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Assessment 4

Total Marks - 100

Part A:

Quiz – 15 x 1 = 15M

1) In open loop control system, the output is also known as _____

a) Reference variable
b) Controlled variable
c) Transducer variable
d) Process variable

2) Which of the following is not true about PLC

a) It can perform relay-switching tasks
b) It improves the overall control system reliability
c) Trouble-shooting becomes simpler and faster
d) It will not respond to the changes in process parameter

3) Identify the function of ‘Run’ key switch in the processor (CPU) of PLC
a) PLC cannot run or be programmed
b) PLC will run or execute the program but modifying or changing the program is not
c) PLC will run or execute the program but modifying or changing the program is possible
d) Program execution is stopped and modification or deletion of program is possible

4) Which of the following is not a direct cost in plant productivity with respect to
troubleshooting fundamentals
a) Costs of repairs and damages
b) Lost production
c) Loss of good will and reputation
d) Costs due to death/injury

5) In ladder logic, which of the following instruction will not have execution conditions
b) END
c) IF
d) OR

6) Which of the following condition is true when a three phase motor with DOL starter is
a) NO contact will be closed and the TRIP indication lamp will be turned ON
b) NO contact will be opened and the TRIP indication lamp will be turned ON
c) NO contact will be closed and the TRIP indication lamp will be turned OFF
d) NO contact will be opened and the TRIP indication lamp will be turned OFF

7) With respect to the stability analyzes, the total response for a linear system can be
determined as
a) Sum of natural response and forced response
b) Product of natural response and forced response
c) Sum of natural response and transient response
d) Product of natural response and transient response

8) Which of the following is known as feedback control in a closed loop control system
a) Process variable status
b) Control variable status
c) Manipulated variable status
d) Desired variable status

9) The relationship of proportional band (PB) with controller gain (KC) is given as
a) 𝑃𝐵 = 𝐾𝐶 ∗ 100
b) 𝑃𝐵 = ∗ 100
c) 𝑃𝐵 = ∆𝐾𝐶
d) 𝑃𝐵 = ∆ − 𝐾𝐶

10) Which of the following is known as a language of textual type that resembles the high
level Pascal language and can be used for expressing various common control
a) Ladder diagram
b) Functional block
c) Structured text
d) Sequential Function chart

11) Which of the following is not an action of starting configuration result during the PLC
execution control of program organization units
a) Initializing the global variables
b) Disabling the tasks
c) Enabling the tasks
d) Initiating the resources

12) In elementary data types of IEC61131-3, how many bits are present in the Unsigned short
integer (USINT)
a) 8
b) 16
c) 32
d) 64

13) Which of the following indicates the term ‘*.fra’ in PSIM file extensions
a) PSIM schematic file
b) PSIM library file
c) PSIM simulation file
d) PSIM ac analysis output file (text)

14) Identify the right abbreviation for the term “CoDeSys”

a) Coding Deployment System
b) Coding Development System
c) Controlled Development System
d) Control Deployment System

15) Identify the correct single step meaning for “In ST”
a) Execute the next network
b) Execute the program until the next CAL
c) Execute the next instruction
d) Continue the action until the next step


Short Answers – 9 x 5 = 45M

1) What happens at the breakpoint position in the text editor of CoDeSys ?


 The screen will display the break with the corresponding line if a breakpoint is reached in
the PLC.
 The line number field of the line where the PLC is positioned will appear in red.
 The user program will stop in the PLC.
 If the program is at a breakpoint, then the processing can be resumed with 'Online' 'Run'.
 In addition, with 'Online' 'Step over' or 'Step in' then it can cause the program to run to the
next breakpoint position.
 If the instruction where a CAL command, or, if there is a function call in the lines up to
the next breakpoint position, then we can use 'Step over' to bypass the function call.
 With 'Step in', we can branch to the open POU

2) Write down the steps involved in a online change for a project that is running on several


a) Loading and starting the project on PLC1 and then saving the downloaded information for

b) Loading and starting the project on PLC2 and then saving the downloaded information for

c) Modifying project in CoDeSys simulation tool

d) Online Changing on PLC1 and then saving the downloaded information again for PLC1

e) Online Changing on PLC2 and saving the downloaded information again for PLC2

f) After performing online change for each PLC project modification, perform steps (c) to (e) Commented [EM1]: https://www.sauterautomation.co.uk/uplo

3) Determine the transfer function for the given circuit


Assuming the current flows in clockwise direction

From the circuit, we can analyze

𝑣(𝑡) = 𝑅𝑖(𝑡) + ∫ 𝑖(𝑡)𝑑𝑡
By applying laplace transfer for the above equation, we get
𝑉(𝑠) = 𝑅𝐼(𝑠) + 𝐶𝑠

𝑉(𝑠) = 𝐼(𝑠) [𝑅 + ]

𝑉(𝑠) 1
𝐼(𝑠) 𝐶𝑠

4) Convert the given binary number 11001010010 to

a) octal number 2.5M
b) hexadecimal number 2.5M


a) Octal number

Given binary number – 11001010010

Using the conversion table, we can write the octal number for the given binary number

=> 11 001 010 010

=> 3 1 2 2

b. hexadecimal number
Given binary number – 11001010010
Using the conversion table, we can write the hexadecimal number for the given
binary number
=> 110 0101 0010

=> 6 5 2

5) List any five restrictions of ladder logic


• Maximum number of coils per rung.

• Maximum number of contacts in a row (I.e. in series).
• Maximum number of Branches in parallel.
• “Nesting” of branches may be limited.
• Direction of “Power Flow” from left to right only.
• Maximum Preset Values for timers and counters.

6) What are the recommended considerations for a PLC enclosure ?

•The enclosure should be located so that the doors can fully open for easy access when testing or
troubleshooting wiring and components.
•The enclosure depth should provide adequate clearance between the closed enclosure door
(including any print pockets mounted on the door) and the enclosed components and related
•The enclosure’s back panel should be removable to facilitate mount-ing of the components and
other assemblies.
•The cabinet should contain an emergency disconnect device installed in an easily accessible
•The enclosure should include accessories, such as AC power outlets, interior lighting, and a
gasketed, clear acrylic viewing window, for installation and maintenance convenience.

7) What kind of problems can occur due to the poor terminal connections and contacts that
are associated with electrical control circuits?

• Equipment malfunction
• Safety hazard to personnel
• Short circuits and open circuits
• Flashovers due to shorting of loose connections
• Localized heating and associated fire hazards Commented [EM2]: https://books.google.co.in/books?id=dniix
• Wrong indications and measurements by instruments n+a+much+faster+correction+than+feedback+control+but+requires
• Damage to equipment (eg. due to poor CT secondary connections) +considerably+more+information+regarding+the+effects+of+the+di
8) ages+of+feed+forward+control+are+that+it+acts+before+the+effec
a) List out the functions of feed forward control 3M t+of+a+disturbance+has+been+felt+by+the+system.+It+is+good+for
b) List any two examples of feed forward control 2M +loop+response.&source=bl&ots=C7JB8F_x95&sig=ACfU3U3ss5Lhs
A) kh6MvRMhtYGwvujGQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiN4Yag5efgAh
a) Feed forward Control Functions: ection%20than%20feedback%20control%20but%20requires%20con
• Feedforward control results in a much faster correction than feedback control but requires %20greater%20operator%20skill.%20%E2%80%A2%20Feed%20for
considerably more information regarding the effects of thedisturbance on the system, and greater ward%20control%20measures%20the%20disturbance%20(load)%2
operator skill. e%20its%20impact%20on%20the%20process%20output.%20Theref
• Feedforward control measures the disturbance (load) directly and takes controlaction to ore%20feed%20forward%20control%20has%20the%20theoretical%
eliminate its impact on the process output. Therefore feedforwardcontrol has the theoretical 20potential%20for%20perfect%20control.%20%E2%80%A2%20The
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• The main advantages of feedforward control are that it acts before the effect of adisturbance has 20disturbance%20has%20been%20felt%20by%20the%20system.%2
been felt by the system. It is good for slow systems and does notintroduce instability in the not%20introduce%20instability%20in%20the%20closed%20loop%2
closed loop response. 0response.&f=false

c) Examples: Commented [EM3]: http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/3771/1/thesis.pd

1) Washing Machine
2) Automatic toaster

9) Write an Instruction List code for the given Function Block diagram


IL Code:

LD Test X (*Test X or *)

OR TestY (*Test Y*)

AND Switch (*AND Switch*)

AND %1x4 (*AND Input 4*)

ST Start.S1 (*Set input of Start*)

LD Resest (*Load valueof Resest*)

ST Start.R (*Store in reset input*)

CAL Start (*Call fb. Start*)

LD Start.Q (*Load output Q*)

ST Start_SR (*and store in Start_SR*)

Part C:

Long Type Questions – 4 x 10 = 40M

1) Simplify the given Boolean expression and show the output using LD and FBD
Q = XY + X(Y + Z ) + Y (Y + Z)


Given expression is Q = XY + X(Y + Z ) + Y (Y + Z) 5M

= XY + XY + XZ + YY + YZ

= XY + XZ + Y + YZ

= XY + XZ + Y (1 +Z)

= XY + XZ + Y

= Y(1+ X) + XZ

Therefore, Q = Y + XZ

LD: 2.5M
FBD: 2.5M

2) A sequential process flow is shown

The operation is as follows:

 When Start button is pressed, table motor will start
 When the package moves to the position of the limit switch then the motor stops
 For any reason the stop button can stop the table before the package reaches the
limit switch position
 A red pilot light indicates when the table is stopped
 A green pilot light indicates when the table is running

a) Show a relay schematic for the process and explain its operation 5M
b) Show the ladder logic diagram for the relay diagram 5M

a) Relay Schematic Diagram:


 When a start button is actuated, CR is energized if stop button and limit switch are not
 When the start button is released, contact CR-1 closes which is sealing in CR.
 Contact CR-2 opens when switching the red pilot light from on to off.
 Contact CR-3 closes when switching the green pilot light from off to on.
 Starting the motor and moving the package toward the limit switch the contact CR-4
closes to energize the motor starter coil,.
 Limit switch is actuated, de-energizing relay coil CR.
 Contact CR-1 opens, opening the seal-in circuit.
 Contact CR-2 closes, switching the red pilot light from off to on.
 Contact CR-3 opens, switching the green pilot light from on to off.
 Contact CR-4 opens, de-energizing the motor starter coil to stop the motor and end the

B. Ladder Logic:
3) Show the following four arithmetic operators using the PLC programming methods IL,
a) AND with operands 6,1,3,5 2.5M
b) MUL with operands 6,1,3,5 2.5M
c) SUB with operands 6,3 2.5M
d) DIV with operands 4,2 2.5M


a) AND:


LD 6

ADD 1,3,5

ST Var1


Var1 := 6+1+3+5;

b. MUL:
LD 6
MUL 1,3,5
ST Var1

Var1 := 6*1*3*5;


c) SUB:


LD 6
ST var1

Var1 := 6-3;

d) DIV:


LD 4


ST Var1


Var1 := 4/2;


4) Define the following library utilities used in CODESYS (10 X1 = 10M)

a) EXTRACT(in,n)
g) GEN


a) EXTRACT(in,n) - The n-th bit of DWORD in is returned in BOOl

b) PUTBIT - A bit of a DWORD is set to a certain value

c) UNPACK - A Byte is returned as single bits

d) LIN_TRAFO - Transformation of REAL values

e) STATISTICS_INT - Min.,Max, Average values in INT format

f) BLINK - Pulsating signal

g) GEN - Periodic functions

h) CHARCURVE - Linear functions

i) RAMP_REAL - Limiting ascendance of descendance of the function beeing fed (REAL)

j) LIMITALARM - Watches whether input value exceeds limits of a defined range