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Closer to Freedom In India

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CLOSER TO FREEDOM (1930-1947)

CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE spilled out into the streets was so large that the
MOVEMENT (1930) police just withdrew. Another round of boycott
of foreign goods followed, provoking a
Dandi March (12 March-6 April 1930) nationwide Civil Disobedience movement in
which women also participated. Soon, thereafter,
Gandhi started his famous march along the British used repressive measures such as
with 79 followers from Sabaramati Ashram on mass arrests, lathi-charge, police firing, about
20 March 1930 to the small village of Dandi to 1,00,000 people went to jail. In Sholapur. the
break the Salt Law. It is also called the ’Salt textile workers, who dominated the strike along
Satyagraha’ or the ’Dandi March’. The Congress with the residents of the town, went on to attack
leaders and workers had been busy at various all symbols of the government authority. They
levels w.th the organizational tasks of enrolling established a virtual parallel government in the
volunteers and members, forming Congress city which could only be dislodged with the
Committees at the grass-rootlevel, collecting imposition of martial law after 16 May 1930.
funds and touring villages and towns to spread
nationalistic messages. Preparations for Gandhi’s 11-point Ultimatum
launching the Salt Satyagraha were made, sites
Gandhi launched another civil disobedience
chosen, volunteers prepared and the logistics of
movement towards achieving the goal of
‘battle’ worked out. By the time Gandhi reached
complete independence. In the Beginning, he
Dandi, he had a whole nation aroused and
served an 11-point ultimatum to the authorities
expeetunt, waiting for the final signal. On
which was mainly about the common
reaching the seashore on 6 April 1930, Gandhi
grievances of the people of India, but did not
broke theSalt Law by picking up salt from the
include the demand for complete
seashore. Through this act. Gandhi set into
independence. Among the 11 demands, two
motion the Civil Disobedience movement, a
were the demands of the peasants (abolition of
movement that was to remain unsurpassed in the
salt tax to eradicate the government's salt
history of the Indian national movement for the
monopoly and reduction in the land revenue by
countrywide participation it unleashed. The
50 percent); three were the demands of the
movement became so powerful that it sparked
middle class (coastal itippi'igjo be reserved for
off patriotism even among the Indian soldiers in
Indians, adequate protection to the domestic
the Army. One such example was that of the
textile industry of India, and checking the
18th Royal Garhwali Rifles soldiers who refused
deterforcringi rupee-sterling exchange ratio);
to fire at the people in Peshawar, on 25 April
the rest were common grievances-
1930.
modifications in the working of the Central
Imposition of Martial Law Intelligence Departments, release ot political
pnsoners, complete-prohibition of intoxicants,
Gandhi was arrested on 5 May 1930. 50 per cent reduction in military expenditure,
The protest of the people over the arrest was 50 per cent cut in civil administration
widespread. In many towns, the crowd that

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expenditure, and changes in the Arms Act, thus .present except the Congress, whose leaders
allowing citizens to beafarms for self- were in jail because of the Civil Disobedience
protection). movement. The Congress leaders stated that they
would have nothing to do with further
constitutional discussions unless the Nehru
THE FIRST ROUND TABLE Report was enforced in its entirety as the
CONFERENCE (12 NOVEMBER constitution of India.
1930) Almost 89 members attended the
conference, out of whom 58 were chosen from
Events Leading to the Conference
various communities and interests in British
The Indian political community received India, and the rest from the princely states and
the Simon Commission Report issued in June other political parties. The prominent Muslim
1930, with great resentment. Different political delegates invited by the British government
parties gave vent to their feelings in different were Sir Aga Khan, Mohammad Alt Jinnah.
ways. The Congress started the Civil Maulana Muhammad AliJouhar, Sir Muhammad
Disobedience Movement under Gandhi’s Shaft and Maulvi Fazl-i-Haq. Sir Tej Bahadur
command. The Muslims reserved their opinion Sapru, Jayakar and Dr. Moonje too were invited.
on the Simon Report declaring that the report The Commission had proposed self-government
was not final and that matters shouldbe decided in the provinces and federation of British India
after consultations with leaders repnesenting all and the princely states at the Centre. However,
communities of India. The British government the representatives of the Muslim League,
refused the contemplate any form of selt- Liberals and other parties assembled for
govemment for the peopleof discussion on the commission report. The
India. The Indian political situation reached a Muslim-Hindu differences overshadowed the
deadlock. This caused frustration among the conference—the Hindus were pushed for a
masses, who often expressed their anger in powerful central government while the Muslims
violent clashes. stood for a loose federation of completely
autonomous provinces. The Muslims demanded
The Labour Government returned to maintenance of weightage and separate
power in Britain 1931, raising hope in the electorates, the Hindus did not want these. The
Indians. Labour leaders had always been Muslims claimed statutory majority in Punjab
sympathetic to the Indian cause. The and Bengal, while the Hindus resisted its
government decided to hold a Round Table imposition. In Punjab, the situation was
Conference in London, consider new complicated by inflated Sikh claims. Further, Dr.
constitutional reforms. Representatives of Indian Ambedkar was demanding separate electorate
political parties were summoned to London f0r for the depressed classes. Eight subcommittees
thc conference. were set up to deal with all these details. The
committees dealt with the federal structure,
The Conference provincial constitution, adult franchise, Sindh,
the North-West Frontier Province, defence
In the first session of the cohference
services and minorities. However, in the absence
which opened in London, all parties were

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of the Congress-premier political party, the First realised that the cooperation of the Indian
Round Table Conference had to be adjourned to National Congress was necessary to make
2 January 1931. All that emerged was a general progress in framing the Indian constitution.
agreement to write safeguards for the minorities Early in 1931, two demand for freedom. The
into the constitution and a vague desire to devise communal question dominated moderate
a federal system for the country. statesmen. Sapru and Jayakar, initiated eltorts to
conference and Gandhi had to return empty-
Peshawa incident of 18th Royal handed bring about a rapprochement between
Garhwali Rifles (25 April 1930) Gandhi and the government. Lord Irwin, the
Viceroy, extended an invitation to Gandhi for
Events in Peshawar took an even more
talks. Gandhi agreed to end the Civil
dramatic turn. Ghaffar Khan's Pathan
Disobedience Movement without setting any
movement (whose members were
preconditions. Six meetings with Loul Irwin
called'Khudai Khidmatgars’) stayed non-
finally led to the signing of a pact between the
violent and within the Congressfold but if
two on 5 March 1931. whereby the Congress
attracted huge number of Pathans who bestit
called oft the movement and agreed to join the
attracted huge number of Pathans who believed
Second Round liable Conference. The terms of
it would fight against the chronic Indebtedness
the agreement included the immediate release ot
to moneylenders. In 6 months after the Lahore
all political prisoners not convicted for violence,
Congress, its membership shot up from 500 to
the remission ol all fines not yet collected, the
50,000. The British freely used aerial
return of confiscated land not yet sold to third
bambardment on the village areas. The arrest of
parties and lenient treatment of all the
Ghaffa, Khan and on 23 April 1930, led to a
government offic ials who had resigned. Gandhi
massive upsurge in Peshawar with the crowds
and other leaders were released from jail as
confronting armoured cars and defying,
Irwin agreed to release most political ni isoners
intensive firing for 3 hrs at Kissakahani Bazaar.
and to return the properties that had been seized
Accordi to the British, 30 were killed whereas
by the government. The government also
according to non-official estimates 200-250
conceded the right to make salt for consumption
were killed-recalling the scale of Jallianwala
in villages along the coast and also the right to
Bagh. A remarkable event took place during
peaceful and non- aggressive picketing. The
the firing. Two platoons of the Second
salient points of the agreement were as follows:
Battalion of the18th Royal Garhwali Rifles,
Hindu troops facing a Muslim crowd, refused 1. The Congress was supposed to
to fire, broke ranks, and fraternised with the discontinue the Civil Disobedience
crowd, handing over their weapons. They were movement.
bter lo declare before their court martial. 2. The Congress was supposed to
participate in the Round Table
Conference.
GANDHI-IRWIN PACT (5 MARCH 3. The government was supposed to
1931) withdraw all ordinaces issed to curb the
Congress.
After the conclusion of the First Round
Table Conference, the British government

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4. The government was supposed to their reports; the Franchise Committee, the
withdraw all prosecutions relating to Federal Finance Committee and the States
offenses not involving violence. Inquiry Committee.
5. The government was supposed to
release alt persons undergoing sentences The conference closed on 11 December
of imprisonment for their activities in 1931, without any concrete result. On the
the Civil Disobedience Movement. The concluding day. the British Prime Minister
pact indicatedBritish government was appealed to the Indian leaders to reach a
anxious to bring the Longress to the communal settlement. Failing to do so. he said,
conference table. would force the British government to take a
unilateral decision. Jinnah did not participate in
SECOND ROUND TABLE the session of the Second Round Table
CONFERENCE (12 SEPTEMBER Conference as he had decided to keep himself
aloof from Indian politics and to practise as a
1931)
professional lawyer in England. On his return to
The second session of the conference India. Gandhi once again started Civil
opened in London on 7 September 1931, during Disobedience movement, and was duly arrested.
the viceroyalty of Lord Willington. Gandhi
attended, it on behalf of the Indian National
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE
Congress. Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya and MOVEMENT (SECOND PHASE)
Sarojinl Naidu went there in their personal
Lord Willington, who took charge as the
capacity. The main taskv of the conference was
new Viceroy of India in April 1931, paid no
done through two committees'on federal
heed to the Delhi pact and started breaching the
structure and minorities. Nothing much was
pact on various counts. The Congress was
expected from the conference. The imperialist
already angry with the government over the
political forces, which ultimately controlled the
execution of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and
British Gov ernment in London, were opposed
Sukhdev on 23 March 1931. The Congress was
to any political or economic concession being
declared as an illegal party by Viceroy Lord
given to India which could lead to its
Willington and the Viceroy’s measures to curb
independence. The Round Table Conference,
Indian nationalism and harass Congressmen was
however, failed as Gandhi opposed the British
not taken lightly by the Congress. Gandhi
Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald's policy of
returned to India on 28 December 1932, and was
communal representation and the British
compelled to resume the second phase of the
Government refused the basic Indian demand for
disobedience movement. Within 10 days, more
freedom.
than 60,000 activists of the Congress were
The communal problem represented the arrested and confined to jail. The second phase
most difficult issue for the delegates. Gandhi of the disobedience movement carried on till
again tabled the proposal for a settlement, but 1934. With the government repression, the Civil
the Muslim League rejected it. As a result, the Disobedience Movement gradually waned. The
communal issue was postponed for future Congress officially suspended the movement in
discussion. Three important committees drafted May 1933. Gandhi also withdrew from active

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politics and formally left the Indian National THE COMMUNAL AWARD (1932)
Congress. As a result, the membership of the
Congress dropped to less than five lakhs. While Gandhi was arrested on his return
from London after the Second Round Table
THIRD ROUND TABLE Conference, Ramsay Macdonald announced the
CONFERENCE (17 NOVEMBER Communal Award on 16 August 1932. This was
1932) another expression of the age-old British policy
of ‘Divide and Rule’. Besides containing
The third session began on 17 provisions for representation of Muslims. Sikhs
November 1932, but again proved fruitless since and Europeans, it envisaged communal
the national leaders were in prison. The Indian representation of the depressed classes also.
National Congress was not represented, and According to the Award, the right of separate
Mahatama Gandhi was also absent. The session electorates was not only given to the Muslims of
was short and unimportant. Reports of the India, but also to all the minority communities in
various committees were scrutinised. The the country. The Award declared untouchables
conference ended on 25 December 1932. The or Harijans as a minority and thus the Hind
recommendations of the Round Table depressed classes were given a number of
Conferences were embodied in a White Paper. It special seats, to filled from special depressed
was published in March 1933, and debated in class electorates in the areas where the voters
Parliament directly afterwards, analysed by the were concentrated. Under the Communal
Joint Select Committee and after the final Award, the principle of weightage was also
reading and royal assent, the bill reached the maintained with some modifications in the
Statute Book on 24 July 1935. It was held in Muslim minority provinces. The principle was
London on 12 November 1930, to discuss the also applied fot Europeans in Bengal and
Simon Commission, but was totally boycotted Assam, Sikhs in Punjab and, North-West
by the Indian National Congress. Frontier Province and Hindus in Sindh and
Noith-West,Frontier Province.
Karachi session of Congress (1931)
The communal Awards
The Congress session in Karachi in March
1931, endorsed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. During Gandhi was deeply grieved by the Communal
this session, the Congress also adopted the award and went on a fast m protest against the
memorable resolution of Fundamental Rights award since it aimed to divide India on a
of Indians and the National economic communal basis. While many Indians saw the
Programme (drafted by Jawaharlal Nehru) fast as a diversion from the ongoing political
which included the national democratic charter, movement, all were deeply concerned and
the nationalisarion of key industries in India, emotionally shaken. Almost everywhere in
agrarian reforms, free and compulsory primary India, mass meetings took place. Political
education and protection of culture, language leaders off different persuasions, such as
and script of the minorities of different Madan Mohan Malviya, B. R. Ambedkar and
linguistic areas. M. C. Rajah became active. In the end, they
succeeded in hammering out an agreement,

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known as the Poona Pact, between caste The Communal award created immense
Hindus and the 'untouchable' leaders on 20 dissatisfaction among the Hindus. Gandhi staked
September 1932. The leaders of the various his life to get the award repudiated. In jail,
groups and parties among the Hindus and B. R. Gandhi began his fast unto death against the
Ambedkar on behalf of the Harijans. signed the Communal award. The fast ended on 26
pact. The Poona Pact between caste Hindus and September 1932, with the Poona Pact between
the depressed classes agreed upon a joint Gandhi and Ambedkar. This annulled the
electorate. Communal award. According to the Pact, the
The award was not popular with any idea of separate electorates for the depressed
Indian parly, The Muslims were not happy with classes (Harijans) was abandoned, but the seats
the Communal Award as it had reduced their reserved for them in the provincial legislatures
majority in Punjab and Bengal to a minority. were increased.
Yei, they were prepared to accept it. In its
annual session held in November 1933, the All THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
India Muslim League passed a resolution that ACT (1935)
read: 'Though the decision falls far short of the
Muslim demands, the Muslims have accepted it After the failure of the Third Round
in the best interest of the country, reserving to Table Conference the British government gave
themselves the right to press for the acceptance the Joint Select Committee the’task of
of all their demands.' formulating a new Act for India. The Simon
On the other hand, the Congress Commission Report submitted in 1930, formed
refused to accept the Award and decided to the basis for the Govrnment of India Act, 1935.
launch a campaign against it. The Congress did The new Act received the royal assent on 4
not accept the untouchables as a minority and August 1935. It was the last major constructive
Gandhi undertook, a fast unto death. The achievement of the British in India; its
Congress organised the Allahabad Unity significance matched both its hulk and the
Conference in which they demanded the deliberations in its preparation.
replacement of separate electorates by joint
The committee comprised 16 members
electorates. Many nationalist Muslims and
each from the House of Commons and the
Sikhs also participated in the conference.
House of Lords, 20 representatives from British
Gandhi also held meetings with the leaders of
India, and seven from die princely states. Lord
tne untouchables and convinced them that they
Linlithgow was appointed as the president of the
were very much part of the mainstream Hindu
committee. After a year and a half of
sociefy. He signed the Poona Pact with Dr. B.
deliberations, the committee finally came out
R. Ambedkar, the leader of untouchabes. The
with a draft Bill on 5 February 1935. The Bill
Congress met many of the untouchables'
was discussed in the House of Commons for 43
demands in the Poona Pact.
days and in the House of Lords for 13 days and
finally, after being signed by the King, was
enforced as the Government of India Act, 1935.
POONA PACT (1932)
Reaction to the Act of 1935

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The Act of 1935 was condemned by nearly all 1. A federation of India was promised,
sections of the Indian public and was comprising both British provinces and
unanimously rejected by the Congress. The Princely states. The British wanted the
Congress demanded, instead, the convening of princes to counter-balance the anti-
a Constituent Assembly e.ecied on the basis of imperialist doctrines of die nationalist
adult franchise to frame a constitution for an leaders. The provisions of the Act
independent India, Although the Congress establishing the- federal Central
opposed the Act, yet it contested the elections Government were not to beunne
when the Constitution was introduced on 1 operative until a specified number of
April 1937 The Congress formea ministries; rulers of states hud signed the
first in 6 provinces and then in another two The Instruments of Accession. As this did
Congress high command exercised a great hold not happen, the Central Government
upon the ministries of each province. The continued to function in accordance with
Muslim League was, however, not happy with the 1919 Act. and only the part of the
the Congress rule, especially Jinnah, who 1935 Act dealing with the provincial
described it in these words; Congress was governments became operational.
drunk with power and was oppressive against 2. The Governor-General remained the
the Muslims.' head of the central administration and
enjoyed wide powers
concerningadministration, legislation
Main Features of the Act and finance.
3. No finance bill could be placed in the
The Act continued and extended all the Central Legislature without the consent
existing features of the Indian constitution. of the Governor-General.
Popular representation, which went back to
4. The Federal Legislature was to consist
1892; dyarchy and ministerial responsibility, of two houses, the Council of State
which dated from 1921; provincial autonomy, (Upper House) and the Federal
whose chequered history went back to the Assembly (Lower House).
eighteenth-century presidencies; recognition in
5. The Council of State was to consist of
1909; and the safeguards devised in 1919, were 260 members, out of whom 156 were to
all continuedand in most cases extended.In be elected from British India and 104 to
addition, there were certain new principles be nominated by the rulers of the
introduced. It provided a federal type of princely states.
government. Thus, the Act: 6. The Federal Assembly was to consist of
(a) introduced provincial autonomy; 375 members; out of which 250 were to
(b) abolished dyarchy in provinces; and be elected by the Legislative Assemblies
(c) made ministers responsible to the of the British Indian provinces, while
legislature and federation at the Centre. 125 were to be nominated by the rulers
of the princely states.
The salient features of the Act were as follows: 7. The Central Legislature had the right to
pass any bill, but the bill required the
approval of the Governor-General

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before it became law. On the other hand, Just before World War II broke out, the
the Governor- General had the pow er to Congress declared its unwillingness to associate
frame ordinances. itself to the British government. It also clearly
8. The Indian Council was abolished. In its informed the government that India should not
place, a few advisers were nominated to be pushed to war without the consent of the
help the Secretary of State for India. Indian people. The British government also
9. The Secretary of State was not expected made no clear statement concerning its war and
to interfere in matters that the Governor- peace aims as applicable to India. The British
General dealt with, with the help of the Prime Minister stated that the British were in the
Indian ministers. war to maintain the world safe for democracy
10. The provinces were given autonomy and uphold the right of every nation to self- x
with respect to subjects deleguted to model after the war. He further promised, (a) the
them. immediate determination. On 3 September 1939,
11. Dyarchy, which had been established in Britain declared war expansion of the Viceroy s
the provinces by the Act of 1919, was to executive council by inducting against Germany.
be established at the Centre. However, it The Governor-General to India, Lord
came to an end in the provinces. Linlithgow, began dispatching die Indian troops
12. Two new provinces—Sindh and to the battlefield, without consulting the Indian
Orissa—were created. leaders. The Governor-General also declared
13. Reforms were introduced in the North- emergency in India under Article 93 of the Act
West Frontier Province as also in the of 1935, to curb internal disorder. The Congress
other provinces. told the British government that if it is fighting
14. Separate electorates were continued as Germany for die maintenance and extension of
before. democracy, then it must first extend: full
15. One-third Muslim representation in the democracy to India. On 10 October 1939, the
Central Legislature was guaranteed. Congress pressed the government to free India
16. Autonomous Provincial Governments in after the war. The Viceroy, on 17 October 1939,
11 provinces, under ministries made an official , statement, declaring that the
responsible to the legislatures, were to British Government had promised to issue
be set up. dominion status to India and the Act of 1935,
17. Burma and Aden were separated from was to be reconsidered after the war.
India.
18. The Federal Court was established at the RESIGNATION OF CONGRESS
Centre. MINISTERS (1939)
19. The Reserve Bank of India was
established. The national reaction to the declaration
20. The Governors had the power to veto to the Governor-General’s statement was hostile.
legislative action and the power to The Indians wanted complete independence and
legislate on their own. were not satisfied with the promise of mere
dominion status. On 22 October 1939, the
WORLD WAR II AND THE INDIAN Congress ministers resigned from their offices in
POLITICAL SITUATION the eight provinces. This action by the Congress

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changed the course of history. It lost its of the representative body after the war was
important bargaining position at an important over. He added that the British government
juncture and it was never able to retrieve that could not contemplate the transfer of its personal
position. However, the Muslim League responsibilities for the peace and welfare of
provocateively, declared 22 December 1939. as India to any system of government whose
a ‘Day of Deliverance’ from the oppressions of authority was directly denied by a large and
the ‘Congress Raj’. principle element in India’s national life.
Because of this condition, the offer fell short of
POONA RESOLUTION AND the Congress demand of a national government.
CONDITIONAL SUPPORT TO The Congress rejected the offer as the British
BRITAIN (1941) government put the majority at the mercy of the
minority. The Muslim League had another
After the French surrender on 5 June reason for rejecting the offer as the government
1940, the British We left alone against the did not provide for equal partnership to Muslims
German forces. The British governmem was in in the Centre and Provincial Government.
no position to handle disorder in India. It
appealed the Indian political parties for support THE INDIVIDUAL CIVIL
and cooperation. On 7 July 1941, the Congress DISOBEDIENCE
passed a resolution at Poona providing
conditional support to Britain. The conditions The political crisis in India was
included: deepening and the Congressmen looked upon
Gandhi to lead them. Gandhi did not want to do
(a) India’s right to self1 governance after anything that would bring political disorder in
the war must be recognised in clear the country in the critical war situation. He
terms; and restored to a novel form of Satyagraha, the
(b) a provisional national government at the individual satyagraha, which kept the torch of
Centre, consist- ing of all political nationalism burning. It hada symbolic character
parties be set up. against the attitude of the government.It drew
the attention of the world at large to the right to
AUGUST OFFER OF 1940 self-determination. Lord Linlithgow described
the August Movement of 1942 as the most
The Governor-General subsequently
serious revolt after the Sepoy mutiny.Some
issued a statement front Simla on 8 August
places even saw large scale peasants’
1940, that the British Government would
participation. In November 1940, the individual
establish a full responsible government on the
Satyagraha started and Vinoba Bhave became
dominion more Indians. Also, the responsibility
the first satyagrahi and Jawaharlal Nehru the
of framing the constitution would be given to the
second. They were followed by more than
Indians. This amounted to agreeing to the
30,000 individuals who courted imprisonment in
Congress demand for a Constituent Assembly,
this movement. Thismovement continued during
(b) He also declared that a War Advisory
1940-1941, and almost the entinZT™ leadership
Committee with an Indian perspective would be
was in prison.
constituted, (c) That initiatives would be taken
for an agreement among the Indians in the form

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TWO-NATION THEORY we think best and m consonance with our own


ideals and according Jinnah, the Chief Minister
The Lahore Resolution of Bengal, A. K. Fazl-ul-Haq, moved the historic
resolution, which has since come to be known as
From 22 to 24 March 1940, the All India the Lahore Resolution are the Pakistan
Muslim League held its annual session at the Resolution.
Minto Park, Lahore. This session proved to be
historic. On the first day of the session Two-Nation Theory: Origin of the
Muhammad Ah Jinnali narrated the events of Concept
some preceding months. In an extempore
speech, he presented his own - solution to the This theory held that there were two nations-
Muslim problem. He said that the problem of one belonging to the Hindus and one two the
India was not of an inter-communal nature, but Muslims-living in the territory of India. Sir
manifestly an international one and must be Syed Ahmad khan was the first exponent of the
treated as such. To him, the differences between Two-Nation Theory in the modern era. He
Hindus and Muslims were so great and so sharp belived that India was a continent and not a
that their union under one Central Government country, and that among the vast polpulation of
was full of serious risks. They belonged to two different races and different creeds, Hindus and
separate and distinct nations and therefore, the Muslims were the two major components.
only chance open was to allow them to have Events such as the Urdu-Hindi controversy
separate states. In the words of Jinnah: ‘Hindus (1867), the partition of Bengal (1905), and the
and Muslims belong to two different religions, Hindu revivalism set the Hindus and the
philosophies, social customs and literature. They Muslims further apart. However, the annulment
neither inter-marry nor inter-dine anti, indeed, of the partition of Bengal in 1911 by the British
they belong to two different civilizations that dre Government brought the Congress and the
based mainly on conflicting ideas and Muslim League on one platform. Starting with
conceptions. Their concepts on life and of lite the constitutional cooperation in the Lucknow
are different. It is quite clear that the Hindus and Pact (1916), they launched the Non-
the Muslims derive their inspiration from cooperation and Khilfat movements to press
different sources of history. They have different upon the British government the demand for
epics, different heroes and different episodes. constitutional reforms in India in the pos-
Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other, World War I era.
and likewise, their victories and defeats overlap.
To yoke together two such nations tinder a
single state, one as a numerical minority and the
Reaction to the Two-Nation Theory
other as a majority, must lead to growing The politicisation of the Muslim
tsconten an final destruction of any fabric that community came about as a consequence of
may be so built up forthe government of such a three developments:
state’. He further son nation according to any
definition o nation. We wish our people to (a) Various efforts towards Islamic reform
develop to the fullest spiritual, cultural, and revival during the late nineteenth
economic, social and political life in a way that and early twentieth centuries.

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(b) The impact of Hindu-based nationalism. developments, finally leading to the division of
(c) The democratisation of the government British India into two separate, independent
of British India. states—Pakistan and India—on 14 and 15
While the antecedents of Muslim nationalism in August 1947, respectively.
India go back to theearly Islamic conquests of
India, organizationally it stems from the DEMAND FOR PAKISTAN (1942)
demands presented by the Simla deputation to
In 1930, Iqbal suggested the union of
Lord Minto, the Governor-General of India, in
the Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Sindh and
October 1906. proposing separate electorates for
Kashmir into a Muslim state within the
the Indian Muslims. The principal reason behind
federation. This proved to be rhe idea which
this demand was the maintenance of a separate
germinated during the early 1930s and burst into
identity of the Muslim nationhood.
vigorous life with the advent of the new reforms.
In the same year, the founding of the All The idealist Chaudhry Rehmat All developed
India Muslim League, a separate political this concept in Cambridge, where he inspired
organization for Muslims, highlighted the fact groups of young Muslims and invented the term
that the Muslims of India had lost trust in the Pakistan. His ideas seemed visionary during that
Hindu-dominated Indian National Congress. time. Within 7 years, these ideas were turned
Besides being a Hindu-dominated body, the into a politicailprogramme by Muhammad Ali
Congress leaders, in order to win support at the Jinnah. The ideology of Iqbal, the vision of
grass roots for their political movement, used Rehmat Ali and the fears of the Muslims were
Hindu religious symbols and slogans, thereby thus united by the practical genius of Jinnah to
arousing Muslim suspicions regarding the bind the Muslims together as never before. It
secular character of the Congress. was to lead to the creation of a, new state-
Pakistan.
After the collapse of the Khilafat
Movement, Hindu- Muslim antagonism revived In 1942, the British government realised
once again. The Muslim League rejected the that it could not ignore the Indian problems any
proposals forwarded by the Nehru Report and more. The Situation- worsened for the British
they chose a separate path tor themselves. The with the Japanese advance towards the Indian
idea of a separate homeland for the Muslims ot borders. By 7 March 1942. Rangoon fell and
Northern India as proposed by Allama Iqbal in Japan occupied the entire South-east Asia, The
his famous Allaha a Address showed that the British government under Prime Minister
creation of two separate states or the Muslims Winston Churchill, with a view of getting
and Hindus was the only solution. The idea was cooperation from the Indians, sent Sir Stafford
reiterated during the Sindh provincial meeting of Cripps on 22 March. 1942 a member of the
the League, und finally adopted as the official British cabinet, to India to settle terms with the
League position in the Lahore Declaration of 23 Indian leaders. The Congress sent Pandit Nehru
March 1940. and Maul ana Azad to negotiate on their behalf.

Thus, these historical, cultural, religious CRIPPS MISSION (MARCH 1942)


and social differences between the Hindus and
the Muslims accelerated the pace of political

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The important points made by the Cripps Spread of Violence


Mission were as follows:
On 9 August 1942, Gandhi was arrested, but the
(a) General elections in the provinces would other leaders continued the revolutionary
be arranged as soon as the war ended. struggle. Violence spread throughout the
(b) A new Indian dominion, associated with country, several government offices were
the United Kingdom, would be created. destroyed and damaged, telegraph lines were cut
(c) Those provinces not joining the and communications paralysed. The movement
dominion could form their own separate was, however, crushed by the government.
union.
(d) Minorities were to he protected. Gandhi's Fast
(e) Provision for forming the Constitution
making body. Gandhi undertook a 21-day fast in jail.
His condition deteriorated after 13 days and all
However, both the Congress and the hopes of his surviving were given up. However,
Muslim League rejected these proposals. Jinnah he survived and completed the 21-day fast. This
opposed the plan, as it did not concede Pakistan. was his answer to the government which had
been constantly exhorting him to condemn the
QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT (1942- violence of the people in the Quit India
1945) Movement. Gandhi not only refused to condemn
the people resorting to violence but
Origin and Objective unequivocally held the government responsible
for it. The popular response to the news of the
The Indian leaders were concerned
fast was immediate and overwhelming. All over
about their national interest in case the Allied
the country, there were demonstrations and
forces were defeated in World War II. The news
strikes. The fast had done exactly what it had
of British defeats at the hands of the Japanese
intended to. Public morale was raised, the anti-
was instrumental in making the Indian leaders
British feeling heightened, and an opportunity
believe that the British power was fading. There
for the political activity provided.
wasacute shortage of foodstuff in India and the
rate of inflation to alarming levels. The British Significance of the Quit India
who managed their own economy carefully Movement
seemed unconcerned about the state of affairs in
India. The failure of the Cripps’ Mission made The Quit India movement marked a new
the Congress aware that they would have to take high in terms of popular participation in the
some active steps to compel the British to leave national movement and sympathy with the
India if the Indians were to gain independence. national cause As earlier, students were at the
On 8 August 1942, the Congress in its meeting forefront of the struggle. Women, especially
school girls, played a vital role. Aruna Asaf Ali.
at Mumbai passed a resolution known as the
Sucheta Kriplani and Usha Mehta were among
‘Quit India’ resolution, whereby Gandhi asked the important members of small groups
the British to quit India and gave a ‘Do or die’ participating in the agitation. The great
call to his countrymen. significance of this historic movement was that
it placed the demand for independence on the

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immediate agenda of the national movement. GANDHI-JINNAH TALKS (1944)


After Quit India, there could be no retreat. Any
future negotiations with the British government The Gandhi-Jinnah talks were very
could only be on the matter of transfer of important as these dealt with the political
power. Independence was no longer a matter of problems of India and the issue of two-nation
bargain now.
theory of the Muslim League. They began their
talks as the general public wished for an
amicable solution to the Hindu-Muslim
Usha Mehta
Usha Mehta was a staunch supporter of differences. On 17 July 1944, Gandhi sent a
the Gandhian movement and ideology. She was letter to Jinnah expressing his wish to meet him.
born on 25 March1920 in Saras village near The formal talk started in Mumbai on 19
Surat in Gujarat. She was the mastermind for September 1944. and continued till 24
organising the Congress Radio during the Quit September. The talks were not only held directly
India Movement in 1942, which was also known but also through correspondence. Gandhi
as the Secret Congress Radio. The first telecast
conveyed to Jinnah that he had come to meet
on this radio was on 14 August 942. Her
associates were Vithalbhai Jhaveri Chandrakant him on his own. He was not representing
Jhaveri, Babubhai Thakkar, Nanka Motwani anybody. The main objective of the talks for
who supplied equipments and provided Gandhi was to make Jinnah realise the
technicians. In 1998 the Government of Indio absurdness ol the whole proposition of Pakistan.
conferred on ner Padma Vibhushan, the second
highest civilian award of the Indian republic. Throughout the talks, Gandhi
She died on 11 August 2000. maintainedthat India was one nation andsaw in
the Pakistan resolution ‘nothing but ruin for the
whole of India. If, however, Pakistan had
THE CR FORMULA (1944) conceded, the areas in which the Muslims are in
an absolute majority shoutd be demarcated by a
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari consented
commission approved by both the Congress and
to the idea of partition and made the following
the Muslim League. The wishes of the people of
proposals on 9 September 1944:
these areas will be obtained through re
1. Major parties such as the Congress and ferendum. These areas shall form a separate
the Muslim League would form a state as soon as possible after India is free from
coalition government; foreign domination. There shall be a treaty of
2. After World War II, a definite boundary separation which should also provide for the
would be marked between India and efficient and satisfactory administration of
Pakistan; foreign affairs, defence, internal communication,
3. Voluntary settlement by the people customs and the like, which must necessarily
would be allowed in both the countries. continue to be the matters of common interest
However, the Muslim League opposed between the contracting countries’.
these proposals.
This meant, in effect, that power over
the whole of India would first be transferred to
the Congress, which, thereafter, would allow the
Muslim majority areas that voted for separation

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to be constituted, not as an independent independent India and showed little will to


sovereign state, but as part of an Indian fight for the British crown It also gave
federation. Gandhi contended that his offer gave Congress the knowledge that its non-violent
the substance of the Lahore Resolution. Jinnah methods to gain independence may not be
did not agree to the proposal and the talks ended. adequate. Overall, the INA helped expedite the
process of the Indian independence.
DESAI-LIAQAT PACT (1945)
Alter the failure of Gandhi-Jinnah talks WAVELL PLAN AND SIMLA
in 1944, another attempt was made by the
CONFERENCE (1945)
Congress and the Muslim League leaders to find
a way out from the political impasse. The In May 1445, Lord Wavell. the Viceroy
Congress representative of the Central of India, went to London to discuss with the
Assembly, Bhulabhai Jeevanji Desai and his British administration about the future of India.
Muslim League counterpart, Nawabzada Liaqat The talks resulted in the formulation of a plan of
Ali Khan met and came up with the following action that was made public in June 1945. The
proposals: plan was known as the Wavell Plan.
1. Both the Congress and the Muslim The plan suggested the reconstitution of
League would join in forming an interim the Viceroy’s Executive Council in which the
government at the Centre which would Viceroy was to select people nominated by the
function as per the Act of 1935, political parties. Different communities were
independent of the Governor-General. also to get their due share in the Council and
2. The interim government would have parity was to be reserved by having equal
equal seats for representatives of both representation for both the Hindus and the
the parties, with adequate representation Muslims. While declaring the plan, the Secretary
of the minorities. This pact came to be of State for Indian Affairs made it clear that the
known as the Desai-Liaqat pact; it. British government wanted to listen to the ideas
however, never got approval from either of all major Indian communities. Yet, he said,
the Congress or the Muslim League. that was only possible if the leadership of the
main Indian political parties agreed to the
Achievements of the Indian National suggestions of the British government.
Army (INA)
To discuss these proposals with the
The achievements of the INA fell much short Indian leaders, Wavell called for a conference at
of its targets, bur it acquired a great Simla on 25 June 1945. Leaders of both the
significance in ihe history of India, it created a Congress and the Muslim League attended the
design of communal harmony in India. India's Simla Conference. However, differences arose
freedom struggle, which was till then a between the leadership of the two parties on the
territorial struggle against the ruling issue of representation of the Muslim
government became an international issue. The community. The Muslim League claimed that it
Indiun Army also started thinking of was the only representative party of the Muslims
in India and thus, all the Muslim representatives

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in the Viceroy’s Executive Council should be Both the Muslim League and the
the nominees of the party. The Congress, which Congress promulgated opposite slogans during
had sent Maulana Azad as the leader of their their campaign Muslim League presented a one-
delegation, tried to prove that their party point manifesto want Pakistan, vote for the
represented all the communities living in India Muslim League’. Jinnah hi toured the length and
and thus should be allowed to nominate Muslim breadth of India and tried to unite the Muslim
representatives as well. The Congress also community under the banner of the Muslim
opposed the idea of parity. This resulted in a League.
deadlock. Finally, on 14 July Wavell announced
the failure of his efforts. The Congress, on the other hand, stood
for a united India. To counter the Muslim
PROVINCIAL AND GENERAL League; the Congress press, termed Jinnuh’s
ELECTIONS OF 1945 demand for Pakistan as the ‘vivisection of
Mother India’, ‘reactionary primitivism’ and
With the failure of the Simla ‘religious barbarism’. The Congress tried to
Conference, Lord Wavell announced that the brand the Muslim League as an ultra-
Central and Provincial Legislature elections conservative clique of knights, Khan, Bahadurs,
would be held in the winter of 1945. after which toadies and government pensioners.The
a constitution-making body would be set up. He Congress also tried to get support of all the
also announced that after the elections, the provincial and central Muslim parties who had
Viceroy would set up an Executive Council that some differences with the League, and backed
would have the support of the main Indian them in the elections. Elections forihe Central
political parties. Both the Muslim League and Legislature were held in December 1945.
the Congress opposed the proposal. Though the franchise was limited, the turnover
was extraordinary.
While Jinnah declared that the Muslims
were not ready to accept any settlement less than The Congress was able to sweep the
a separate homeland, the All India Congress polls for the non-Muslim scats. They managed
Committee characterised the proposal as vague, to win more than 80 per cent of the general seats
inadequate and unsatisfactory because it had not and about 91.3 per cent of the total general
addressed the issue of independence. Despite votes’. The League's performance, however, was
this, the two parties launched huge election even more impressive: it managed to win all the
campaigns. They knew that the elections would 30 seats reserved for the Muslims. The results of
be crucial for the future of India, as the results the provincial elections held in early 1946 were
were to play an important role in determining not different. The Congress won most of the
their stand. The League wanted to sweep the non-Muslim seats while the Muslim League
Muslim constituencies so as to prove that they captured approximately 95 per cent of the
were the sole representatives of the Muslims of Muslim seats.
India, while Congress wanted to prove that,
irrespective of religion represented all the In a bulletin issued on 6 January 1946,
Indians. the Central Election Board of the Congress
claimed that the election results had vindicated
the party as the biggest, strongest and the most

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representative organization in the country. On the urgency to find a solution to the political
the other hand, the League celebrated 11 January deadlock ,the result of non cooperation between
1946, as the Day of Victory and declared that the two major parties. To end this ,the british
the election results were enough to prove that government sent a special mission of cabinet
the Muslim League, under the leadership of ministers to India.
Jinnah, was the sole representative of the
Muslims of the region. The British Prime Minister, Lord Attlee,
made a declaration on 15 March 1946, that a
Notable Books and journals of Pre- Cabinet Mission would visit India to make
independent India Books recommendations regarding constitutional
reforms to be introduced in India. The mission
1. Causes of Indian Mutiny: Syed Ahmad envisaged the establishment of a Constituent
Khan Assembly to frame the Constitution as well as an
2. Percepts of Jesus. Raja Ram Mohan interim government. The purpose of the mission
Roy could be summed up as follows:
3. Satyarth Prahash: Swami Dayanand
1. Preparatory discussions with the elected
4. The Indian Struggle: Subhas Chandra
Bose representatives of British India and the
5. Poverty and the UnBnlish Rule in Indian states to secure agreement as to
India: Dadabhai Naroji the method of framing the constitution.
6. Neel Darpan: Dinabandhu Mitra 2. Setting up of a constitution body.
7. Hind Swaraj: Mahatma Gandhi 3. Setting up an Executive Council with
8. What Congress and Gandhi Haw Done the support ot the main Indian parties.
to Untouchables:Dr B. R. Amhedkar
It consisted of Lord Pethic Lawrence, the
Journals
1. Kesari: Bal Gangaahar Tilak Secretary of State for India. Sir Stafford Cripps,
2. Bande Matram: Madam Carna President of the Board of Trade, and A. V.
3. New India: Bipan Chandra Pal Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty. The
4. Comrade: Mohammad Ali Mission arrived on 24 March 1946. After
5. Sonjeevani: Krishna Kumar Mitra extensive discussions with the Congress and the
6. Satya Praknsh Karsandas Muljl
Muslim League, theCabinet Mission put forward
7. Dina Mitra: (Satyashodhak Samaj
Paper) Mukundrao Patil its own proposal on 16 May 1946. The main
8. Free Hindustan: Tarakhnath Das points of the plan were as follows;
9. Bandi jiwan: Sachindranath Sanyal 1. There would be a union of India which
will include both the Rritish India as
well as the Indian states and in which
CABINET MISSION PLAN (1946) the Union would deal with foreign
affairs, defence and communications.
The struggle for freedom entered a The union would involve an Executive
decisive phase in the year 1945-1946.All and a Legislature.
attempts by the british government to establish 2. All residuary powers would belong to
peace between the congress and the muslim the provinces.
league had falied. The result of the general 3. A provinces would be divided into three
elections held in 1945-1946 served.to underline sections. The provinces could opt out of

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any group after the first general election. and Singapore—recruits were sought from
(a) Northwest frontier provinces, civilians, funds were gathered, and even a
Blauchistan and Punjab; (b) Bengal and women’s regiment called the Rani Jhansi
Assam and(c) the other states. regiment was formed. One INA battalion also
4. There would also bc an interim accompanied the Japanese Army to the Tndo-
government having the support ot the Burma front to participate in the Imphal
major political parties. campaign. But with the defeat of Japan in
5. The Pakistan demand was rejected. 1944—1945, the INA also died out. Bose is said
6. A federal constitution would be formed, to have been killed in an air crash on his way to
and a separate electorate considered. Tokyo in August 1945. But his death is stilf
The Congress accepted the plan on 24 considered a mystery.
May 1946, though it rejected the interim
set up. The Muslim League accepted the Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945)
plan on 6 June 1946. The Viceroy
Born in Cuttack, Bengal, and educated at the
should now have invited the Muslim
universities of Kolkata and Cambridge, Subhas
League to form the government as it had
Chandra Bose left a career in the Indian Civil
accepted the interim set up; but he did
Service to fight for India s independence and
not do so.
was Imprisoned a dozen times by the British.
He shared the leadership of India's youth and
AZAD HIND FAUJ (INDIAN
peasant societies with Jawaharlal Nehru and
NATIONAL ARMY) became the president of the n fan National
Congress in 1938. Bose was opposed owever,
Origin and Purpose
by Gandhi, whose principle of non-violence he
Subhas Chandra Bose', popularly known as did not accept, and was forced to resign Iho
‘Netaji’, was not convinced by the policy of the following year. In 1941, hoping to toko
Congress to acquire freedom. He was an advantage of the war to free India of the British
extremist and felt that it was impossible to rule, Sose fled to Germany. From there he went
compel the British to leave India without force. to Malaya, where he set up (1943) a
Provisional Government of Free India, and
In 1943, Netaji formed the Azad Hind with Japanese help, organised the so-called
Fauj (Indian National Army) in Singapore and Indian National Army. Bose led his troops
gave his famous call ‘Dilli chalo)'. He started a against the British on the Burma-lndla f'ontier
military campaign for the independence of India. until 1945; He is speculated to have been killed
Indian residents of South-east Asia and Indian In a plane crash while fleeing to Japan In
soldiers and officers captured by the Japanese August of that year.
forces in Malaya, Singapore and Burma joined
the INA in large numbers. DIRECT ACTION CAMPAIGN
Rise and Decline (1946)
Provoked by the success of the
Subhas Chandra Bose set up the Congress, the Muslim League launched a direct
headquarter of the INA in two places—Rangoon action campaign on 16 August 1946, to achieve

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Pakistan which resulted in communal riots immediate acceptance of his plan was
across the country. Rioting broke out on an imperative. Lord Mountbatten entered into a
unprecedented scale, especially in Bengal and series of talks with the Congress and the Muslim
Bihat, the massacre of Muslims in Kolkata League. Jinnah made it clear that the demand for
brought Gandhi to scene, where he worked with Pakistan had the support of all the Muslims of
the Muslim provincial Chief Minister Hussain India and that he could not withdraw from it.
Shaheed Suhrawardy. Gandhiji’s and With staunch extremists, such as Patel, agreeing
Suhrawardy’s efforts calmed fears in Bengal, but to the Muslim demand for a separate homeland,
rioting quickly spread elsewhere. Mountbatten now prepared for the partition of
It disassociated itself from the Cabinet India and announced it on 3 June 1947.
Plan. As a result, Viceroy Wavell invited the
Congress to join the interim government, INTERIM GOVERNMENT (1946)
although it had practically rejected the plan.
On 2 September 1946, an interim government
However, the Viceroy soon realised the futility
was formed on the 6-5-3 formula. It had six
of the scheme without the participation of the
Congressmen, five Muslim League
League. Therefore, on 14 October 1946, he
representatives and three representatives of the
extended an invitation to them ask well. Jinnah
minorities. The composition of the 14-member
nominated Liaqat Ali Khan. T. T. Chundrigar,
interim government was as follows:
SardarAbdurRabNishtar, GhavanfarAli Khan
1. Jawaharlal Nehru (Vice-President)
and Jogandra Nath Mandal to the cabinet. The
2. Vallabhbhai Patel (Home, Information
Congress allocated the Finance Ministry to the
Executive Council External Affairs and
League. This, in effect, placed the whole
Broadcasting and
governmental set-up under the Muslim League.
CommonwealthRelations)
As Minister of Finance, Liaqat Ali Khan
3. Baldev Singh (Defence)
presented a budget which was called a ‘poor
4. Liaqat Ali Khan (Finance)
man’s budget’ and it adversely affected the
5. Dr. John Matthai (Industries and
Hindu capitalists. Disagreements among the
Supplies)
ministers paralysed the government, already
6. Ghazanfar Ali Khan (Health )
haunted by the spectre of civil war.
7. Rajendra Prasad (Food and Agriculture)
The deadlock between the Congress and
8. Jogindernath Mandal (Law)
the League further worsened in this set-up. On
9. C. H. Bhaba (Works, Mines, and Power)
22 March 1947, Lord Mountbattcn arrived as thd
10. Jagjivan Ram (Labour)
last Viceroy of India. He announced that power
11. T. T. Chudrigar (Commerce)
would be transferred from the British to Indian
12. Abdur Rah Nishtar (Communications)
hands by June 1948. Mountbattcn assessed the
13. Asaf Ali (Railways)
situation and was convinced that Congress was
14. C. Rajagopalachari (Education)
willing to accept partition as the price of
The Muslim League joined the interim
independence; Jinnah would accept a smaller
government without any intention to cooperate.
Pakistan than the one he demanded, that is, all of
They kept on organising anti-Congress and anti-
Punjab and Bengal, and the Sikhs would learn to
Hindu rallies in Punjab and the United
accept the division of Punjab. Mountbatten was
Provinces. Liaqat Ali, the Finance Minister,
able to persuade most Indian leaders that

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presented the first budget, which was allegedly down detailed principles for the partition of the
designed to harm the industrialists and the country and speedy transfer of political power in
merchant community dominated by the Hindus. the form of dominion status to the newly formed
The Muslim League kept its hard stance of not domimons of India and Pakistan Its acceptance
joining the Constituent Assembly, which began by the Congress and the Muslim League resulted
its sitting in New Delhi on 9 December 1946, in the birth of Pakistan.
and started pressing for its demand of Pakistan.
June 3rd Plan
MOUNTBATTEN PLAN (1947)
Earlier, when all of Mountbatten’s
On 3 June 1947, Lord Mountbatten efforts to keep India united failed, he asked
announced a plan offering a key to the political Ismay, Chief of Staff, to chalk out a plan for the
and constitutional deadlock transfer of power and the division of the country.
It was decided that none of the Indian parties
Chronology of Indian National would view it before the plan was finalised.
Movement: (1940 Onwards)
However, before the announcement of
Lahore Session 1940 (Muslim league) the plan, Nehru who was staying with
August Offer 1940 Mountbatten as a guest at his residence at Simla,
Individual CDM 1940 (by Gandhi) had a look at the plan and rejected it.
Cripps' Mission 1942 Mountbatten then asked V. P. Menon, the only
Quit India Movement 1942 Indian in his pcrsonul staff, to present a new
Karachi Session 1943 (Muslim League) plan for the transfer of power. Nehru edited
Simla Conference and Wavell Plan; 1945 Menon’s formula and then Mountbatten himself
Cabinet Mission 1946 took the new plan to London, where he got it
Interim Government 1 946 approved without any alteration. Attlee and his
Attlee Announcement Febnjary 1947 cabinet gave the approval in a meeting that
Mountbatten Plan June 1 947 lasted not more than five minutes. Mountbatten
India Independence Bill July 1947 came back from London on 31 May, and tin 2
June, met the Indian leaders including Nehru,
created by the refusal of the Muslim League to Patel. Kiipalani, Jinnah, Liaqat Ali, Nishtar and
join the Constituent Assembly formed to frame Baldev Singh. After ihese leaders approved the
the Constituion of India. Mountbatten’s formula plan, Mountbatten discussed it with Gandhi and
was to divide India but to retain maximum unity. convinced him that it was the best plan under the
The country would be partitioned but so would circumstances. The plan was made public on 3
Punjab and Bengal, so that the limited Pakistan June, and is thus known as the 3rd Plan.
that emerged would meet both the Congress The following were the main clauses of the Plan:
and'the League’s position to some extent. The 1. The provincial Legislative Assemblies
League’s position on Pakistan was conceded in. of Punjab and Bengal were to meet in
that it would be created, but the Congress two groups, that is, the Muslim
position on unity would be taken into account to majoritydistricts and the non-Muslim
make Pakistan as small as possible. He laid majority districts.If any of the two
decided in favour of the division of the

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province, then the Governor-General 5. If Bengal decided in favour of partition,


would appoint a boundary commission a referendum was to be held in the
to demarcate the boundaries of t e Sylhct District of Assam to decide
province on the basis of ascertaining the whether it would continue as a part of
contiguous majority areas of the Assam or be merged with the new
Muslims and the non-Muslims. province of East Bengal.
2. The Legislative Assembly of Siiidh
(excluding itsEuropean members) was The Nawab of Junagarh announced to
to decide either to join the existing join Pakistan, but the people of the region
Constituent Assembly or the New wanted to join India and therefore, a plebiscite
Constituent Assembly. was held and the area remained with India. The
3. To decide the future of the North-West Nizam of Hyderabad also made an attempt to
Frontier Province, a referendum was claim an independent status but was forced to
proposed. The electoral college for the accede in 1948, after an internal revolt had
referendum was to be the same as the broken out in its Telangana area and the Indian
electoral college for the Provincial troops marched in Hyderabad. The Maharaja of
Legislative Assembly in 1946. Kashmir also delayed accession to India. He
4. Baluchistan was also to be given the acceded in October 1947, after the Pathans and
option to express its opinion on the the irregular armed forces of Pakistan invaded
issue. Kashmir.

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