
VCE = 0 V VCE = 20 V
40

30

20

10

VBE (V)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Fig. 1.10 Input Characteristics

1.5.2 Output Characteristics
The output characteristics show the relation between output current IC and output voltage VCE
for different values of input current IB. The output characteristic has three different regions as
shown in Fig. 1.11.

IC (mA)

Saturation region
Active region
IB = 50 μA
5
IB = 40 μA
4
IB = 30 μA
3
IB = 20 μA
2
IB = 10 μA
1
IB = 0 μA
VCE (V)
0 2 4 6 8
Cut-off region

Fig. 1.11 Output Characteristics

(i) Cut-off region: In this region, both the junctions are reverse biased. When the emit-
ter-base junction is reverse biased, the current due to majority carrier, i.e. IB, is zero.
Since the collector-base junction is reverse biased, the current due to minority carriers
flows from the collector to the emitter which is represented as ICEO.
(ii) Active region: In this region, the emitter-base junction is forward biased and the col-
lector-base junction is reverse biased. As IB is maintained constant, current IC increases
as reverse-biased voltage VCE increases.

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1.8   Electronic Circuits I

(iii) Saturation region: In this region, both the junctions are forward biased. When VCE is
reduced to a small value such as 0.2 V, the collector-base junction is actually forward
biased (VCB = VCE – VBE = 0.2 – 0.7 = – 0.5 V). In this region, there is large change in
collector current IC with small change in VCE.
Current amplification factor (β ): It is defined as the change in collector current to the
change in base current at constant collector-emitter voltage VCE.
Δ IC
βAC =
Δ IB VCE = constant

If only DC values are considered,


IC
βDC =
IB
Relation between α and β
IE = IB + IC
Also,
IC
βDC =
IB
IC
=
I E − IC
IC
IE
=
I
1− C
IE
α DC ⎛ IC ⎞
= ⎜ α DC = I ⎟
1 − α DC ⎝ E ⎠

If subscript DC is ignored,
α
β=
1− α
Collector current IC
Applying Kirchhoff’s current law to the transistor,
IE = IB + IC (1.1)
The collector current IC has two components:
(i) the current due to majority carriers, i.e. the fraction of emitter current which reaches
the collector
(ii) the current due to minority carriers, i.e. leakage current which flows due to minority carriers
IC = IC majority + IC minority
= αIE + ICO (1.2)

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1.6 Common-collector Configuration    1.9

For general purpose transistors, IC is measured in milliamperes and ICO is measured in


microamperes or nanoamperes. ICO, like a reverse-biased diode, is temperature dependent and
can be neglected in comparison with IC.
Substituting IE in Eq. (1.2),
IC = α(IB + IC) + ICO
= α IB + α IC + ICO
IC(1 – α) = α IB + ICO
α 1
IC = I + I
1 − α B 1 − α CO
= β IB + (β + 1)ICO

1.6 COMMON-COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION
In common-collector configuration, input is applied between the base and the collector and
output is taken from the emitter and the collector. Thus, the collector is common to input and
output circuits as shown in Fig. 1.12.
E

B
Input Output
C C

Fig. 1.12 Common-collector Configuration


Figure 1.13 shows the experimental set-up to draw input and output characteristics in
common-collector configuration.
IE

IB mA

μA

V VCE VEE
VBB V VBC

IC

Fig. 1.13 Experimental Set-up to Draw Input and Output Characteristics

1.6.1 Input Characteristics
The input characteristics show the relation between input current IB and input voltage VBC for different
values of output voltage VCE. The input voltage VBC is largely determined by the output voltage VCE.

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1.10   Electronic Circuits I

Input current IB decreases to 0 as input voltage VCB increases slightly for fixed value of VCE.
For transistor,
VCE = VBE + VBC
VBE = VCE – VBC
When VBC is increased keeping VCE constant, VBE decreases which decreases IB. Therefore, if
the value of VBC is allowed to increase to a point where it is near to the value of VCE, the value
of VBE approaches 0, and no base current will flow. Figure 1.14 shows the input characteristics
of common-collector configuration.
IB (μA)

VCE = 5 V VCE = 10 V VCE = 15 V


100

80

60

40

20

VBC (V)
0 5 10 15

Fig. 1.14 Input Characteristics

1.6.2 Output Characteristics
The output characteristics show the relation between output current IE and output voltage VCE
for different values of input current IB. Since IC is approximately equal to IE, the common-
collector output characteristics are identical to those of common-emitter output characteristics.
Figure 1.15 shows the output characteristics of common-collector configuration.
IE (mA)
Saturation region
Active region
IB = 50 μA
5
IB = 40 μA
4
IB = 30 μA
3
IB = 20 μA
2
IB = 10 μA
1
IB = 0 μA
VCE (V)
0 2 4 6 8
Cut-off region

Fig. 1.15 Output Characteristics

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1.7 Load-line Analysis    1.11

Current amplification factor (γ ): It is defined as the ratio of change in emitter current to


the change in base current at constant collector-emitter voltage VCE.

Δ IE
γAC =
Δ IB VCE = constant

If only DC values are considered,

IE
γDC =
IB

1.7 LOAD-LINE ANALYSIS
The basic function of a transistor is to do amplification. The weak signal is given to the tran-
sistor and amplified output is obtained from the collector. The process of raising the strength
of weak signal without any change in its general shape is known as faithful amplification. A
transistor must be properly biased to operate as an amplifier.
Figure 1.16 shows a basic common-emitter amplifier. The capacitor CC is a DC-blocking
1
capacitor and couples AC input signal to the base of the transistor. The capacitor CC is used to
2
couple AC output of the amplifier to load RL.

+VCC

RB RC
CC2
Vo
CC1

RS RL

VS

Fig. 1.16 CE Amplifier

DC analysis
For DC, f = 0,
1
XC = =∞
2π f C

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1.12   Electronic Circuits I

The DC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by open circuits as shown
in Fig. 1.17.
+VCC
IB IC

RB RC

+
VCE
+

VBE −

Fig. 1.17 DC Equivalent Circuit

Load line
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE = 0
1 V
IC = – VCE + CC
RC RC
1 V
This equation represents a DC load line with slope of – and y-intercept of CC .
RC RC
When IC = 0, i.e. the transistor is in the cut-off region,
VCE = VCC
When VCE = 0, i.e. the transistor is in saturation region,
VCC
IC =
RC
⎛ V ⎞
Thus two end points are (VCC, 0) and ⎜ 0, CC ⎟ . A line passing through these points is called
⎝ RC ⎠
DC load line as the slope of this line depends on the DC load RC.

Quiescent point
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE = 0
V − VBE
IB = CC
RB

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1.7 Load-line Analysis    1.13

This equation gives the value of base current. For this value of base current, output
characteristic of the amplifier is plotted which intersects the DC load line at Q-point.
Hence, Q-point indicates quiescent (inactive, still) value of collector-emitter voltage VCE
and collector current IC. Figure 1.18 shows the DC load line and Q-point for common-
emitter amplifier.
IC

VCC
RC

Q
ICQ IBQ

VCE
0 VCEQ VCC

Fig. 1.18 Load Line and Q-point

Need for biasing


DC biasing is used to establish proper values of IC and VCE called the DC operating point or
quiescent point or Q-point. The basic problem involved in the design of transistor circuits
is establishing and maintaining the proper collector-to-emitter voltage and collector current
in the circuit. This condition is known as transistor biasing. The biasing conditions must
be maintained despite variations in temperature, variations in gain and leakage current and
variation in supply voltages. For faithful amplification, the following conditions must be
satisfied:
(i) Proper zero signal collector current IC
(ii) Proper base-emitter voltage VBE
(iii) Proper collector-emitter voltage VCE
The value of IC and VCE is expressed in terms of operating point or quiescent point Q. For
faithful amplification, Q-point must be selected properly. The fulfilment of the above condi-
tions is known as transistor biasing.
While fixing the Q-point it has to be seen that the output of the amplifier is a proper sinusoidal
waveform for sinusoidal input without distortion. If an amplifier is not biased properly, it can
go into saturation or cut-off when an input signal is applied. By fixing the Q-point at different
positions, we can observe the variation in collector current and collector-emitter voltage
corresponding to a given variation of base current.
When the Q-point is located in the middle of the DC load line as shown in Fig. 1.19,
sinusoidal waveform without distortion is obtained at the output.

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1.14   Electronic Circuits I

IBQ
IC

ICQ
Q

VCE
0 VCC

VCEQ

Fig. 1.19 Q-point in the Active Region


When the Q-point is located near the saturation region as shown in Fig. 1.20, the collector
current is clipped at the positive half cycle because the transistor is driven into saturation.

IBQ
IC

ICQ
Q

VCE
0 VCC

VCEQ

Fig. 1.20 Q-point Near Saturation Region

When the Q-point is located near the cut-off region as shown in Fig. 1.21, the collector cur-
rent is clipped at the negative half cycle because the transistor is driven into cut-off.

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1.8 Factors Affecting Stability of Q-point   1.15

IC
IBQ

ICQ
Q
VCE
0 VCC

VCEQ

Fig. 1.21 Q-point Near Cut-off Region


Hence, values of different resistances and voltages must be selected in such a way that the
Q-point should be:
(i) in active region.
(ii) on DC load line.
(iii) selected in middle of the DC load line to avoid clipping of signals.

1.8 FACTORS AFFECTING STABILITY OF Q -POINT


The collector current IC depends on reverse saturation current ICO, base-emitter voltage VBE and
current gain β. These parameters are temperature dependent; i.e. as temperature changes, these
parameters change. Hence, collector current IC changes. Due to this, the Q-point changes.
Hence, the Q-point has to be stabilized against temperature variation.
(i) ICO: The collector current is given by
IC = β IB + (β + 1)ICO
When a pn junction is reverse biased, there is a small amount of current due to flow
of minority carriers across the junction. Since minority carriers are thermally generated,
reverse saturation current ICO is extremely temperature dependent. The reverse satura-
tion current ICO doubles for every 10oC rise in temperature. The flow of collector current
produces heat at the collector junction. This increases the temperature, therefore reverse
saturation current ICO increases. Hence, collector current IC again increases. This increase
in IC increases the temperature of collector junction which increases ICO again. The effect
is cumulative and at one stage IC is so large which damages the transistor. This process is
known as thermal runaway and is shown in Fig. 1.22.

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1.16   Electronic Circuits I

T°C

PD ICO

IC

Fig. 1.22 Thermal Runaway

(ii) VBE: The base-emitter voltage VBE decreases at the rate of 2.5 mV/oC; i.e. the device
starts operating at lower voltages. Hence, base current IB changes. Since IC = β IB,
collector current IC changes. Figure 1.23 shows the variation of VBE with temperature.

IC (mA)

100°C 25°C −69°C

VBE (mV)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Fig. 1.23 Variation of VBE with Temperature

(iii) β: The transistor parameter β is temperature and device dependent. β increases with
the increase in temperature. The value of β is different even for transistors of the same
type. If the transistor is replaced by another transistor even of the same type, the value
of β is different. Hence, collector current IC changes. Figure 1.24 shows the variation
of β with temperature.

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1.8 Factors Affecting Stability of Q-point   1.17

100°C
100

50 25°C

−55°C
IC (mA)
0

Fig. 1.24 Variation in β with Temperature

Table 1.1 shows typical parameters of silicon transistor at different temperatures. From this
table, it is clear that as temperature changes, ICO, VBE and β change. Hence, collector current IC
changes with the change in temperature.
Table 1.1 Typical Parameters of Silicon Transistor
t °C –65 25 175
ICO, μA 1.95 × 10−3 1 33,000
VBE, V 0.78 0.6 0.225
β 25 55 100

There are two methods to stabilize variation in IC with these parameters:


(i) Thermal stabilization: In this method, resistive biasing circuits are used which allow
IB to vary so as to keep IC relatively constant with variations in ICO, VBE and β. There
are three configurations to bias the BJT:
• Fixed bias
• Collector-to-base bias
• Voltage-divider bias
This process of stabilizing Q-point is called thermal stabilization.
(ii) Bias compensation: In this method, temperature-sensitive devices such as diodes,
transistors, thermistors, sensistors etc. are used which provide compensating voltage
and current to stabilize variations in IC with VBE and ICO.

1.8.1 Stability Factors
The rate of change of collector current with respect to collector leakage current ICO at constant
VBE and β is called stability factor.

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1.18   Electronic Circuits I

Δ IC Δ IC − Δ IC
S= = 2 1

Δ I CO VBE and β constant


Δ I CO − Δ I CO
2 1 VBE and β constant

The rate of change of collector current with respect to VBE at constant ICO and β is called
stability factor S ′.
Δ IC Δ IC − Δ IC
S′= = 2 1

ΔVBE I and β constant ΔVBE − ΔVBE


CO 2 1 ICO and β constant

The rate of change of collector current with respect to b at constant ICO and VBE is called
stability factor S ″.

Δ IC ΔI C − ΔI C
S″= = 2 1

Δβ ICO and VBE constant


Δβ 2 − Δβ1
ICO and VBE constant

The larger the value of stability factor, the more sensitive is the circuit to variations in that
parameter.
The total change in collector current over a specified temperature range is obtained by ex-
pressing this change as the sum of individual changes due to three stability factors.
∆IC = S ∆ICO + S ′ ∆VBE + S ″ ∆β

1.9 FIXED-BIAS CIRCUIT
Figure 1.25 shows a fixed-bias circuit. It is the simplest transistor DC bias configuration.
+VCC

RB RC
CC2
Vo
CC1

RS RL

VS

Fig. 1.25 Fixed-bias Circuit

DC analysis
For DC, f = 0,
1
XC = =∞
2π f C

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1.9 Fixed-bias Circuit   1.19

The DC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by open circuits as shown
in Fig. 1.26.
+VCC
IB IC

RB RC

+ VCE

VBE −

Fig. 1.26 DC Equivalent Circuit

Collector current I C
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,

VCC – IB RB – VBE = 0

VCC − VBE
IB =
RB
For the base-emitter circuit, the net voltage is VCC – VBE and the resistance is RB. When VCC
and RB are selected for a circuit, IB is fixed. Hence, the circuit is called fixed-bias circuit.

IC = β IB

⎛ V − VBE ⎞
= β ⎜ CC
⎝ RB ⎟⎠

The base current is controlled by the value of RB, and IC is related to IB by a constant β. But
ΙC is not a function of resistor RC. Change in RC will not affect the value of IB or ΙC in the active
region of the transistor. But change in RC will affect the value of VCE.

Collector-emitter voltage V CE
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE = 0
VCE = VCC – ICRC

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1.20   Electronic Circuits I

Load-line analysis
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE = 0

1 V
IC = – VCE + CC
RC RC
1 V
This equation represents a DC load line with slope of – and y-intercept of CC .
RC RC
When IC = 0, i.e. transistor is in cut-off region,

VCE = VCC
When VCE = 0, i.e. transistor is in saturation region,
VCC
IC =
RC

⎛ V ⎞
Thus, two end points are (VCC, 0) and ⎜ 0, CC ⎟ . By joining these two end points, a DC
⎝ RC ⎠
load line is drawn.
From the base-emitter circuit,
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB
For this value of base current, we can establish the actual Q-point as shown in Fig. 1.27.
IC

VCC
RC

Q
ICQ IBQ

VCE
0 VCEQ VCC

Fig. 1.27 Load Line and Q-point


VCC
From the Fig. 1.27, it is clear that the saturation current for the circuit is IC sat =
. This is
RC
the resulting current when a short circuit is applied between collector-emitter terminals.

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1.9 Fixed-bias Circuit   1.21

Stability factors
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,

VCC – IB RB – VBE = 0

VCC − VBE
IB =
RB

We know that

IC = β IB + (β + 1)ICO

⎛ V − VBE ⎞
= β ⎜ CC + (β + 1)ICO
⎝ RB ⎟⎠

β VCC β VBE
= – + (β + 1)ICO (1.3)
RB RB

From Eq. (1.3), it is clear that collector current IC is function of ICO, VBE and β.

(a) Stability factor S: When ICO changes from ICO1 to ICO2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.
From Eq. (1.3), at t1°C,

β VCC β VBE
I C1 = – + (β + 1)ICO1 (1.4)
RB RB

At t2°C,

β VCC β VBE
I C2 = – + (β + 1)ICO2 (1.5)
RB RB

Subtracting Eq. (1.4) from Eq. (1.5),

IC2 – IC1 = (β + 1)(ICO2 – ICO1)

IC − IC
2 1
=β+1
I CO − I CO
2 1

Δ IC
∴ S= =β+1
Δ I CO

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 21 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.22   Electronic Circuits I

(b) Stability factor S ′: When VBE changes from VBE1 to VBE2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.
From Eq. (1.3), at t1°C,
β VCC β VBE
I C1 = – 1
+ (β + 1)ICO (1.6)
RB RB
At t2°C,

β VCC β VBE
IC2 = – 2
+ (β + 1)ICO (1.7)
RB RB

Subtracting Eq. (1.6) from Eq. (1.7),


β
IC2 – IC1 = – (VBE2 – VBE1)
RB
IC − IC β
2 1
=–
VBE − VBE RB
2 1

Δ IC β
∴ S′ = =–
ΔVBE RB

(c) Stability factor S″: From Eq. (1.3),

β VCC β VBE
IC = – + β ICO [ (β + 1) ≈ β]
RB RB

β (VCC − VBE + I CO RB )
=
RB

When β changes from β1 to β2, IC changes from β1 to β2.


At t1°C,
β1 (VCC − VBE + I CO RB )
IC1 = (1.8)
RB
At t2°C,
β 2 (VCC − VBE + I CO RB )
IC2 = (1.9)
RB
IC β2
2
=
IC β1
1

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 22 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.9 Fixed-bias Circuit   1.23

Subtracting one from both the sides,


IC β2
2
–1= –1
IC β1
1

IC − IC β 2 − β1
2 1
=
IC β1
1

IC − IC IC
2 1
= 1

β 2 − β1 β1

Δ IC IC
∴ S″ = = 1
Δβ β1

Example 1.1: For the circuit shown in Fig. 1.28, find IC, VCE and S.

+10 V

500 kΩ 3 kΩ

β = 100

Fig. 1.28 Example 1.1

Solution:
(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB
10 − 0.7
=
500 × 103

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 23 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.24   Electronic Circuits I

= 18.6 μA
IC = β IB = 100 × 18.6 × 10–6 = 1.86 mA

(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,


VCC – IC RC – VCE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC
= 10 – 1.86 × 10–3 × 3 × 103
= 4.42 V
(iii) S = β + 1 = 100 + 1 = 101

Example 1.2: For the circuit shown in Fig. 1.29, find RB and RC with IC = 2 mA, VCE = 6 V,
VCC = 12 V and β = 100.
+12 V

RB RC

Fig. 1.29 Example 1.2


Solution:
IC 2 × 10−3
(i) IB = = = 20 μA
β 100
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC − VBE
RB =
IB
12 − 0.7
=
20 × 10−6
= 566 kΩ

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 24 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.9 Fixed-bias Circuit   1.25

(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,

VCC – IC RC – VCE = 0

VCC − VCE
RC =
IC
12 − 6
=
2 × 10−3
= 3 kΩ

Example 1.3: For a fixed-bias circuit shown in Fig. 1.30, determine RB, IC, RC and VCE where
VCC = 12 V, VC = 6 V, β = 80 and IB = 40 μA.

+12 V

RB RC

VC

Fig. 1.30 Example 1.3

Solution:
(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,

VCC – IB RB – VBE = 0

VCC − VBE
RB =
IB

12 − 0.7
=
40 × 10−6
= 282.5 kΩ

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 25 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.26   Electronic Circuits I

(ii) IC = β IB = 80 × 40 × 10–6 = 3.2 mA


(iii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VC = 0
VCC − VC
RC =
IC
12 − 6
=
3.2 × 10−3
= 1.875 kΩ
(iv) VCE = VC = 6 V

Example 1.4: Using a CE amplifier with fixed bias, where IB = 20 μA, IE = 4 mA, VCE = 7.2 V
and RC = 2.2 kΩ, determine IC, VCC, β and RB (Fig. 1.31).
+VCC

RB 2.2 kΩ

Fig. 1.31 Example 1.4


Solution:
(i) IE = IB + IC
IC = IE – IB
= 4 × 10–3 – 20 × 10–6
= 3.98 mA
(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE = 0
VCC = IC RC + VCE
= 3.98 × 10–3 × 2.2 × 103 + 7.2
= 15.96 V

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 26 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.9 Fixed-bias Circuit   1.27

I C 3.98 × 10−3
(iii) β = = = 199
IB 20 × 10−6
(iv) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE = 0
V − VBE
RB = CC
IB
15.96 − 0.7
=
20 × 10−6
= 762.8 kΩ

Example 1.5: For the fixed-bias circuit, where α = 0.98, ICBO = 10 μA, RC = 4 kΩ, RB = 820 kΩ,
VCC = 12 V, find IC and VCE (Fig. 1.32).
+12 V

820 kΩ 4 kΩ

Fig. 1.32 Example 1.5


Solution:
α 0.98
(i) β = = = 49
1 − α 1 − 0.98
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE = 0
V − VBE
IB = CC
RB
12 − 0.7
=
820 × 103
= 13.78 μA
IC = β IB + (β + 1)ICBO
= 49 × 13.78 × 10–6 + (49 + 1) × 10 × 10–6
= 1.17 mA

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 27 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.28   Electronic Circuits I

(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,


VCC – IC RC – VCE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC
= 12 – 1.17 × 10–3 × 4 × 103
= 7.3 V

Example 1.6: Determine the percentage change in IC and VCE for the circuit shown in Fig. 1.33
when β changes from 90 to 135.
+16 V

470 kΩ 2.7 kΩ

Fig. 1.33 Example 1.6


Solution:
(a) For β = 90
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB
16 − 0.7
=
470 × 103
= 32.55 μA
IC = β IB = 90 × 32.55 × 10–6 = 2.93 mA
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC
= 16 – 2.93 × 10–3 × 2.7 × 103
= 8.09 V

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 28 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.9 Fixed-bias Circuit   1.29

(b) For β = 135


IB = 32.55 μA
IC = β IB = 135 × 32.55 × 10–6 = 4.39 mA
VCE = VCC – IC RC
= 16 – 4.39 × 10–3 × 2.7 × 103
= 4.15 V
4.39 × 10−3 − 2.93 × 10−3
(i) % ∆IC = × 100
2.93 × 10−3
= 49.83%
4.15 − 8.09
(ii) % ∆VCE = × 100
8.09
= −48.70%
When β increases by 50%, IC increases by 49.83% and VCE decreases by 48.70%.

Example 1.7: For the fixed-bias configuration of Fig. 1.33, determine (i) S, (ii) S′, (iii) S″
when β increases by 25% and (iv) the net change in IC if a change in operating conditions
results in ICO increasing from 0.2 μA to 10 μA, VBE drops from 0.7 V to 0.5 V, and β increases
by 25%.
Solution:
β1 = 90
β2 = 25% more than β1 = 112.5
IC1 = 2.93 mA (from Example 1.6)
(i) S = β1 + 1 = 90 + 1 = 91
β1 90
(ii) S′ = – =– = –1.91 × 10–4
Ω
RB 470 × 10 3

IC 2.93 × 10−3
(iii) S″ = 1
= = 32.56 × 10–6 A
β1 90
(iv) ∆IC = S ∆ICO + S′ ∆VBE + S″ ∆β
= 91 (10 × 10–6 – 0.2 × 10–6) + (–1.91× 10–4)(0.5 – 0.7) + (32.56 × 10–6)(112.5 – 90)
= 91 × 9.8 × 10–6 + 1.91× 10–4 × 0.2 + 32.56 × 10–6 × 22.5
= 1.66 mA

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 29 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.30   Electronic Circuits I

1.10 MODIFIED FIXED-BIAS CIRCUIT


The fixed-bias circuit has higher thermal instability. The stability can be improved by using
the emitter resistor RE which is connected between emitter and ground. Figure 1.34 shows a
modified fixed-bias circuit. This circuit is also called an emitter feedback bias circuit.
+VCC

RB RC
CC2
Vo
CC1

RS RL

RE CE
VS

Fig. 1.34 Modified Fixed-bias Circuit

DC analysis
For DC, f = 0,
1
XC = =∞
2π f C
The DC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by open circuits as shown
in Fig. 1.35.
+VCC
IB IC

RB RC

+
VCE
+

VBE − I
E

RE

Fig. 1.35 DC Equivalent Circuit

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 30 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.10 Modified Fixed-bias Circuit   1.31

Collector current I C
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IBRE = 0
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE
The emitter resistor, which is the part of the collector-emitter circuit, appears as (β + 1)RE in
the base-emitter circuit. For the base-emitter circuit, the net voltage is VCC – VBE and the total
resistance is the sum of RB and the reflected resistance (β + 1)RE.

IC = β IB
⎡ VCC − VBE ⎤
=β ⎢ ⎥
⎣ RB + ( β + 1) RE ⎦

Collector-emitter voltage V CE
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IC RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC – (IB + IC)RE

Load-line analysis
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
Assuming IE ≈ IC,
VCC – IC(RC + RE) – VCE = 0
1 VCC
IC = – VCE +
RC + RE RC + RE
1 VCC
This equation represents a DC load line with slope of – and y-intercept of .
When IC = 0, i.e. transistor is in cut-off region, RC
+ RE
RC
+ RE

VCE = VCC
When VCE = 0, i.e. transistor is in saturation region,
VCC
IC =
RC + RE

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 31 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.32   Electronic Circuits I

⎛ VCC ⎞
Thus, two end points are (VCC, 0) and ⎜ 0, ⎟ . By joining these two end points, a DC
load line is drawn. ⎝ RC
+ RE ⎠

From the base-emitter circuit,


VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE
For this value of base current, we can establish the actual Q-point as shown in Fig. 1.36.
IC

VCC
RC + RE

Q
ICQ IBQ

VCE
0 VCEQ VCC

Fig. 1.36 Load Line and Q-point


VCC
From the Fig. 1.36, it is clear that the saturation current for the circuit is IC = .
sat
RC + RE
This is the resulting current when a short circuit is applied between collector-emitter terminals.
The addition of emitter resistor reduces the collector saturation level below that obtained with
a fixed-bias configuration using the same collector resistor.

Stability of Q-point
(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IB RB – VBE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCC – IB RB – VBE – IB RE – IC RE = 0
VCC − VBE − I C RE
IB =
RB + RE
If reverse saturation current ICO increases, collector current IC increases. It will cause
voltage drop across RE to increase which decreases base current IB. As IC depends on
IB, decrease in IB reduces the original increase in IC. Hence, variation in IC with ICO is
minimized and stability of Q-point is achieved.

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 32 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.10 Modified Fixed-bias Circuit   1.33

(ii) From the base-emitter circuit,


VB − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE
Generally,
(β + 1)RE >> RB
β RE >> RB
VB − VBE
IB =
β RE
IC = β IB
⎛ VB − VBE ⎞
=β ⎜ ⎟
⎝ β RE ⎠
VB − VBE
=
RE

Hence, IC is independent of the value of β. Variation in IC with β is minimized and stability


of Q-point is achieved.

Stability factors
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IB RB – VBE – (IB + IC )RE = 0
VCC – IB RB – VBE – IB RE – IC RE = 0
VCC − VBE − I C RE
IB =
RB + RE
We know that,
IC = β IB + (β + 1)ICO

⎛ V − VBE − I C RE ⎞
= β ⎜ CC ⎟ + (β + 1)ICO
⎝ RB + RE ⎠

⎛ β RE ⎞ βVCC β VBE
IC ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – + (β + 1)ICO (1.10)
⎝ RB + RE ⎠ RB + RE RB + RE

From Eq. (1.10), it is clear that collector current IC is function of ICO, VBE and β.

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 33 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.34   Electronic Circuits I

(a) Stability factor S: When ICO changes from ICO1 to ICO2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.
From Eq. (1.10), at t1°C,
⎛ β RE ⎞ βVCC β VBE
IC1 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – + (β + 1)ICO1 (1.11)
⎝ RB + RE ⎠ RB + RE RB + RE
At t2°C,
⎛ β RE ⎞ β VCC β VBE
IC2 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – + (β + 1)ICO2 (1.12)
⎝ RB + RE ⎠ RB + RE RB + RE
Subtracting Eq. (1.11) from Eq. (1.12),

⎛ β RE ⎞
(IC2 – IC1) ⎜ 1 + = (β + 1)(ICO2 – ICO1)
⎝ RB + RE ⎟⎠
IC − IC β +1
2 1
=
I CO − I CO β RE
2 1 1+
RB + RE
Δ IC β +1
∴ S= =
Δ I CO β RE
1+
RB + RE

(b) Stability factor S′ : When VBE changes from VBE1 to VBE2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.
From Eq. (1.10), at t1°C,
⎛ β RE ⎞ β VCC β VBE
IC1 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – 1
+ (β + 1)ICO (1.13)
⎝ RB
+ RE ⎠
RB
+ R E RB + RE
At t2°C,
⎛ β RE ⎞ β VCC β VBE
IC1 ⎜ 1 + = – 2
+ (β + 1)ICO (1.14)
⎝ RB + RE ⎟⎠ RB + RE RB + RE

Subtracting Eq. (1.13) from Eq. (1.14),


⎛ β RE ⎞ β
(IC2 – IC1) ⎜ 1 + ⎟ =– (VBE2 – VBE1)
⎝ RB + RE ⎠ RB + RE
β

IC − IC RB + RE
2 1
=
VBE − VBE β RE
2 1 1+
RB + RE

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 34 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.10 Modified Fixed-bias Circuit   1.35

β
= −
RB + RE + β RE
β
= −
RB + ( β + 1) RE
Δ IC β
∴ S′ = = −
ΔVBE RB + ( β + 1) RE

(c) Stability factor S″: From Eq. (1.10),

⎛ β RE ⎞ β VCC βVBE
IC ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – + β ICO [ (β + 1) ≈ β]
⎝ RB + RE ⎠ RB + RE RB + RE

⎡ R + ( β + 1) RE ⎤ β [VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RE )]
IC ⎢ B ⎥ = RB + RE
⎣ RB + RE ⎦
β [VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RE )]
IC =
RB + ( β + 1) RE

When β changes from β1 to β2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.


At t1°C,
β1[VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RE )]
IC1 = (1.15)
RB ( β1 + 1) RE
At t2°C,

β 2 [VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RE )]
IC2 = (1.16)
RB ( β 2 + 1) RE

IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1) RE ]
2
=
IC β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
1

Subtracting 1 from both the sides,


IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1) RE ]
2
–1= –1
IC β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
1

IC − IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1) RE ] − β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
2 1
=
IC β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
1

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 35 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.36   Electronic Circuits I

β 2 RB + β1β 2 RE + β 2 RE − β1 RB − β1β 2 RE − β1 RE
=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
β 2 ( RB + RE ) − β1 ( RB + RE )
=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
( β 2 − β1 )( RB + RE )
=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
IC − IC IC RB + RE
2 1
= 1
×
β 2 − β1 β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE
Δ IC IC RB + RE
∴ S″ = = 1 ×
Δβ β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE

Example 1.8: For the circuit shown in Fig. 1.37, find IC, VCE and S.
+10 V

220 kΩ 1 kΩ

β = 100

1 kΩ

Fig. 1.37 Example 1.8


Solution:
(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB RE = 0
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE
10 − 0.7
=
220 × 10 + (100 + 1)(1 × 103 )
3

= 28.9 μA
IC = βIB = 100 × 28.9 × 10–6 = 2.89 mA

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 36 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.10 Modified Fixed-bias Circuit   1.37

(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,


VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IC RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC – (IB + IC)RE
= 10 – 2.89 × 10–3 × 1 × 103 – (28.9 × 10–6 + 2.89 × 10–3)(1 × 103)
= 4.19 V
β +1
(iii) S =
β RE
1+
RB + RE
100 + 1
=
100 × 1 × 103
1+
220 × 103 + 1 × 103
= 69.53

Example 1.9: In the circuit shown in Fig. 1.38, find RC, VCE, RB, VB and RE.
+12 V

VC = 7.6 V
IC = 2 mA
VE = 2.4 V
RB RC

VC

β = 80

VE
VB RE

Fig. 1.38 Example 1.9


Solution:
(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VC = 0
VCC − VC
RC =
IC
12 − 7.6
=
2 × 10−3
= 2.2 kΩ

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 37 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.38   Electronic Circuits I

(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,


VCC – IC RC – VCE – VE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC – VE
= 12 – 2 × 10–3 × 2.2 × 103 – 2.4
= 5.2 V
I C 2 × 10 −3
(iii) IB = = = 25 μA
β 80
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE – VE = 0
VCC − VBE − VE
RB =
IB
12 − 0.7 − 2.4
=
25 × 10−6
= 356 kΩ
(iv) VB = VBE + VE = 0.7 + 2.4 = 3.1 V
(v) IE = IB + IC = 25 × 10–6 + 2 × 10–3 = 2.025 mA
VE 2.4
RE = = = 1.185 kΩ
IE 2.025 × 10−3

Example 1.10: In the circuit shown in Fig. 1.39, find RC and RB such that VCE = 5 V, IC = 2 mA,
VCC = 10 V, β  = 100 and RE = 1 kΩ.
+10 V

RB RC

1 kΩ

Fig. 1.39 Example 1.10

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 38 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.10 Modified Fixed-bias Circuit   1.39

Solution:
I C 2 × 10−3
(i) IB = = = 20 μA
β 100
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IC RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCC − VCE − ( I B + I C ) RE
RC =
IC
10 − 5 − (20 × 10−6 + 2 × 10−3 )(1 × 103 )
=
2 × 10−3
= 1.49 kΩ
(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE –IE RE = 0
VCC – IB RB – VBE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCC − VBE − ( I B + I C ) RE
RB =
IB
10 − 0.7 − (20 × 10−6 + 2 × 10−3 )(1 × 103 )
=
20 × 10−6
= 364 kΩ

Example 1.11: Determine the percentage change in IC and VCE for the circuit shown in
Fig. 1.40 when β changes from 100 to 150.
+20 V

510 kΩ 2.4 kΩ

1.5 kΩ

Fig. 1.40 Example 1.11

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 39 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.40   Electronic Circuits I

Solution:
(a) For β = 100
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB RE = 0
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE
20 − 0.7
=
510 × 10 + (100 + 1)(1.5 × 103 )
3

= 29.18 μA
IC = β IB = 100 × 29.18 × 10–6 = 2.92 mA
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IC RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC – (IB + IC)RE
= 20 – 2.92 × 10–3 × 2.4 × 103 – (29.18 × 10–6 + 2.92 × 10–3)(1.5 × 103)
= 8.57 V
(b) For β = 150
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE
20 − 0.7
=
510 × 10 + (150 + 1)1.5 × 103
3

= 26.21 μA
IC = β IB = 150 × 26.21× 10–6 = 3.93 mA
VCE = VCC – IC RC – (IB + IC)RE
= 20 – 3.93 × 10–3 × 2.4 × 103 – (26.21 × 10–6 + 3.93 × 10–3)(1.5 × 103)
= 4.63 V
3.93 × 10−3 − 2.92 × 10−3
(i) % ∆IC = × 100
2.92 × 10−3
= 34.59%
4.63 − 8.57
(ii) % ∆VCE = × 100
8.57
= −45.97%
When β increases by 50%, IC increases by 34.59% and VCE decreases by 45.97%.

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 40 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.10 Modified Fixed-bias Circuit   1.41

Example 1.12: For the circuit of the Fig. 1.40, determine (i) S, (ii) S’, (iii) S” when β increases
by 25% and (iv) the net change in IC if a change in operating condition results in ICO increasing
from 0.2 μA to 10 μA, VBE drops from 0.7 V to 0.5 V, and β increases by 25%.

Solution:
β1 = 100
β2 = 25% more than β1 = 125
IC1 = 2.92 mA (From Example 1.11)

β +1
(i) S =
β RE
1+
RB + RE

100 + 1
=
100 × 1.5 × 103
1+
510 × 103 + 1.5 × 103
= 78.1

β
(ii) S′ = −
RB + ( β + 1) RE

100
= −
510 × 10 + (100 + 1)(1.5 × 103 )
3

Ω
= –1.512 × 10–4

IC RB + RE
(iii) S ″ = 1
×
β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE

2.92 × 10−3 510 × 103 + 1.5 × 103


= ×
100 510 × 103 + (125 + 1)(1.5 × 103 )

= 21.37 × 10–6 A
(iv) ∆IC = S ∆ICO + S′ ∆VBE + S″ ∆β
= 78.1(10 × 10–6 – 0.2 × 10–6) + (–1.512 × 10–4)(0.5 – 0.7) + (21.37 × 10–6)(125 – 100)
= 78.1 × 9.8 × 10–6 + 1.512 × 10–4 × 0.2 + 21.37 × 10–6 × 25
= 1.33 mA

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 41 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.42   Electronic Circuits I

1.11 COLLECTOR-TO-BASE BIAS CIRCUIT


The stability can be improved if the resistor RB is returned to the collector terminal rather than to
the battery terminal. Figure 1.41 shows a collector-to-base bias circuit. In this method, resistor
RB is connected between the base and the collector. Hence, the circuit is called collector-
to-base bias circuit. Although the Q-point is not totally independent of β, the sensitivity to
changes in β or temperature variations is normally less than encountered for fixed-bias or
modified fixed-bias or emitter feedback bias configurations.
+VCC

RC
RB CC2
Vo

CC1

RS RL

VS

Fig. 1.41 Collector-to-base Bias Circuit

DC analysis
For DC, f = 0,
1
XC = =∞
2π f C
The DC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by open circuits as shown
in Fig. 1.42.
+VCC

RC

IB IB + IC
RB

IC

+
+ VCE

VBE −

Fig. 1.42 DC Equivalent Circuit

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 42 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.11 Collector-to-base Bias Circuit   1.43

Collector current I C
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC – (β +1)IB RC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RC

The collector resistor, which is the part of the collector-emitter circuit, appears as (β +1)RC
in the base-emitter circuit. For the base-emitter circuit, the net voltage is VCC – VBE and the total
resistance is the sum of RB and the reflected resistance (β +1)RC.
IC = β IB
⎡ VCC − VBE ⎤
=β ⎢ ⎥
⎣ RB + ( β + 1) RC ⎦

Collector-emitter voltage V CE
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – VCE = 0
VCE = VCC – (IB + IC)RC

Load-line analysis
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – VCE = 0
Assuming IB + IC ≈ IC,
VCC – IC RC – VCE = 0
1 V
IC = – VCE + CC
RC RC
1 V
This equation represents a DC load line with slope of – and y-intercept of CC .
When IC = 0, i.e. transistor is in cut-off region, RC RC
VCE = VCC
When VCE = 0, i.e. transistor is in saturation region,
VCC
IC =
RC

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 43 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.44   Electronic Circuits I

⎛ V ⎞
Thus two end points are (VCC, 0) and ⎜ 0, CC ⎟ . By joining these two end points, a DC load
⎝ RC ⎠
line is drawn.
From the base-emitter circuit,
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RC
For this value of base current, we can establish the actual Q-point as shown in Fig. 1.43.
IC

VCC
RC

Q
ICQ IBQ

VCE
0 VCEQ VCC

Fig. 1.43 Load line and Q-point


VCC
From the Fig. 1.43, it is clear that the saturation current for the circuit is IC sat = . This is
RC
the resulting current when a short circuit is applied between collector-emitter terminals.

Stability of Q-point
(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC – IB RC – IC RC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC − VBE − I C RC
IB =
RB + RC
If reverse saturation current ICO increases, collector current IC increases. It will cause
voltage drop across RC to increase which decreases base current IB. As IC depends on IB,
decrease in IB reduces the original increase in IC. Hence, variation in IC with ICO is mini-
mized and stability of Q-point is achieved.
(ii) From the base-emitter circuit,
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RC

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 44 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.11 Collector-to-base Bias Circuit   1.45

Generally,
(β + 1)RC >> RB
β RC >> RB
VB − VBE
IB =
β RC
IC = β IB
⎛ VB − VBE ⎞
=β ⎜ ⎟
⎝ β RC ⎠
VB − VBE
=
RC
Hence, IC is independent of the value of β. Variation in IC with β is minimized and stability
of Q-point is achieved.

Stability factors
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC – IB RC – IC RC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC − VBE − I C RC
IB =
RB + RC
We know that,
IC = β IB + (β + 1)ICO

⎛ V − VBE − I C RC ⎞
= β ⎜ CC ⎟ + (β + 1)ICO
⎝ RB + RC ⎠

⎛ β RC ⎞ β VCC β VBE
IC ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – + (β + 1)ICO (1.17)
⎝ RB + RC ⎠ RB + RC RB + RC

From Eq. (1.17), it is clear that collector current IC is function of ICO, VBE and β.
(a) Stability factor S: When ICO changes from ICO1 to ICO2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.
From Eq. (1.17), at t1°C,
⎛ ⎞ β VCC β VBE
IC1 1 + β RC = – + (β + 1)ICO1 (1.18)
⎜ RB + RC ⎟⎠ RB + RC RB + RC

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 45 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.46   Electronic Circuits I

At t2°C,
⎛ β RC ⎞ β VCC β VBE
IC2 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – + (β + 1)ICO2 (1.19)
⎝ RB + RC ⎠ RB + RC RB + RC
Subtracting Eq. (1.18) from Eq. (1.19),

⎛ β RC ⎞
(IC2 – IC1) ⎜ 1 + = (β + 1)(ICO2 – ICO1)
⎝ RB + RC ⎟⎠

IC − IC β +1
2 1
=
I CO − I CO β RC
2 1 1+
RB + RC

Δ IC β +1
∴ S= =
Δ I CO β RC
1+
RB + RC

(b) Stability factor S′: When VBE changes from VBE1 to VBE2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.
From Eq. (1.17), at t1°C,

⎛ β RC ⎞ β VCC β VBE
IC1 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – 1
+ (β + 1)ICO (1.20)
⎝ RB
+ RC ⎠
RB
+ R C
RB
+ R C

At t2°C,
⎛ β RC ⎞ β VCC β VBE
IC2 ⎜ 1 + = – 2
+ (β + 1)ICO (1.21)
⎝ RB + RC ⎟⎠ RB + RC RB + RC

Subtracting Eq. (1.20) from Eq. (1.21),


⎛ β RC ⎞ β
(IC2 – IC1) ⎜ 1 + ⎟ =– (V – VBE1)
⎝ RB + RC ⎠ RB + RC BE2

β
IC − IC −
RB + RC
2 1
=
VBE − VBE β RC
2 1
1+
RB + RC

β
= −
RB + RC + β RC

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 46 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.11 Collector-to-base Bias Circuit   1.47

β
= −
RB + ( β + 1) RC
Δ IC β
∴ S′ = = −
Δ VBE RB + ( β + 1) RC

(c) Stability factor S″: From Eq. (1.17),

⎛ β RC ⎞ β VCC β VBE
IC ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – + β ICO [ (β + 1) ≈ β]
⎝ RB + RC ⎠ RB + RC RB + RC

⎡ R + ( β + 1) RC ⎤ β [VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RC )]
IC ⎢ B ⎥ =
⎣ RB + RC ⎦ RB + RC
β [VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RC )]
IC =
RB + ( β + 1) RC

When β changes from β1 to β2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.


At t1°C,

β1[VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RC )]
IC1 = (1.22)
RB ( β1 + 1) RC
At t2°C,
β 2 [VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RC )]
IC2 = (1.23)
RB ( β 2 + 1) RC
IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1) RC ]
2
=
IC β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RC ]
1

Subtracting 1 from both the sides,


IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1) RC ]
2
–1= –1
IC β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RC ]
1

IC − IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1) RC ] − β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RC ]
2 1
=
IC β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RC ]
1

β 2 RB + β1β 2 RC + β 2 RC − β1 RB − β1β 2 RC − β1 RC
=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RC ]

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 47 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.48   Electronic Circuits I

β 2 ( RB + RC ) − β1 ( RB + RC )
=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RC ]

( β 2 − β1 )( RB + RC )
=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RC ]

IC − IC IC RB + RC
2 1
= 1
×
β 2 − β1 β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RC

Δ IC IC RB + RC
∴ S″ = = 1 ×
Δβ β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RC

Example 1.13: For the circuit shown in Fig. 1.44, determine IC, VCE and stability factor S.
+10 V

3 kΩ

500 kΩ

β = 100

Fig. 1.44 Example 1.13

Solution:
(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,

VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE = 0


VCC – (β + 1)IB RC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RC

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 48 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.11 Collector-to-base Bias Circuit   1.49

10 − 0.7
=
500 × 10 + (100 + 1)(3 × 103 )
3

= 11.58 μA
IC = β IB = 100 × 11.58 × 10–6 = 1.158 mA
(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCE = VCC – (IB + IC)RC
= 10 – (11.58 × 10–6 + 1.158 × 10–3) (3 × 103)
= 6.49 V
β +1
(iii) S =
β RC
1+
RB + RC

100 + 1
=
100 × 3 × 103
1+
500 × 103 + 3 × 103
= 63.26

Example 1.14: For the circuit shown in Fig. 1.45, find RC and RB.
+12 V

RC
VCE = 6 V
RB IC = 2 mA
β = 100

Fig. 1.45 Example 1.14

Solution:
I C 2 × 10−3
(i) IB = = = 20 μA
β 100

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 49 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.50   Electronic Circuits I

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,


VCC – (IB + IC)RC – VCE = 0
VCC – (β + 1)IB RC – VCE = 0
VCC − VCE
RC =
( β + 1) I B
12 − 6
=
(100 + 1)(20 × 10−6 )
= 2.97 kΩ
(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,

VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE = 0

VCC − VBE − ( I B + I C ) RC
RB =
IB

12 − 0.7 − (20 × 10−6 + 2 × 10−3 )(2.97 × 103 )


=
20 × 10−6
= 265.4 kΩ

Example 1.15: Determine the percentage change in IC and VCE for the circuit shown in
Fig. 1.46 when β changes from 90 to 135.
+22 V

9.1 kΩ

470 kΩ

Fig. 1.46 Example 1.15

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 50 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.11 Collector-to-base Bias Circuit   1.51

Solution:
(a) For β = 90
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base–emitter circuit,

VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE = 0


VCC – (β + 1)IB RC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RC
22 − 0.7
=
470 × 10 + (90 + 1)(9.1 × 103 )
3

= 16.41 μA
IC = β IB = 90 × 16.41 × 10–6 = 1.48 mA

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,

VCC – (IB + IC)RC – VCE = 0


VCE = VCC – (IB + IC)RC
= 22 – (16.41 × 10–6 + 1.48 × 103) (9.1 × 103)
= 8.38 V
(b) For β = 135
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RC
22 − 0.7
=
470 × 10 + (135 + 1)(9.1 × 103 )
3

= 12.47 μA
IC = β IB = 135 × 12.47 × 10–6 = 1.68 mA
VCE = VCC – (IB + IC)RC
= 22 – (12.47 × 10–6 + 1.68 × 10–3) (9.1 × 103)
= 6.6 V
1.68 × 10−3 − 1.48 × 10−3
(i) % ∆IC = × 100
1.48 × 10−3
= 13.51%

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 51 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.52   Electronic Circuits I

6.6 − 8.38
(ii) % ∆VCE = × 100
8.38
= −21.24%
When β increases by 50%, IC increases by 13.51% and VCE decreases by 21.24%.

Example 1.16: For the collector-to-base bias configuration of the Fig. 1.46, determine (i) S,
(ii) S’, (iii) S” when β increases by 25% and (iv) the net change in IC if a change in operating
condition results in ICO increasing from 0.2 μA to 10 μA, VBE drops from 0.7 V to 0.5 V, and
β increases by 25%.
Solution:
β1 = 90
β2 = 25% more than β1 = 112.5
IC1 = 1.48 mA (From Example 1.15)
β +1
(i) S =
β RC
1+
RB + RC
90 + 1
=
90 × 9.1 × 103
1+
470 × 103 + 9.1 × 103
= 33.59
β
(ii) S′ = −
RB + ( β + 1) RC
90
= −
470 × 10 + (90 + 1)(9.1 × 103 )
3

Ω
= –6.93 × 10–5
IC RB + RC
(iii) S″ = 1
×
β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RC
1.48 × 10−3 470 × 103 + 9.1 × 103
= ×
90 470 × 103 + (112.5 + 1)(9.1 × 103 )
= 5.24 × 10–6 A
(iv) ∆IC = S ∆ICO + S′ ∆VBE + S″ ∆β
= 33.59(10 × 10–6 – 0.2 × 10–6) + (–6.93 × 10–5)(0.5 – 0.7) + (5.24 × 10–6)(112.5 – 90)
= 33.59 × 9.8 × 10–6 + 6.93 × 10–5 × 0.2 + 5.24 × 10–6 × 22.5
= 0.45 mA

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 52 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.12 Modified Collector-to-base Bias Circuit    1.53

1.12 MODIFIED COLLECTOR-TO-BASE BIAS CIRCUIT


Figure 1.47 shows a modified collector-to-emitter bias circuit. Emitter resistor RE is connected
in the emitter terminal.
+VCC

RC

RB CC2
Vo

CC1

RS RL

RE CE
VS

Fig. 1.47 Modified Collector-to-base Bias Circuit

DC analysis
For DC, f = 0,
1
XC = =∞
2π f C
The DC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by open circuits as shown
in Fig. 1.48.
+VCC

RC

IB IB + IC
RB

IC

+
VCE
+

VBE − IE

RE

Fig. 1.48 DC Equivalent Circuit

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 53 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.54   Electronic Circuits I

Collector current I C
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VCC – (β +1)IB RC – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB RE = 0

VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )

The collector and emitter resistors, which are the part of the collector-emitter circuit, appear
as (β + 1)(RC + RE) in the base-emitter circuit. For the base-emitter circuit, the net voltage is
VCC – VBE and the total resistance is the sum of RB and the reflected resistance (β + 1)(RC + RE).
IC = βIB

⎡ VCC − VBE ⎤
=β ⎢ ⎥
⎣ RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE ) ⎦

Collector-emitter voltage V CE
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – VCE – IE RE = 0

VCC – (IB + IC)RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0

VCE = VCC – (IB + IC)(RC + RE)

Load-line analysis
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
Assuming IB + IC ≈ IC,
VCC – IC(RC + RE) – VCE = 0

1 VCC
IC = – VCE +
RC + RE RC + RE

1 VCC
This equation represents a DC load line with slope of – and y-intercept of .
RC + RE RC + RE

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 54 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.12 Modified Collector-to-base Bias Circuit    1.55

When IC = 0, i.e. transistor is in cut-off region,


VCE = VCC
When VCE = 0, i.e. transistor is in saturation region,
VCC
IC =
RC + RE

⎛ VCC ⎞
Thus, two end points are (VCC, 0) and ⎜ 0, ⎟ . By joining these two end points, a DC
load line is drawn. ⎝ RC + RE ⎠
From the base-emitter circuit,

VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )
For this value of the base current, we can establish the actual Q-point as shown in Fig. 1.49.

IC

VCC
RC + RE

Q
ICQ IBQ

VCE
0 VCEQ VCC

Fig. 1.49 Load Line and Q-point


VCC
From the Fig. 1.49, it is clear that the saturation current for the circuit is IC sat = .
RC + RE
This is the resulting current when a short circuit is applied between collector-emitter terminals.
The addition of the emitter resistor reduces the collector saturation level below that obtained
with a collector-to-base bias configuration using the same collector resistor.

Stability of Q-point
(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE – (IB + IC)RE = 0

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 55 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.56   Electronic Circuits I

VCC – IB RC – IC RC – IB RB – VBE – IB RE – IC RE = 0

VCC − VBE − I C ( RC + RE )
IB =
RB + RC + RE

If reverse saturation current ICO increases, collector current IC increases. It will cause
voltage drop across (RC + RE) to increase, which decreases base current IB. As IC depends
on IB, decrease in IB reduces the original increase in IC. Hence, variation in IC with ICO is
minimized and stability of Q-point is achieved.
(ii) From the base-emitter circuit,

VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )

Generally,
(β + 1)(RC + RE) >> RB

β (RC + RE) >> RB

VB − VBE
IB =
β ( RC + RE )
IC = β IB

⎡ VB − VBE ⎤
=β ⎢ ⎥
⎣ β ( RC + RE ) ⎦

VB − VBE
=
RC + RE

Hence, IC is independent of the value of β. Variation in IC with β is minimized and stability


of Q-point is achieved.

Stability factors
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,

VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0


VCC – IB RC – IC RC – IB RB – VBE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCC – IB RC – IC RC – IB RB – VBE – IB RE – IC RE = 0

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 56 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.12 Modified Collector-to-base Bias Circuit    1.57

VCC − VBE − I C ( RC + RE )
IB =
RB + RC + RE
We know that

IC = β IB + (β + 1)ICO

⎡ V − VBE − I C ( RC + RE ) ⎤
= β ⎢ CC ⎥ + (β + 1)ICO
⎣ RB + RC + RE ⎦

⎡ β ( RC + RE ) ⎤ βVCC βVBE
IC ⎢1 + ⎥= – + (β + 1)ICO (1.24)
⎣ RB + RC + RE ⎦ RB + RC + RE RB + RC + RE

From Eq. (1.24), it is clear that collector current IC is function of ICO, VBE and β.

(a) Stability factor S: When ICO changes from ICO to ICO , IC changes from IC to IC .
1 2 1 2
From Eq. (1.24), at t1°C,

⎡ β ( RC + RE ) ⎤ βVCC βVBE
IC1 ⎢1 + ⎥ = – + (β + 1)ICO1 (1.25)
⎣ RB + RC + RE ⎦ RB + RC + RE RB + RC + RE

At t2°C,

⎡ β ( RC + RE ) ⎤ βVCC βVBE
IC2 ⎢1 + ⎥ = – + (β + 1)ICO2 (1.26)
⎣ RB + RC + RE ⎦ RB + RC + RE RB + RC + RE

Subtracting Eq. (1.25) from Eq. (1.26),

⎡ β ( RC + RE ) ⎤
(IC2 – IC1) ⎢1 + ⎥ = (β + 1)(ICO2 – ICO1)
⎣ RB + RC + RE ⎦

IC − IC β +1
2 1
=
I CO − I CO β ( RC + RE )
2 1 1+
RB + RC + RE

Δ IC β +1
∴ S= =
Δ I CO β ( RC + RE )
1+
RB + RC + RE

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 57 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.58   Electronic Circuits I

(b) Stability factor S′: When VBE changes from VBE1 to VBE2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.
From Eq. (1.24), at t1°C,

⎡ β ( RC + RE ) ⎤ βVCC β VBE
IC1 ⎢1 + ⎥ = – 1
+ (β + 1)ICO (1.27)
⎣ RB + RC + RE ⎦ RB + RC + RE RB + RC + RE

At t2°C,

⎡ β ( RC + RE ) ⎤ β VCC βVBE
IC2 ⎢1 + ⎥ = – 2
+ (β + 1)ICO (1.28)
⎣ RB + RC + RE ⎦ RB + RC + RE RB + RC + RE

Subtracting Eq. (1.27) from Eq. (1.28),

β ( RC + RE ) β
(IC2 – IC1) 1 + =– (V – VBE1)
RB + RC + RE RB
+ RC
+ RE BE2

β

IC − IC RB + RC + RE
2 1
=
VBE − VBE β ( RC + RE )
2 1 1+
RB + RC + RE

β
= −
RB + RC + RE + β RC + β RE

β
= −
RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )

ΔIC β
∴ S′ = = −
ΔVBE RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )

(c) Stability factor S″: From Eq. (1.24),

⎡ β ( RC + RE ) ⎤ β VCC β VBE
IC ⎢1 + ⎥ = R + R + R – R + R + R + β ICO [ (β + 1) ≈ β]
⎣ RB + RC + RE ⎦ B C E B C E

⎡ RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE ) ⎤ β [VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RC + RE )]


IC ⎢ ⎥ =
⎣ RB + RC + RE ⎦ RB + RC + RE

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 58 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.12 Modified Collector-to-base Bias Circuit    1.59

β [VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RC + RE )]
IC =
RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )

When β changes from β1 to β2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.


At t1°C,
β1[VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RC + RE )]
IC1 = (1.29)
RB + ( β1 + 1)( RC + RE )

At t2°C,

β 2 [VCC − VBE + I CO ( RB + RC + RE )]
IC2 = (1.30)
RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )

IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1)( RC + RE )]
2
=
IC β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )]
1

Subtracting 1 from both the sides,


IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1)( RC + RE )]
2
–1= –1
IC β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )]
1

IC − IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1)( RC + RE )] − β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )]


2 1
=
IC β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )]
1

β 2 RB + β1β 2 RC + β1β 2 RE + β 2 RC + β 2 RE − β1 RB − β1β 2 RC − β1β 2 RE − β1 RC − β1 RE


=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )]

β 2 ( RB + RC + RE ) − β1 ( RB + RC + RE )
=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )]

( β 2 − β1 )( RB + RC + RE )
=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )]

IC − IC IC RB + RC + RE
2 1
= 1
×
β 2 − β1 β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )

Δ IC IC RB + RC + RE
∴ S″ = = 1 ×
Δβ β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 59 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.60   Electronic Circuits I

Example 1.17: For the circuit shown in Fig. 1.50, find IC, VCE and S.

+10 V

2.5 kΩ

220 kΩ

β = 100

1 kΩ

Fig. 1.50 Example 1.17


Solution:
(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VCC – (β + 1)IB RC – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB RE = 0

VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )
10 − 0.7
=
220 × 10 + (100 + 1)(2.5 × 103 + 1 × 103 )
3

= 16.21 μA
IC = β IB = 100 × 16.21 × 10–6 = 1.621 mA
(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCE = VCC – (IB + IC)(RC + RE)
= 10 – (16.21 × 10–6 + 1.621 × 10–3)(2.5 × 103+ 1 × 103)
= 4.27 V

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1.12 Modified Collector-to-base Bias Circuit    1.61

β +1
(iii) S =
β ( RC + RE )
1+
RB + RC + RE

100 + 1
=
100(2.5 × 103 + 1 × 103 )
1+
220 × 103 + 2.5 × 103 + 1 × 103
= 39.36

Example 1.18: For the circuit shown in Fig. 1.51, determine IC, VC, VE and VCE.
+30 V

6.2 kΩ

690 kΩ

β = 100

1.5 kΩ

Fig. 1.51 Example 1.18


Solution:
(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VCC – (β + 1)IB RC – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB RE = 0
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )
30 − 0.7
=
690 × 10 + (100 + 1)(6.2 × 103 + 1.5 × 103 )
3

= 19.9 μA
IC = β IB = 100 × 19.9 × 10–6 = 1.99 mA

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1.62   Electronic Circuits I

(ii) VC = VCC – (IB + IC)RC


= 30 – (19.9 × 10–6 + 1.99 × 10–3)(6.2 × 103)
= 17.5 V
(iii) VE = (IB + IC)RE
= (19.9 × 10–6 + 1.99 × 10–3)(1.5 × 103)
= 3.02 V
(iv) VCE = VC – VE
= 17.5 – 3.02
= 14.48 V

Example 1.19: Determine the percentage change in IC and VCE for the circuit shown in
Fig. 1.52 when β changes from 90 to 135.

+22 V

9.1 kΩ

470 kΩ

9.1 kΩ

Fig. 1.52 Example 1.19


Solution:
(a) For β = 90
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VCC – (β + 1)IB RC – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB RE = 0
VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )

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1.12 Modified Collector-to-base Bias Circuit    1.63

22 − 0.7
=
470 × 10 + (90 + 1)(9.1 × 103 + 9.1 × 103 )
3

= 10.02 μA
IC = β IB = 90 × 10.02 × 10–6 = 0.9 mA
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – (IB + IC)RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCE = VCC – (IB + IC)(RC + RE)
= 22 – (10.02 × 10–6 + 0.9 × 10–3)(9.1 × 103 + 9.1 × 103)
= 5.44 V

(b) For β = 135


VCC − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )

22 − 0.7
=
470 × 10 + (135 + 1)(9.1 × 103 + 9.1 × 103 )
3

= 7.23 μA
IC = β IB = 135 × 7.23 × 10–6 = 0.98 mA
VCE = VCC – (IB + IC)(RC + RE)
= 22 – (7.23 × 10–6 + 0.98 × 10–3)(9.1 × 103 + 9.1 × 103)
= 4.03 V
0.98 × 10−3 − 0.9 × 10−3
(i) % ∆IC = × 100
0.9 × 10−3
= 8.89%
4.03 − 5.44
(ii) % ∆VCE = × 100
5.44
= −25.92%
When β increases by 50%, IC increases by 8.89% and VCE decreases by 25.92%.

Example 1.20: For the circuit of the Fig. 1.52, determine (i) S, (ii) S’, (iii) S” when β increases
by 25% and (iv) the net change in IC if a change in operating condition results in ICO increasing
from 0.2 μA to 10 μA, VBE drops from 0.7 V to 0.5 V, and β increases by 25%.

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1.64   Electronic Circuits I

Solution:
β1 = 90
β2 = 25% more than β1 = 112.5
IC1 = 0.9 mA (From Example 1.19)

β +1
(i) S =
β ( RC + RE )
1+
RB + RC + RE
90 + 1
=
90(9.1 × 103 + 9.1 × 103 )
1+
470 × 103 + 9.1 × 103 + 9.1 × 103
= 20.89
β
(ii) S′ = −
RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )

90
= −
470 × 10 + (90 + 1)(9.1 × 103 + 9.1 × 103 )
3

= – 4.23 × 10–5 
IC RB + RC + RE
(iii) S″ =
1
×
β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )

0.9 × 10−3 470 × 103 + 9.1 × 103 + 9.1 × 103


= ×
90 470 × 103 + (112.5 + 1)(9.1 × 103 + 9.1 × 103 )
= 1.93 × 10–6 A
(iv) ∆IC = S ∆ICO + S′ ∆VBE + S″ ∆β
= 20.89(10 × 10–6 – 0.2 × 10–6) + (−4.23 × 10–5)(0.5 – 0.7) + (1.93 × 10–6)(112.5 – 90)
= 20.89 × 9.8 × 10–6 + 4.23 × 10–5 × 0.2 + 1.93 × 10–6 × 22.5
= 0.26 mA

1.13 VOLTAGE-DIVIDER BIAS CIRCUIT (SELF-BIAS CIRCUIT)


In the previous configurations, the bias current IC and voltage VCE depend on the current gain
β of the transistor. Figure 1.53 shows a voltage-divider bias circuit. Resistors R1 and R2 form
a voltage-divider circuit. In this configuration, the sensitivity to changes in β is quite small.
If the circuit parameters are properly chosen, the bias current IC and voltage VCE are almost
independent of β.

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1.13 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit (Self-bias Circuit)   1.65

+VCC

R1 RC
CC2
Vo
CC1

RS RL
R2
RE CE
VS

Fig. 1.53 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit

1.13.1 Exact Analysis
DC Analysis
For DC, f = 0,
1
XC = =∞
2π f C
The DC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by open circuits as shown
in Fig. 1.54.
+VCC

R1 RC

R2
RE

Fig. 1.54 DC Equivalent Circuit


The base circuit can be converted into Thevenin’s equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. 1.55.
R2
VTh = VB = V
R1 + R2 CC
R1 R2
RTh = RB = R1 || R2 =
R1 + R2

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1.66   Electronic Circuits I

As R1 and R2 divide the voltage VCC at the base, the circuit is called voltage-divider bias.

+VCC
IC

RC

IB RB +
VCE
+

VBE − IE

VB
RE

Fig. 1.55 Thevenin’s Equivalent Circuit

Collector current I C
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VB – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VB – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1) IB RE = 0
VB − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE
The emitter resistor, which is the part of the collector-emitter circuit, appears as (β +1)RE
in the base-emitter circuit. For the base-emitter circuit, the net voltage is VB – VBE and the total
resistance is the sum of RB and the reflected resistance (β + 1)RE.
IC = β IB

⎡ VB − VBE ⎤
=β ⎢ ⎥
⎣ RB + ( β + 1) RE ⎦

Collector-emitter voltage V CE
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IC RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC – (IB + IC)RE

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1.13 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit (Self-bias Circuit)   1.67

Load-line analysis
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
Assuming IE ≈ IC,
VCC – IC(RC + RE) – VCE = 0

1 VCC
IC = – VCE +
RC + RE RC + RE

1 VCC
This equation represents a DC load line with slope of – and y-intercept of .
RC + RE RC + RE
When IC = 0, i.e. transistor is in cut-off region,
VCE = VCC
When VCE = 0, i.e. transistor is in saturation region,
VCC
IC =
RC + RE

⎛ VCC ⎞
Thus two end points are (VCC, 0) and ⎜ 0, . By joining these two end points, a DC
⎝ RC + RE ⎟⎠
load line is drawn.
From the base-emitter circuit,

VB − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE
For this value of base current, we can establish the actual Q-point as shown in Fig. 1.56.
IC

VCC
RC + RE

Q
ICQ IBQ

VCE
0 VCEQ VCC

Fig. 1.56 Load Line and Q-point

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 67 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.68   Electronic Circuits I

VCC
From the Fig. 1.56, it is clear that the saturation current for the circuit is IC sat = .
RC + RE
This is the resulting current when a short circuit is applied between collector-emitter terminals.

Stability of Q-point
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VB – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VB – IB RB – VBE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VB – IB RB – VBE – IB RE – IC RE = 0

VB − VBE − I C RE
IB =
RB + RE
If reverse saturation current ICO increases, collector current IC increases. It will cause volt-
age drop across RE to increase, which decreases base current IB. As IC depends on IB, decrease
in IB reduces the original increase in IC. Hence, variation in IC with ICO is minimized and stabil-
ity of Q-point is achieved.

Stability factors
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VB – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VB – IB RB – VBE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VB – IB RB – VBE – IB RE – IC RE = 0

VB − VBE − I C RE
IB =
RB + RE

We know that
IC = β IB + (β + 1)ICO

⎛ VB − VBE − I C RE ⎞
=β ⎜ ⎟ + (β + 1)ICO
⎝ RB + RE ⎠

⎛ β RE ⎞ β VB β VBE
IC ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – + (β + 1)ICO (1.31)
⎝ RB + RE ⎠ RB + RE RB + RE
From Eq. (1.31), it is clear that collector current IC is function of ICO, VBE and β.

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1.13 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit (Self-bias Circuit)   1.69

(a) Stability factor S: When ICO changes from ICO1 to ICO2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.
From Eq. (1.31), at t1°C,
⎛ β RE ⎞ β VB β VBE
IC1 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – + (β + 1)ICO1 (1.32)
⎝ RB + RE ⎠ RB + RE RB + RE

At t2°C,

⎛ β RE ⎞ β VB β VBE
IC2 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – + (β + 1)ICO2 (1.33)
⎝ RB + RE ⎠ RB + RE RB + RE

Subtracting Eq. (1.32) from Eq. (1.33),

⎛ β RE ⎞
(IC2 – IC1) ⎜ 1 + = (β + 1)(ICO2 – ICO1)
⎝ RB + RE ⎟⎠

IC − IC β +1
2 1
=
I CO − I CO β RE
2 1 1+
RB + RE

Δ IC β +1
∴ S= =
Δ I CO β RE
1+
RB + RE

(b) Stability factor S′: When VBE changes from VBE1 to VBE2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.
From Eq. (1.31), at t1°C,

⎛ β RE ⎞ β VB β VBE
IC1 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – 1
+ (β + 1)ICO (1.34)
⎝ RB + RE ⎠ RB + RE RB + RE

At t2°C,

⎛ β RE ⎞ β VB β VBE
IC2 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – 2
+ (β + 1)ICO (1.35)
⎝ RB + RE ⎠ RB + RE RB + RE

Subtracting Eq. (1.34) from Eq. (1.35),

⎛ β RE ⎞ β
(IC2 – IC1) ⎜ 1 + ⎟ =– (V – VBE1)
⎝ RB
+ RE ⎠ RB + RE BE2

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1.70   Electronic Circuits I

β

IC − IC RB + RE
2 1
=
VBE − VBE β RE
2 1 1+
RB + RE

β
= −
RB + RE + β RE
β
= −
RB + ( β + 1) RE
Δ IC β
∴ S′ = = −
ΔVBE RB + ( β + 1) RE

(c) Stability factor S″: From Eq. (1.31),

⎛ β RE ⎞ β VB β VBE
IC ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = – + β ICO [ (β + 1) ≈ β]
⎝ RB + RE ⎠ RB + RE RB + RE

⎡ R + ( β + 1) RE ⎤ β [VB − VBE + I CO ( RB + RE )]
IC ⎢ B ⎥ =
⎣ RB + RE ⎦ RB + RE

β [VB − VBE + I CO ( RB + RE )]
IC =
RB + ( β + 1) RE

When β changes from β1 to β2, IC changes from IC1 to IC2.


At t1°C,
β1[VB − VBE + I CO ( RB + RE )]
IC1 = (1.36)
RB + ( β + 1) RE
At t2°C,
β 2 [VB − VBE + I CO ( RB + RE )]
IC2 = (1.37)
RB + ( β + 1) RE
IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1) RE ]
2
=
IC β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
1

Subtracting 1 from both the sides,


IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1) RE ]
2
–1= –1
IC β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
1

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1.13 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit (Self-bias Circuit)   1.71

IC − IC β 2 [ RB + ( β1 + 1) RE ] − β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
2 1
=
IC
1
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
β 2 RB + β1β 2 RE + β 2 RE − β1 RB − β1β 2 RE − β1 RE
=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
β 2 ( RB + RE ) − β1 ( RB + RE )
=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
( β 2 − β1 )( RB + RE )
=
β1[ RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE ]
IC − IC IC RB + RE
2 1
= 1
×
β 2 − β1 β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE

Δ IC IC RB + RE
∴ S″ = = 1 ×
Δβ β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE

1.13.2 Approximate Analysis
Collector current I C
The input section of the voltage-divider bias circuit can be represented by the circuit shown
in Fig. 1.57. The equivalent resistance between the base and the ground is (β + 1)RE. If the
resistance (β + 1)RE is much larger than the resistance R2, the current IB will be much smaller
than I2. If IB ≈ 0, then I1 = I2.
+VCC

I1

R1

IB
VB
I2

R2 ( β + 1) RE

Fig. 1.57 Input Section


The voltage across R2 can be found using the voltage-divider rule.

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1.72   Electronic Circuits I

R2
VB = V
R1 + R2 CC
Generally (β + 1)RE ≈ βRE. If βRE is at least ten times the value of R2, the approximate analy-
sis can be used with a high degree of accuracy.
βRE ≥ 10R2
From the base-emitter circuit,
VE = VB – VBE
VE V − VBE
IE = = B
RE RE
IC ≈ IE
Hence, IC is independent of the value of β.

Collector-emitter voltage V CE
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC –VCE – IE RE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC – IE RE
= VCC – IC(RC + RE) ( IC ≈ IE)
Hence, VCE is independent of the value of β.
Thus, Q-point is independent of the value of β.

Example 1.21: For the circuit shown in Fig. 1.58, find IC and VCE by approximate analysis.
Compare the result with exact analysis.
+18 V

39 kΩ 3.3 kΩ

β = 120

8.2 kΩ 1 kΩ

Fig. 1.58 Example 1.21

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1.13 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit (Self-bias Circuit)   1.73

Solution:
If βRE ≥ 10R2, the approximate analysis can be used with a high degree of accuracy.
βRE = 120 × 1 × 103 = 120 kΩ
10R2 = 10 × 8.2 × 103 = 82 kΩ
Since βRE > 10R2, approximate analysis is used.

R2
(i) VB = V
R1 + R2 CC

8.2 × 103
= × 18
39 × 103 + 8.2 × 103
= 3.13 V
VE = VB – VBE = 3.13 – 0.7 = 2.43 V

VE 2.43
IE = = = 2.43 mA
RE 1 × 10−3

IC = 2.43 mA ( IC ≈ IE)

(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,

VCC – IC RC –VCE – IE RE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC – IE RE
= VCC – IC(RC + RE) ( IC ≈ IE)
= 18 – (2.43 × 10–3) (3.3 × 103 + 1 × 103)
= 7.55 V

Exact analysis
(i) Replacing the base circuit by its Thevenin’s equivalent (Fig. 1.59),
VB = 3.13 V
R1 R2
RB =
R1 + R2

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1.74   Electronic Circuits I

39 × 103 × 8.2 × 103


=
39 × 103 + 8.2 × 103
= 6.78 kΩ

+VCC
IC

RC

IB RB +
VCE
+

VBE − IE

VB
RE

Fig. 1.59 Thevenin's Equivalent Circuit

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,


VB – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VB – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB RE = 0

VB − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE

3.13 − 0.7
=
6.78 × 10 + (120 + 1)(1 × 103 )
3

= 19.02 μA
IC = β IB = 120 × 19.02 × 10–6 = 2.28 mA

(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,


VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IC RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC – (IB + IC)RE

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1.13 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit (Self-bias Circuit)   1.75

= 18 – 2.28 × 10–3 × 3.3 × 103 – (19.02 × 10–6 + 2.28 × 10–3) (1 × 103)


= 8.18 V

Example 1.22: For the circuit shown in Fig. 1.60, find IC, VCE and stability factor S.

+30 V

90 kΩ 5 kΩ

β = 100

10 kΩ 5 kΩ

Fig. 1.60 Example 1.22

Solution:
(i) Replacing the base circuit by its Thevenin’s equivalent (Fig. 1.61),

R2
VB = V
R1 + R2 CC

10 × 103
= × 30
90 × 103 + 10 × 103

= 3V
R1 R2
RB =
R1 + R2

90 × 103 × 10 × 103
=
90 × 103 + 10 × 103
= 9 kΩ

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1.76   Electronic Circuits I

+VCC
IC

RC

IB RB +
VCE
+

VBE − IE

VB
RE

Fig. 1.61 Thevenin's Equivalent Circuit

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,


VB – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VB – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB RE = 0

VB − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE

3 − 0.7
=
9 × 10 + (100 + 1) (5 × 103 )
3

= 4.47 μA
IC = β IB = 100(4.47 × 10–6) = 0.447 mA
(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IC RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC – (IB + IC)RE
= 30 – 0.447 × 10–3 × 5 × 103 – (4.47 × 10–6 + 0.447 × 10–3)(5 × 103)
= 25.5 V

β +1
(iii) S =
β RE
1+
RB + RE

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1.13 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit (Self-bias Circuit)   1.77

100 + 1
=
100 × 5 × 103
1+
9 × 103 + 5 × 103
= 2.75

Example 1.23: Find RC, R1 and R2 of the circuit shown in Fig. 1.62, if IC = 1 mA, RE = 1 kΩ,
VCC = 10 V, β = 100, S = 10 and VCE = 5 V.

+10 V

R1 RC

R2 1 kΩ

Fig. 1.62 Example 1.23

Solution:

I C 1 × 10−3
(i) IB = = = 0.01 mA
β 100
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IC RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0

VCC − VCE − ( I B + I C ) RE
RC =
IC

10 − 5 − (0.01 × 10−3 + 1 × 10−3 )(1 × 103 )


=
1 × 10−3
= 3.99 kΩ

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1.78   Electronic Circuits I

β +1
(ii) S =
β RE
1+
RB + RE

100 + 1
10 =
100 × 1 × 103
1+
RB + 1 × 103
RB = 9.98 kΩ
Replacing the base circuit by its Thevenin’s equivalent (Fig. 1.63),

+VCC
IC

RC

IB RB +
VCE
+

VBE − IE

VB
RE

Fig. 1.63 Thevenin's Equivalent Circuit

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,


VB – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VB – IB RB – VBE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VB = IB RB + VBE + (IB + IC)RE
= 0.01 × 10–3 × 9.98 × 103 + 0.7 + (0.01 × 10–3 + 1 × 10–3) (1 × 103)
= 1.71 V
R2
VB = V
R1 + R2 CC

Multiplying both the sides by R1,


R1 R2
R1VB = V = RB VCC
R1 + R2 CC

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1.13 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit (Self-bias Circuit)    1.79

RBVCC
R1 =
VB
9.98 × 103 × 10
=
1.71
= 58.36 kΩ
R1 R2
(iii) RB =
R1 + R2
58.36 × 103 × R2
9.98 × 103 =
58.36 × 103 + R2
R2 = 12.04 kΩ

Example 1.24: For the circuit shown in Fig. 1.64, find RE, R1 and R2.
+16 V

R1 1.5 kΩ

VCE = 8 V
IC = 4 mA
β = 50
S = 10
VBE = 0.3 V

R2 RE

Fig. 1.64 Example 1.24

Solution:
I C 4 × 10−3
(i) IB = = = 0.08 mA
β 50
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE = 0
VCC – IC RC – VCE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VCC − VCE − I C RC
RE =
I B + IC

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 79 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.80   Electronic Circuits I

16 − 8 − 4 × 10−3 × 1.5 × 103


=
0.08 × 10−3 + 4 × 10−3
= 0.49 kΩ
β +1
(ii) S =
β RE
1+
RB + RE

51
10 =
50 × 0.49 × 103
1+
RB + 0.49 × 103
RB = 5.49 kΩ
Replacing the base circuit by its Thevenin’s equivalent (Fig. 1.65),
+VCC
IC

RC

IB RB +
VCE
+

VBE − IE

VB
RE

Fig. 1.65 Thevenin's Equivalent Circuit

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,


VB – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VB – IB RB – VBE – (IB + IC)RE = 0
VB = IB RB + VBE + (IB + IC)RE
= 0.08 × 10–3 × 5.49 × 103 + 0.3 + (0.08 × 10–3 + 4 × 10–3) (0.49 × 10–3)
= 2.53 V
R2
VB = V
R1 + R2 CC

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1.13 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit (Self-bias Circuit)   1.81

Multiplying both the sides by R1,


R1 R2
R1 VB = V
R1 + R2 CC
= RB VCC
RBVCC
R1 =
VB
5.49 × 103 × 16
=
2.53
= 34.72 kΩ
R1 R2
(iii) RB =
R1 + R2
34.72 × 103 × R2
5.49 × 103 =
34.72 × 103 + R2
R2 = 4.74 kΩ

Example 1.25: Determine the percentage change in IC and VCE for the circuit shown in
Fig. 1.66 when β changes from 100 to 150.
+18 V

33 kΩ 1.2 kΩ

12 kΩ 1 kΩ

Fig. 1.66 Example 1.25

Solution:
Replacing the base circuit by its Thevenin’s equivalent (Fig. 1.67),

R2
VB = V
R1 + R2 CC

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 81 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.82   Electronic Circuits I

12 × 103
= × 18
33 × 103 + 12 × 103
= 4.8 V
R1 R2
RB =
R1 + R2
33 × 103 × 12 × 103
=
33 × 103 + 12 × 103
= 8.8 kΩ
+VCC
IC

RC

IB RB +
VCE
+

VBE − IE

VB
RE

Fig. 1.67 Thevenin's Equivalent Circuit

(a) For β = 100


Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VB – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
VB – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB RE = 0
VB − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE
4.8 − 0.7
=
8.8 × 10 + (100 + 1)(1 × 103 )
3

= 37.34 μA
IC = β IB = 100 × 37.34 × 10–6 = 3.73 mA
IE = IB + IC = 37.34 × 10–6 + 3.73 × 10–3 = 3.77 mA

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1.13 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit (Self-bias Circuit)   1.83

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,


VCC – IC RC –VCE – IE RE = 0
VCE = VCC – IC RC – IE RE
= 18 – 3.73 × 10–3 × 1.2 × 103 − 3.77 × 10–3 × 1 × 103
= 9.75 V
(b) For β = 150

VB − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE

4.8 − 0.7
=
8.8 × 10 + (150 + 1)(1 × 103 )
3

= 25.66 μA
IC = β IB = 150 × 25.66 × 10–6 = 3.85 mA
IE = IB + IC = 25.66 × 10–6 + 3.85 × 10–3 = 3.88 mA
VCE = VCC – IC RC – IE RE
= 18 – 3.85 × 10–3 × 1.2 × 103 – 3.88 × 10–3 × 1 × 103
= 9.5 V

3.85 × 10−3 − 3.73 × 10−3


(i) % ∆IC = × 100
3.73 × 10−3
= 3.22%

9.5 − 9.75
(ii) % ∆VCE = × 100
9.75
= −2.56%
When β increases by 50%, IC increases by 3.22% and VCE decreases by 2.56%.

Example 1.26: For the circuit of the Fig. 1.66, determine (i) S, (ii) S′, (iii) S″ when β2 is 25%
more than β1 and (iv) the net change in IC if a change in operating condition results in ICO in-
creasing from 0.2 μA to 10 μA, VBE drops from 0.7 V to 0.5 V, and β increases by 25%.

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 83 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.84   Electronic Circuits I

Solution:
β1 = 100

β2 = 125

IC1 = 3.73 mA (From Example 1.25)

β +1
(i) S =
β RE
1+
RB + RE

100 + 1
=
100 × 1 × 103
1+
8.8 × 103 + 1 × 103
= 9.01

β
(ii) S′ = −
RB + ( β + 1) RE

100
= −
8.8 × 10 + (100 + 1)(1 × 103 )
3

= –9.11 × 10–4

IC RB + RE
(iii) S″ = 1
×
β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE

3.73 × 10−3 8.8 × 103 + 1 × 103


= ×
100 8.8 × 103 + (125 + 1)(1 × 103 )

= 2.71 × 10–6 A
(iv) ∆IC = S ∆ICO + S′ ∆VBE + S″ ∆β

= 9.01(10 × 10–6 – 0.2 × 10–6) + (–9.11 × 10–4)(0.5 – 0.7) + (2.71 × 10–6) (125 – 100)

= 9.01 × 9.8 × 10–6 + 9.11 × 10–4 × 0.2 + 2.71 × 10–6 × 25

= 0.33 mA

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 84 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.13 Voltage-divider Bias Circuit (Self-b ias Circuit)   1.85

SUMMARY OF BJT BIASING CIRCUITS


Configuration Circuit Equation Load line and Q-Point
Fixed bias +VCC
VCC − VBE
IC
  IB =
RB
RB RC
VCC
⎛ V − VBE ⎞ RC
  IC = β ⎜ CC ⎟
⎝ RB ⎠ ICQ
Q
IBQ

VCE = VCC – ICRC


0 VCEQ VCC VCE
   S = β + 1

β
 S' = −
RB

IC
 S" = 1

β1

Modified +VCC
VCC − VBE
IC
fixed bias   IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE
RB RC
VCC
⎡ ⎤
  IC = β ⎢ VCC − VBE ⎥ R C + RE

⎣ RB + ( β + 1) RE ⎦ ICQ
Q
IBQ

VCE = VCC – IC RC – (IB + IC)RE


RE 0 VCEQ VCC VCE

β +1
   S =
β RE
1+
RB + RE

β
 S' = −
RB + ( β + 1) RE

IC RB + RE
1
  S" =
β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE

(Continued )

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1.86   Electronic Circuits I

SUMMARY OF BJT BIASING CIRCUITS (Continued)

Configuration Circuit Equation Load line and Q-Point


Collector-to- +VCC
VCC − VBE
IC
base bias IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RC
RC
VCC
RB
⎡ VCC − VBE ⎤ RC
IC = β ⎢ ⎥ Q
⎣ RB + ( β + 1) RC ⎦ ICQ IBQ

β +1 0 VCEQ VCC VCE


S=
β RC
1+
RB + RC

β
S' = −
RB + ( β + 1) RC

IC RB + RC
1
S" =
β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RC

Modified +VCC
VCC − VBE
IC
collector-   IB =
to-base bias RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )
RC
RB ⎡ VCC − VBE ⎤ VCC
  IC = β ⎢ ⎥ RC + RE
⎣ RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE ) ⎦ Q
ICQ IBQ
VCE = VCC – (IB + IC)(RC + RE)
0 VCEQ VCC VCE
β +1
   S =
β ( RC + RE )
RE 1+
RB + RC + RE

β
 S' = −
RB + ( β + 1)( RC + RE )

IC RB + RC + RE
1
 S" =
β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1)( RC + RE )

(Continued )

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 86 7/20/12 3:40 PM


1.14 Miscellaneous Bias Circuits   1.87

Configuration Circuit Equation Load line and Q-Point


Voltage- +VCC
VB − VBE
IC
divider bias  IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE
R1 RC
⎡ VB − VBE ⎤ VCC
 IC = β ⎢ ⎥
⎣ RB + ( β + 1) RE ⎦
RC + RE

ICQ Q
IBQ
β +1
S=
R2 β RE
1+
RE RB + RE 0 VCEQ VCC VCE

β
 S' = −
RB + ( β + 1) RE

IC RB + RE
1
S" =
β1 RB + ( β 2 + 1) RE

1.14 MISCELLANEOUS BIAS CIRCUITS


There are many bias circuits that do not match the basic models discussed so far. These circuits
are discussed in this section. For each circuit, first base current has to be calculated. Then col-
lector current and output voltage can be determined to locate Q-point.

Example 1.27: In the circuit shown in Fig. 1.68, find RB and VCE.
+18 V

4 kΩ

β = 50
IC = 2 mA

RB 200 Ω

−4 V
Fig. 1.68 Example 1.27

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1.88   Electronic Circuits I

Solution:
DC equivalent circuit (Fig. 1.69)

+VCC

IC

RC

+
VCE
+

IB VBE − IE

RB
RE

−VEE

Fig. 1.69 DC Equivalent Circuit

I C 2 × 10−3
(i) IB = = = 40 μA
β 50
IE = IB + IC = 40 × 10–6 + 2 × 10–3 = 2.04 mA

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,


–IB RB – VBE – IE RE + VEE = 0

VEE − VBE − I E RE
RB =
IB

4 − 0.7 − 2.04 × 10−3 × 200


=
40 × 10−6
= 72.3 kΩ
(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,

VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE + VEE = 0


VCE = VCC + VEE – IC RC – IE RE
= 18 + 4 – 2 × 10–3 × 4 × 103 – 2.04 × 10–3 × 200
= 13.59 V

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1.14 Miscellaneous Bias Circuits   1.89

Example 1.28: Determine IB and VE for the circuit shown in Fig. 1.70.
+6 V

330 kΩ

β = 120

VE

1.2 kΩ

−6 V
Fig. 1.70 Example 1.28
Solution:
DC equivalent circuit (Fig. 1.71)
+VCC
IE

RB

+
VBE − VE

RE

−VEE

Fig. 1.71 DC Equivalent Circuit


(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VCC – IB RB – VBE – IE RE + VEE = 0
VCC – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB IE + VEE = 0
V + VEE − VBE
IB = CC
RB + ( β + 1) RE
6 + 6 − 0.7
=
330 × 10 + (120 + 1)(1.2 × 103 )
3

= 23.72 μA
(ii) IE = (β + 1)IB
= (120 + 1) (23.72 × 10–6)
= 2.87 mA

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1.90   Electronic Circuits I

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the emitter circuit,


VE – IE RE + VEE = 0
VE = IE RE – VEE
= 2.87 × 10–3 × 1.2 × 103 – 6
= –2.547 V

Example 1.29: Determine IE, VCE and VC in the circuit shown in Fig. 1.72.
+10 V

1.8 kΩ

2.2 kΩ

−8 V
Fig. 1.72 Example 1.29
Solution:
DC equivalent circuit (Fig. 1.73)
+VCC

IC

RC

VC
IB +
VCE
+

VBE − IE

RE

−VEE

Fig. 1.73 DC Equivalent Circuit

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1.14 Miscellaneous Bias Circuits   1.91

(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,

– VBE – IE RE + VEE = 0
VEE − VBE
IE =
RE

8 − 0.7
=
2.2 × 103
= 3.318 mA
IE ≈ IC = 3.318 mA
(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,

VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE + VEE = 0


VCE = VCC + VEE – (RC + RE)IC ( IE ≈ IC)
= 10 + 8 – (1.8 × 103 + 2.2 × 103) (3.318 × 10–3)
= 4.73 V
(iii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,
VC – VCE – IE RE + VEE = 0
VC = VCE + IE RE – VEE
= 4.73 + 3.318 × 10–3 × 2.2 × 103 – 8
= 4.03 V

Example 1.30: Determine IE and VCE for the circuit shown in Fig. 1.74.

β = 90

240 kΩ 2 kΩ

−20 V
Fig. 1.74 Example 1.30

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 91 19 07 12 3:23 PM
1.92   Electronic Circuits I

Solution:
DC equivalent circuit (Fig. 1.75)

IB +
VCE
+

VBE − IE

RB RE

−VEE

Fig. 1.75 DC Equivalent Circuit

(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,

–IB RB – VBE – IE RE + VEE = 0


–IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB RE + VEE = 0
VEE − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE

20 − 0.7
=
240 × 10 + (90 + 1)(2 × 103 )
3

= 45.73 μA
IE = (β + 1)IB
= (90 + 1) (45.73 × 10–6)
= 4.16 mA

(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,


–VCE – IE RE + VEE = 0
VCE = VEE – IE RE
= 20 – 4.16 × 10–3 × 2 × 103
= 11.68 V

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1.14 Miscellaneous Bias Circuits   1.93

Example 1.31: Find RC and R1 for the circuit shown in Fig. 1.76.
+16 V

RC

R1

VBE = 0.2 V
IE = 2 mA
α = 0.985
VCE = 6 V

30 kΩ 1 kΩ

Fig. 1.76 Example 1.31


Solution:
DC equivalent circuit (Fig. 1.77)
(i) V2 = VBE + IE RE
= 0.2 + 2 × 10–3 × 1 × 103
= 2.2 V
+VCC

RC

IC + I1

I1
+ IC

R1 V1 IB +
− VCE
I2 −
IE
+
R2 V2 RE

Fig. 1.77 DC Equivalent Circuit

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1.94   Electronic Circuits I

V2 2.2
I2 = = = 73.3 μA
R2 30 × 103

α 0.985
β= = = 65.66
1 − α 1 − 0.985

IE 2 × 10−3
IB = = = 30 μA
β + 1 65.66 + 1

IC = IE – IB = 2 × 10–3 – 30 × 10–6 = 1.97 mA

I1 = I2 + IB = 73.3 × 10–6 + 30 × 10–6 = 103.3 μA

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,

VCC – (IC + I1)RC – VCE – IE RE = 0

VCC − VCE − I E RE
RC =
I C + I1

16 − 6 − 2 × 10−3 × 1 × 103
=
1.97 × 10−3 + 103.3 × 10−6

= 3.859 kΩ

(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit,

VCC – (IC + I1)RC – R1I1 – V2 = 0

VCC − V2 − ( I C + I1 ) RC
R1 =
I1

16 − 2.2 − (1.97 × 10−3 + 103.3 × 10−6 )(3.859 × 103 )


=
103.3 × 10−6

= 56.15 kΩ

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1.14 Miscellaneous Bias Circuits   1.95

Example 1.32: Determine IB, IC, VE and VCE for the circuit shown in Fig. 1.78.
+18 V

9.1 kΩ
510 kΩ

VC
+
VCE β = 130
+

VBE −
VE

510 kΩ 6.8 kΩ

−18 V

Fig. 1.78 Example 1.32


Solution:
Replacing the base circuit by its Thevenin’s equivalent (Fig. 1.79),
+VCC +VCC

I
RC

IC
R1
VC
IB +
RB
VB VCE
+

VBE − VE
R2 IE
VB
RE

−VEE −VEE

 (a)              (b)
Fig. 1.79 Thevenin's Equivalent Circuit
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the circuit,
VCC – I(R1 + R2) + VEE = 0
VCC + VEE
I=
R1 + R2

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1.96   Electronic Circuits I

18 + 18
=
510 × 103 + 510 × 103
= 35.29 μA
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the lower part of the circuit of Fig. 1.79(a),
VB – I R2 + VEE = 0
VB = –VEE + I R2
= –18 + 35.29 × 10–6 × 510 × 103
= –2.1 V

R1 R2
RB =
R1 + R2

510 × 103 × 510 × 103


=
510 × 103 + 510 × 103
= 255 kΩ
(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit of Fig. 1.79(b),
–VB – IB RB – VBE – IE RE + VEE = 0
–VB – IB RB – VBE – (β + 1)IB RE + VEE = 0

VEE − VB − VBE
IB =
RB + ( β + 1) RE

18 − 2.1 − 0.7
=
255 × 10 + (130 + 1)(6.8 × 103 )
3

= 13.27 μA
(ii) IC = β IB = 130 × 13.27 × 10–6 = 1.73 mA
(iii) IE = IB + IC = 13.27 × 10–6 + 1.73 × 10–3 = 1.74 mA

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the emitter circuit,


VE – IE RE + VEE = 0
VE = IE RE – VEE
= 1.74 × 10–3 × 6.8 × 103 – 18
= –6.17 V

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1.14 Miscellaneous Bias Circuits   1.97

(iv) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-emitter circuit of Fig. 1.79(b),
VCC – IC RC – VCE – IE RE + VEE = 0
VCE = VCC + VEE – IC RC – IE RE
= 18 + 18 – 1.73 × 10–3 × 9.1 × 103 – 1.74 × 10–3 × 6.8 × 103
= 8.43 V

Example 1.33: Determine the currents IE and IB and the voltages VCB and VCE for the circuit
shown in Fig. 1.80.

4.7 kΩ 3.6 kΩ
β = 75

5V 8V

Fig. 1.80 Example 1.33

Solution:
DC equivalent circuit (Fig. 1.81)

IE VCE IC
− +
− +
VBE VCB
RE RC
+ −

VEE VCC

Fig. 1.81 DC Equivalent Circuit

(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the emitter-base circuit,

–VEE + IE RE + VBE = 0

VEE − VBE
IE =
RE

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1.98   Electronic Circuits I

5 − 0.7
=
4.7 × 103
= 0.91 mA
IE
(ii) IB =
β +1

0.91 × 10−3
=
75 + 1
= 11.97 μA

(iii) IC = β IB = 75 × 11.97 × 10−6 = 0.9 mA


Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-base circuit,
VCC – IC RC – VCB = 0
VCB = VCC – IC RC
= 8 – 0.9 × 10–3 × 3.6 × 103
= 4.76 V
(iv) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the entire outside perimeter of the circuit,
–VEE + IE RE + VCE + IC RC – VCC = 0
VCE = VEE + VCC – IE RE – IC RC
= 5 + 8 – 0.91 × 10–3 × 4.7 × 103 – 0.9 × 10–3 × 3.6 × 103
= 5.48 V

Example 1.34: Find RE and RC for the circuit shown in Fig. 1.82.

RE RC α = 0.99
IE = 1.1 mA
VCE = 7 V
4V 12 V

Fig. 1.82 Example 1.34

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1.14 Miscellaneous Bias Circuits   1.99

Solution:
DC equivalent circuit (Fig. 1.83)
IE VCE IC
− +
− +
VBE VCB
RE RC
+ −

VEE VCC

Fig. 1.83 DC Equivalent Circuit

(i) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the emitter-base circuit,

–VEE + IE RE + VBE = 0

VEE − VBE
RE =
IE

4 − 0.7
=
1.1 × 10−3
= 3Ω
(ii) Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law around the transistor terminal,

VCE = VCB + VBE


VCB = VCE – VBE = 7 – 0.7 = 6.3 V
IC = α IE = 0.99 × 1.1 × 10–3 = 1.089 mA

Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the collector-base circuit,

VCC – IC RC – VCB = 0

VCC − VCB
RC =
IC

12 − 6.3
=
1.089 × 10−3
= 5.234 kΩ

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1.100   Electronic Circuits I

1.15 BIAS COMPENSATION
The biasing circuits provide stability of Q-point against variations in ICO, VBE and β. The
collector-to-base bias circuit and voltage-divider bias circuit use negative feedback to stabilize
Q-point which reduces the amplification of the signal. If this reduction in gain is intolerable,
compensation techniques are used. In this method, temperature-sensitive devices such as
diodes, transistors, thermistors and sensistors etc. are used which provide compensating volt-
age and current to stabilize variations in IC with VBE and ICO.

1.15.1 Diode Compensation for V BE


A circuit utilizing the voltage-divider stabilization technique and diode compensation is shown
in Fig. 1.84.

+VCC +VCC

R1 RC RC

IC
IB RB
+
VBE −

RE RE
R R
R2 VB −
VD
D V D V
+

Fig. 1.84 Diode Compensation for VBE

The diode is forward biased by the voltage V and current-limiting resistor R. We know
that VBE decreases by 2.5 mV/oC; i.e. the device starts operating at lower voltage which
changes IB and IC and hence, Q-point. If the diode is of the same type and material as
the transistor, the voltage across the diode will have the same temperature coefficient
(–2.5 mV/oC) as the base-emitter voltage VBE. The variation in VBE and voltage across the
diode will be equal and opposite. Hence, they cancel out and IB and IC become indepen-
dent of VBE.
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
VB – IB RB – VBE – IE RE + VD = 0
VB = IB RB + IE RE ( VBE = VD = 0.7 V)

M01_XXXXXXXX_XX_C01.indd 100 19 07 12 3:23 PM


1.15 Bias Compensation   1.101

≈ IE RE ( IE >> IB)

VB
IE ≈ IC = = constant
RE

1.15.2 Diode Compensation for I CO


For germanium transistors, changes in ICO with temperature play the important role in
collector current stability. A circuit utilizing the voltage-divider stabilization technique
and diode compensation for ICO is shown in Fig. 1.85. In this circuit, the diode is kept
in reverse-biased condition. The diode D is connected in place of resistance R2. If the
diode and the transistor are of the same type and material, the reverse saturation current
IO of the diode will increase with temperature at the same rate as the transistor saturation
current ICO.

+VCC
I

RC
R1
IC
IB
+
Io
VBE −

Fig. 1.85 Diode Compensation for ICO

From Fig. 1.85,


VCC − VBE
I=
R1

For germanium transistor VBE = 0.2 V which is very small and can be neglected.

VCC
I≈ = constant
R1
IB = I – IO

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1.102   Electronic Circuits I

We know that

IC = β IB + (β + 1)ICO

Substituting the value of IB,


IC = β (I – IO) + (β + 1)ICO
= β (I – IO) + β ICO [ (β +1) ≈ β]
= β [(I – (IO + ICO)]
As temperature increases, IO and ICO will change by the same amount.

IC = β IO ( IO = ICO)

As I is constant, IC remains essentially constant. Thus, changes in ICO with temperature are
compensated by the diode.

1.15.3 Thermistor and Sensistor Compensation


In this method of transistor compensation, temperature-sensitive resistive elements are used
instead of diodes or transistors. A circuit utilizing the voltage-divider stabilization technique
and thermistor is shown in Fig. 1.86 to minimize the increase in collector current due to chang-
es in ICO, VBE and β.

+VCC

R1 RC
RT

R2
RE

Fig. 1.86 Thermistor Compensation

Thermistor RT has a negative temperature coefficient. It is a temperature-sensitive resistor


whose resistance decreases exponentially as temperature increases. When temperature increases,

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1.15 Bias Compensation   1.103

ICO and IC increase. But with rise in temperature, resistance of the thermistor decreases. Hence,
increased collector current flows through thermistor into RE. Hence, voltage drop across RE
increases. This voltage drop provides negative feedback such that IB decreases and hence, IC
decreases.
An alternative compensation technique using thermistor is to place RT in place of R2 as shown
in Fig. 1.87. When temperature increases, ICO and IC increase. But with rise in temperature,
resistance of the thermistor decreases. The voltage drop across RT decreases, which decreases
the forward-biasing base voltage. Hence, IB and IC decrease.

+VCC

R1 RC

RT RE

Fig. 1.87 Thermistor Compensation

Instead of a thermistor, it is possible to use a temperature-sensitive resistor with a positive


temperature coefficient, i.e. sensistor. Its resistance increases exponentially as temperature
increases. It is connected in place of R1 in voltage-divider bias circuit as shown in Fig. 1.88.

+VCC

RT RC

R2 RE

Fig. 1.88 Sensistor Compensation

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1.104   Electronic Circuits I

When temperature increases, ICO and IC increase. But with rise in temperature, resistance of
the sensistor increases, which decreases current flowing through it. Hence, current through R2
decreases, which reduces the voltage drop across it. This decreases the forward-biasing base
voltage. Hence, IB and IC decrease.

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