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AR 341/343 D



CHAPTER I : Introduction

A. Design Problem
1. Background of the Study
2. Statement of the Problem
3. Definition of Terms
B. Review of Related Literature

CHAPTER II : Presentation of Data

A. Present Condition
A1. Brief History
A2. Climate
A3. Population
A4. Topographic Map
A5. Wind Statistics
A6. Geography
A7. Geography
A8. Demography
B. Primary Data
B1. Subic Freeport Authority
B2. Other Agencies Roles
B3. Two Terminals
B4. Runway, Taxiway, Apron
B5. Type of Airplane
B6. Type of Cargoes
B7. Volume of traffic
B8. Hangars
C. Site and Building Profile
D. Design Strategies and Solution
E. Space Programming
F. Formulation of Concept
G. Application of Concept and Design


Avionics, or air transport, alludes to the activities encompassing mechanical flight and the flying
machine industry. Air transport is the most essential methods for worldwide transportation hub
nowadays. Transportation of personnel, goods and animals from a geological location to a
different geological location usually by mechanical means through the atmosphere.
Nowadays, world exchange is more subject to air cargo services than ever before. Few aspects
have contributed to this situation. First, companies aiming to lessen the consumption of expenses
and to adopt just-in-time production have been utilizing air cargo logistics as a way of
transporting their products in the quickest and most dependable way. Second, air transportation
is the quickest way to respond to clients’ needs and preferences in the market where products
life span are short. Third, its declining costs as a result of liberalization and technological progress
make air cargo logistics more appealing. And last, as firms shift their production facilities abroad
where lower labor costs create a competitive advantage, they rely more on air cargo logistics.

A. Design Problem
Background of the Study
From the past years, the economy of Central Luzon is in rapid growth level
primarily pushed by major developments in the region. The region remained one
of the core regions contributing significantly to the overall growth of the country
as fueled by the impressive performances of the region’s emerging cities and
special economic zones.
This year, the three Freeport zones, namely the Clark Freeport Zone, Subic
Freeport Zone and the Bataan Freeport Zone are the biggest contributors to the
regions steady growth.
According to Noel F. Manankil, president and CEO of the Clark Development
Corporation (CDC), said the impressive accomplishments in the freeport can be
attributed to the sound business climate that attracted more investors. The Subic
Bay Freeport, on the other hand, has a total of 1,596 business locators that employ
a total workforce of 133,940.
“There is a significant harvest of business commitments and opportunities for
Subic, and it only goes to show that this freeport remains to be one of the
strongest economic drivers in the country today,” SBMA chairman and
administrator Wilma T. Eisma said.
At present day, air cargo plays an important role in the economy. Areas having
access to an air cargo network will have a competitive advantage over the ones
lacking such accessibility, and it is most likely that the availability of air cargo
services will enable regions to create more employment, especially those having
industries and occupations more dependent on such services.
In line with this, the designer is in task to redesign and to redevelop the Subic Bay
International Airport and convert it as an airport purely for shipping cargo by
means of air.

Source: http://angelescity.gov.ph/government/files/aep_c7.pdf

Statement of the problem

As a result, of the rapid economy transformation in Region III (or Central Luzon
Region) into industrialized area. There is a need for redevelopment and revival of
a dedicated Subic Bay Air Cargo Terminal to make the region and the country more
internationally competitive. To develop and enhance the facilities that are
essential to the improvement of access and transporting of goods and services
within the Central Luzon Region. It is to adjoin regions and the rest of the country
as well. Applying architecturally generated solutions, standard-based strategies in
the architectural design process with the use of factual data and information
gathered, that will help to improve the air cargo terminal.
1. What possible architectural elements and strategies could help to enhance
and develop the facilities in Subic Bay Air Cargo Terminal?
2. How can characters of Filipino Architecture could help to solve the airport’s
iconic design?
3. How to make the air cargo free zone customer friendly and must not sacrifice
the planning and design standards in circulation, accessibility and utilization of
Goals and objectives
To formulate strategies and techniques that can help to enhance and develop the facilities in
Subic Bay Air Cargo terminal through different architectural approaches. Aims to adopt Philippine
Architecture design that responds to iconic aspects of Subic Bay Air Cargo Terminal design
development, thus awareness and perception of the people to the environment.
1. To determine the architectural elements that can help to
2. To bring about intelligent, modern and sustainable approach in architectural designs
as to give benefits for the user and to the environment.
3. To formulate and analyse the activities at the air cargo terminal, its accessibility, and
utilization of spaces to ascertain better way of planning and design of an air cargo free

Air cargo - any property carried or to be carried in an aircraft. Air cargo comprises air freight, air
express and airmail.
Air waybill - An air waybill (AWB) or air consignment note is a receipt issued by an international
airline for goods and an evidence of the contract of carriage, but it is not a document of title to
the goods. Hence, the air waybill is non-negotiable.
Apron - is the area of an airport where aircraft are parked, unloaded or loaded, refueled, or
boarded. Although the use of the apron is covered by regulations, such as lighting on vehicles, it
is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway. However, the apron is not usually
open to the general public and a permit may be required to gain access. By extension, the term
"apron" is also used to identify the air traffic control position responsible for coordinating
movement on this surface at busier airports.
Cargo - goods carried on a ship, aircraft, or motor vehicle.
Freezone - an area adjoining a port where goods that are intended for reshipment can be
received and stored without payment of duties.
Forklift - is a powered industrial truck used to lift and move materials over short distances.
Forwarder - forwarder, or forwarding agent, also known as a non-vessel operating common
carrier, is a person or company that organizes shipments for individuals or corporations to get
goods from the manufacturer or producer to a market, customer or final point of distribution.
Forwarders contract with a carrier or often multiple carriers to move the goods
Freight - goods transported in bulk by truck, train, ship, or aircraft.
Hangar - s a closed building structure to hold aircraft, or spacecraft. Hangars are built of metal,
wood and concrete. Hangars are used for protection from the weather, direct sunlight,
maintenance, repair, manufacture, assembly and storage of aircraft, aircraft carriers and ships.
Palletization - to stack and package (freight, for example) on pallets for efficient shipping and
Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) - attached to the Department of Trade and Industry
- is the Philippine government agency tasked to promote investments, extend assistance,
register, grant incentives to and facilitate the business operations of investors in export-oriented
manufacturing and service facilities inside selected areas throughout the country proclaimed by
the President of the Philippines as PEZA Special Economic Zones.
Runway -
Special Economic Zone (SEZ) - is an area in which the business and trade laws are different from
the rest of the country. SEZs are located within a country's national borders, and their aims
include increased trade balance,employment, increased investment, job creation and effective
Taxiway - A defined path established for the taxiing of aircraft from one part of an airport to
B. Review of Related Literature

Dedicated Cargo Terminal Pushed

published July 20, 2011
Philippines Urged To Divert Cargo Handling To Ports Outside Manila
by Romelda Ascutia

A1. Brief History of Subic

The early inhabitants of Subic were the Negritos of Zambales (more popularly known as
Aetas). At the end of the Pleistocene, seafarers from the Malay Peninsula of the Asian
mainland sailed to the Southeast Asian islands, establishing pockets of population. The
Malays were the first migrants to reach Zambales and drove the Negrito aborigines from
the plains and valleys to the mountains. They found themselves at the western coastal
plain of Luzon between Subic Bay and Lingayen Gulf.

The town of Subic was founded by the Augustinian Friar, Father Rodrigo de San Miguel in
1607. The Spanish government christianized the Negritos and made them subjects of
Spain. However, there were resistance by the Negritos and they continued to defy the
government. In 1884, King Alfonso II issued a Royal Decree officially declaring Subic Bay
as a naval port and Subic became Spain’s stronghold in the Far East.

After the Spanish-American war, which erupted in April 25, 1898, the U.S naval forces
took over Subic and its Bay, whose deep harbor was regarded by Admiral George Dewey
as having no equal in the Philippine Islands.

In 1901, the U.S. Navy designated Subic Bay as a repair and supply naval base site. U.S.
President Theodore Roosevelt issued an executive order in 1903 designating 70,000 acres
of land including Subic as an American military reservation because of its strategic
importance. Nearly 50% of Subic’s original land area became part of the military
reservation area.

Subic was in ruins after the Japanese bombers and fighter planes attacked Subic Bay and
Olongapo on December 14, 1941. During the Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945,
Subic served as a monitoring and defense facility of the Japanese Imperial Army until the
end of World War II. On January 29, 1945, 40,000 troops landed in Zambales and
advanced through Subic Bay to regain control of the base.
Olongapo, a barrio of Subic and part of the U.S. Military Reservations was turned over to
the Philippines and converted into a municipality by virtue of Executive Order No. 366
issued by then President Carlos P. Garcia in December 7, 1959. Based on census data, this
milestone in Subic’s history resulted in the drastic reduction of the town’s population by
more than half, from 25,233 to 12,985 in 1948 and 1960, respectivel
A2. Climate

Climate data for Subic, Zambales (1992–2010, extremes recorded in Naval Air Station Cubi Point
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
35.2 38.0 36.5 38.2 38.8 37.7 36.2 35.0 35.7 35.3 34.7 34.4 38.8
Record high °C (°F)
(95.4) (100.4) (97.7) (100.8) (101.8) (99.9) (97.2) (95.0) (96.3) (95.5) (94.5) (93.9) (101.8)
31.2 32.1 33.5 34.5 33.1 31.7 30.9 30.4 30.7 31.6 31.7 31.0 31.9
Average high °C (°F)
(88.2) (89.8) (92.3) (94.1) (91.6) (89.1) (87.6) (86.7) (87.3) (88.9) (89.1) (87.8) (89.4)
26.8 27.4 28.5 29.6 29.1 28.2 27.7 27.4 27.5 27.9 27.8 27.1 27.9
Daily mean °C (°F)
(80.2) (81.3) (83.3) (85.3) (84.4) (82.8) (81.9) (81.3) (81.5) (82.2) (82.0) (80.8) (82.2)
22.5 22.7 23.6 24.8 25.1 24.8 24.4 24.4 24.3 24.2 23.9 23.2 24.0
Average low °C (°F)
(72.5) (72.9) (74.5) (76.6) (77.2) (76.6) (75.9) (75.9) (75.7) (75.6) (75.0) (73.8) (75.2)
17.9 18.7 19.8 21.5 21.5 19.0 20.0 21.4 21.0 20.6 20.6 18.5 17.9
Record low °C (°F)
(64.2) (65.7) (67.6) (70.7) (70.7) (66.2) (68.0) (70.5) (69.8) (69.1) (69.1) (65.3) (64.2)
Average rainfall mm 6.0 4.2 16.1 22.5 416.8 385.7 759.7 753.5 695.8 214.5 81.9 21.9
(inches) (0.24) (0.17) (0.63) (0.89) (16.41) (15.19) (29.91) (29.67) (27.39) (8.44) (3.22) (0.86)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1
2 1 3 3 12 17 23 24 21 13 8 5 132
Average relative
67 66 65 65 73 78 81 81 82 77 73 68 73
humidity (%)

a. Has a Climate Type 1, meaning it has 2 pronounced seasons; dry from March to June
and wet during July to October. The rest of the year is either wet or dry.
b. Has an average temperature is at 26°C or 80°F (2001 estimates)
c. Has an average monthly relative humidity ranging from 75° to 80°.
d. The most number of tropical storms occurs during the month of August
Has a mean annual rainfall 3,462.2 millimeters and August having the highest rainfall at 1,056.8

Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 1026 mm. The
variation in temperatures throughout the year is 3.0 °C.
Quick Climate Info
Hottest Month May (29 °C average)

Coldest Month January (26 °C average)

Wettest Month December (305.2 mm average)

Windiest Month January (12 km/h average)

Annual Rainfall 2519.3 mm (per year)

A3. Population
Population census of Subic Subic, officially the Municipality of
Subic, is a 1st class municipality in
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
the province of Zambales,
1903 3,955 — Philippines. According to the 2015
1918 14,159 +8.87% census, it has a population of
1939 14,923 +0.25%
104,771 people.
1948 25,223 +6.01% It is located along the northern
1960 12,985 −5.38% coast of Subic Bay. Like Iba, the
1970 22,266 +5.53%
provincial capital, and neighboring
Olongapo City, Subic is a fast-
1975 28,139 +4.81%
growing municipality/town and is
1980 30,340 +1.52%
expected to become a component
1990 46,929 +4.46% city in the future, as well as increase
1995 57,099 +3.74% in income. It is a former home of
2000 63,019 +2.14% one of the largest US military
2007 77,118 +2.82% facilities outside of the US mainland,
the Subic Bay Naval Base.
2010 89,724 +5.66%

2015 104,771 +3.00%

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

A4. Topographic map of Subic

source: http://en-ph.topographic-map.com/places/Subic-Bay-9251231/

A5. Wind statistics

Statistics based on observations taken between 06/2005 - 01/2019 daily from 7am to 7pm local

A6. Geography
a. Located at 14° - 15° latitude north and 120° - 17° longitude east, along the coastal area of
Subic Bay.
b. Approximately 127 kilometers north of Manila; a 3-hour drive traversing the NLEX and
SCTEX highway.
c. Total land area of 18,500 hectares or 185 square kilometers.
d. Has a built up area of 7, 545 hectares or 13.56% of total land area.
e. Has a watershed area of 6, 850.75 hectares
f. Has 2 major mountain ridges; Kalaklan Ridges at and Salimpoyo Ridge.
g. Has land slopes below 18 degrees at 4,255 hectares or 23% of the total land area.
h. Has 5 major water bodies classified as rivers ; Sta Rita River, Mabayuan River, Jadjad River,
Nagunao River and Tawirang Balite River.
i. Has 3 major water bodies classified as creeks; Iram, Licab and Pamo Creek.
j. Has 17 political and administrative government units, name as “Barangays” occupying an
estimated land area of 7,390.73 hectares.

A7. Demography
a. Population is 2016 projected at 276,000 individuals
b. Has an annual population growth rate of 2.19%
c. Has an average household size of 4.5
d. Has a sex ratio of 98 males for every 100 females
e. Has a median age of 23 years old.
f. Has a dependency ratio of 57 dependents for every 100 working age population.
g. Has a gross population density (total land area) of 14 individuals / hectare
h. Has an urban density (land area of 17 barangays) of 35 individuals / hectare
i. Has an In - migration incidence of 18.89% in the year 2011
j. Has a low general fertility rate of 91 per 1,000 female of childbearing age
k. Has a relatively low total fertility rate of 3.3 per female of childbearing age.

B. Primary Data

B1. Subic Bay Management Authority

- the agency has played a significant part in the development of
the Subic Bay Freeport and the Special Economic Zone into a self-
sustainable area that promotes the industrial, commercial,
investment, and financial areas of trade in the zone as well as in
the country of the Philippines itself.

B2. Other Agencies Role

Philippine Economic Zone Authority

- attached to the Department of Trade and Industry - is the
Philippine government agency tasked to promote investments,
extend assistance, register, grant incentives to and facilitate the
business operations of investors in export-oriented
manufacturing and service facilities inside selected areas
throughout the country proclaimed by the President of the
Philippines as PEZA Special Economic Zones.
Department of Trade and Industry
- is the executive department of the Philippine Government
tasked as the main economic catalyst that enables
innovative, competitive, job generating, inclusive business,
and empowers consumers. It acts as catalyst for intensified
private sector activity in order to accelerate and sustain
economic growth through comprehensive industrial growth
strategy, progressive and socially responsible trade
liberalization and deregulation programs and policymaking designed for the
expansion and diversification of Philippine trade - both domestic and foreign.

Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines

- is the national aviation authority of the Philippines and is
responsible for implementing policies on civil aviation to
assure safe, economic and efficient air travel. The agency
also investigates aviation accidents via its Aircraft Accident
Investigation and Inquiry Board. Formerly Air
Transportation Office, it is an independent regulatory body
attached to the Department of Transportation for the purpose of policy coordination.

Department of Transportation
- is the executive department of the Philippine government
responsible for the maintenance and expansion of viable,
efficient, and dependable transportation systems as effective
instruments for national recovery and economic progress.
The department is responsible for the country's land, air, sea
communications infrastructure.

International Air Transport Association

- is a trade association of the world’s airlines. Consisting of
290 airlines, primarily major carriers, representing 117
countries, the IATA's member airlines account for carrying
approximately 82% of total available seat miles air traffic.
IATA supports airline activity and helps formulate industry
policy and standards. It is headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada with Executive
Offices in Geneva, Switzerland.
B3. Two terminals


Function. The air cargo terminal houses equipment and personnel for handling and movement of
material including, but not limited to, receipt of packages, control documentation, palletization,
holding for shipment, aircraft loading and analysing user’s activities and flow of processes might
determine the characteristics of spaces that will be use to facilitate the air cargo free zone. The
elements that compose the airport cargo center facilities and establish their character, size and
configuration will depend on the level of activity of the air cargo industry in the community

Cargo Movement

 Departure

Upon delivery, cargoes are subject for inspection and documentation or for quarantine.
Cargoes are weighed and necessary charges are then paid. Upon the process, cargoes are sealed
and place into storage or at handling area to wait for loading to the arriving aircraft.
 Arrival

Upon arrival of the aircraft, the cargoes are subject for inspection and documentation or
for quarantine. The cargoes are weighed and the necessary charges are then paid. Upon
the process, cargoes are sealed and place into storage or at handling area to wait for
loading to the delivery trucks.

This flow illustrates how export cargo flows

through the airport terminal. Incoming
cargo for export passes through the
reception area, is moved through the
documentation area (where it undergoes
count, checks, weighing, measuring and
labelling), and either is passed directly into
a pre-flight assembly line-up or is placed in
a short-term storage area, form which it is
eventually transferred into pre-flight
This show that import cargo can
similarly arrive on mixed pay load or all
cargo flight. On arrival, it is passes
through an initial holding before sorting
and check in. After sorting, cargo
requiring customs clearances goes to in-
bond storage, from there by way of
cutoms clearance to a cleared
bond storage area, and eventually to
the receiver via import delivery.
B4. Runway, Taxiway & apron

Length of Runway

Subic Bay International Airport

Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Look ng Subic
Airport type Public
Operator Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority
Serves Olongapo City
Location Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Morong, Bataan
Elevation AMSL 19 m / 64 ft
Coordinates 14°47′40.02″N 120°16′16.91″E / 14.79445°N 120.2713639°E
Direction Length Surface
m ft
07L/25R 2,728 9,003 Asphalt

ID Dimensions Surface PCN ILS
07/25 9003 x 148 feet ASPHALT 064FAWT YES
2744 x 45 meters
There are runway markings and signs on most
large runways. Larger runways have a distance
remaining sign (black box with white numbers).
This sign uses a single number to indicate the
remaining distance of the runway in thousands of
feet. For example, a 7 will indicate 7,000 ft
(2,134 m) remaining. The runway threshold is
marked by a line of green lights.

There are three types of runways:

 Visual runways are used at small airstrips and are usually just a strip of grass, gravel, ice,
asphalt, or concrete. Although there are usually no markings on a visual runway, they may
have threshold markings, designators, and centrelines. Additionally, they do not provide
an instrument-based landing procedure; pilots must be able to see the runway to use it.
Also, radio communication may not be available and pilots must be self-reliant.
 Non-precision instrument runways are often used at small- to medium-size airports.
These runways, depending on the surface, may be marked with threshold markings,
designators, centrelines, and sometimes a 1,000 ft. (305 m) mark (known as an aiming
point, sometimes installed at 1,500 ft. (457 m)). They provide horizontal position
guidance to planes on instrument approach via Non-directional beacon, VHF
omnidirectional range, Global Positioning System, etc.
 Precision instrument runways, which are found at medium- and large-size airports,
consist of a blast pad/stop way (optional, for airports handling jets), threshold,
designator, centerline, aiming point, and 500 ft. (152 m), 1,000 ft. (305 m)/1,500 ft.
(457 m), 2,000 ft. (610 m), 2,500 ft. (762 m), and 3,000 ft. (914 m) touchdown zone
marks. Precision runways provide both horizontal and vertical guidance for instrument
Technical specifications
Runway lighting is used at airports that allow night landings. Seen from the air, runway lights
form an outline of the runway. A runway may have some or all of the following:

 Runway end identifier lights (REIL) – unidirectional (facing approach direction) or

omnidirectional pair of synchronized flashing lights installed at the runway threshold, one on
each side.
 Runway end lights – a pair of four lights on each side of the runway on precision instrument
runways, these lights extend along the full width of the runway. These lights show green
when viewed by approaching aircraft and red when seen from the runway.
 Runway edge lights – white elevated lights that run the length of the runway on either side.
On precision instrument runways, the edge-lighting becomes amber in the last 2,000 ft.
(610 m) of the runway, or last third of the runway, whichever is less. Taxiways are
differentiated by being bordered by blue lights, or by having green centre lights, depending
on the width of the taxiway, and the complexity of the taxi pattern.
 Runway centerline lighting system (RCLS) – lights embedded into the surface of the runway
at 50 ft. (15 m) intervals along the runway centerline on some precision instrument runways.
White except the last 900 m (3,000 ft.): alternate white and red for next 600 m (1,969 ft.) and
red for last 300 m (984 ft.).
 Touchdown zone lights (TDZL) – rows of white light bars (with three in each row) at 30 or
60 m (98 or 197 ft.) intervals on either side of the centerline for 900 m (3,000 ft.).
 Taxiway centerline lead-off lights – installed along lead-off markings, alternate green and
yellow lights embedded into the runway pavement. It starts with green light at about the
runway centerline to the position of first centerline light beyond the Hold-Short markings on
the taxiway.
 Taxiway centerline lead-on lights – installed the same way as taxiway centerline lead-off
Lights, but directing airplane traffic in the opposite direction.
 Land and hold short lights – a row of white pulsating lights installed across the runway to
indicate hold short position on some runways that are facilitating land and hold short
operations (LAHSO).
 Approach lighting system (ALS) – a lighting system installed on the approach end of an
airport runway and consists of a series of light bars, strobe lights, or a combination of the two
that extends outward from the runway end.
Runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-
off of aircraft". Runways may be a man-made surface (often asphalt, concrete, or a mixture of
both) or a natural surface (grass, dirt, gravel, ice, or salt).

Figure 1 Gooogle Map Subic Bay Freeport Zone

Runways markings.

Figure 1.2 Gooogle Map Subic Bay Freeport Zone( Runway)

Taxiways - are defined as the paths that are used for the taxiing of aircraft from one part of an
airport to another. All taxiway markings are yellow.

The different types of taxiway markings are as follows:

• Taxiway Centerline Marking

• Taxiway Edge Marking
• Holding Position Markings
• Markings for a Taxiway in Front of a Runway

Taxiway Centerline Marking

Taxiway centerlines are marked to provide a visual identification of the designated
taxiing path. Taxiway centerlines are yellow and consist of a continuous stripe along the
centerline of the designated taxiway. On a taxiway curve, the markings continue from
the straight portion of the taxiway at a constant distance from the outside edge of the
taxiway. A width of between 6 inches and 12 inches wide is acceptable provided the
width selected is uniform for its entire length. The centerline will be continuous in
length except where it intersects a holding position marking or runway marking
element. For taxiway intersections designed for the straightthorough method of taxiing,
the centerline markings continue straight through the intersection.

Taxiway Edge Marking

Taxiway edge markings are used to delineate the edge of the taxiway. They are used
when the taxiway edge does not correspond with the edge of the pavement and where
the full strength pavement of the taxiway is not readily visible. Taxiway edge markings
are yellow and can either be continuous or dashed. Continuous taxiway edge markings
are used to identify the taxiway from the shoulder or some other surface not intended
to be used by aircraft. Dashed taxiway edge markings are used when the aircraft would
need to cross the lines, for example when a taxiway enters or crosses aprons.
Continuous taxiway edge markings consist of a continuous double yellow line, each
being at least 6 inches in width and spaced 6 inches apart. Dashed taxiway edge
markings consist of a broken double yellow line, each being at least 6 inches wide
spaced at 6 inches apart from edge to edge. The lines are 15 feet in length with 25 foot

Runway Holding Position Markings

On Taxiways Holding position markings identify the location on a taxiway where an
aircraft is supposed to stop while awaiting clearance to proceed onto the runway.
Holding position markings should be located on all taxiways that intersect runways
based upon the most critical aircraft using the runway. There are four types of holding
position markings. These markings are outlined with black lines and black interim
spaces if needed for improved visibility on light colored (such as Portland cement)
pavement areas. They are as follows:

• Holding Position Markings for Taxiway/Runway Intersections

• Holding Position Markings for Runway/Runway Intersections
• Holding Position Markings for Taxiway/Taxiway Intersections
• Holding Position Markings for Instrument Landing System (ILS) Critical Areas

Holding Positions Markings For Taxiway/Runway Intersections are indicated with two
solid lines followed by two broken lines. The solid lines are always on the side where
the aircraft is to hold. The markings are installed perpendicular to the taxiway
centerline as seen in Figure 13.1.

Figure 13.1 Runway Holding Position Marking

Holding Positions Markings For Runway/Runway Intersections

Holding position markings for runway/runway markings are identical to the holding
position markings for taxiway/runway intersections (see Figure 13.1). The solid lines of
these markings are also always on the side where the aircraft is to hold. However, these
markings should only be installed on a runway where that portion of the runway is used
as a taxiway or used for “land and hold short” operations.

Holding Positions Markings For Taxiway/Taxiway Intersections

Holding position markings for taxiway/taxiway intersections are indicated with a single
line of dashes and spaces. These markings should only be installed at taxiway/taxiway
intersections where there is an operational need to hold aircraft at this point, and are
often not necessary. These markings are installed perpendicular to the taxiway
centerline as seen in Figure 13.2.

Figure 13.2 Intermediate Holding Position Markings

Holding Positions Markings For ILS Critical Areas
The holding position markings for ILS critical areas are indicated with a set of two
parallel lines spaced four feet apart, in between these two lines and perpendicular to
them are sets of two parallel lines spaced one foot apart as seen in Figure 13.3. Due to
their appearance, these markings are commonly referred to as a “ladder” or “rail road
tracks”. The holding position markings for ILS critical areas identify the location on a
taxiway where an aircraft is supposed to stop when it does not have clearance to enter
these critical areas. These critical areas are used to protect the navigational aid signal or
the airspace required for the approach procedure. These markings are installed at the
perimeter of the ILS critical area and are perpendicular to the taxiway centerline.
Where the distance between the taxiway/runway holding position and the holding
position for an ILS critical area is 50 feet or less, one holding position may be
established, provided it does not affect capacity. The local FAA airways facilities office
will help designate the ILS critical areas for the airport operator.

Figure 13.3 ILS/MLS Holding Position Marking


Taxiway and Apron markings

Types of Airplanes

Boeing 747-8
The Boeing 747-8 is a wide-body jet
airliner developed by Boeing
Commercial Airplanes. It was
officially announced in 2005. The
747-8 is the third generation of the
747, with a lengthened fuselage,
redesigned wings, new engines, and
improved efficiency. The 747-8 is
the largest 747 version, the largest
commercial aircraft built in the United States.

The Boeing 777 (Triple Seven)

is a long-range wide-body
twin-engine jet airliner
developed and manufactured
by Boeing Commercial
Airplanes. It is the world's
largest twinjet, with a range of
5,240 to 8,555 nautical miles
(9,704 to 15,844 km).
Commonly referred to as the
"Triple Seven", its
distinguishing features include the large–diameter turbofan engines, long raked wings, six wheels
on each main landing gear, fully circular fuselage cross-section, and a blade-shaped tail cone.
Airbus A300
The Airbus A300 is a wide-body twin-
engine jet airliner developed and
manufactured by Airbus. Formally
announced in 1969 and first flying in
October 1972, it holds the distinction
of being the world's first twin-engined
widebody airliner; it was also the first
product of Airbus Industrie, a
consortium of European aerospace
manufacturers, now known as Airbus.
Cabin Height - 2.22 metres 7.28 feets
Cabin Width -5.28 metres 17.32 feets
Cabin Length - 40.70 metres 133.53 feets
Exterior Length - 54.10 metres 177.49 feets
Wingspan / Rotor Diameter - 44.84 metres 147.11 feets
Fuselage Diameter - 5.64 metres 18.50 feets
Baggage Volume - 391.40 cubic metre 13,822.17 cubic feet
Maximum Take Off Weight - 165,900.00 kgs 365,743.14 lbs
Maximum Payload - 55,017.00 kgs 121,290.48 lbs
Fuel Tank Capacity - 18,005.23 gallon 68,150.00 litres
Fuel Economy - 0.07 km per litre 0.16 NM per gallon
Minimum Take Off Distance - 2,324.00 metres 7,624.58 feets
Minimum Landing Distance - 1,635.00 metres 5,364.11 feets

BOEING 767 300F

is a mid- to large-size, mid- to long-range, wide-
body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing
Commercial Airplanes. It was Boeing's first wide-
body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew
glass cockpit.
Types of Cargoes
Air Cargo
Air cargo, commonly known as air freight, is collected by firms from shippers and delivered to
customers. Aircraft were first used for carrying mail as cargo in 1911. Eventually manufacturers
started designing aircraft for other types of freight as well.
Types of Air Cargoes

 Container Vessels – is currently the most common mode of transport used for carrying
20′, 40′ and 45′ containers. More details on size/type and usage of containers will follow
in another article. These come in various capacities ranging from about 85 teus (twenty
equivalent units) to 15,000+ teus.. The biggest currently being the Emma Maersk..
 Bulk Vessels – Used for the carriage of bulk commodities like wheat, sulphur, iron ore,
coal etc etc..
 Breakbulk Vessels – Used for the carriage of various kinds of cargoes – bagged cargo
(cement, sugar etc), palletised cargo (paint, chemicals etc), timber etc etc
 Multi-purpose Vessels – Used for the carriage of a combination of above cargoes.. Very
versatile, popular and useful vessels specially along certain routes which require self-
geared vessels and do not have shore handling facilities..
 Tanker Vessels – Used for the carriage of various liquid cargoes like oil, chemicals etc..
 Crude Carriers – Used for the carriage of (you guessed it) crude oil – further classified as
VLCC (Very large Crude Carriers) and ULCC (Ultra large Crude Carriers)
 LNG Carriers – Used for the carriage of Liquified Natural Gas..
 Reefer Vessel – Used for the carriage of frozen cargoes or temperature controlled cargoes
like fruits, meat, fish etc.
Sentimental Shipments
We understand how traumatic it is to lose a dear one. That’s why we make sure the mortal
remains of the deceased are always carried with utmost care and concern.
Besides passport of the deceased, the following documents are required for carriage of
sentimental cargo:
 Death Certificate from a competent medical authority
 Embalming and Packaging Certificate, Certificate issued by Embassy (Nationality of deceased)
with the deceased’s full name, age at the time of death, place of death and photocopy of
passport details.
 Photocopy of cancelled passport,Police certificate.
It is necessary that the above documents are made in English, otherwise the same should be
translated in English.
Odd-Sized Cargo
Do you have any odd sized cargo or heavy cargo to carry? Don’t worry. Like we handle valuables
and livestock, we also possess expertise in logistics to carry heavy and odd –sized.
Dangerous Goods
India being an industrial and nuclear power, we regularly carry Dangerous Goods such as
flammable, corrosive, poisonous and radioactive substances and varied use including medical.
Our Cargo staff is qualified under Dangerous Goods Regulations, to handle such shipments.
In order to ensure security of your valuables, we have provided a container with a security
locker on wide body aircrafts. The narrow body aircrafts are also fitted with locker for valuable
cargo. In fact, the entire operation of loading and unloading is carried out under the vigilant
eyes of our Security personnel.
In order to adhere to the strictest security for transportation of cargo on our flights, we ensure
that the cargo is loaded on the flight after physical check or x-ray.
Over the years we have acquired expertise in carriage of live stock.
Courier traffic is a rapidly growing market. Air India has been in the courier business
transporting small packages and documents between destinations for years.

Types of products shipped by air include: (1) high value products; (2) fast selling or “hot” products
such as clothing, toys and electronics; (3) high obsolescence products such as laptops, cellular
phones and software; and (4) critical products.
3 Majority of air cargo being exported out of Asia, however, consists of electronics, while imports
consist mainly of electronic parts and finished consumer goods.
The following are characteristics of air cargo: (1) air cargo does not fly return; (2) air cargo is a
heterogeneous good and comes in numerous shapes, weights and values; (3) three in-flight-
products suffice to satisfy the demands of most airline passengers; (3) cargo customers are
concentrated with a limited number of forwarding agencies accounting for the major share of air
cargo demand, whereas individuals and companies purchase passenger tickets; (4) numerous
companies can be involved in realizing the air cargo transport chain to fulfil the required
transport, handling, warehousing and customs tasks; and (5) unlike passenger airlines, air cargo
carriers do not have individual customer relationships.

Volume of Traffic
Worldwide air freight traffic from 2004 to 2019 (in million metric tons)

Step 1: Determine the types and number of aircraft which populate the hangar.
During this initial stage, input is needed from the hangar's future owner about his aircraft fleet.
Information such as the following:
Type of aircraft in the fleet
Number of each type of aircraft in the fleet
Mix of aircraft that will populate the hangar
Allowance for future aircraft that may populate the hangar

Step 2: Determine the Maintenance Function of the Hangar Facility.

Input is needed from the owner with regards to the maintenance that will be performed on the
aircraft in the hangar. This can vary from no maintenance at all to complete overhaul of the
aircraft. Different levels of maintenance are required by the Federal Aviation Administration for
certain aircraft currently in operation.
Step 3: Compile the Aircraft Characteristics
Step 4: Determine Hangar Space Requirements
Coating /Composite Restoration Facility for Fighter Aircraft at Langley AFB View enlarged plan
Photo Credit: Burns & McDonnell
To determine the most efficient use of hangar
space use templates representing the aircraft
and floor plans drawn at the same scale.
Arrange the templates in various
combinations to the make the most efficient
use of space and permits maintenance
Minimum separation distances between
aircraft and minimum distances between the aircraft and other obstructions are defined in
some building codes and in AFM 32-1084Facility Requirements.
Another factor to consider in sizing the hangar space is the fire protection requirements. The
National Fire Protection Association standard, NFPA 409: Standard on Aircraft Hangars
establishes four different groups of hangars based on their size and construction type. In
general, the smaller the hangar space the less expensive the fire protection and utility
When sizing the hangar space, do not overlook tail heights, the height and width of the hangar
door openings, the structural depth of columns and trusses and the turning radius of tow
vehicles connected to aircraft. Also in larger hangars, distance to means of egress become a
concern and should be laid out to meet local codes and NFPA 101: Life Safety Code.
Step 5: Determine space needs for the Maintenance Shops and Warehouse
The maintenance shops and warehouse provide space and storage for required maintenance
activities such as fabrication shops, airframe repair, engine repair, aerospace systems repair,
battery servicing area, cryogenics maintenance, interior finishes repair and nondestructive
testing laboratory.
For Air Force Facilities, AFM 32-1084 Facility Requirements lists maintenance shop space
requirements for different squadrons of aircraft. Similar rational should be used in the
commercial arena with input from aircraft manufacturers.
The Federal Aviation Administration mandates procedures to be followed by operators when
establishing aircraft inspection intervals and overhaul times.
Step 6: Determine space needs for the Office/Administration Area
The space needs in the Office/Administration area are similar to those required in any office
building. The general rule of thumb according to Office Finder is 175 to 250 square feet of
useable space per person.
Lockheed Martin Corporate Hangar Facility—Baltimore, Maryland
Photo Credit: Burns & McDonnell

Mechanical System Requirements

Determining the space need for the utility systems is highly dependent on the hangar
maintenance function and the available utilities. In some corrosion control hangars the HVAC
requirements are so stringent that the mechanical rooms can be as large as the hangar space
itself. Also in corrosion control hangar spaces the mechanical rooms should be located adjacent
to the hangar space and with an exterior wall for outside air requirements. The HVAC in the
hangar space must be integrated with the fire detection system to shut down in case of a fire.
In general, the hangar space usually requires fire protection using water mixed with an Aqueous
Film Forming Foam (AFFF). This can be applied by an overhead system or water cannons
mounted near the floor. If the existing fire water pressure isn't adequate, the fire protection
system may require a reservoir and booster pumps to satisfy the demand of the hangar space.
The National Fire Protection Association standard, NFPA 409: Standard on Aircraft Hangars
establishes fire protection criteria for hangars based on their size and construction type.
Another resource is the owner's insurance carrier who should have input into the fire
protection and detection systems.
Electrical System Requirements
The electrical requirements of the hangar facility should meet the requirements of NFPA 70:
National Electrical Code®. The hangar space should be classified as hazardous or nonhazardous
according to NFPA 70 and the electrical installations designed accordingly. Electrical equipment
in the hangar space should be waterproof, NEMA Type 4 (minimum rating) when deluge
sprinkler protection is provided. Various power supply voltages and frequencies are required in
the facility because Aircraft and Ground Support Equipment operate on different voltages and
frequencies than normally provided by the public utilities.

Hangar Doors
One of the largest single design elements to be selected is the type of hangar door to be
utilized. There are several different types (sliding, vertical lift, bifolding, fabric, etc) and each
type has advantages and design implications for the overall structure.

C. Site and Building profile

In general, long-term parking is a more cost-effective solution compared to short-term parking

options. It’s important to consider your specific and unique needs when choosing between long-
term and short-term parking. Even if you plan to be away for only a few days, long-term parking
may be the most cost-effective and budget-friendly option. It’s important to contact the airport
ahead of time to ask about rates, time restrictions, and availability of space during the time you
plan to travel. If there is an option to reserve a short-term or long-term space, be sure to take
advantage in order to avoid a more stressful, troublesome beginning to your travels.

Aerial shot of the Bay

Most generally believe the name Subic was derived from the native word “hubek” which means
“head of a plow.” The name appears to have persisted, with the spelling and pronunciation
changing over the passing of time. Spanish colonizers seem to have interpreted it as “Subiq,”
while the first batch of American settlers here changing it to “Subig” and finally to its modern
pronunciation “Subic.”
Lobby - a area in a building used for entry from the outside. Sometimes referred to as a foyer,
reception or an entrance hall, it often is a large, vast room or complex of an area.
Airport Lounge - is a facility operated at many airports. Airport lounges offer, for selected
passengers, comforts beyond those afforded in the airport terminal itself, such as more
comfortable seating.
Public Toilet - is a room or small building with toilets (or urinals) that does not belong to a
particular household. Rather, the toilet is available for use by the general public, customers,
travellers, employees of a business, school pupils, prisoners etc. Public toilets are commonly
separated into male and female facilities, although some are unisex, especially for small or
single-occupancy public toilets.
Holding Area - an Emergency Department area in which patients are kept temporarily before
being transferred to an intensive care unit.
Concessionaire - one that operates a refreshment stand at a recreational center.
Employees Lounge - The employee lounge is a place where DUC and The Paper Tree staff
can eat, safe keep their belongings, socialize with other staff and relax. The Employee
Lounge is strictly for use by staff-on-duty only.
Clinic- is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients. Clinics can be
privately operated or publicly managed and funded.
Workstations - are used for the build-up and breakdown of air cargo ULDs. SPPAL has
developed an extensive product portfolio for this zone, supported by a high level of
automation. Where general freight is handled, we make sure that the automation solution
meets the user’s needs by creating a perfectly designed ergonomic interface between operator
and machine.
Cargo Storage - A cargo terminal may include Cargo Storage Systems (CSS), which are used for
storing ULDs, and bulk storage systems. Both types can vary in complexity, from small, manually
operated systems to complex systems with up to 3,500 ULD locations. SPPAL offers solutions
tailor-made for all customer requirements.
Handling Area – Unit Load Devices and other cargo are handled within the cargo terminal with
a variety of equipment, depending on degree of automation and flexibility.

Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied. Parking on one
or both sides of a road is often permitted, though sometimes with restrictions. Some buildings
have parking facilities for use of the buildings' users. Countries and local governments have rules
for design and use of parking spaces.


There are two main differences between long-term and short-term parking, depending on where
you park and how long you intend to need that space. Airport parking can be costly over time, so
it’s important to choose wisely between long-term and short-term parking in order to save the
most money. To do this, it’s important to understand the differences between the two. Let’s take
a look.

 Long-Term Airport Parking

Long-term parking is generally needed when you are traveling out of town for an extended period
of time. If you plan to be traveling for more than 6-7 days, long-term parking may be the best
solution for you. Long-term parking is a more cost-effective solution compared to the per-day
costs of short-term parking options.

Long-term parking areas are usually located further from the airport, and you may need to
consider the walking distance involved unless you opt for terminal transport services. Nearly all
airports offer long-term parking, and it’s generally recommended that you book your space in
advance to avoid the hassle of trying to find a long-term parking spot in a busy and congested

 Short-Term Airport Parking

Short-term parking solutions are the best option if your travel plans are short-term. It’s important
to remember that when comparing per-day costs, short-term parking will be slightly more
expensive. Short-term parking is a great option for those picking up and dropping off passengers,
as well as those in need of a parking space for a few minutes to a few hours.

Short-term parking costs are generally calculated either on a per-hour or per-day basis,
depending on the facility. Short-term parking options are often the most expensive due to the
added convenience of proximity to the airport facility. If you plan to park your vehicle for more
than 24 hours in short-term parking, it’s advisable to book your space in advance.
D. Design Strategies and Solutions

TUGON : An architectural response to complexity through a cognitive simplified approach.

Air cargo terminal can not be easily understood as a whole. The vague COMPLEXITY that it has
requires extensive study and profound understanding.
Consequently, analysing the details (macro and micro) such as access, ventilation, circulation
and orientation considering security, flexibility and sustainability will help to establish the core
of the design process and will allow to identify the most proper and logical design approach to
be exercised/used.
The main concept is to construct specific and sensible architectural solutions from the diverse
intricacies of the air cargo terminal that will satisfy the essential needs with SIMPLICITY in mind.
The designers believe that combining simplified planning and plainness of design can create
uniformity and will build the genuine character of the building.
In context, simplifying does not mean thinking of easy steps but diverting complex steps into
simplified yet effective ones. Meaning, these simplified architectural solutions used in the
design were also rooted and emerged from sophisticated hypothesis produced by thorough
analysis of the matter.
Truly, the more complex the problem is, the more it needs and demands simplicity.



In site selection and orientation, both inbound and outbound terminals were located on the
most ideal parts of the site that will give immediate access to the aircrafts, aircraft activities,
and other land cargo operations from runway, taxiways to the terminals.
Specifically, terminal 1(inbound) is at the upper part of the site near the bay and is oriented
northeast with its facade providing direct access to the public road for faster shipping of
unloaded import cargoes.
On the other hand, terminal 2 (outbound) is at the lower part of the site with its facade facing
southwest giving better access to Argonaut highway that will allow more direct connection
between the terminal and the cargoes from the localities to be exported.
However, it is in need to avoid the warm breeze coming from the sea. Thus properly planned
landscape was also taken into account. Putting leafy trees and shrubs around the terminals
specially the former, will able to block or absorb the heat caused by the sea and is the simplest
way yet efficient solution to the stated problem.
In planning, a lot of critical factors should be considered. The different activities and
unnecessary occurrences relative to different spaces create probable traffic that slowing the
operations within and outside the terminals. Thus, the designers fall into an idea to divide the
building into three zones; the admin, operational, and storage. The depalitization area, x-
ray/weighing, and sorting/accumulation area for domestic and international were combined.
The cargoes will separate in two varying storages after sorting.
It is to maximize/utilize the given spaces and to make the moving objects within the building to
circulate fluidly and reduce the dwelling time in the busy areas. Eliminating the traffic will
enhance the creativity of the workers and will make the operational productivity of the
terminals to increase as well.
Lastly, the form is designed according to the function. A cluster of rectangular shaped boxes
connected by a high long eaved roof with minimal incorporation of details. The beauty of white
defines the clarity and purity of its own build and structure. Generally, the purpose is to make a
design that states its only character; a conveyance of SIMPLICITY.

Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular AC 150/5340-1J "Standards for Airport