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CODIGO PROCESAL

CIVIL Y MERCANTIL
COMENTADO
PLENO DEL CONSEJO
NACIONAL DE LA JUDICATURA
Presidente:
Lic. David Gonzalo Cabezas Flores

Consejales Propietarios:
Dr. Jorge Efraín Campos
Lic. José Ricardo Chigüila Durán
Licda. Nora Victorina Montoya Martínez
Lic. Carlos Arnulfo Cándido
Licda. Rosa Margarita Romagoza de López Bertrand
Lic. Santos Cecilio Treminio Salmerón
CÓDIGO PROCESAL CIVIL
Y MERCANTIL. COMENTADO
Elaborado por:
Dr. Juan Carlos Cabañas García
Dr. Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco
Dr. Santiago Garderes

Julio 2010

Presentación

El Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura es el ente al que la Constitución de la República delega


la responsabilidad de capacitar a Magistrados y Jueces, una misión que cumple, en los últimos
años, con especial énfasis.

Por ello, tras la aprobación y posterior entrada en vigencia del Código Procesal Civil
y Mercantil, el CNJ ha impulsado una capacitación sobre la nueva normativa para la
comunidad jurídica del país y como complemento entrega esta obra comentada, que sin duda,
será de vital apoyo para comprender los objetivos que persigue la Ley y los nuevos procesos.

Esta obra coordinada por el Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura constituye un primer esfuerzo
por documentar un cambio de legislación que sustituye a más de 100 años de la anterior
normativa, una razón por la que el estudio, análisis y revisión del cumplimiento de los
objetivos trazados, al momento de aprobar el nuevo Código, debe ser permanente, sobre todo
XWZY]MTIXZnK\QKIVW[X]MLMQVLQKIZTIVMKM[QLILLMZMITQbIZUWLQÅKIKQWVM[

Sin duda alguna, los argumentos y explicaciones contenidas en este texto, elaborado desde
la óptica y experiencia de los autores, servirán a los miembros de la comunidad jurídica
MV OMVMZIT XMZW M[XMKQITUMV\M I TW[ WXMZILWZM[ R]LQKQITM[ XIZI KTIZQÅKIZ TI OIUI LM
XW[QJQTQLILM[LMQV\MZXZM\IKQ~VY]M]VWWUn[IZ\yK]TW[X]MLIV\MVMZ[QVY]MM[\W[QOVQÅY]M
una imposición de criterios.

Los comentarios al Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil han sido elaborados por tres expertos
en esta materia:

Dr. Juan Carlos Cabañas García: Magistrado de la Audiencia Nacional de España y experto
en Derecho Constitucional.
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

Dr. Santiago Garderes: Experto de nacionalidad uruguaya quien participó en la capacitación


QUX]T[ILIXWZMT+WV[MRW6IKQWVITLMTI2]LQKI\]ZIaÅVITUMV\MNWZU~XIZ\MLMTIKWUQ[Q~V
de destacados juristas en la selección de Magistrados y Jueces civiles y mercantiles.

Dr. Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco: Experto nacional.

4IZM^Q[Q~VÅVITLMT\M`\WM[\]^WIKIZOWLMTXZWKM[ITQ[\I2W[u)V\WVQW5IZ\yVMbaMT+WV[MRW
Nacional de la Judicatura, como parte de su responsabilidad, se complace en entregar esta
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herramienta de consulta, análisis y orientación de la práctica en materia Civil y Mercantil,
según las nuevas disposiciones contenidas en el Código y de acuerdo a la Constitución y la
realidad salvadoreña.

LIC. DAVID GONZALO CABEZAS FLORES


PRESIDENTE DEL CONSEJO NACIONAL DE LA JUDICATURA
ESCUELA DE

República de El Salvador
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura
Escuela de Capacitación Judicial C A PA C ITA C IO N

“Dr. Arturo Zeledón Castrillo”

ÍNDICE
LIBRO PRIMERO.
DISPOSICIONES GENERALES 15
1 El Titulo Preliminar. Principios del Proceso y Aplicación de las
Normas Procesales.
Artículos 1-20
2 Titulo Primero. Jurisdicción y Competencia de los Tribunales
Artículos 21-57
3 Titulo Segundo. Las Partes Procesales
Artículos 58-89
4 Título Tercero. El Objeto del Proceso
Artículos 90-94
Capítulo Primero. La Pretensión Procesal
Artículos 95-97
Capítulo Segundo. Acumulaciones
Artículos 98-104
Capítulo Tercero. Acumulación de Pretensiones
Artículos 105-125
Capítulo Cuarto. Acumulación de Procesos
Artículos 126-132
Capitulo Quinto. Finalización Anticipada del Proceso
Artículos 133-139
Capítulo Sexto. Caducidad de la Instancia
5 Titulo Cuarto. Actividad Procesal
Artículos 140-148
Capítulo Primero. Lugar, Tiempo y Forma
Artículos 149-159
Capítulo Segundo. Cooperación Judicial Internacional
Artículos 160-168
Capítulo Tercero. Escritos y Expedientes
Artículos 169-192
Capítulo Cuarto. Comunicaciones Judiciales
Artículos 193-211
Capítulo Quinto. Sustanciación del Proceso y Audiencias
Artículos 212-231
Capitulo Sexto. Resoluciones Judiciales
Artículos 232-238
Capitulo Séptimo. Nulidad de las Actuaciones Procesales

LIBRO SEGUNDO.
LOS PROCESOS DECLARATIVOS 235
1 Titulo Primero. Disposiciones Comunes
Artículos 239-245
Capítulo Primero. Clases de Proceso Declarativos
Artículos 246-254
Capítulo Segundo. El Acto de Conciliación
Artículos 255-262
Capítulo Tercero. Diligencias Preliminares
Artículos 263-270
Capítulo Cuarto. Cuestiones Incidentales
Artículos 271-275
Capítulo Quinto. Condena en costas
2 Titulo Segundo. El Proceso Común
Artículos 276-289
Capítulo Primero. Los Actos de Alegación
3 Titulo Segundo. El Proceso Común
Artículos 290-311
Capitulo Segundo. Audiencia Preparatoria
4 Titulo Segundo. El Proceso Común
Artículos 312-329
Capítulo Tercero. Actividad Probatoria
Artículos 330-401
Capítulo Cuarto. Medios Probatorios
5 Titulo Segundo. El Proceso Común
Artículos 402-410
Capítulo Quinto. Audiencia Probatoria
Capítulo Sexto. Alegatos Finales y Sentencia
Artículos 411-417
6 Titulo Tercero. El Proceso Abreviado
Artículos 418-430
7 Título Cuarto. Las Medidas Cautelares
Artículos 431-456

LIBRO TERCERO.
PROCESOS ESPECIALES 485
1 Titulo Primero. El Proceso Ejecutivo
Artículos 457-470
2 Titulo Segundo. Los Procesos Posesorios
Artículos 471-476
3 Título Tercero. Los Procesos de Inquilinato
Artículos 477-488
4 Titulo Cuarto. Los Procesos Monitorios
Artículos 489-500

LIBRO CUARTO.
LOS MEDIOS DE IMPUGNACION 531
1 Titulo Primero. Disposiciones Generales
Artículos 501-502
2 Titulo Segundo. Recurso de Revocatoria
Artículos 503-507
3 Título Tercero. Recurso de Apelación
Artículos 508-518
4 Titulo Cuarto. Recurso de Casación
Artículos 519-539
5 Titulo Quinto. Revisión de Sentencias Firmes
Artículos 540-550

LIBRO QUINTO.
LA EJECUCION FORZOSA 635
1 Titulo Primero. Disposiciones Generales
Artículos 551-591
2 Titulo Segundo. La Ejecución Provisional
Artículos 592-603
3 Título Tercero. La Ejecución Dineraria
Artículos 604-674
4 Titulo Cuarto. La Ejecución de Hacer, No Hacer y Dar Cosa
Determinada
Artículos 675-699
5 Titulo Final. Capitulo Único. Disposiciones Finales
Artículos 700-707
LIBRO SEXTO
DISPOSICIONES FINALES1 actualización de 695
Cuantías de las multas
Derogatorias disposición transitoria

ANEXOS 698
1 Tabla de Concordancias (para búsqueda rápida del lector de
norma similar del nuevo CPCM y el anterior
ABREVIATURAS
AA.VV. autores varios
art./arts. artículo/artículos
*7--[XI}I   *WTM\yV7ÅKQITLMT-[\ILW-[XI}I
c./cs. caso/casos
cc. concordante/concordantes
C.C. Código Civil
C.Com. Código de Comercio
Cfe. conforme
+/8    +~LQOW/MVMZITLMT8ZWKM[W=Z]O]Ia
C.A.D.H. Convención Americana sobre Derechos Humanos
C.I.D.H. Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos
Corte I.D.H. Corte Interamericana de Derchos Humanos
C.I.D.I.P. Convención Interamericana de Derecho
Internacional Privado
cit./cits. citado/citados
C.M.P.C.I. Código Modelo de Procesos Colectivos para
Iberoamérica
C.N. Constitución de la República
C.P. Código Penal
C.P.P. Código Procesal Penal
+8+    +~LQOWLM8ZWKMLQUQMV\W+Q^QTXWZLMZWOIZ[M
+8+5   +~LQOW8ZWKM[IT+Q^QTa5MZKIV\QTV]M^W
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+8+8MZƒ   +~LQOW8ZWKM[IT+Q^QT8MZƒ
C.P.C.C.N.A. Código Procesal Civil y Comercial de la Nación
Argentina
C.P.C.M.I. Código Procesal Civil Modelo para Iberoamérica
C.P.P. Código Procesal Penal
C.S.J. Corte Suprema de Justicia
C.N.J. Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura
CT Código de Trabajo
CTri Código Tributario
ed. edición
Ed. Editorial
E.J.E.A. Editorial Jurídica Europa-América
esp. especialmente
f./fs. foja/fojas
inc./incs. inciso/incisos
I.I.D.P. Instituto Iberoamericano de
Derecho Procesal
J.C. Juzgado de lo Civil
J.M. Juzgado de lo Mercantil
4-+     4MaLM-VR]QKQIUQMV\W+Q^QT-[XI}I
L.E.N.J.V.D. Ley del ejercicio notarial de la jurisdicción
voluntaria y de otras diligencias
L.I. Ley de Inquilinato
L.O.P.J. Ley Orgánica del Poder
L.P.F Procesal de Familia
LBHES Ley del Banco Hipotecario de El Salvador
LFNVyAAP. Ley de la Financiera Nacional de la
Vivienda y de las Asociaciones de Ahorro y
Préstamo
4/8     4Ma/MVMZITLM8]JTQKQLIL-[XI}I
LITBMyPS. Ley de Impuesto a la Transferencia de
Bienes Muebles y a la Prestación
de Servicios
LMCA. Ley de Mediación, Conciliación y Arbitraje
LOFGR. Ley Orgánica de la Fiscalía General de la
República
LPEAT. Ley de Procedimientos Especiales sobre
Accidentes de Tránsito
LPIPA. Ley de Propiedad Inmobiliaria por Pisos y
Apartamientos
LPI. Ley de Propiedad Intelectual
4;)     4MaLM;QUXTQÅKIKQ~V)L]IVMZI
num./nums. numeral/numerales
ob. cit. obra citada
p./pp. página/páginas
p. ej. por ejemplo
P.G.R. Procuraduría General de la República
R.D.P.I. Revista de Derecho Procesal
Iberoamericana
:-8]MZ\W:QKW   :MOTI[LM-^QLMVKQI8]MZ\W:QKW
R.P.C. Puerto Rico Reglas de Procedimiento Civil (Puerto
     :QKW
R.U.D.P. Revista Uruguaya de Derecho Procesal
S. sentencia
S.C. Sala de lo Civil, Corte Suprema de Justicia
S.Const. Sala de lo Constitucional, Corte Suprema de
Justicia
S.S.C. Sentencia de la Sala de lo Civil
S.S. Const. Sentencia de la Sala de lo Constitucional
s/f. sin fecha
ss. siguientes
t. tomo
trad. traducción
T.E.D.H. Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos
T.C.E. Tribunal Constitucional de España
últ. ob. cit. última obra citada
v.g. verbigracia
vol. volumen
vta. vuelta
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Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

LIBRO PRIMERO
DISPOSICIONES GENERALES
TÍTULO PRELIMINAR
PRINCIPIOS DEL PROCESO Y APLICACIÓN
DE LAS NORMAS PROCESALES.

CAPÍTULO PRIMERO

PRINCIPIOS PROCESALES
Juan Carlos Cabañas García

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1.2 EL TÍTULO PRELIMINAR, CONTENIDO Y FINALIDAD

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15
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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de la ley:

1.3 DERECHOS BÁSICOS DE LOS JUSTICIABLES

1.3.1 Alcance del derecho a la tutela judicial

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1.3.1.1 Derecho a la protección jurisdiccional (Art. 1):

O Enunciado:

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O Aplicación:

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16
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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XZM^Q[\WIUMVW[Y]MTIM`Q[\MVKQILM]VLMNMK\W]~JQKMXZWKM[ITTTM^MILQK\IZ]VIZM[WT]KQ~V
QV\MZTWK]\WZQIXWVQMVLWÅVIV\QKQXILIUMV\MTI[IK\]IKQWVM[TWY]M\IUJQuVLMJMZnUW\Q^IZ[M
MVLMZMKPW>MZƒT\QUIUMV\MTI[;;<+M[XI}WT LMLMMVMZW.2#  
LMLMLQKQMUJZM.2#!LMLMMVMZW.2#a!!LM LM[MX\QMUJZM.2
#\WLI[MTTI[MVK]IV\WI[]IXTQKIKQ~VITXZWKM[WKQ^QTaTI[IV\MZQWZM[[MV\MVKQI[Y]MIPy[M
citan.

)[y\IUJQuVTWMV\QMVLMTI;ITILMTW+Q^QTLMTI+WZ\M;]XZMUILM-T;IT^ILWZITXZWKTIUIZ
XWZMRMUXTWMV[];MV\MVKQILMLMLQKQMUJZMLMLQK\ILIITI[PWZI[ZMNIXMTIKQ~V
;;Y]M"¹TIÅO]ZILMTZMKPIbW»in limine litis¼CLMTILMUIVLIE[MPILQ[M}ILWIÅVLMVW
XZWZZWOIZMT\ZnUQ\MLM]VXZWKM[WY]MNI\ITUMV\MLM^MVLZnMV]VI[MV\MVKQILM[M[\QUI\WZQI
XWZM^QLMV\M[^QKQW[QV[]J[IVIJTM[aY]MXWZ[]VI\]ZITMbIVWILUQ\MVKWZZMKKQ~V-TTWMV
UWLWITO]VW^QWTIMTLMZMKPWLMIKKQ~VVQZMXZM[MV\I]VWJ[\nK]TWITIKKM[WITIR][\QKQIa
ITLMJQLWXZWKM[Wº

4I \]\MTI R]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT [M XZMLQKI KWVNWZUM I M[\M IZ\ £ +8+5 LM IUJI[ XIZ\M[ LMT
XZWKM[WaXIZI\WLI[TI[QV[\IVKQI[aOZILW[LMR]ZQ[LQKKQ~VKWV[\Z]auVLW[MMV\ZM[M\IXI[
K]aI KWV[MK]KQ~V I [] ^Mb LMXMVLM M[\ZQK\IUMV\M LMT K]UXTQUQMV\W LM TW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[
TMOITM[ M[\IJTMKQLW[ XWZ TI TMa" I IKKM[W I TW[ \ZQJ]VITM[ a Y]M VW [M XZWL]bKI XWZ \IV\W
TI QVILUQ[Q~V I \ZnUQ\M LM TI LMUIVLI W [WTQKQ\]L XZM[MV\ILI XWZ MT R][\QKQIJTM LM UIVMZI
IZJQ\ZIZQIVQQVUW\Q^ILI#J\ZIUQ\IKQ~VLMTXZWKMLQUQMV\WZM[XMK\Q^WMV\WLI[[][NI[M[a
K LQK\ILW LM ]VI LMKQ[Q~V LM NWVLW I UMVW[ QV[Q[\QUW[ Y]M KWVK]ZZI ]VI KQZK]V[\IVKQI
XZWKM[ITY]MTWQUXQLI

17
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.3.1.2 Obligación de resolver (art. 15):

O Enunciado:

¹-T R]Mb VW XWLZn JIRW VQVOƒV XZM\M`\W LMRIZ LM ZM[WT^MZ VQ IXTIbIZ LQTI\IZ W VMOIZ TI
LMKQ[Q~VLMTI[K]M[\QWVM[LMJI\QLI[MVMTXZWKM[W

-T QVK]UXTQUQMV\W LM TI[ WJTQOIKQWVM[ KWV\MVQLI[ MV M[\M +~LQOW [MZn [IVKQWVILW LM
KWVNWZUQLILITWM[\IJTMKQLWMVTI4Ma7ZOnVQKI2]LQKQITº

O Aplicación:

+WUW ]V KWZZMTI\W LMT LMZMKPW I TI \]\MTI R]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT LMT R][\QKQIJTM aI UMVKQWVILW MT
+~LQOW[IVKQWVIMVM[\MW\ZWXZMKMX\WTIKWVWKQLIXZWPQJQKQ~VLMTnon liquet, a cuya virtud y
LIVLWXWZ[]X]M[\WY]MVWM`Q[\MVKQZK]V[\IVKQI[LMWZLMVXZWKM[ITY]MTWQUXQLIVMTR]Mb
LMJMXZW^MMZ[QMUXZMI]VIZM[X]M[\ILMNWVLWZM[XMK\WLMTIXZM\MV[Q~VY]M[MTMXTIV\MI

6WX]MLMMTR]bOILWZMVKWV[MK]MVKQI[][XMVLMZMTXZWKMLQUQMV\W[QVKI][IXZM^Q[\IMVTI
TMaaIKZMLQ\ILIMVTW[PMKPW[8MZW[WJZM\WLW]VI^Mb[MPIVKWUXTM\ILWTW[\ZnUQ\M[LMT
UQ[UW PI LM LQK\IZ ZM[WT]KQ~V LMÅVQ\Q^I MV MT M`XMLQMV\M [QV Y]M X]MLI LMRIZ LM ZM[WT^MZ
VQVO]VW LM TW[ X]V\W[ KWV\ZW^MZ\QLW[ MV M[M XZWKM[W IL]KQMVLW L]LI[ W QOVWZIVKQI [WJZM
K~UWIXTQKIZWQV\MZXZM\IZTITMaVQTIXZM[]V\IQVR][\QKQIUI\MZQITLMTILMKQ[Q~VY]MMV[]
KI[W\MVLZyIY]MILWX\IZKWUWM`K][IXIZIVWPIKMZTW

,MJMX]M[ZM[WT^MZMTR]MbWKWTMOQWLM5IOQ[\ZILW[TWY]MXZWKMLILMJMLIZ]VI[WT]KQ~V
ITKWVÆQK\WLMQV\MZM[M[XTIV\MILW[QVY]MTMY]MXIR][\QÅKIZMT[QTMVKQWKWUWZM[X]M[\I-T
QVK]UXTQUQMV\WLMM[\MLMJMZR]LQKQITKWUW[MXZM^QMVMMVM[\IUQ[UIVWZUILMT+~LQOW
XZWKM[ITTTM^IZnIXIZMRILITIIXMZ\]ZILMTI[ZM[XWV[IJQTQLILM[IY]MPIaIT]OIZKQ^QTXMVIT
aILUQVQ[\ZI\Q^I[IVKQWVILWZIXIZIMTR]bOILWZ

1.3.1.3 Principio de gratuidad de la justicia (art. 16):

O Enunciado:

¹<WLIXMZ[WVI\QMVMLMZMKPWIY]M[MTMQUXIZ\IR][\QKQIOZI\]Q\IUMV\Mº

O Aplicación:

4I OZI\]QLIL LM TI R][\QKQI [M KWVMK\I IY]y MV XZQUMZ \uZUQVW KWV TI VW M`QOQJQTQLIL MV
OMVMZITIY]QMVM[IK\ƒIVMVTW[XZWKM[W[LMTXIOWIT-[\ILWLM]VQUX]M[\WZMKIZOW]W\ZW
\QXWLMQUXW[QKQ~VMKWV~UQKIXWZMTUMZWPMKPWLM[WTQKQ\IZTIIK\]IKQ~VLMTW[\ZQJ]VITM[-T
-[\ILWVWKWJZIXWZTIXZM[\IKQ~VLMTIIK\Q^QLILR]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT

)[QUQ[UWM[\MXZMKMX\WIJZMTIX]MZ\IXIZITIOZI\]QLILLMTI[KW[\I[XZWKM[ITM[IY]QMVM[
VMKM[Q\IV TQ\QOIZ a KIZMbKIV LM ZMK]Z[W[ MKWV~UQKW[ [QMUXZM a K]IVLW TW[ [WTQKQ\IV\M[ LM

18
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

LQKPWJMVMÅKQWK]UXTIVKWVTW[ZMY]Q[Q\W[aKWVLQKQWVM[M[\IJTMKQLW[VWZUI\Q^IUMV\MXIZI
MTW\WZOIUQMV\WLMTUQ[UWIKZMLQ\IKQ~VLM[][Q\]IKQ~VMKWV~UQKIZMIT

1.3.2 Sujeción del proceso a la Constitución y las leyes:

1.3.2.1 Vinculación a la Constitución, leyes y demás normas (art. 2):

O Enunciado:

¹4W[R]MKM[M[\nV^QVK]TILW[XWZTIVWZUI\Q^IKWV[\Q\]KQWVITTI[TMaM[aLMUn[VWZUI[LMT
WZLMVIUQMV\WR]ZyLQKW[QVY]MX]MLIVLM[KWVWKMZTI[VQLM[WJMLMKMZTI[

<WLWR]MbIQV[\IVKQILMXIZ\MWLMWÅKQWLMJMZnM`IUQVIZXZM^QIUMV\MTIKWV[\Q\]KQWVITQLIL
LMTI[VWZUI[LMK]aI^ITQLMbLMXMVLITI\ZIUQ\IKQ~VLMK]ITY]QMZXZWKM[WWMTN]VLIUMV\W
LM TI[ LMKQ[QWVM[ Y]M ILWX\MV MV MT UQ[UW# a [Q ITO]VI LM MTTI[ KWV\ZILQKM TI VWZUI\Q^I
KWV[\Q\]KQWVIT TI LMKTIZIZn QVIXTQKIJTM MV ZM[WT]KQ~V LMJQLIUMV\M UW\Q^ILI MV TI Y]M
[M KWV[QOVMV TI LQ[XW[QKQ~V K]aI QVIXTQKIJQTQLIL [M LMKTIZI MT LMZMKPW XZQVKQXQW W ^ITWZ
KWV[\Q\]KQWVITY]M[MKWV[QLMZIQVNZQVOQLWaTI[M[XMKyÅKI[ZIbWVM[Y]MN]VLIUMV\IV

4I[XZ]MJI[Y]M[MP]JQMZMVWJ\MVQLWLQZMK\IWQVLQZMK\IUMV\MKWVQVNZIKKQ~VLMLMZMKPW[
WTQJMZ\ILM[N]VLIUMV\ITM[VW[]Z\QZnVMNMK\Wº

O Aplicación:

-TXZQUMZWLMTW[LW[XZMKMX\W[LMLQKILW[IKWV[IOZIZMTXZQVKQXQWLMTMOITQLILXZWKM[ITKWV
]VITKIVKMIUXTQWXIZ\MI[yLMTI+WV[\Q\]KQ~VXIZIIJZIbIZ\IUJQuVMTUIZKWLMTI[VWZUI[
LMZIVOWTMOITaMV[]KI[WZMOTIUMV\IZQI[

-V M[\M IZ\  [M ZMKWOM TI ^QOMVKQI LMT QUXMZQW LM TI TMOITQLIL LM[LM MT X]V\W LM ^Q[\I LMT
N]VLIUMV\W LM \WLI[ TI[ LMKQ[QWVM[ R]LQKQITM[ MT K]IT VW X]MLM [MZ W\ZW Y]M TI[ N]MV\M[
M[\IJTMKQLI[ XWZ MT WZLMVIUQMV\W LM[\MZZIVLW I[y \WLI \MV\IKQ~V LM IZJQ\ZIZQMLIL
^WT]V\IZQ[UWaLQ[KZQUQVIKQ~VXWZUW\Q^W[[]JRM\Q^W[LMTR]bOILWZKWUXTM\ILWT]MOWKWVTW
M[\IJTMKQLWMVMTIZ\!

)PWZIJQMV\QMVM]VTyUQ\MTI[]RMKQ~VITITMOITQLILaM[K]IVLWXZMKQ[IUMV\MTIVWZUI[M
U]M[\ZIKWV\ZIZQIITW[XW[\]TILW[KWV[\Q\]KQWVITM[

-V\IT[Q\]IKQ~VNIK]T\IITR]MbLMTIKI][IM[\MIZ\+8+5XIZIQVIXTQKIZMTLQ[XW[Q\Q^WLM
Y]M[M\ZI\MTWY]M[QOVQÅKIKWUW[]VWUJZMQVLQKIVWY]MMT~ZOIVWR]LQKQITX]MLIQV^ITQLIZ
TIVWZUIVQLMKTIZIZ[]V]TQLILNWZUITKWVMNMK\W[ erga omnesXW\M[\ILu[\IY]MTMKWZZM[XWVLM
I TI ;ITI +WV[\Q\]KQWVIT LM TI +WZ\M ;]XZMUI MV MT nUJQ\W LM [][ KWUXM\MVKQI[ [QVW Y]M
K]ITY]QMZR]MbX]MLMLMKZM\IZ[]VWIXTQKIKQ~VITKI[WKWVKZM\WXWZIXZMKQIZ[]KWV\ZILQKKQ~V
KWV ITO]VW LM TW[ LMZMKPW[ N]VLIUMV\ITM[ ] W\ZW UIVLI\W KWV[\Q\]KQWVIT M`XTQKnVLWTW
I[y MV [] ZM[WT]KQ~V R]LQKQIT [][KMX\QJTM XWZ TW LMUn[ LMT KWV\ZWT XWZ ^yI LM ZMK]Z[W[ Y]M
KWZZM[XWVLI

19
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

-V[MO]VLWT]OIZKWUW]VI[]JM[XMKQMLMTKWV\ZWTLMTMOITQLILXZWKM[ITIXZW^MKPIMTXnZZINW
\MZKMZWaƒT\QUWLMM[\MIZ\+8+5XIZI[IVKQWVIZTIXZWPQJQKQ~VOMVMZITLMT][WR]LQKQIT
LM TI[ XZ]MJI[ QTyKQ\I[ TWY]MT]MOW[M KWUXTMUMV\I KWV TWZMO]TILWMVMTIZ\XnZZINW
[MO]VLW;MK]ITQÅKIIY]yTIQTQKQ\]LXZW[KZQ\IKWUWXZQVKQXQWZMK\WZLM\WLWXZWKM[WLM[LM
MTXTIVWLM[]QVKWV[\Q\]KQWVITQLILaVWXWZTI[QUXTMQVNZIKKQ~VITITMOITQLILLMX]ZIJTM
LM[LMT]MOW\IUJQuVMVK]IV\WKWUXWZ\ITIQVWJ[MZ^IVKQILM]VXZMKMX\WLMT+~LQOWXMZW
VWXWZMTQUXMZI\Q^WOMVuZQKWLMM[\MIZ\[QVWLMTUn[M[XMKyÅKWIZ\XnZZINW[XZQUMZW
a\MZKMZW+8+5

-`\MVLQMVLWILMUn[TI\IZILMM[IQVMÅKIKQIVW[WTIUMV\MITI[^]TVMZIKQWVM[LQZMK\I[[QVW
\IUJQuVITI[QVLQZMK\I[Y]M[MKI][MVITW[LMZMKPW[WTQJMZ\ILM[N]VLIUMV\ITM[[WJZM\WLW
K]IVLWXIZIMTLM[K]JZQUQMV\WLMN]MV\M[LMXZ]MJI[MMUXTMIVQV\ZWUQ[QWVM[QTMOy\QUI[IM[W[
LMZMKPW[N]VLIUMV\ITM[Y]MT]MOW[MQV\MV\IV¹TQUXQIZºUMLQIV\M]VI[WTQKQ\]LXW[\MZQWZIT
~ZOIVWR]LQKQITXIZIY]MKIX\MM[IN]MV\MLMXZ]MJILMUIVMZIWZ\WLW`I

1.3.2.2 Principio de legalidad (art. 3):

O Enunciado:

¹<WLWXZWKM[WLMJMZn\ZIUQ\IZ[MIV\MR]MbKWUXM\MV\MaKWVNWZUMITI[LQ[XW[QKQWVM[LMM[\M
K~LQOWTI[Y]MVWXWLZnV[MZIT\MZILI[XWZVQVOƒV[]RM\WXZWKM[IT

4I[NWZUITQLILM[XZM^Q[\I[[WVQUXMZI\Q^I[+]IVLWTINWZUILMTW[IK\W[XZWKM[ITM[VWM[\u
M`XZM[IUMV\MLM\MZUQVILIXWZTMa[MILWX\IZnTIY]MZM[]T\MQVLQ[XMV[IJTMWQL~VMIXIZITI
ÅVITQLILXMZ[MO]QLIº

O Aplicación:

-VM[\IW\ZI^MZ\QMV\MLMTITMOITQLILXZWKM[IT[MXMZ[QO]MI[MO]ZIZY]M\WLW[TW[IK\W[LMT
XZWKM[W[MZQRIVXWZTWM[\IJTMKQLWLMUIVMZIXZM^QIXWZMT+~LQOW[QVY]MX]MLIVZMTIRIZ[MW
QVIXTQKIZ[M[][ZMOTI[VQM`KMXKQWVIZ[MVQUWL]TIZ[MMTKWV\MVQLWLMTI[UQ[UI[I^WT]V\ILLMT
R]MbaLMTI[XIZ\M[+WVQVLMXMVLMVKQII[yLM[QMTQVK]UXTQUQMV\WLM]VZMY]Q[Q\WXZWKM[IT
XMZUQ\MWVWTI[]J[IVIKQ~VaIKIZZMIWVWTIXuZLQLILM\ZnUQ\M[WTIV]TQLILLMTWIK\]ILW
LMNMK\]W[IUMV\M K]M[\QWVM[ Y]M PI LM ZM[WT^MZ KILI VWZUI JIRW VQVOƒV KWVKMX\W X]MLM
XZMLQKIZ[MY]MTI[VWZUI[XZWKM[ITM[[WVILUWVQ\Q^I[VQLM^QMVMVLMK]UXTQUQMV\W^WT]V\IZQW

8WZKWV\ZI\WLI[TI[VWZUI[XZWKM[ITM[[WVQUXMZI\Q^I[QVKT][WIY]MTTI[Y]MW\WZOIVIT[]RM\W
TIXW[QJQTQLILLMWX\IZMV\ZMLW[KWVL]K\I[XW[QJTM[XWZMRN]MZW[\MZZQ\WZQITM[MTMK\Q^W[X]M[
QVKT][WMV\WVKM[VW[MPIKM[QVWIK\]IZLMV\ZWLMTW[TyUQ\M[LMTWXMZUQ\QLWTMOITUMV\M

8WZƒT\QUWK]IVLWNIT\MZMO]TIKQ~VM[XMKyÅKI[WJZMMTUWLWLMTTM^IZIKIJW]VIK\WLMXIZ\M
WLMTR]MbLQ[XWVMM[\MIZ\LMT+~LQOWY]MMT~ZOIVWR]LQKQITLMJMZn\MVMZMVK]MV\I[M
MV\QMVLMY]MXWZIVITWOyIIY]MTTINWZUITQLILY]MZM[]T\MIR][\ILIITKWV\M`\WLMTIK\WaITI
ÅVITQLILY]M[MXMZ[QO]MKWVuT

20
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

1.3.3 Actuación de las partes dentro del proceso:

1.3.3.1 Principio de defensa y contradicción (art. 4):

O Enunciado:

¹-T []RM\W KWV\ZI Y]QMV [M LQZQRI TI XZM\MV[Q~V \QMVM LMZMKPW I LMNMVLMZ[M MV MT XZWKM[W
QV\MZ^QVQMVLWMVTI[IK\]IKQWVM[aIZ\QK]TIVLWTW[UMLQW[LMXZ]MJIXMZ\QVMV\M[-V\WLWKI[W
KILIXIZ\M\QMVMLMZMKPWIKWV\IZKWVTIWXWZ\]VQLILLMM`XWVMZ[]IZO]UMV\IKQ~VaZMJI\QZ
TILMTIKWV\ZIZQIa[~TWK]IVLWM`XZM[IUMV\MTWLQ[XWVOITITMaXWLZnVILWX\IZ[MLMKQ[QWVM[
[QVWyZXZM^QIUMV\MI]VILMTI[XIZ\M[º

O Aplicación:

;QMUXZMLMV\ZWLMTI[OIZIV\yI[XZWKM[ITM[QVKT]aMMTV]M^W+~LQOWLW[LMMTTI[Y]MQVK]UJMV
ZM[XMK\Q^IUMV\M I TW[ XZQVKQXQW[ LM LMNMV[I I]LQMVKQI a KWV\ZILQKKQ~V LM ]V TILW a I TI
QO]ITLILXZWKM[ITLMTW\ZW-VTWY]MPIKMITW[\ZM[XZQUMZW[IT]LQLW[MVMTIZ\[MLMÅVM
[QV\u\QKIUMV\M[]KWV\MVQLW"IV\M\WLWTILMNMV[IMV\MVLQLIKWUWLMZMKPWIITMOIZaXZWJIZ
TWY]MQV\MZM[MITIXZM\MV[Q~VLMKILIXIZ\MMVKILIM[\ILWLMTXZWKMLQUQMV\WTWY]MQUXTQKI
Y]M VW X]MLM VMOIZ[M QVR][\QÅKILIUMV\M MT MUXTMW LM ]V \ZnUQ\M ] WXWZ\]VQLIL XZWKM[IT
XZM^Q[\WMVTITMaXIZIXWLMZ^MZ\MZITMOIKQWVM[[WTQKQ\IZXZ]MJI[QV\MZ^MVQZMV[]XZnK\QKI
K]IVLWTITMaTWLQ[XWVOIXQuV[M[MMVTW[QV\MZZWOI\WZQW[WZITM[NWZUITQbIZZMK]Z[W[XMLQZ
TIMRMK]KQ~VLMTWIKWZLILWaILWX\IZIY]MTTI[UMLQLI[KI]\MTIZM[Y]MIXIZMbKIVTMOITUMV\M
XW[QJTM[

4I I]LQMVKQI a TI KWV\ZILQKKQ~V I [] ^Mb KWVKQMZVMV I TI QVQKQI\Q^I LM IKKQ~V a ZMIKKQ~V
LMV\ZWLMTXZWKM[WKWVNWZUM[MWK]XMTIXW[QKQ~VZM[XMK\Q^ILMLMUIVLIV\MWLMUIVLILW
[QV XMZR]QKQW LM ZMKWVWKMZ Y]M \IUJQuV M[\M ƒT\QUW MT []RM\W XI[Q^W VW [~TW \QMVM LMZMKPW
I WXWVMZ[M I TI XZM\MV[Q~V LML]KQLI MV [] KWV\ZI [QVW \IUJQuV a LMV\ZW LM KQMZ\W[ TyUQ\M[
I QV\ZWL]KQZ I[QUQ[UW [][ XZWXQI[ XZM\MV[QWVM[ XWZ MR XWZ UMLQW LM ]VI ZMKWV^MVKQ~V#
a Y]M \IUJQuV MT IK\WZ X]MLM VMKM[Q\IZ KWV\ZILMKQZ NZMV\M I TW ITMOILW XWZ MT LMUIVLILW
MV QVKQLMV\M[ a ZMK]Z[W[ UWV\ILW[ XWZ M[\M ƒT\QUW )[QUQ[UW M[\W[ \ZM[ LMZMKPW[ LMNMV[I
I]LQMVKQI KWV\ZILQKKQ~V [~TW X]MLMV KMLMZ W ^MZ[M [IKZQÅKILW[ \MUXWZITUMV\M K]IVLW
XWZZIbWVM[LM]ZOMVKQIZM[]T\MVMKM[IZQWILWX\IZ]VIUMLQLIXZW^Q[WZQI[QVM[K]KPIZITI[
XIZ\M[WITUMVW[IITO]VILMMTTIXMZWMV\WVKM[LMJMZnZM[\IJTMKMZ[Ma posterioriMTLMZMKPWLM
I]LQMVKQIXIZITI^MZQÅKIKQ~VWTM^IV\IUQMV\WLMTIUMLQLIMV\IT[MV\QLWPIJZnY]M^MZMT
ZMKWZZQLWKWV[\Q\]KQWVITN]\]ZWLM]VXZMKMX\WKWUWMTIZ\+8+5Y]MLMUWLWOMVuZQKW
[]XZQUMMT\ZnUQ\MLMI]LQMVKQIXZM^QWITIILWXKQ~VLM\WLI[TI[UMLQLI[KI]\MTIZM[

1.3.3.2 Principio de igualdad procesal (art. 5):

O Enunciado:

¹4I[XIZ\M[LQ[XWVLZnVLMTW[UQ[UW[LMZMKPW[WJTQOIKQWVM[KIZOI[aXW[QJQTQLILM[XZWKM[ITM[
L]ZIV\MMTLM[IZZWTTWLMTXZWKM[W

21
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

4I[TQUQ\IKQWVM[ITIQO]ITLILY]MLQ[XWVOIM[\M+~LQOWVWLMJMVIXTQKIZ[MLMUWLW\ITY]M
OMVMZMV]VIXuZLQLIQZZMXIZIJTMLMTLMZMKPWITIXZW\MKKQ~VR]ZQ[LQKKQWVITº

O Aplicación:

4I QO]ITLIL MV MT XZWKM[W LM^QMVM MUQVMV\MUMV\M ]VI QO]ITLIL NWZUIT VW UI\MZQIT 4I[
XIZ\M[ MV\ZIV IT TQ\QOQW ZWLMILI[ LM ]VI[ KQZK]V[\IVKQI[ XMZ[WVITM[ XZWXQI[ Y]M TI[ PIKM
LQ^MZ[I[ MV\ZM [y a Y]M MT XZWKM[W MV [y UQ[UW VW M[\n TTIUILW I UWLQÅKIZ [Q IKI[W TI[
KWV[MK]MVKQI[UI\MZQITM[LMTI[MV\MVKQILMNWVLW

,MTWY]M[M\ZI\IMVM[\MnUJQ\WY]MIPWZI[MKWUMV\IUn[JQMVM[LMY]MTI[XIZ\M[PIVLM
OWbIZLMTI[UQ[UI[WXWZ\]VQLILM[LMITMOIKQ~VaXZ]MJILMV\ZWLMTXZWKM[WY]MTW[IK\W[LM
u[\W[VWX]MLMVQZMVKIUQVILW[INI^WZMKMZI]VI[WTILMMTTI[#Y]MMTR]MbVWPILMXZMR]bOIZ
MTLM[MVTIKMLMTIKWV\QMVLIMVÅVMVN]VKQ~VITIXW[QKQ~VLM]VWaW\ZWKWV\MVLQMV\M

-VWKI[QWVM[QVKT][WTITMa\QMVMY]MQV\ZWL]KQZKQMZ\W[UMKIVQ[UW[LMLM[QO]ITLILUI\MZQIT
MV\ZMXIZ\M[LMV\ZWLMTI litisR][\IUMV\MKWVMTÅVLMI[MO]ZIZIY]MTTIQO]ITLILNWZUIT<IT
M[MTKI[WLMÅO]ZI[\IVLQ[XIZM[XMZWM`XTQKIJTM[LM[LMM[\IXMZ[XMK\Q^IKWUWMTJMVMÅKQW
LM R][\QKQI OZI\]Q\I XIZI Y]QMV KIZMKM LM ZMK]Z[W[ MKWV~UQKW[ a TI ZM^Q[Q~V LM [MV\MVKQI
ÅZUMITLMUIVLILWY]MXWZZIbWVM[LMN]MZbIUIaWZVWX]LWKWUXIZMKMZaLMNMVLMZ[MMV
la instancia.

,MJMO]IZLIZTIVWZUIMVM[\W[KI[W[[QMUXZM]V[MV\QLWLMTIXZWXWZKQWVITQLIL\IV\WMV
K]IV\WITÅVJ][KILWKWUWITW[MNMK\W[Y]M[MLM[XZMVLIVLM[]IXTQKIKQ~VXZMKQ[IUMV\M
XIZIVWKZMIZ]VUITUIaWZY]MIY]MTY]MXZM\MVLyIKWZZMOQZ

1.4 PRINCIPIOS QUE GARANTIZAN EL CARÁCTER ROGADO DEL ORDEN


JURISDICCIONAL CIVIL Y MERCANTIL:

1.4.1 Principio dispositivo (art. 6):

O Enunciado:

¹4IQVQKQIKQ~VLM\WLWXZWKM[WKQ^QTWUMZKIV\QTKWZZM[XWVLMIT\Q\]TIZLMTLMZMKPW[]JRM\Q^W
W QV\MZu[ TMOy\QUW Y]M [M LQ[K]\M MV MT XZWKM[W# a LQKPW \Q\]TIZ KWV[MZ^IZn [QMUXZM TI
LQ[XWVQJQTQLILLMTIXZM\MV[Q~V

4I[XIZ\M[XWLZnVMNMK\]IZTW[IK\W[LMLQ[XW[QKQ~VQV\ZIXZWKM[ITM[Y]MM[\QUMVKWV^MVQMV\M[
\MZUQVIZ MT XZWKM[W ]VQTI\MZITUMV\M W XWZ IK]MZLW MV\ZM TI[ UQ[UI[ a ZMK]ZZQZ LM TI[
ZM[WT]KQWVM[Y]MTM[[MIVOZI^W[I[LMKWVNWZUQLILITWLQ[X]M[\WMVM[\M+~LQOWº

O Aplicación:

)XIZMKMVMVM[\MXZMKMX\WTI[UIVQNM[\IKQWVM[Jn[QKI[LMTXZQVKQXQWLQ[XW[Q\Q^WWLMR][\QKQI
ZWOILIJIRWMTY]M[MOWJQMZVIVTW[XZWKM[W[ZMOQLW[XWZMT+8+5,MUIVMZIM`XZM[I[M

22
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

LM\MZUQVIY]MTIQVQKQI\Q^IXIZITIIXMZ\]ZILMTW[XZWKM[W[KWZZM[XWVLM[QMUXZMITI[XIZ\M[a
VWIT\ZQJ]VITXZW[KZQJQMVLWI[yK]ITY]QMZ\MV\IKQ~VLMXZWKM[WQVY]Q[Q\Q^W\IV\WMVTIXZQUMZI
QV[\IVKQIKWUWMVTW[OZILW[[]XMZQWZM[ZMK]Z[W[LMR]ZQ[LQKKQ~V¹ZMK]ZZQZLMTI[ZM[WT]KQWVM[
Y]M TM[ [MIV OZI^W[I[º 6W [M WT^QLM KWV \WLW Y]M LMV\ZW LMT KWVKMX\W LM XIZ\M \IUJQuV
KIJM[Q\]IZIT5QVQ[\MZQW.Q[KITaITI8ZWK]ZIL]ZyI/MVMZITLMTI:MXƒJTQKIXWZTWY]MTI
LMNMV[ILMTW[QV\MZM[M[XƒJTQKW[VWY]MLILM[K]QLILI[~TWY]MTI[WTQKQ\]LLMKWUXW[QKQ~V
LMTW[KWVÆQK\W[VWX]MLMZMKIMZR][\IUMV\MMVY]QMVM[\nTTIUILWIZM[WT^MZTW[LMUIVMZI
QUXIZKQITMQVLMXMVLQMV\MKWUWWK]ZZMKWVTW[\ZQJ]VITM[LMR][\QKQI

=V[MO]VLWKWUXWVMV\MLMTXZQVKQXQWLQ[XW[Q\Q^WLMZQ^ILW\IUJQuVLMM[\MXZMKMX\W[MZMÅMZM
ITIÅVITQbIKQ~VLMTIKWV\QMVLII\ZI^u[LMTINWZUITQbIKQ~VLMUMKIVQ[UW[I]\WKWUXW[Q\Q^W[
I]\WZQbILW[TMOITUMV\M-[\WM[MTLM\ZIQUQMV\WLMTI[]V\WIT~ZOIVWR]LQKQITLMRIVLWITI[
XIZ\M[MVWKI[QWVM[LMUIVMZI]VQTI\MZITaMVW\ZI[LMKWV[]VW[]\MZUQVIKQ~V^WT]V\IZQI
IV\QKQXILI

-[\IXW[QJQTQLILY]MLIX]M[OIZIV\QbILIKWUWXZQVKQXQWLMTXZWKM[W[QMUXZMaK]IVLWKWUW
T]MOWXZMKQ[IMT+~LQOWVW[MKWVK]TY]MKWVMTTWTITMOITQLILaTW[LMZMKPW[LM\MZKMZW[^MZ
IZ\+8+5

-V\ZMUMLQI[IXIZMKM]V\MZKMZKWUXWVMV\MLMTIR][\QKQIZWOILIIY]yMVM[\MIZ\I[WUILI
LM UIVMZI QUXTyKQ\I ¹KWV[MZ^IZn [QMUXZM TI LQ[XWVQJQTQLIL LM TI XZM\MV[Q~Vº" [M \ZI\I LMT
XWLMZM`KT][Q^WLMTI[XIZ\M[[QVKIJQLILMQVRMZMVKQIR]LQKQITXIZITILMTQUQ\IKQ~VLMTWJRM\W
LM TI KWV\ZW^MZ[QI 8IXMT Y]M ZMKIM LM UIVMZI XZMLWUQVIV\M I]VY]M VW M`KT][Q^I MV MT
LMUIVLIV\MWMVMTLMUIVLILWK]IVLWZMKWV^QMVMKWVMTMVZQY]MKQUQMV\WWJRM\Q^WLMTI
KWV\ZW^MZ[QI Y]M IXWZ\IV XW[QJTM[ M`KMXKQWVM[ XZWKM[ITM[ a XMZMV\WZQI[ LMT []RM\W XI[Q^W a
LM TI[ ITMOIKQWVM[ LM TW[ M^MV\]ITM[ \MZKMZW[ KWILa]^IV\M[ M QV\MZ^QVQMV\M[ XZW^WKILW[ MV
LMÅVQ\Q^I"XIZ\M[<WLWTWK]ITUIZKIMTTyUQ\MLMTIIK\]IKQ~VR]ZQ[LQKKQWVITMVWZLMVITI
VMKM[IZQIKWVOZ]MVKQILMTI[MV\MVKQI

1.4.2 Principio de aportación (art. 7):

O Enunciado:

¹4W[PMKPW[MVY]M[MN]VLIUMV\MTIXZM\MV[Q~VaTIWXW[QKQ~VY]M[MKWVWKMMVMTXZWKM[W
[~TWXWLZnV[MZQV\ZWL]KQLW[ITLMJI\MXWZTI[XIZ\M[

4IIK\Q^QLILXZWJI\WZQILMJMZMKIMZM`KT][Q^IUMV\M[WJZMTW[PMKPW[IÅZUILW[XWZTI[XIZ\M[
WXWZTW[Y]M\QMVMVTIKITQLILLM\MZKMZW[LMKWVNWZUQLILITI[LQ[XW[QKQWVM[LMM[\MK~LQOW
MV[]KI[W#MVKWV[MK]MVKQIMTR]MbVWXWLZn\WUIZMVKWV[QLMZIKQ~V]VIXZ]MJI[WJZMPMKPW[
Y]MVWP]JQMZIV[QLWIÅZUILW[WLQ[K]\QLW[XWZTI[XIZ\M[W\MZKMZW[

4IXZWXW[QKQ~VLMTIXZ]MJIKWZZM[XWVLMM`KT][Q^IUMV\MITI[XIZ\M[W\MZKMZW[#[QVMUJIZOW
ZM[XMK\W LM XZ]MJI Y]M aI N]M LMJQLI a WXWZ\]VIUMV\M IXWZ\ILI a KWV\ZW^MZ\QLI XWZ TI[
XIZ\M[MTR]MbXWLZnWZLMVIZLQTQOMVKQI[XIZIUMRWZXZW^MMZKWVMTÅVLMM[KTIZMKMZITOƒV
X]V\WW[K]ZWWKWV\ZILQK\WZQWLMKWVNWZUQLILITWLQ[X]M[\WMVM[\M+~LQOWº

23
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

O Aplicación:

+WV J]MVI \uKVQKI XZWKM[IT MT +~LQOW [MXIZI KWUW PMUW[ ^Q[\W MV MT IZ\  TW Y]M M[ MT
XZQVKQXQWLQ[XW[Q\Q^WLMIY]MTW\ZWXZQVKQXQWLMIXWZ\IKQ~VMVM[\MIZ\Y]M\QMVMY]M^MZ
LMUIVMZIUn[KWVKZM\IKWVTIQUXW[QKQ~VITI[XIZ\M[LMTIKIZOILMITMOIKQ~VaXZ]MJILM
TW[PMKPW[N]VLIV\M[LM[][XZM\MV[QWVM[;QJIRWMTXZQVKQXQWLQ[XW[Q\Q^WLM[K]JZQUW[Y]M[WV
TI[XIZ\M[aVWMT\ZQJ]VITY]QMVM[LM\MZUQVIV[WJZMY]uZMTIKQ~VWM[\ILWR]ZyLQKWY]QMZMV
Y]M[MLQ[K]\IaKWVY]uITKIVKMWJRM\Q^WXWZUWZLMTXZQVKQXQWLMIXWZ\IKQ~V[IJMUW[IPWZI
\IUJQuVY]MMT~ZOIVWR]LQKQIT\IUXWKWX]MLMIa]LIZITI[XIZ\M[IKWVNMKKQWVIZMTZMTI\W
LMTW[PMKPW[R]ZyLQKIUMV\MZMTM^IV\M[aY]M[QZ^MVXIZI[W[\MVMZ[][ZM[XMK\Q^I[XM\QKQWVM[
LM\]\MTIVQXZWXWVMZY]uUMLQW[LMKWV^QKKQ~VX]MLMVZM[]T\IZUn[ƒ\QTM[aMÅKIKM[XIZITI
LMUW[\ZIKQ~VLMTI^MZIKQLILLMIY]MTTI[IÅZUIKQWVM[TWY]MUn[ILMTIV\M\QMVM[]KWZZMTI\W
MVTWLQ[X]M[\WMVMTIZ\LMTXZWXQW+~LQOW

A I[y [QV ZWUXMZ KWV M[\M M[\ILW LM KW[I[ UIV\MVQMVLW MT R]Mb ]VI XW[QKQ~V M[MVKQIT LM
WJ[MZ^ILWZM`\MZVWITIQVQKQI\Q^ILMXZ]MJII]VY]MKWVXTMVQ\]LLMNIK]T\ILM[XIZIXZW^MMZ
M[W [y I TI XZnK\QKI LM IY]MTTI[ Y]M XMLQLI[ XZM^QIUMV\M XWZ TI[ XIZ\M[ IXIZMKMV KWUW
XMZ\QVMV\M[ƒ\QTM[aVWQTyKQ\I[I]\WZQbIKWV\WLWM[\MIZ\+8+5MV[]ƒT\QUWXnZZINWTI
ÅO]ZILMTI[TTIUILI[LQTQOMVKQI[XIZIUMRWZXZW^MMZK]aIÅVITQLILMV\WLWKI[WVWM[TILM
[]XTQZTIVMOTQOMVKQILMTI[XIZ\M[MV[]KIZOILMXZWXW[QKQ~VLMXZ]MJI[[QVWTILMI]`QTQIZ
IT XZWXQW \ZQJ]VIT MV TI QV\MTMKKQ~V LM TI[ XZ]MJI[ aI XZIK\QKILI[ K]IVLW ITO]VI IZZWRI
L]LI[XMZQKQITM[W[K]ZI[WIUJQO]I[XWZMRMUXTW8MZUQ\QMVLWMVLMÅVQ\Q^IITR]MbWZLMVIZ
LM WÅKQW M[I[ LQTQOMVKQI[ [QV Y]M TI[ XIZ\M[ X]MLIV WXWVMZ[M I MTTW I TW []UW ZMK]ZZQZ TI
[MV\MVKQI[QKWV[QLMZIVY]MPIPIJQLWM`KM[WLMR]ZQ[LQKKQ~VWY]MTI[]X]M[\ILQTQOMVKQIVW
PIKM[QVW[][\Q\]QZITIXIZ\MKWV\ZIZQIMV[]KIZOIXZWJI\WZQIZM[XMK\Q^I

1.5 PRINCIPIOS RELATIVOS A LAS OBLIGACIONES DE LOS SUJETOS:

1.5.1 Obligación de colaborar (art. 12):

O Enunciado:

¹<WLI XMZ[WVI W I]\WZQLIL M[\n MV TI WJTQOIKQ~V LM KWTIJWZIZ KWV TI R][\QKQI K]IVLW [MIV
ZMY]MZQLI[ XIZI MTTW -V KWV[MK]MVKQI I Y]QMV [M VQMO]M I KWTIJWZIZ [M TM QUXWVLZn ]VI
U]T\IK]aWUWV\W[MOƒVTIOZI^MLILLMTKI[W[MÅRIZnMV\ZMKQVKWaLQMb[ITIZQW[UyVQUW[
Un[IT\W[^QOMV\M[;QMTPMKPWN]MZMKWV[\Q\]\Q^WLMLMTQ\WMTR]MbKMZ\QÅKIZnTWKWVL]KMV\MI
TI.Q[KITyI/MVMZITLMTI:MXƒJTQKIº

O Aplicación:

4I TMa LMÅVM TW[ LQ[\QV\W[ UWLW[ MV Y]M PI LM XZWL]KQZ[M MT LMJMZ LM KWTIJWZIKQ~V IT Y]M
IT]LMM[\MXZMKMX\WaY]M^QVK]TI[MOƒVMTKI[W\IV\WITI[XIZ\M[KWUWITW[\MZKMZW[Y]M
LMJMV ZMITQbIZ ]VI IK\Q^QLIL W IXWZ\IZ ]VI QVNWZUIKQ~V ƒ\QT IT XZWKM[W \M[\QOW[# XMZQ\W[#
\MZKMZW[Y]MZMKQJMV]VIVW\QÅKIKQ~VR]LQKQITLMTLMUIVLILW#WY]MLMJMVPIKMZM`PQJQKQ~V
de un documento relevante en la litis M\K 6W [M \ZI\I IY]y LMT K]UXTQUQMV\W LM ]VI

24
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

KIZOI XZWKM[IT X]M[ u[\I[ TTM^IV IXIZMRILI[ KWV[MK]MVKQI[ M[\ZQK\IUMV\M XZWKM[ITM[ XWZ []
QVIK\Q^QLIL XuZLQLI LM TI M`XMK\I\Q^I LM WJ\MVMZ ]V ZM[]T\ILW NI^WZIJTM QV\MZTWK]\WZQW W
LMÅVQ\Q^WLMPIJMZIK\]ILW[QVWLMWJTQOIKQWVM[LMTI[Y]MMT[]RM\WVWX]MLM[][\ZIMZ[MI
UMVW[Y]MUMLQMR][\IKI][IKWV]VIZMXMZK][Q~V[QVW[IVKQWVILWZII\ZI^u[LM]VIU]T\I
K]aW[TyUQ\M[aI[MÅRIVIY]ya[MOƒVMT[]X]M[\WITIIXMZ\]ZI\IUJQuVLMZM[XWV[IJQTQLIL
XMVITXWZWJ[\Z]KKQ~VITIR][\QKQI

1.5.2 Principio de veracidad, lealtad, buena fe y probidad procesal (art. 13):

O Enunciado:

¹4I[XIZ\M[[][ZMXZM[MV\IV\M[[][IJWOILW[aMVOMVMZITK]ITY]QMZXIZ\yKQXMMVMTXZWKM[W
LMJMZnV IK\]IZ KWV ^MZIKQLIL TMIT\IL J]MVI NM a XZWJQLIL XZWKM[IT -T R]Mb XZWK]ZIZn
QUXMLQZ\WLIKWVL]K\IY]MQUXTQY]MIK\Q^QLILQTyKQ\IWOMVMZMLQTIKQ~VQVLMJQLILMTXZWKM[W

4I QVNZIKKQ~V LM TI[ WJTQOIKQWVM[ LM ^MZIKQLIL TMIT\IL J]MVI NM a XZWJQLIL XZWKM[IT [M
[IVKQWVIZn KWV TI KWVLMVI MV KW[\I[ a KWV MT ZM[IZKQUQMV\W LM TW[ LI}W[ a XMZR]QKQW[ Y]M
P]JQMZIKI][ILWMTQVNZIK\WZ#[QVXMZR]QKQWLMY]MMTR]MbZMUQ\IITI;MKKQ~VLM1V^M[\QOIKQ~V
8ZWNM[QWVITLMTI+WZ\M;]XZMUILM2][\QKQITIZM[XMK\Q^IKMZ\QÅKIKQ~V[WJZMTIKWVL]K\ILM
TW[IJWOILW[QV\MZ^QVQMV\M[

;QTIQVNZIKKQ~VN]M[MKWV[\Q\]\Q^ILMTLMTQ\WLMNIT[MLILMTR]MbKMZ\QÅKIZnTWKWVL]KMV\MITI
.Q[KITyI/MVMZITLMTI:MXƒJTQKIº

O Aplicación:

8WZ TW Y]M ZM[XMK\I I TI[ XIZ\M[ a I Y]QMVM[ TI[ ZMXZM[MV\IV a LMNQMVLMV MV R]QKQW
ZMXZM[MV\IV\M[TMOITM[^WT]V\IZQW[aLMTIJWOILWY]MMRMZKQ\ITIXW[\]TIKQ~VQUXWVMMTIZ\
IUWTLIZ[]KWUXWZ\IUQMV\WITW[LMJMZM[LM"

I >MZIKQLIL"VW[M\ZI\I\IV\WLM]V[MV\QLWIJ[WT]\WLMT\uZUQVWX]M[ZM[]T\ILQNyKQT
Y]M TI[ XIZ\M[ XWZ MRMUXTW VW QVK]ZZIV MV QUXZMKQ[QWVM[ a MZZWZM[ NZMK]MV\M[ IT
IZ\QK]TIZMTZMTI\WLM[][ITMOIKQWVM[IKMZKILMK~UWWK]ZZQMZWVTW[PMKPW[LMTKI[W
TWY]MM`XTQKIILMUn[Y]MLMJIM`Q[\QZ]VINI[MLMXZ]MJITW[PMKPW[VW[M\QMVMV
XWZ ^MZLIL XWZY]M [y I UMVW[ Y]M TI W\ZI XIZ\M TW[ ILUQ\I ;M \ZI\I MV M[\M IZ\
[WJZM\WLWLMVWIUXIZIZMTMVOI}WaMTNIT[MIUQMV\WKWV[KQMV\MLMTW[LI\W[
ZMTM^IV\M[ IT XZWKM[W MUXMbIVLW XWZ TI QLMV\QÅKIKQ~V LM TI XIZ\M KWV\ZIZQI MV TI
LMUIVLIKWVMTÅVLM[IKIZ]VXZW^MKPWM[X]ZQWLMTIUMV\QZIY]MTILMUIVLIVWTM
M[IVW\QÅKILIM\K6W[MX]MLMUIVQX]TIZKWVN]VLQZVQMV\WZXMKMZKWV[KQMV\MUMV\M
TI TIJWZ LMT ~ZOIVW R]LQKQIT a [Q I[y [M PIKM MT []RM\W M[\IZn QVK]ZZQMVLW MV ]VI
KWVL]K\IXZWPQJQLI

J 4MIT\IL"M[]V[QV~VQUWLMTI\ZQJ]\WIV\MZQWZ[]IV\y\M[Q[[MZyITI\ZIQKQ~VaMTNZI]LM
)]VY]MKILIXIZ\MUIV\QMVM[]XZWXQIXW[QKQ~VMVTIKWV\QMVLIaVW\QMVMXWZY]u
KMLMZ MV [][ TMOy\QUI[ XZM\MV[QWVM[ VQ KWUXIZ\QZ [] M[\ZI\MOQI LM LMNMV[I KWV []

25
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

WXWVMV\M\IUXWKWKIJMVTW[KWUXWZ\IUQMV\W[NZI]L]TMV\W[VQMTWK]T\IUQMV\WLM
LI\W[ a XZ]MJI[ ,M ITTy MT ZyOQLW [Q[\MUI XZMKT][Q^W Y]M QV\ZWL]KM MT +~LQOW MV
UI\MZQILMXZ]MJILWK]UMV\ITaXMZQKQITM^Q\IVLWTIIXIZQKQ~VLMu[\I[XWZ[WZXZM[I
WMV]VUWUMV\WLMTI[IK\]IKQWVM[MVTI[Y]MMTXMZR]LQKILWVWX]MLMZMIKKQWVIZ

K *]MVINM"IT]LMI]VIZMK\Q\]LaPWVZILMbMVTW[IK\W[IKWUXWZ\IZ[MKWVNWZUM[M
M[XMZILMKILIXIZ\M1UXTQKIY]MVW[MLMJM[W[\MVMZIY]MTTWY]MKWV[KQMV\MUMV\M
[M [IJM KWV\ZIZQW I TI TMa a I TI ZMITQLIL LM TI[ KW[I[ VQ I XZWK]ZIZ ]V XMZR]QKQW
QTMOy\QUWWQTMOITITIKWV\ZIXIZ\M

L 8ZWJQLILXZWKM[IT"TIXZWJQLILM[[QV~VQUWLMPWVZILMbaXWZ\IV\WLMTIJ]MVINM
XZWKM[IT

;MOƒV[M[M}ITIILMUn[MVM[\MIZ\+8+5TIQVNZIKKQ~VLMM[\W[M[\nVLIZM[LMKWV[]T\I
XWLZn[MZZMXMTQLILMLQ^MZ[I[UIVMZI[JQMV[MIUMLQIV\MTIQUXW[QKQ~VLMKW[\I[^MZIZ\
XnZZINW[MO]VLWaXnZZINWXZQUMZWLMT+~LQOW#[MIUMLQIV\M]VIKWVLMVIXWZLI}W[
aXMZR]QKQW[aMVMTKI[WLMTIJWOILW[]XW[QJTMZM[XWV[IJQTQLILKQ^QTXMVITaLMWV\WT~OQKI
LQ[KQXTQVIZQI[QO]QMVLWMTR]MbTW[KWVL]K\W[WÅKQITM[Y]MIY]y[MXZM^uVXIZIKILI[Q\]IKQ~V

1.6 PRINCIPIOS DEL PROCEDIMIENTO:

1.6.1 Principio de oralidad (art. 8):

O Enunciado:

¹-V TW[ XZWKM[W[ KQ^QTM[ a UMZKIV\QTM[ TI[ IK\]IKQWVM[ [M ZMITQbIZnV LM NWZUI
XZMLWUQVIV\MUMV\M WZIT [QV XMZR]QKQW LM TI LWK]UMV\IKQ~V LM TW[ IK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ Y]M
LMJIVPIKMZ[MKWV[\IZXWZM[KZQ\WaLMTI[IXWZ\IKQWVM[LWK]UMV\ITM[Y]MMVM[\MK~LQOW[M
M[\IJTMKMVº

O Aplicación:

;M}ITIM[\MIZ\ +8+5TIZMOTIY]MT]MOWLM[IZZWTTIMT+~LQOWITZMO]TIZKILI]VWLMTW[
XZWKM[W[MVMT[MV\QLWLMXZQUIZTIZMITQbIKQ~VWZIT^MZJITLMTI[ITMOIKQWVM[aTI[XZ]MJI[
\IV\WMV[]QV\MZ^MVKQ~VXWZTI[XIZ\M[KWUWXWZMT\Q\]TIZLMT~ZOIVWR]LQKQITI[yTII]LQMVKQI
XZMXIZI\WZQILMTR]QKQWKWUƒVWTILMXZ]MJILMu[\MaLMTIJZM^QILW

,M\WLW[UWLW[LMJMVLMRIZ[MI[IT^W·aI[yTWPIKMM[\IVWZUIY]MVWZMKWOMTIWZITQLIL
IJ[WT]\IIY]MTTW[IK\W[Y]MXWZ[]KWUXTMRQLILTITMaXZMÅMZMY]M[MXZM[MV\MVXWZM[KZQ\W
LMUIVLI LM TW[ XZWKM[W[ LMKTIZI\Q^W[# QV\MZXW[QKQ~V LM ZMK]Z[W[# [WTQKQ\]L LM UMLQLI[
KI]\MTIZM[aMRMK]KQ~VNWZbW[INZMV\MIIY]MTTW[W\ZW[LWVLMTIWZITQLIL[MXZM^uXWZUW\Q^W[
LM MKWVWUyI XZWKM[IT KWV\M[\IKQ~V MV MT R]QKQW IJZM^QILW a [M QUXWVM I\MVLQMVLW I TI
VI\]ZITMbIKWV^MVQMV\MUMV\MÆM`QJTMLMTIK\WXZWKM[ITMVIZI[INIKQTQ\IZTIJƒ[Y]MLILMTI
^MZLILZMITLM[IZZWTTWLMTW[QV\MZZWOI\WZQW[LMXZ]MJI

26
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

:M[XMK\W LM \WLI[ TI[ KWUXIZMKMVKQI[ a ^Q[\I[ Y]M [M XZIK\QY]MV WZITUMV\M LMJMZn VW
WJ[\IV\MO]IZLIZ[M]VZMOQ[\ZWNMPIKQMV\MLM[]KWV\MVQLWKWUWUyVQUWI\ZI^u[LMTIÅO]ZI
LMTIK\IM[KZQ\IaMV[]KI[WXWZQV[\Z]UMV\W[I]LQW^Q[]ITM[LMOZIJIKQ~V^MZIZ\[
LMT+~LQOW

1.6.2 Principio de publicidad (art. 9):

O Enunciado:

¹4I[I]LQMVKQI[LM\WLW[TW[XZWKM[W[XZM^Q[\W[MVM[\M+~LQOW[MZnVXƒJTQKI[[IT^WY]MMT
R]MbLMWÅKQWWIQV[\IVKQILMXIZ\MLQ[XWVOITWKWV\ZIZyWXWZZIbWVM[LM[MO]ZQLILVIKQWVIT
LMUWZITWLMWZLMVXƒJTQKWWLMXZW\MKKQ~VLMTIXZQ^IKQLILLMITO]VILMTI[XIZ\M[

4IZM[\ZQKKQ~VLMTIX]JTQKQLILLMTI[I]LQMVKQI[LMJMZnIKWZLIZ[MMVZM[WT]KQ~VLMJQLIUMV\M
UW\Q^ILIMVTIY]M[MXZMKQ[MVLMUIVMZIM`XZM[IaKTIZITI[ZIbWVM[LMLQKPIZM[\ZQKKQ~V
I[yKWUWTILM\MZUQVIKQ~VLMY]QMVM[ILMUn[LMTI[XIZ\M[[][IXWLMZILW[WZMXZM[MV\IV\M[
XWLZnVM[\IZXZM[MV\M[MVTI[UQ[UI[

4I[XIZ\M[[][IXWLMZILW[ZMXZM[MV\IV\M[TW[IJWOILW[aK]ITY]QMZIW\ZIXMZ[WVIY]MITMO]M
ITOƒVQV\MZu[R]ZyLQKIUMV\MXZW\MOQLW\MVLZnVIKKM[WITM`XMLQMV\MR]LQKQITº

O Aplicación:

+WV\MUXTI MT IZ\ ! LMT +~LQOW [MOƒV KWZZMK\IUMV\M M[XMKQÅKI LW[ KTI[M[ LM X]JTQKQLIL
QV\ZIXZWKM[W"TIXZQUMZILMMTTI[ZMQ\MZILIT]MOWMVMTIZ\M[TILMTI[I]LQMVKQI[WZITM[
XnZZINW[ XZQUMZW a [MO]VLW a M[ ]VI X]JTQKQLIL Y]M IJIZKI \IV\W I TI[ XIZ\M[ LMT TQ\QOQW
como a los terceros.

;]XWVMY]MMTIKKM[WITI[^Q[\I[VWLMJM[MZXZWPQJQLWWTQUQ\ILW[IT^WMTMUMV\ITM[ZIbWVM[
LM M[XIKQW Ny[QKW [QVW M[ XIZI XZW\MOMZ ]V JQMV R]ZyLQKW []XMZQWZ KWUW X]MLMV [MZ TI[
KQZK]V[\IVKQI[ZMNMZQLI[MVM[\MXnZZINWXZQUMZW¹ZIbWVM[LM[MO]ZQLILVIKQWVITLMUWZITW
LMWZLMVXƒJTQKWWLMXZW\MKKQ~VLMTIXZQ^IKQLILLMITO]VILMTI[XIZ\M[º

8MZUQ\M M[\I X]JTQKQLIL LM TI[ I]LQMVKQI[ MT KWVWKQUQMV\W [QU]T\nVMW LM TW IK\]ILW a
TI M^Q\IKQ~V LM K]ITY]QMZ KWVR]ZI IUI}W W IZ\QÅKQW MV XZM[MV\IZ KWUW ZMITQbILI ]VI
KWUXIZMKMVKQUI\MZQITUMV\MQVM`Q[\MV\M

6WX]MLMWJ^QIZ[MI[yTWY]M\WLW[PIV^Q[\WaM[W[QOVQÅKIY]MY]QMVM[PIVXZM[MVKQILWTI
^Q[\I[MKWV^QMZ\MVMV\M[\QOW[LQZMK\W[LMTITQUXQMbIaTMOITQLILLMTXZWKM[W

+]IVLW XWZ KWVK]ZZQZ ITO]VI LM IY]MTTI[ KI][I[ OZI^M[ [M WZLMVI TI KMTMJZIKQ~V LM TI
I]LQMVKQIIX]MZ\IKMZZILIMT\ZQJ]VITUIV\MVLZnKWUWUyVQUWTIOIZIV\yILMTIX]JTQKQLILI
TI[XIZ\M[[IT^WY]MTIKWVL]K\IQVOWJMZVIJTMLMITO]VILMMTTI[WJTQO]MIY]M[MILM[ITWRILI
LMTI[ITI[][IXWLMZILW[aZMXZM[MV\IV\M[QVKT]aMVLWI[][IJWOILW[aLQ[XWVLZn[Q[MTM
XMZUQ\MMTIKKM[WIITO]QMVUn[IKI[WLMUIVMZIVMKM[IZQIQV\MZ^MVKQ~VLM\M[\QOW[aXMZQ\W[

27
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

.QVITUMV\MMTƒT\QUWXnZZINWLMTXZMKMX\W[MZMÅMZMITI[MO]VLIUWLITQLILLMX]JTQKQLILTI
LMTKWVR]V\WLMTI[IK\]IKQWVM[Ny[QKIUMV\M#MTM`XMLQMV\MTQUQ\ILIu[\I[QMUXZMITI[XIZ\M[
LMTXZWKM[WZMXZM[MV\IV\MMVR]QKQWa[][IJWOILW[[QJQMVTIVWZUILMRIIJQMZ\ITIIT\MZVI\Q^I
I KWV[MV\QZ TI TMK\]ZI LM TW[ I]\W[ I ]V \MZKMZW ¹Y]M ITMO]M ITOƒV QV\MZu[ R]ZyLQKIUMV\M
XZW\MOQLWº

0]MTOILMKQZY]MM[\WLMJMZnKWVKMLMZ[MLMUIVMZIZM[\ZQK\Q^I[QPIJTIUW[LM]V\MZKMZWY]M
VW^IIXMLQZ[]XMZ[WVIKQ~VKWUWKWILa]^IV\M[QVWY]M[M^IIUIV\MVMZN]MZILMTLMJI\M
X]M[VQ[QY]QMZIMTUMZWPMKPWLMY]MVWXZM\MVLIa priori]VXZWX~[Q\WQVLQOVWX]MLMR][\QÅKIZ
IKKMLMZI]VIQVNWZUIKQ~VY]MXWZ[]VI\]ZITMbIM[\nZM[MZ^ILIITI[XIZ\M[LMTXZWKM[W

,MJMMV\MVLMZ[MY]M[~TWXIZI[IT^IO]IZLIZMTLMZMKPWLMM[M\MZKMZWMVKI[WVMKM[IZQWLI\W[
Y]MZMY]QMZMIV\M]VILMUIVLIIRMVIWXWZI]\WZQbIZTWW\ZITMaM[Y]M[MXMZUQ\QZn\ITKW[I

1.6.3 Principio de inmediación (art. 10):

O Enunciado:

¹-TR]MbLMJMZnXZM[QLQZXMZ[WVITUMV\M\IV\WTIKMTMJZIKQ~VLMI]LQMVKQI[KWUWTIXZnK\QKILM
TW[UMLQW[XZWJI\WZQW[Y]MLIVLWM`XZM[IUMV\MXZWPQJQLITILMTMOIKQ~VLMLQKPIXZM[MVKQI
[W XMVI LM V]TQLIL QV[]J[IVIJTM# M`KMX\W K]IVLW TI LQTQOMVKQI XZWJI\WZQI LMJI ZMITQbIZ[M
N]MZILMTIKQZK]V[KZQXKQ~VLMT\ZQJ]VITMVK]aWKI[WMTR]MbXWLZnMVKWUMVLIZTIUMLQIV\M
KWUQ[Q~VXZWKM[ITLMJQMVLWMTR]MbLMTMOILWXZM[QLQZTIXZnK\QKILMTIUQ[UIº

O Aplicación:

:M[]T\I\IRIV\MM[\MIZ\LMT+8+5IT[IVKQWVIZTITTIUILIQVUMLQIKQ~V[]JRM\Q^IR]LQKQIT
XIZILQ[\QVO]QZTILMTIWJRM\Q^I"XZMNMZMVKQILMXZ]MJI[LQZMK\I[NZMV\MIQVLQZMK\I[ITIY]M
\IUJQuVIT]LMXWZKQMZ\WMT+~LQOW"^MZIZ\MV\MVLQLIKWUWLMJMZLMTR]MbLMXZM[QLQZ
TI[I]LQMVKQI[aXZM[MVKQIZTIXZnK\QKILMTI[XZ]MJI[LMTI[Y]MT]MOWLMJMZnPIKMZIVnTQ[Q[
MV[][MV\MVKQIILMUn[LMQV\MZ^MVQZMVLQKPWIK\WMVMTMRMZKQKQWLM[][NIK]T\ILM[LMKWV\ZWT
QVILUQ[Q~VLMXZ]MJI[aXZMO]V\I[QUXMZ\QVMV\M[aIKTIZIKQ~VITI[XIZ\M[\M[\QOW[aXMZQ\W[
K]IVLWLMKTIZIV

+WUW LQKM M[\M LQ[XW[Q\Q^W ¹[W XMVI LM V]TQLIL QV[]J[IVIJTMº [Q I[y VW WK]ZZQMZM TW K]IT
ZMUIKPIT]MOWMTIZ\LMUIVMZIKWVKWZLIV\M

-[\WPILMQVKT]QZTW[KI[W[LM[][\Q\]KQ~VLMTR]MbIV\M[LMLQK\IZ[M[MV\MVKQIXWZK]ITY]QMZ
UW\Q^WTMOITR]JQTIKQ~V\ZI[TILWM\KMVK]aI\M[Q\]ZILMJMZMXM\QZ[MTII]LQMVKQIXZWJI\WZQI
KWV MT V]M^W R]Mb W TW[ UIOQ[\ZILW[ [Q MZI IV\M ]VI +nUIZI LM ;MO]VLI 1V[\IVKQI a [M
[][\Q\]a~ITO]VW

+WV\WLW[MM`KMXKQWVIVKQMZ\I[[Q\]IKQWVM[Y]MQUXQLMVad radiceTIXZM[MVKQILMTR]bOILWZMV
MTIK\WLMXZ]MJIKWUWM[TINIT\ILMR]ZQ[LQKKQ~VQV\MZVIWTIVMKM[QLILLMXZIK\QKIZIY]uTTI
MVMTM`\ZIVRMZWI\ZI^u[LMTW[UMKIVQ[UW[LMKWWXMZIKQ~VQV\MZVIKQWVIT^MZIZ\+8+5

28
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

1.6.4 Principio de concentración (art. 11):

O Enunciado:

¹4W[IK\W[XZWKM[ITM[[MZMITQbIZnVKWVTIUIaWZXZW`QUQLIL\MUXWZITMV\ZMMTTW[LMJQMVLW
MT R]Mb KWVKMV\ZIZ MV ]VI UQ[UI [M[Q~V \WLW[ TW[ IK\W[ Y]M [MI XW[QJTM ZMITQbIZ# I[QUQ[UW
XZWK]ZIZnLMKQLQZMV]VIUQ[UIZM[WT]KQ~V\WLW[TW[X]V\W[XMVLQMV\M[º

;Q ]VI I]LQMVKQI ZMY]QMZM Un[ LM ]VI [M[Q~V [M TTM^IZn I KIJW MV TW[ LyI[ []J[QO]QMV\M[
PI[\ILIZTIXWZKWVKT]QLIX]LQuVLW[MWZLMVIZXWZMTR]MbY]MTIUQ[UIKWV\QVƒMMVLyI[VW
PnJQTM[º

O Aplicación:

-TXZQVKQXQWLMKWVKMV\ZIKQ~VY]MLIXMZNMK\IUMV\MLMÅVQ\Q^WMVMTIZ\LMT+~LQOWLM[LM
T]MOWPI[\IMTTyUQ\MLMTWY]MX]MLMLMKQZ]VIVWZUI+WV\WLWTIKWVKMV\ZIKQ~VM`QOMT]MOW
]VITIJWZIXTQKI\Q^ILMTZM[XWV[IJTMLMILUQVQ[\ZIZR][\QKQIXZWOZIUIVLWXIZIKILIXZWKM[W
KWVKZM\WTW[IK\W[aKWUXIZMKMVKQI[WZITM[Y]MZM[]T\MVUMVM[\MZLMIK]MZLWIM[IXZW`QUQLIL
\MUXWZITY]MM`QOMTITMaXIZITI[I]LQMVKQI[LMXZ]MJI^MZIZ\!aIOW\IVLWPI[\ILWVLM
[MIXW[QJTMTIZM[WT]KQ~VLMTW[LQ^MZ[W[I[]V\W[XMVLQMV\M[MVTIUQ[UIZM[WT]KQ~VR]LQKQIT
[IT^W K]IVLW TI KWUXTMRQLIL LMT \MUI TW QUXQLI I[y WK]ZZM KWV TI LMKQ[Q~V [WJZM KQMZ\I[
M`KMXKQWVM[XZWKM[ITM[XWZMRMUXTWMVTII]LQMVKQIXZMXIZI\WZQI

6W[M}ITI[QVMUJIZOWMTXZMKMX\WK]nTX]MLM[MZTI[IVKQ~VLMZQ^ILILMTQVK]UXTQUQMV\WLM
M[\MUIVLI\WTWY]MX]MLMLQÅK]T\IZMVTIXZnK\QKI[]MNMK\Q^QLILUn[ITTnLMKQMZ\W[M`KM[W[
aIQVR][\QÅKILW[aMVK]IV\W\ITM[KWVÅO]ZILWZM[LMLQTIKQWVM[R]LQKQITM[KWV\ZIZQI[ITLMZMKPW
I]VIILMK]ILIXZW\MKKQ~VR]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT

1.6.5 Principio de dirección y ordenación del proceso (art. 14):

O Enunciado:

¹4ILQZMKKQ~VLMTXZWKM[WM[\nKWVÅILIITR]MbY]QMVTIMRMZKMZnLMIK]MZLWITWM[\IJTMKQLW
MVM[\MK~LQOW

-V KWV[MK]MVKQI LMJMZn KWVL]KQZ TW[ XZWKM[W[ XWZ TI ^yI XZWKM[IT WZLMVILI XWZ TI TMa VW
WJ[\IV\MY]MTIXIZ\MQVK]ZZIMVMZZWZ1VQKQILWMTXZWKM[WMTR]MbQUX]T[IZn[]\ZIUQ\IKQ~V
LQ[XWVQMVLWTI[IK\]IKQWVM[WXWZ\]VI[aILMK]ILI[XIZIM^Q\IZ[]XIZITQbIKQ~VILMTIV\IVLW
[]\ZnUQ\MKWVTIUIaWZKMTMZQLILXW[QJTM#XWZ\IV\W[MZnZM[XWV[IJTMLMTIWZLMVIKQ~VLMT
XZWKM[WI[yKWUWLMK]ITY]QMZLMUWZIWKI[QWVILIXWZ[]VMOTQOMVKQIº

O Aplicación:

6WXMZ[QO]M\IV\WM[\MIZ\+8+5ZMQ^QVLQKIZXWZQVVMKM[IZQWMTXIXMTLMTR]MbWKWTMOQW
LM 5IOQ[\ZILW[ MV [] KI[W KWUW LQZMK\WZM[ LMT XZWKM[W X]M[ M[ M^QLMV\M Y]M TI TMa VW PI

29
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

IZ\QK]TILW TI \]\MTI R]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT MV UWLW \IT Y]M [MIV TW[ XIZ\QK]TIZM[ TW[ Y]M LMKQLIV
K]nVLWK~UWaL~VLMPIVLMZMITQbIZ[MTI[IK\]IKQWVM[[QVWY]MKWZZM[XWVLMIT\Q\]TIZLMTI
XW\M[\ILR]LQKQITLQZQOQZMTLMJI\MXZWKM[ITMV\WLWUWUMV\W

4]MOW TW Y]M IY]y MV LMÅVQ\Q^I [M XZM\MVLM M[\IJTMKMZ M[ ]V I[XMK\W Un[ KWVKZM\W LM M[I
\IZMILMLQZMKKQ~VLMTR]MbaM[TWY]MKWVMK\IKWVMTTTIUILW¹XZQVKQXQWLMQUX]T[WWÅKQIT
LMTXZWKMLQUQMV\WºY]MM[ZMITUMV\MMTY]MIY]y[MKWV[IOZI)[]^QZ\]LX]M[PILM[MZ
MT~ZOIVWR]LQKQITMTR]Mb[]XMZ^Q[IVLWTITIJWZLMT;MKZM\IZQWaLMTN]VKQWVIZQWY]MTTM^IMT
\ZnUQ\MLMTM`XMLQMV\MaVWTI[XIZ\M[QV\MZ^QVQMV\M[MVuTY]QMVM[LMJMZnVXZW^MMZMV\WLW
UWUMV\W I TI KWV\QV]IKQ~V LMT \ZnUQ\M XZWKMLQUMV\IT ]VI ^Mb [M KWV[\I\I Y]M KWVK]ZZMV
TW[UW\Q^W[XIZIMTTWJQMV[MIXWZY]M[MKWVKMLM]VXTIbWau[\MaIPI^MVKQLW[MIXWZY]M
TI KWVL]K\I Y]M M[\IJI XMVLQMV\M XIZI IKWZLIZ TI IXMZ\]ZI LMT V]M^W IK\W aI PI [QLW
UI\MZQITQbILIM\K;QVVMKM[QLILXIZIMV\MVLMZVW[LMY]MTI[XIZ\M[\MVOIVKWV[\IV\MUMV\M
Y]MXMLQZTW

6W[MLMJMVLM\ZIUQ\IZTW[XZWKM[W[MVLMÅVQ\Q^IXWZNZ]\WLMTIbIZVQXWZTIUIaWZWUMVWZ
QV[Q[\MVKQILMTW[TQ\QOIV\M[[WJZM\WLWLMTIK\WZY]MMVTIUIaWZyILMTW[KI[W[MTQV\MZM[ILW
MVY]MI^IVKMaWJ\MVOI]VILMKQ[Q~VLMÅVQ\Q^I[QVWXWZ]VQUXMZI\Q^WTMOITITY]MLMJMLIZ
[I\Q[NIKKQ~VLMWÅKQWMT\Q\]TIZLMTIR]ZQ[LQKKQ~VMVKIZOILWLMTKI[Wa[WJZMMTY]MTI[XIZ\M[
X]MLMVXTIV\MIZ[]ZMKTIUIKQ~VMVKI[WLMQVWJ[MZ^IVKQI-VMT\MUILMT7JRM\WLMTXZWKM[W
aTIKIL]KQLILLMTIQV[\IVKQI^MZMUW[TI[KWV[MK]MVKQI[LM\WLWM[\W

BIBLIOGRAFÍA:
-V]VIWJZILMLQKILIM[XMKyÅKIUMV\MIIVITQbIZMTKWV\MVQLWaITKIVKMLMTI[LQ[XW[QKQWVM[
LMT V]M^W +~LQOW 8ZWKM[IT +Q^QT a 5MZKIV\QT [IT^ILWZM}W MT IVnTQ[Q[ LM LWK\ZQVI Y]MLI
KWVLQKQWVILWXWZTIIK\]ITNIT\ILMX]JTQKIKQWVM[MV\WZVWITI[QV[\Q\]KQWVM[Y]Mu[\MZMO]TI
-V^QZ\]LLMMTTWPMUW[WX\ILW[QO]QMVLWTIUM\WLWTWOyILMTW[UIV]ITM[LMTILQ[KQXTQVI
XWZ ZMKWOMZ JQJTQWOZINyI M[XI}WTI LM IXWaW IT ÅVIT LM KILI ]VW LM TW[ JTWY]M[ \MUn\QKW[
Y]MVW[\WKI\ZI\IZXIZIY]QMVM[Y]QMZIVXZWN]VLQbIZMV[]M[\]LQWLM[LMTIXMZ[XMK\Q^ILMT
LMZMKPWKWUXIZILW\MVQMVLWMVK]MV\ILM[LMT]MOWY]M[M\ZI\I\IV[~TWLM]VIWZQMV\IKQ~V
MV]VKQI\Q^IaVWM`PI][\Q^IaY]MTIUQ[UILMJMKWUXTMUMV\IZ[MKWVTI[N]MV\M[LMIY]MT
XIy[Y]M[MM[KWRIKWUWZMNMZMVKQI-VM[\MXZQUMZIXIZ\ILWaMVZMTIKQ~VKWVMTLMZMKPWITI
XZW\MKKQ~VR]ZQ[LQKKQWVITaTW[XZQVKQXQW[LMTXZWKM[WKQ^QTZMKWUMVLIUW["):5-6<),-=
<MZM[I"4MKKQWVM[LM,MZMKPW8ZWKM[IT+Q^QT8ZWKM[WLMLMKTIZIKQ~VXZWKM[WLMMRMK]KQ~V
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+Q^Q\I[5ILZQL!!#+)*)k);/):+Ñ)2]IV+IZTW[+WWZLQVILWZ"Comentarios prácticos
a la nueva Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil ))>><ZQ^Q]U5ILZQL#+)*)k);/):+Ñ)
2]IV +IZTW[" ¹:MNWZUI KITQLIL LM TI R][\QKQI a \]\MTI R]LQKQIT LM NWVLWº Estudios acerca de
la reforma de la Justicia en España Vol. II (AA.VV.),)KILMUQILM2]ZQ[XZ]LMVKQIa4MOQ[TIKQ~V
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<ZQJ]VIT+WV[\Q\]KQWVITZM[XMK\WLMTLMZMKPWN]VLIUMV\ITITI\]\MTIR]LQKQITMNMK\Q^I"IZ\

30
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

+-ºMVLa reforma constitucional: ¿hacia un nuevo pacto constituyente?: Actas de las XIV Jornadas
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a <ZQJ]VIT +WV[\Q\]KQWVIT 5ILZQL ! XX   #  -T LMZMKPW I TI QO]ITLIL MV TI )XTQKIKQ~V
Judicial de la Ley,)ZIVbILQ<PWU[WV:M]\MZ[+Qb]Z5MVWZ6I^IZZI#¹-TZMK]Z[WLM
IUXIZWY]MY]MZMUW["ZMÆM`QWVM[IXZWX~[Q\WLMTI4Ma7ZOnVQKILMLMUIaWLM
ZMNWZUIXIZKQITLMTI4Ma7ZOnVQKILMT<ZQJ]VIT+WV[\Q\]KQWVITºRevista Española de Derecho
Constitucional,V£ 5ILZQLXX! #+)6)4-;+1;+77[KIZ)V\WVQW"Derecho
procesal civil salvadoreño, I.,=+)[MO]VLIMLQKQ~V-T;IT^ILWZ#+7:,Õ657:-67
.I][\QVW+WWZLQVILWZ"Comentarios a la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil, 2 Vols (AA.VV.),)ZIVbILQ
5ILZQL # +7:,Õ6 57:-67 .I][\QVW" 1V\ZWL]KKQ~V IT ,MZMKPW 8ZWKM[IT -=6;)
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8IZ\M OMVMZIT <QZIV\ 4W *TIVKP IUJW[ [MO]VLI MLQKQ~V 5ILZQL # ,- 4) 741>)
;)6<7; )VLZu[ ,yMb8QKIbW /QUuVMb 1OVIKQW a >MOI[ <WZZM[ 2IQUM" ,MZMKPW 8ZWKM[IT
1V\ZWL]KKQ~V a ,MZMKPW 8ZWKM[IT +Q^QT -T XZWKM[W LM LMKTIZIKQ~V Editorial Universitaria Ramón
)ZMKM[ IUJW[ \MZKMZI MLQKQ~V 5ILZQL # /):*-:Ñ 447*:-/)< 2W[u" El derecho
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del Uruguay. Comentado, anotado con jurisprudencia. Vol. 1 y 2,-LQ\WZQIT*LM.4\LI5WV\M^QLMW
# 576<-:7 ):7+) 2]IV /Õ5-B +7475-: 2]IV 4]Q[ 576<Õ6
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del derecho procesal,=VQ^MZ[QLILLM;ITIUIVKI! #7:<-44;:)57;5IV]MTDerecho
8ZWKM[IT+Q^QT)ZIVbILQ<PWU[WV:M]\MZ[WK\I^IMLQKQ~V+Qb]Z5MVWZ M1V\ZWL]KKQ~VIT
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!!XX

31
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.7 REGLAS PARA LA APLICACIÓN DE LAS NORMAS PROCESALES

Juan Carlos Cabañas García

;=5):17" 1 ÎUJQ\W UI\MZQIT LM IXTQKIKQ~V LMT +~LQOW 11 1V\MZXZM\IKQ~V
LM TI[ LQ[XW[QKQWVM[ XZWKM[ITM[ 111 1V\MOZIKQ~V LM TI[ VWZUI[ XZWKM[ITM[ 1>
)XTQKIKQ~V[]XTM\WZQILMT+~LQOW

1.7.1 Ámbito material de aplicación del código:

)JZM MT +IXy\]TW ;MO]VLW LMT <y\]TW 8ZMTQUQVIZ M[\M IZ\  XWZ MT Y]M [M ÅRIV K]nTM[ [WV
TW[ XZWKM[W[ Y]M PIV LM ZMOQZ[M XWZ TI[ LQ[XW[QKQWVM[ LMT V]M^W +~LQOW LM[LM MT X]V\W LM
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LQZQOQLW[ITIZM[WT]KQ~VLMKWVÆQK\W[KQ^QTM[aUMZKIV\QTM[TWY]MI[]^Mba\ZIL]KQLWMV]VI
XMZ[XMK\Q^IWZOnVQKI[QOVQÅKIVTW[XZWKM[W[[MO]QLW[XWZTW[R]bOILW[a\ZQJ]VITM[[IT^ILWZM}W[
LMM[\MWZLMVR]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT[QVXMZR]QKQWLMTIIXTQKIKQ~V[]XTM\WZQILMT+~LQOWIW\ZW\QXW
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M[\IWJZILMKWUMV\IZQW[QZMUW[IT]LQMVLWI^IZQI[LMMTTI[

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[MTTM^IVIKIJWJIRWTIWZLMVWMTKWV\ZWTLQZMK\W[LMTR]MbITPIKMZNIT\IQUXM\ZIZ[]I]`QTQW
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IJZM^QILWXWZ[]ZIXQLMbaKWVKMV\ZIKQ~V

32
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

1.8 INTERPRETACIÓN DE LAS DISPOSICIONES PROCESALES:

,M IK]MZLW KWV MT IZ\   +~LQOW TI[ LQ[XW[QKQWVM[ LM u[\M ¹LMJMZnV QV\MZXZM\IZ[M LM \IT
UWLWY]M[MXZWK]ZMTIXZW\MKKQ~VaMÅKIKQILMTW[LMZMKPW[LMTI[XMZ[WVI[aTIKWV[MK]KQ~V
LM TW[ ÅVM[ Y]M KWV[IOZI TI +WV[\Q\]KQ~V LMV\ZW LMT ZM[XM\W IT XZQVKQXQW LM TMOITQLIL -V
KWV[MK]MVKQIMTR]MbLMJMZnM^Q\IZMTZQ\]ITQ[UWaTI[QV\MZXZM\IKQWVM[Y]M[]XMLQ\MVTIMÅKIKQI
LMTLMZMKPWII[XMK\W[UMZIUMV\MNWZUITM[º

4W M`X]M[\W [QOVQÅKI Jn[QKIUMV\M Y]M MT XZQVKQXQW LM TMOITQLIL [QMUXZM XZM[MV\M MV TI
\ZIUQ\IKQ~VLMTI[KI][I[R]LQKQITM[VWX]MLM[MZ[QVMUJIZOWTIM`K][IXIZITI^]TVMZIKQ~V
LMTW[LMZMKPW[LMTW[[]RM\W[Y]MQV\MZ^QMVMVMVMTTI[[MIVXIZ\M[W\MZKMZW[VQUW\Q^WXIZI
QVK]UXTQZ ITOƒV UIVLI\W KWV[\Q\]KQWVIT 6W [M \ZI\I aI LM Y]M ITOƒV XZMKMX\W KWVKZM\W
LM M[\M +~LQOW X]LQMZI ZMX]\IZ[M QVKWV[\Q\]KQWVIT [Q I[y WK]ZZM LMJMZn [MZ LQZMK\IUMV\M
QVIXTQKILWXWZMTR]bOILWZLMIK]MZLWITWM`QOQLWMVMTIZ\LMK]aW[Q[\MUILMKWV\ZWT
WJ^QIUMV\M VW M[\n M`QUQLW MT XZWXQW +~LQOW 8ZWKM[IT [QVW LM Y]M TI IXTQKIKQ~V M
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inconstitucional.

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XZM^Q[\WMVTIVWZUIKWUWWJ[\nK]TWXIZITIMNMK\Q^QLILLMTLMZMKPW-[M^QLMV\MY]MVW[M
\ZI\ILM]VIKMV[]ZIITMTMUMV\WZQ\]IZQWWNWZUITLM\WLWIK\WLMTXZWKM[WX]M[\ITMTMUMV\W
deviene connatural a la actividad jurisdiccional.

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K]IVLW MT K]UXTQUQMV\W LM ]V ZMY]Q[Q\W M[\ZQK\IUMV\M NWZUIT KWVLQKQWVM MT IKKM[W I ]VI
LM\MZUQVILI [WTQKQ\]L LM \]\MTI MV KWVLQKQWVM[ \ITM[ Y]M ZM[]T\M MV TI XZnK\QKI LQNyKQT W
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NWZUIT

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LMV\ZWLM]VXTIbWZIbWVIJTMI]VY]MQVQKQITUMV\MVWLQOIVILITITMa

1.9 INTEGRACIÓN DE LAS NORMAS PROCESALES:

;M}ITIMTIZ\!LMT+~LQOWXWZ[]XIZ\MK~UWINZWV\IZTI[M^MV\]ITM[TIO]VI[LMTITMaKWV
MTÅVLMM^Q\IZTIXIZnTQ[Q[LMTIIK\Q^QLILXZWKM[ITWMTQUXZMR]bOIUQMV\WLMTI[K]M[\QWVM[
Y]M\QMVMVMVKWUMVLILI[TW[R]MKM[ZMK]uZLM[MTIXZWPQJQKQ~VLMTnon liquet

-V\IT[MV\QLW[MWZLMVIIK]LQZMVXZQUMZ\uZUQVWITIIVITWOyIKWVTWLQ[X]M[\WMVW\ZI[
VWZUI[LMTXZWXQW+~LQOWLQZQOQLI[IZMO]TIZIK\W[[MUMRIV\M[I[yTI[ZMOTI[LMTR]QKQWKWUƒV
ZM[XMK\WLMTIJZM^QILWaTW[XZWKM[W[M[XMKQITM[#MV[MO]VLWT]OIZaMV[]LMNMK\W[MIXTQKIZn
¹TI VWZUI\Q^I KWV[\Q\]KQWVITº a ¹TW[ XZQVKQXQW[ Y]M LMZQ^IV LM M[\M +~LQOWº KWV M[XMKQIT
QUXWZ\IVKQIKIJMI}ILQZITW[QVKT]QLW[MVM[\M<y\]TW8ZMTQUQVIZ-V]V\MZKMZXMTLI}W

33
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

[QMUXZM[]J[QLQIZQWINIT\ILMTIV\MZQWZITIR]ZQ[XZ]LMVKQILMTI+WZ\M;]XZMUI¹TILWK\ZQVI
TMOITº# MV K]IZ\W T]OIZ I TI LWK\ZQVI KQMV\yÅKI TI LM ¹TW[ M`XW[Q\WZM[ LMT LMZMKPWº A MV
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LW[ƒT\QUW["IY]uTTW[NWZUIVXIZ\MWKI[WLMTILWK\ZQVITMOIT[MQV\MOZIKWUWKWUXTMUMV\W
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1.10 APLICACIÓN SUPLETORIA DEL CÓDIGO:

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VWZUI[LMM[\MK~LQOW[MIXTQKIZnV[]XTM\WZQIUMV\Mº

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BIBLIOGRAFÍA:
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34
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

1.11 JURISDICCIÓN Y COMPETENCIA DE LOS TRIBUNALES

Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco

;=5):17"+76;1,-:)+176-;/-6-:)4-;;]X]M[\W[LMR]ZQ[LQKKQ~V
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CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES

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MTMRMK]\Q^Whacer ejecutar lo juzgadoº#¹8IZITWY]MI\I}MM[\I;ITIPIMV\MVLQLWaKQZK]V[KZQ\WMTXZQVKQXQW
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!

35
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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1.11.1 Supuestos de jurisdicción salvadoreña

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1.11.1.1 Supuestos litigiosos de carácter exclusivo y absoluto.

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de El Salvador.

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36
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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1.11.1.2. Supuestos litigiosos de carácter relativo

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1.11.1.3 Límites de la jurisdicción salvadoreña

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37
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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1.11.1.4 Examen y efectos de la falta de jurisdicción

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38
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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39
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.11.2 Competencia civil y mercantil

Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco

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40
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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43
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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44
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48
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58
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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59
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.2.10 Prejudicialidad civil o mercantil

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1.12.11 Impugnación contra resolución que decide la prejudicialidad

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60
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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1.12.12 Casos de excepción a la suspensión preferente del proceso civil


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61
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.13 ABSTENCIÓN Y RECUSACIÓN

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63
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65
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-T N]VKQWVIZQW R]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT VW XWLZn XZWV]VKQIZ ZM[WT]KQ~V ÅVIT MV MT XZWKM[W W ZMK]Z[W
UQMV\ZI[M[\MXMVLQMV\MTILMKQ[Q~VLMTIZMK][IKQ~VWIJ[\MVKQ~V

8IZI MT [MO]VLW OZ]XW LM MNMK\W[ OMVMZILW[ XWZ MT XZWV]VKQIUQMV\W LM TI ZM[WT]KQ~V LMT
QVKQLMV\MZM[IT\IVTW[[QO]QMV\M["

-[\QUILI TI IJ[\MVKQ~V W TI ZMK][IKQ~V [M UIVLIZn I [MXIZIZ IT 2]Mb W 5IOQ[\ZILW LMT
KWVWKQUQMV\W[MIMVTIQV\MZ^MVKQ~VWZM[WT]KQ~VÅVITLMTXZWKM[WKQ^QTaUMZKIV\QT

;Q MT N]VKQWVIZQW I Y]QuV [M XZM\MVLI [MXIZIZ LMT KWVWKQUQMV\W LMT XZWKM[W XZWV]VKQIZM
ZM[WT]KQ~VÅVIT[MPIJQTQ\IITIXIZ\MINMK\ILIXIZIITMOIZLMTIV]TQLILLMTIUQ[UI

66
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

-T<ZQJ]VITKWUXM\MV\MMVMTQVKQLMV\MLM[QOVIZnY]QuVLMJMZn[]XTQZTMMVMTKIZOW[MOƒVTI
TMaWZOnVQKIZM[XMK\Q^I

,M[M[\QUILI a KWU]VQKILI TI LMKQ[Q~V LM TI IJ[\MVKQ~V W TI ZMK][IKQ~V MT N]VKQWVIZQW
R]ZQ[LQKKQWVITLMJMZnKWV\QV]IZKWVMTXZWKM[WLM[IXIZMKQMVLWTITQUQ\IKQ~VLMXZWV]VKQIZ
ZM[WT]KQ~VÅVITLMTXZWKM[W[QN]MZIMTKI[WXWZMTI^IVKMLMT\ZnUQ\M

,MTIƒT\QUIMV]UMZIKQ~VLMMNMK\W[[MLQ[\QVO]MTIXW[QJTMIV]TIKQ~VLMTIZM[WT]KQ~VÅVIT
M[\IVLWIƒVXMVLQMV\MTILMKQ[Q~VLMTQVKQLMV\MLMZMK][IKQ~VaIJ[\MVKQ~V#M[\W[MLMJMIT
\ZI\IUQMV\WTMOQ[TI\Q^WLILWXWZMT+8+]\QTQbIJITIÅO]ZILMTI¹9]MRIXWZI\MV\ILWºXIZI
LMRIZ[QVMNMK\WTIZM[WT]KQ~VÅVIT)PWZIKWVTI^QOMVKQILMT+8+5IT[]XZQUQZTIXMVILM
I\MV\ILWLMJQ~]\QTQbIZTI¹6]TQLILLMIK\]IKQWVM[XZWKM[ITM[ºI[y[MTWOZITIUQ[UIÅVITQLIL
LM[MILITIK]ITM[LMRIZ[QVMNMK\WM[IZM[WT]KQ~VÅVIT

1.13.5 Decisión de la cuestión incidental

+WUW [M LQRW WXWZ\]VIUMV\M TI LMKQ[Q~V LILI KWV WKI[Q~V LMT QVKQLMV\M LM IJ[\MVKQ~V
a ZMK][IKQ~V KWUXZMVLMV ^IZQW[ XZWV]VKQIUQMV\W[ MV\ZM M[\W[ K]IVLW MT KWV\MVQLW M[
M[\QUI\WZQWLMTUW\Q^WM`X]M[\WXWZMTN]VKQWVIZQWWITMOILWXWZTIXIZ\MQV\MZM[ILI)[yMT
<ZQJ]VITKWUXM\MV\MLMLMTQVKQLMV\MMVM[\]LQWLMJMZnLM[QOVIZMT2]MbW5IOQ[\ZILWY]QuV
LMJI[MO]QZKWVWKQMVLWTI\ZIUQ\IKQ~VLMTXZWKM[WLMKWVNWZUQLILITWM[\IJTMKQLWMVTW[IZ\[
QVKQ[W[£a£a472

8WZW\ZWTILWLMIK]MZLWITIZ\QVKQ[W£+8+5[QTILMKQ[Q~VM[LM[M[\QUI\WZQILMT
UW\Q^WLMLM[^QVK]TIKQ~VR]LQKQITILMUn[LMPIJQTQ\IZIT2]MbW5IOQ[\ZILW[IKWV\QV]IZKWV
TI\ZIUQ\IKQ~VLMTXZWKM[W[MKWVLMVIZnMVKW[\I[ITZMK][IV\M

8IZI KWVKT]QZ MT KWV\MVQLW LM TI LMKQ[Q~V [WJZM TI K]M[\Q~V QVKQLMV\IT [M ZMKWVWKM
M`XZM[IUMV\MTIQUXW[QJQTQLILLMQUX]OVIKQ~VITI[XIZ\M[KWV\ZITI[ZM[WT]KQWVM[LQK\ILI[
MV MT QVKQLMV\M ,M IPy TI VMKM[IZQI KWVNWZUQLIL KWV TW LMKQLQLW \IT ZM[\ZQKKQ~V TMOQ[TI\Q^I
M[R][\QÅKIJTMX]M[MVKI[WLML]LI[QTITIJWZLMTN]VKQWVIZQWR]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT[MIINMK\ILI[]
QUXIZKQITQLILLMJMZnLM[QOVIZ[MW\ZWLQ[\QV\W

1.13.6 Recusación de perito

;Q JQMV M[ KQMZ\W MT +8+5 []XZQUM TI QV[\Q\]KQ~V LM TI ¹<IKPI LM XMZQ\W[º ZMO]TILI MV
MT +8+ VW UMVW[ KQMZ\W M[ TI XMZ[Q[\MVKQI LM TI R][\QÅKIKQ~V LM IY]MTTI KWV[Q[\MV\M MV
TIM^MV\]ITINMK\IKQ~VMVTIKZMLQJQTQLILITUWUMV\WLMWNZMKMZ[]WXQVQ~VNIK]T\I\Q^I-[I
QVM^Q\IJTMZMITQLILM[ZM\WUILIMVTIV]M^ITMaXZWKM[ITKQ^QTaUMZKIV\QTXWZTI¹)J[\MVKQ~Va
ZMK][IKQ~VLMTXMZQ\WºMVJMVMÅKQWLMTI[XIZ\M[ZMO]TILI[]KQV\IUMV\MMVMTIZ\ QVKQ[W[
£a£+8+5-VTIZMO]TIKQ~VKQ\ILIVW[LMRIKWVQV\MZZWOIV\M[[WJZMTIWXMZI\Q^QLILLM
TIZMK][IKQ~VTI[K]ITM[X]MLMV[MZZM[XWVLQLI[XWZ^yIQV\MZXZM\IKQ~VIVIT~OQKI\ITM[L]LI[
^MZ[IV [WJZM TW[ X]V\W[ [QO]QMV\M[" TW[ UW\Q^W[ LM IJ[\MVKQ~V a ZMK][IKQ~V MT XZWKMLQUQMV\W
IXTQKIJTM a TW[ MNMK\W[ LM TI LMKQ[Q~V LMT QVKQLMV\M# M[\I[ K]M[\QWVM[ [MZnV IJWZLILI[ I
continuación.

67
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.13.6.1. Motivos de abstención y recusación

;WJZMTI[KI][I[LMIJ[\MVKQ~VMTQVKQ[W£LMTIZ\ +8+5VWTI[UMVKQWVI#I]VY]M
LMJMMV\MVLMZ[MY]Mu[\I[[WVTI[UQ[UI[IXTQKIJTM[ITIZMK][IKQ~V-VK]IV\WITI[KI][I[
LMZMK][IKQ~VLMTXMZQ\WUMVKQWVILI[MVMTQVKQ[W£LMTIIV\MZQWZVWZUIR]ZyLQKILMJMZnV
KWUXTM\IZ[MKWVTI[XZMKQ[QWVM[LMTIZ\+8+5

1.13.6.2. Procedimiento aplicable

-[\IK]M[\Q~VQVKQLMV\IT[M[]RM\IZnIT\ZnUQ\M[M}ITILWKWUWZMOTIOMVMZITIXIZ\QZLMTW[IZ\[
a[QO]QMV\M[LMT+8+5#MV^QZ\]LVWÅRIZ[M]V\ZnUQ\MLQ[\QV\W8IZITIKWUXM\MVKQI
N]VKQWVIT LMJMZn MV\MVLMZ[M Y]M M[ I\ZQJ]QLI IT UQ[UW 2]bOILWZ Y]M KWVWKM LMT WJRM\W
XZQVKQXITLMTXZWKM[W:M[XMK\WITIIJ[\MVKQ~VLMTXMZQ\WMT\ZnUQ\M[MZnJZM^MX]M[QV^WKILW
MTUW\Q^W[MXZWKMLMZnIVWUJZIZW\ZWXMZQ\WMVMTXTIbWLM\ZM[LyI[[QO]QMV\M[ITIZMKMXKQ~V
de la abstención.

1.13.6.3. Efectos de la decisión del incidente.

8TIV\MILITIZMK][IKQ~VLMTXMZQ\WLMV\ZWLMTW[\ZM[LyI[[QO]QMV\M[I[]LM[QOVIKQ~VQUXQLM
TI ZMITQbIKQ~V LMT XMZQ\IRM PI[\I Y]M [M LMKQLI MT QVKQLMV\M# TI[ LMKQ[QWVM[ ILWX\ILI[ XWZ MT
<ZQJ]VITMVTI\ZIUQ\IKQ~V[WVQZZMK]ZZQJTM[#N]MZILMTXTIbWLMZMK][IKQ~VLMTXMZQ\W\WLI
[WTQKQ\]L M[ QVILUQ[QJTM XWZ M`\MUXWZnVMI KWV[QLMZnVLW[M KWV[MV\QLI TI LM[QOVIKQ~V LMT
M`XMZ\W

68
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

1.14 LAS PARTES PROCESALES.

Juan Carlos Cabañas García

;=5):17" 1 +WVKMX\W LM XIZ\M 11 4I KIXIKQLIL XIZI [MZ XIZ\M" KWVKMX\W
a LM\MZUQVIKQ~V 111 4I KIXIKQLIL XZWKM[IT" KWVKMX\W a LM\MZUQVIKQ~V 1>
<ZI\IUQMV\WXZWKM[ITLMTINIT\ILMKIXIKQLIL>4ITMOQ\QUIKQ~V"+WVKMX\W
a+TI[M["+WVKMX\W+TI[M[")4MOQ\QUIKQ~VLQZMK\I*4MOQ\QUIKQ~V
QVLQZMK\I"*+WVKMX\Wa[]X]M[\W[*+IZIK\MZM[<ZI\IUQMV\WXZWKM[IT
LMTITMOQ\QUIKQ~VMVOMVMZIT

1.14.1 Concepto de parte:

-[ XIZ\M \WLI XMZ[WVI Y]M IK\ƒI LMV\ZW LM ]V XZWKM[W XIZI [W[\MVMZ ] WXWVMZ[M I ]VI
XZM\MV[Q~VLML]KQLIMVLMNMV[ILM]VLMZMKPWWQV\MZu[TMOy\QUWXZWXQWaM`KMXKQWVITUMV\M
IRMVWMVTIKWUXW[QKQ~VLMTKWVÆQK\WR]ZyLQKWXTIV\MILW

,M[LM M[\I XMZ[XMK\Q^I M[ XIZ\M Y]QMV NWZUITQbI ]VI LMUIVLI MV MRMZKQKQW LM ]VI IKKQ~V
LM\MZUQVILIaTWM[\IUJQuVIY]MTKWV\ZIMTY]M[MLQZQOMLQKPIIKKQ~VY]MLIVLWXWZMTTW
^QVK]TILW[XWZTWY]M[MZM[]MT^IR]LQKQITUMV\M\IV\WLM[LMMTXTIVWXZWKM[ITMNMK\W[LMTI
TQ\Q[XMVLMVKQIKWVLMVIMVKW[\I[KWUWUI\MZQITM[LMZQ^ILW[LMTIKW[IR]bOILI

8MZWM[\IUJQuVXIZ\MIY]MTTIXMZ[WVIY]MVWIXIZMKMMVXZQVKQXQWQVQKQIVLWTIKWV\QMVLIa
Y]M[QVMUJIZOWXWZ[]QV\MZu[MVMTZM[]T\ILWLMTXTMQ\WQVOZM[ILM[X]u[ITXZWKM[W[MIXWZY]M
M[KW\Q\]TIZLMTIZMTIKQ~VUI\MZQIT[MIXWZY]M[M^II^MZINMK\ILWLMUIVMZIZMÆMRIXWZTI
[MV\MVKQI<WLWMTTWLMV\ZWLMTI[XI]\I[Y]MLITITMaXIZIXWLMZQV\MZ^MVQZKWVM[\MKIZnK\MZ

8IZI ILY]QZQZ TI KWVLQKQ~V LM XIZ\M M[ XZMKQ[W Y]M \WLI XMZ[WVI ZMƒVI LW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[" TI
KIXIKQLILMV[][LW[UIVQNM[\IKQWVM[XZQVKQXITM[aTITMOQ\QUIKQ~V+ILI]VILMMTTI[^QMVM
IZ\QK]TILIXWZTITMaaTI[^MZMUW[IKWV\QV]IKQ~V+WV\ITM[I\ZQJ]\W[\WLI^yI[MZnVMKM[IZQW
[QVMUJIZOW[]IKMX\IKQ~VKWUW\ITXIZ\MXWZMTR]MbLMTIKI][I;~TWY]QMVTW[WTQKQ\IaM[
ILUQ\QLWKWUWXIZ\MWY]QMV^QMVMLM[QOVILWKWUWLMUIVLILWMV]VILMUIVLIaM[\MVQLW
KWUW\ITXWZMTR]MbX]MLMILY]QZQZTW[LMZMKPW[aWJTQOIKQWVM[QVPMZMV\M[IM[IKWVLQKQ~V
+WVM[\WTWY]MY]MZMUW[LMKQZM[Y]M[MX]MLM\MVMZLMZMKPWWQV\MZu[LQZMK\WMVMTWJRM\W
TQ\QOQW[WLM[LMMTX]V\WLM^Q[\IUI\MZQITXMZWUQMV\ZI[[MXMZUIVMbKIN]MZILMTXZWKM[WMT
[]RM\W[MZn\MZKMZWaVWXIZ\M

;QMTR]MbQVKT][WLMUIVMZIMZZ~VMITMVQMOILQKPIXMZ[WVIKQ~VKWUWXIZ\MIY]uT[MO]QZn
[QMVLW\MZKMZWITUMVW[PI[\IY]MM[ILMKQ[Q~VR]LQKQITVW[MIZM^WKILIXWZW\ZIY]MI[yTW
declare.

1.14.2 La capacidad para ser parte: concepto y determinación:

4I KIXIKQLIL XIZI [MZ XIZ\M QUXTQKI TI IX\Q\]L W XW[QJQTQLIL LM ]VI XMZ[WVI XIZI [MZ
ZMKWVWKQLI KWUW []RM\W IT Y]M ]V XZWKM[W X]MLM ^QVK]TIZ MV [] LM[IZZWTTW a ZM[]T\ILW# M[

69
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

LMKQZ]VIXMZ[WVIK]aW[LMZMKPW[WQV\MZM[M[TMOy\QUW[X]MLMV[MZUI\MZQILM]VXTMQ\WY]M
X]MLMIK\]IZLMV\ZWLMTXZWKM[WXIZI[]KWV[QO]QMV\MLMNMV[IaITY]MINMK\IZnTIKW[IR]bOILI
XZWL]KQLIMVMTUQ[UW

-VXZQVKQXQWM[\IKI\MOWZyIMVOTWJII\WLIXMZ[WVINy[QKIVI\]ZITaI\WLIXMZ[WVIR]ZyLQKI
Y]M X]MLIV [MZ ZMKWVWKQLI[ KWUW \IT XWZ MT WZLMVIUQMV\W R]ZyLQKW ;QV MUJIZOW a KWUW
IPWZI^MZMUW[MTV]M^W+~LQOWPII^IVbILWUn[ITTnLMM[\IMTMUMV\ITKTI[QÅKIKQ~VKWVMT
ÅVLMW\WZOIZTIXW[QJQTQLILLM[MZ[]RM\WR]LQKQITUMV\M\]\MTIJTMIY]QMVM[[QVK]UXTQZKWVMT
M[\I\]\WR]ZyLQKWVMKM[IZQWKWUXZMVLMV]VIZMITQLILP]UIVIWR]ZyLQKIY]M[MKWV[\Q\]aMMV
N]MV\MLMLMZMKPW[aWJTQOIKQWVM[K]aIXZW\MKKQ~V[MKWV[QLMZIVWX]MLMY]MLIZITUIZOMVLMT
WZLMVIUQMV\WXZWKM[IT-TIZ\ MV]UMZIMV\WVKM[TITQ[\ILMY]QMVM[X]MLMV\MVMZKIXIKQLIL
XIZI[MZXIZ\MMVMTY]MMVKWV\ZIUW[V]M^W[[]X]M[\W[PI[\IIPWZIQVuLQ\W["

1.14.2.1 Las personas físicas:

<IV\WMVM[\MKI[WKWUWMVMTLMTI[XMZ[WVI[R]ZyLQKI[[MOƒVLQZMUW[T]MOWTIKIXIKQLIL
XIZI [MZ XIZ\M [M QLMV\QÅKI KWV TI XZWXQI XMZ[WVITQLIL KQ^QT LM UIVMZI Y]M [Q [M K]UXTMV
TW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ M[\IJTMKQLW[ XWZ TI TMa XIZI [MZ \MVQLW KWUW XMZ[WVI Ny[QKI WJ\MVLZn
I]\WUn\QKIUMV\M\IUJQuVTIIX\Q\]LXIZI[MZ[]RM\WLM]VXZWKM[WKWVNWZUMIT +8+5
4IZM[X]M[\IIM[\MZM[XMK\WTIWNZMKMMTIZ\QVK£+V;MOƒVMTK]IT[MZMKWVWKMKWUW
XMZ[WVIP]UIVII\WLW[MZP]UIVWLM[LMMTQV[\IV\MLMTIKWVKMXKQ~VVWWJ[\IV\MY]MMTIZ\
++LWVLM[M^QVK]TITIILY]Q[QKQ~VLMTIXMZ[WVITQLILKWVMTVIKQUQMV\WaTI[MXIZIKQ~V
LMTKTI][\ZWUI\MZVWLMTZMKQuVVIKQLWM[\IVLW^Q^W

)T UQ[UW \QMUXW PIJZn LM M[\IZ[M I TI[ LQ[XW[QKQWVM[ LMT LMZMKPW KWUƒV XIZI TI
LM\MZUQVIKQ~VLMTÅVLMTI^QLIP]UIVIIZ\[a[[aKWVMTTWLMTIKWVLQKQ~VLMXIZ\M
XWZ Y]QMV XZM^QIUMV\M TI PIJyI ILY]QZQLW MV ]V XZWKM[W -V M[M UWUMV\W [M XWVLZn MV
UIZKPIMTUMKIVQ[UWLMTI[]KM[Q~VXZWKM[ITIZ\[  +8+5[IT^WY]MVWPIaIVILQM
Y]M[W[\MVOI[]XW[QKQ~VY]MM[LQ[\QV\WIY]M[QMVLWTTIUILW[VWKWUXIZMbKIVLIVLWXQM
I[]IZKPQ^WIZ\ 

1.14.2.3 El concebido no nacido, para todos los efectos que le sean


favorables:

6WX]MLMWJ^QIZ[MMTPMKPWMV[MO]VLWT]OIZLMY]MMTXZWXQWWZLMVIUQMV\WKQ^QTZMKWVWKM
LM\MZUQVILW[ JMVMÅKQW[ IT nasciturus W KWVKMJQLW VW VIKQLW IV\M TI KWVLQKQ~V [][XMV[Q^I
LM [] VIKQUQMV\W N]\]ZW )[y WK]ZZM XWZ MRMUXTW IT W\WZOnZ[MTM LMZMKPW[ XIZI []KMLMZ XWZ
\ZIV[UQ[Q~V IZ\ ! MV ZMTIKQ~V KWV MT !  ++ XMZW \IUJQuV XIZI Y]M MT R]Mb KQ^QT
ILWX\MM`IZ\++K]ITY]QMZUMLQLIY]M[MMV\QMVLIVMKM[IZQIXIZIXZM[MZ^IZ[][IT]LM
QV\MOZQLILNy[QKIUQMV\ZI[[MLM[IZZWTTIMVMTKTI][\ZWUI\MZVWa\IUJQuVXIZIXZW\MOMZ[][
M`XMK\I\Q^I[XI\ZQUWVQITM[

 ) K]aW \MVWZ" ¹4I TMa XZW\MOM TI ^QLI LMT Y]M M[\n XWZ VIKMZ -T 2]Mb MV KWV[MK]MVKQI \WUIZn I XM\QKQ~V LM
K]ITY]QMZIXMZ[WVIWLMWÅKQW\WLI[TI[XZW^QLMVKQI[Y]MTMXIZMbKIVKWV^MVQMV\M[XIZIXZW\MOMZTIM`Q[\MVKQILMT
VWVIKQLW[QMUXZMY]MKZMIY]MLMITOƒVUWLWXMTQOZIº

70
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

)V\M M[\I ZMITQLIL ZM[]T\I XTI][QJTM TI [WT]KQ~V TMOQ[TI\Q^I LM I\ZQJ]QZTM KIXIKQLIL XZWKM[IT
al nasciturusXIZIY]MX]MLIVLMNMVLMZ[MNZWV\ITUMV\M[][LMZMKPW[MQV\MZM[M[TMOy\QUW[[QV
XMZR]QKQWLMY]MM^QLMV\MUMV\M\MVLZnY]MQV\MOZIZ[M[]KIXIKQLILLMWJZIZMVMTXZWKM[WXWZ
Y]QMVM[X]MLMVIK\]IZMV[]VWUJZM

4II\ZQJ]KQ~VLMTIKIXIKQLILXIZI[MZXIZ\MLMTnasciturus[MIV]LIITI^QOMVKQILMTPMKPW
Y]MTMLI[MV\QLWKWUWM[TIKWV\QV]IKQ~VLMTMUJIZIbWPI[\IY]M[MXZWL]KMÅVITUMV\MMT
VIKQUQMV\W;QM[\IM`XMK\I\Q^I[M^MNZ][\ZILIKWV[]U]MZ\ML]ZIV\MTIOM[\IKQ~VVWPIJZyI
ITKIVbILWTIXMZ[WVITQLILKQ^QTM`QOQLIIZ\QVÅVM++aM[W\IUJQuVZMXMZK]\QZyIMV]VI
I][MVKQILMTIKIXIKQLILXIZI[MZXIZ\MY]MTTM^IZyIITIZKPQ^WLMTXZWKM[WaIIJQMZ\WM`IZ\
 +8+5WIQUXMLQZY]Mu[\M[MQVKWM[QVWPI[QLWILUQ\QLII\ZnUQ\MTILMUIVLIIƒV

)PWZIJQMVKWUW^MyIUW[MTIZ\ LMT+~LQOWM`XZM[IUMV\M[M}ITIY]MTIKIXIKQLILXIZI
[MZXIZ\MLMTKWVKMJQLWVWVIKQLW[~TWX]MLM[MZTWMVMRMZKQKQWLMIKKQWVM[LML]KQLI[¹XIZI
\WLW[TW[MNMK\W[Y]MTM[MIVNI^WZIJTM[ºM[LMKQZY]M[M\ZI\MLMZMKTIUIZLMZMKPW[[]JRM\Q^W[W
M`XMK\I\Q^I[LMLMZMKPW[#VWWJTQOIKQWVM[VQTILMKTIZIKQ~VLMXuZLQLIWM`\QVKQ~VLMLMZMKPW[

-TKWV\MVQLWLMTIXZM\MV[Q~VLM\MZUQVII[]^MbY]MMTnasciturus está llamado a asumir la


XW[QKQ~VLMXIZ\MIK\WZIMVMTXZWKM[WVWTILMLMUIVLILWXWZY]MM[\WƒT\QUW[]XWVLZyI
TI NWZUITQbIKQ~V LM ]VI LMUIVLI MV [] KWV\ZI KWV MT ÅV LM Y]M [M LQK\M ]VI [MV\MVKQI
LMVMOI\WZQIWXMZR]LQKQITXIZI[][LMZMKPW[MQV\MZM[M[TMOy\QUW[aMV\ITKI[WTIUQ[UIVW[M
X]MLMIKMX\IZXWZY]MVWPIJZyIXIZ\MVWX]MLM[MZTWMTnasciturus6Q[QY]QMZITIXW[QJQTQLIL
LM XTIV\MIZ T]MOW ]VI ZMKWV^MVKQ~V I NI^WZ LMT nasciturus LMUIVLILW XWLZyI R][\QÅKIZ TI
ILUQ[Q~V I \ZnUQ\M LM ]VI LMUIVLI QVQKQIT MV [] KWV\ZI0IJZn Y]M M[XMZIZ [Q IKI[W IT
VIKQUQMV\WLMu[\MXIZIY]MaIX]MLI[MZXIZ\MI\WLW[TW[MNMK\W[NI^WZIJTM[aLM[NI^WZIJTM[
no sólo como actor sino también como demandado.

1.14.2.3 Las personas jurídicas:

+WVNWZUM IV\QKQXIUW[ IV\M[ TI K]ITQLIL LM XIZ\M MV M[\M KI[W PI LM ^MVQZ LILI XWZ TI
IKZMLQ\IKQ~V LM TW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ Y]M M[\IJTMKM TI TMOQ[TIKQ~V [][\IV\Q^I XIZI [] VIKQUQMV\W
XMZ[WVITQLIL R]ZyLQKI LMV\ZW LM ITO]VI LM TI[ UWLITQLILM[ ZMO]TILI[ MV LMZMKPW XƒJTQKW
~ZOIVW[LMTI[)LUQVQ[\ZIKQWVM[XƒJTQKI[KWZXWZIKQWVM[N]VLIKQWVM[WMVLMZMKPWXZQ^ILW
I[WKQIKQWVM[KQ^QTM[[WKQMLILM[LMZM[XWV[IJQTQLILTQUQ\ILIWIV~VQUIUMZKIV\QTM[M\KM[\I[
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el ordenamiento material.

1.14.2.4 Las masas patrimoniales o los patrimonios separados que carezcan


transitoriamente de titular:

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anterior.

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1.14.2.5 En calidad de demandadas las uniones y entidades que, sin haber


cumplido los requisitos legalmente establecidos para constituirse en
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75
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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1.14.3.2 Por el concebido no nacido:

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IK\]IZyIMVLMNMV[ILM[][LMZMKPW[TI8ZWK]ZIL]ZyI/MVMZITLMTI:MXƒJTQKI

1.14.3.3 En las personas jurídicas:

5MLQIV\MTIIXWZ\IKQ~VLWK]UMV\ITR]V\WKWVMTM[KZQ\WLMLMUIVLIWLMKWV\M[\IKQ~VY]M
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76
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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absoluta de un matrimonio.

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1.14.3.4 Por las masas patrimoniales o los patrimonios separados que


carezcan transitoriamente de titular:

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77
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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1.14.3.5 Por las uniones y entidades sin personalidad jurídicas:

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1.14.4 Tratamiento procesal de la falta de capacidad:

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78
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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entidad.

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79
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1.14.5 La legitimación:

1.14.5.1 Concepto y clases:

1.14.5.2 Concepto:

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1.14.5.2 Clases:

1.14.5.2 Legitimación directa:

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82
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Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.14.5.2.2 Legitimación indirecta:

1.14.5.2.3 Concepto y supuestos:

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1.14.5.2.4 Acción subrogatoria:

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1.14.5.2.5 Tutela de intereses colectivos y difusos: consumidores

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de los consumidores tutelados.

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1.14.5.2.6 Tutela de derechos de propiedad intelectual:

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87
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88
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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89
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

Juan Carlos Cabañas García

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90
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1.14.6.1 Las formas de acreditación: el poder:

1.14.6.1.1 Formas de otorgamiento:

1.14.6.1.1.1 Poder general:

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91
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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1.14.6.2 Aceptación del poder:

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1.14.6.3 Delegación:

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1.14.6.4 Terminación de la representación:

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93
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.14.6.5 Causas que conciernen al poderdante:

I :M^WKIKQ~VM`XZM[IW\nKQ\ILMTXWLMZ

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si tiene conocimiento de ello.

1.14.6.6 Causas que conciernen al procurador:

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94
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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1.14.7 Por causas de naturaleza objetiva:

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95
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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[MZI[yPIJZnY]MM[\IZIM[INMKPIK]aWK]UXTQUQMV\WWJTQOIZnWJQMVIZI\QÅKIZITUQ[UW
XZWK]ZILWZMVTWY]MZM[\MLMKWV\QMVLIUMLQIV\MV]M^WXWLMZWITILM[QOVIKQ~VLMW\ZW
XZWNM[QWVIT

1.4.8 Representación sin mandato:

+WUW]VIXZWTWVOIKQ~VITnUJQ\WLMTIZMXZM[MV\IKQ~VaLMNMV[IR]LQKQITLMTIÅO]ZILM
TIOM[\Q~VLMVMOWKQW[IRMVW[^MZIZ\[a[[++MTV]M^W+~LQOWXMZUQ\MLMUIVMZI
M`KMXKQWVITaKWVLQKQWVILITIIK\]IKQ~VLM]VXZWK]ZILWZKIZMV\MLMXWLMZaXWZ\IV\WLM
I]\WZQbIKQ~VXIZIIK\]IZMVR]QKQWMVVWUJZMLMW\ZWK]aILMNMV[ILMLMZMKPW[MQV\MZM[M[VW
PIaIXWLQLWKWVÅIZ[MVQILQKPWIJWOILWVQIW\ZWaM`Q[\IVUW\Q^W[LMN]MZbIUIaWZY]M
R][\QÅY]MVM[IQV\MZ^MVKQ~VWÅKQW[I

)M[\MZM[XMK\WMTIZ\+8+5PIJTILMT[]X]M[\WLMY]MTIXMZ[WVILMNMVLQLI¹[MMVK]MV\ZM
QUXMLQLILMPIKMZTWXWZ[yUQ[UIM[\]^QMZII][MV\MLMTXIy[\MVOIZIbWVM[LMN]VLILW\MUWZ
WIUMVIbIWK]IVLW[M\ZI\MLM]VI[Q\]IKQ~VLMMUMZOMVKQIWLMQVUQVMV\MXMTQOZWWPIaI
ITO]VIKI][IIVnTWOIa[MLM[KWVWKQMZITIM`Q[\MVKQILMZMXZM[MV\IV\MKWVXWLMZ[]ÅKQMV\Mº

+WUW X]MLM ^MZ[M [IT^W ITO]VI M`KMXKQ~V KWUW TI [Q\]IKQ~V LM I][MVKQI XWZ TW OMVMZIT
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ILMUn[[MJI[IMVTIXW\MVKQITQLILM[\WM[MVMTZQM[OWWIUMVIbILMTIXuZLQLILMTLMZMKPW
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JQMV[][KMX\QJTMLMM^MV\]ITTQ\QOQWIV\MTIY]MVW[MXZWL]KMZMIKKQ~VLMT\Q\]TIZXWZY]Mu[\M
VWX]MLMXWZITOƒVUW\Q^WLMN]MZbIUIaWZaIRMVWI[]^WT]V\IL

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TIXI[Q^I8WZ\IV\W\ZI\nVLW[MLMTLMUIVLILWWu[\MKWUXIZMKMKWVTILMJQLIXZWK]ZIW[M
TM\MVLZnXWZZMJMTLMKWVTW[MNMK\W[QVPMZMV\M[IMTTW

6WLMJMKWVN]VLQZ[MLM[LMT]MOWM[\IZMXZM[MV\IKQ~VaLMNMV[IR]LQKQIT[QVUIVLI\WLMTI
TMOQ\QUIKQ~VQVLQZMK\I

4IXZQUMZIIT]LMI]VZMY]Q[Q\WLMXW[\]TIKQ~V#TI[MO]VLII]VIUWLITQLILLMTMOQ\QUIKQ~V
XZWKM[IT )Y]uTTI V]VKI KWV^QMZ\M MV XIZ\M IT XZWK]ZILWZ MV \WLW KI[W MV ZMXZM[MV\IV\M
R]LQKQIT LMT \Q\]TIZ UI\MZQIT# u[\I W\ZI [y KWV^QMZ\M IT TMOQ\QUILW QVLQZMK\W MV XIZ\M [MOƒV
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96
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

[QO]M\MVQMVLWVMKM[QLILLMOWbIZLMZMXZM[MV\IKQ~VaLMNMV[IMVR]QKQWXW[\]TIKQ~VI\ZI^u[
LMXZWK]ZILWZIJWOILW

+WV[QLMZIVLWTWLMTQKILWLMTI[Q\]IKQ~VY]MMV^]MT^MITIZMXZM[MV\IKQ~V[QVUIVLI\WaMT
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ITQVLMNMV[W[MLQ[XWVM]V[Q[\MUIZQO]ZW[WLMKWV\ZWTLM[]^ITQLMbMTK]ITXI[IXWZXMZUQ\QZ
ITIXIZ\MKWV\ZIZQIMTM`QOQZOIZIV\yI[LMY]MMTIJWOILW^IITWKITQbIZITKTQMV\MXIZIY]Mu[\M
W\WZO]MMTLMJQLWXWLMZQVQKQITUMV\MNIT\IV\M

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4IZI\QÅKIKQ~VLMTIOM[\Q~VLMTXZWK]ZILWZXWLZnPIKMZ[MLMUIVMZIM`XZM[IM[KZQ\IW
^MZJITIV\MMT\ZQJ]VITW\nKQ\IUMV\MMVM[\M[MO]VLWKI[W[QMTQV\MZM[ILWKWUXIZMKM¹XWZ
[yWLMJQLIUMV\MZMXZM[MV\ILWaVWZMKPIKMM`XZM[IUMV\MTIIK\]IKQ~VLMTXZWK]ZILWZºTW
Y]MTITMaXWZKQMZ\WMTM^IITZIVOWLMXZM[]VKQ~VQ]ZQ[M\LMQ]ZMQV\ZIXZWKM[IT¹[MXZM[]UM
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XW[\MZQWZM[[IT^WY]M[MLMUW[\ZIZ[MY]MMTXWLMZLIV\MPQbWTIZI\QÅKIKQ~VJIRWKWIKKQ~VW
MZZWZ^QKQW[LMTI^WT]V\IL

4IZI\QÅKIKQ~VTWM[LMTIOM[\Q~VK]UXTQLIPI[\IM[MUWUMV\WXWZMTXZWK]ZILWZVWQUXTQKI
VMKM[IZQIUMV\M\IUJQuVY]M^IaIIKWV\QV]IZMVMTKIZOWXWZTWY]MZM[\ILMTXZWKM[W,MITTy
Y]MK]IVLWTITMaXZM^QMVMY]MTIZI\QÅKIKQ~V\nKQ\IX]MLMWXMZIZXWZTIKWUXIZMKMVKQILMT
XWLMZLIV\M¹LMJQLIUMV\MZMXZM[MV\ILWºVWI}ILM¹XWZLQKPWXZWK]ZILWZºX]M[MVLMÅVQ\Q^I
X]MLMMTMOQZIM[MWIW\ZWXIZITW[IK\W[XZWKM[ITM[Y]MM[\nVXWZ^MVQZ*QMVY]MMV\WVKM[
LMJMZnIXWZ\IZ[MMTXWLMZY]MIKZMLQ\MTIZMXZM[MV\IKQ~VIXIZ\QZLMM[MQV[\IV\MINI^WZLMT
UQ[UW]W\ZWXZWK]ZILWZ

4IZI\QÅKIKQ~VVWX]MLMPIKMZ[MMVK]IV\WIITO]VW[IK\W[LMTXZWKM[WaVWI\WLW[TW[
K]UXTQLW[ XWZ MT XZWK]ZILWZ VQ []RM\IZ[M TI ZI\QÅKIKQ~V I KWVLQKQ~V [][XMV[Q^I [QVW Y]M
LMJMZn NWZU]TIZ[M W LML]KQZ[M [Q M[ XWZ ^yI \nKQ\I ¹X]ZI a [QUXTMUMV\Mº IZ\  XnZZINW
K]IZ\W +8+5 ,M TW KWV\ZIZQW VW PIa ZI\QÅKIKQ~V KWUW \IT a PIJZn Y]M M[\IZ I TI
KWV[MK]MVKQILMZQ^ILILM[]LMVMOIKQ~V

 -V M[\M ƒT\QUW KI[W NIT\I LM ZI\QÅKIKQ~V LM TI OM[\Q~V XZM^u TI TMa Y]M ¹[M LMKTIZIZn
KWVKT]QLW MT XZWKM[W a [M XWLZn KWVLMVIZ IT XZWK]ZILWZ IT XIOW LM LI}W[ a XMZR]QKQW[
I[y KWUW I TI[ KW[\I[ [QMUXZM Y]M I KZQ\MZQW LMT R]Mb TI QV\MZ^MVKQ~V WÅKQW[I PIaI [QLW
UIVQÅM[\IUMV\M QVR][\QÅKILI W \MUMZIZQIº IZ\  XnZZINW \MZKMZW +8+5 0Ia X]M[ ]V
MNMK\W QVUMLQI\W a VMKM[IZQW KWUW M[ MT KQMZZM LMT XZWKMLQUQMV\W Y]M MV X]ZQLIL V]VKI
LMJQ~IJZQZ[M#aW\ZWMNMK\WKWV\QVOMV\MaMKWV~UQKWKWUWM[MTXIOWLMLI}W[aXMZR]QKQW[I

97
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

TIXIZ\MY]MN]MLMUIVLILI[QMUXZMY]MIY]MTTW[[MXZ]MJMVLMUIVMZI\IVOQJTMaMTR]Mb
ILMUn[IXZMKQMY]MMTXZWK]ZILWZIK\]~"

LMUIVMZI¹UIVQÅM[\IUMV\MQVR][\QÅKILIºX]M[MT\Q\]TIZUI\MZQIT[yM[\IJIMVKWVLQKQWVM[
LMLM[QOVIZI]VXZWK]ZILWZI]VY]MM^QLMV\MUMV\MVWIuT#W

LMUIVMZI¹UIVQÅM[\IUMV\M\MUMZIZQIºQV^WKIVLWLMZMKPW[WQV\MZM[M[TMOy\QUW[LM]V
\MZKMZWK]IVLW\ITXMZ[WVIVWM`Q[\yIWTW[Y]MVWM`Q[\yIVMZIVTW[LMZMKPW[WQV\MZM[M[MV
K]M[\Q~VWMVÅVXWZIZO]UMV\IZ]VI[Q\]IKQ~VLMZQM[OWIZ\QÅKQIT[WJZM[]XuZLQLIXIZI
R][\QÅKIZTI]ZOMVKQILM[]QV\MZ^MVKQ~V

6WXIZMKMXWZMTKWV\ZIZQWY]MX]MLI[MZKWV\QVOMV\M[QVWY]MPILMQUXWVMZ[M[QMUXZMTI
KWVLMVIMVKW[\I[[WJZMLQKPWXZWK]ZILWZMVK]IV\WXZWUW\WZLM]VIIKKQ~VY]M[MZM^MTI
XWZTWM`X]M[\WQV[W[\MVQJTMaY]MPIIZZI[\ZILWI]VIWUn[XMZ[WVI[TIXIZ\MLMUIVLILI
I\MVMZY]MJ][KIZLMNMV[IR]ZyLQKIaWXWVMZ[MITILMUIVLIQVN]VLILIUMV\MXZM[MV\ILI

1.14.9 Tratamiento procesal de la postulación:

 4I XW[\]TIKQ~V IT QO]IT Y]M TI KIXIKQLIL MV [][ LW[ UWLITQLILM[ M[ ]V XZM[]X]M[\W
[]JRM\Q^WLMTIIK\]IKQ~VLMTIXIZ\MMVMTXZWKM[WLMUWLWY]M[]I][MVKQIQUXQLMY]Mu[\I
X]MLIZMITQbIZIK\W[^nTQLW[;QTINIT\IWLMNMK\WLMXW[\]TIKQ~V[MZMÅMZMM`KT][Q^IUMV\MI]V
IK\WKWVKZM\WXWZMRMUXTWIY]MTTW[XIZITW[Y]MKWUW^MyIUW[[MZMY]QMZMXWLMZM[XMKQITMT
R]MbVWXWLZn\MVMZTW[XWZZMITQbILW[·KWVTW[MNMK\W[Y]MMTTW\MVOIXMZWMTZM[\WLMTXZWKM[W
[MZn^nTQLW[QTIXIZ\MIK\]~LMJQLIUMV\MXW[\]TILII\ZI^u[LM]VXWLMZOMVMZIT

;QXWZMTKWV\ZIZQWN]MZMM[\MƒT\QUWMTY]MNIT\IMTXWLMZOMVMZITMTXZWJTMUII\I}MI]VI
LMNMK\]W[IKWV[\Q\]KQ~VLMTIZMTIKQ~VR]ZyLQKIXZWKM[ITY]M\WZVIZyIITXZWKM[WM^MV\]ITUMV\M
I[y^MV\QTILWMVV]TW+WUWKWV[MK]MVKQI"

I ;MQUXWVMLM[LMMTXZQVKQXQWMTKWV\ZWTR]LQKQITLMWÅKQWM`\MV[QJTMI\WLWM[\ILWa
OZILWLMTIKI][IX]M[KWUW\IUJQuVPMUW[^Q[\WTIXW[\]TIKQ~VX]MLMXMZLMZ[M
LM UIVMZI [WJZM^MVQLI ,M PMKPW TI NIT\I LM XW[\]TIKQ~V LM TI XIZ\M IK\WZI aI
[MIIJ[WT]\IVW[MKWV[QOVIXWLMZITO]VWKWVTILMUIVLIKWUWZMTI\Q^IMTXWLMZ
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[MUMRIV\M[º

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X]MLI \MVMZ XWZ XIZ\M LMJQLIUMV\M KWV[\Q\]QLI [IT^W Y]M KTIZW W\WZO]M XWLMZ I
NI^WZLMW\ZWIJWOILWTWY]MKWVL]KQZnQVLMNMK\QJTMUMV\MI[MZLMKTIZILWZMJMTLM

J +IJM \IUJQuV TI LMV]VKQI I QV[\IVKQI LM XIZ\M ) M[\M ZM[XMK\W MT IZ\  XZM^u
Y]MMVTII]LQMVKQIXZMXIZI\WZQI[MZM[]MT^I[WJZMTI[M`KMXKQWVM[LMTLMUIVLILW
I\QVMV\M[ITINIT\ILMKIXIKQLILXIZI[MZXIZ\MZMXZM[MV\IKQ~VKIXIKQLILXZWKM[IT

98
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

a¹XW[\]TIKQ~Vº#TWY]MZM[]T\I\ZI[TILIJTMITIK\WLMTII]LQMVKQIXZWJI\WZQILMTR]QKQW
abreviado.

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XW[\]TIKQ~VLMTLMUIVLILWTWY]M[]XWVLZyIIJZQZ]VIK]M[\Q~VQVKQLMV\ITLMyVLWTMXZWKM[IT
IZM[WT^MZ[MOƒVTI[ZMOTI[LMTW[IZ\[a[[+8+5

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XZMKQ[MUW[[]ITKIVKM"KWUWMVXZQVKQXQWMTXZWJTMUII\I}MMVM[\W[KI[W[ITINIT\IUI\MZQIT
LMKWV[QOVIKQ~VLMTXWLMZ·[QVY]M[QVMUJIZOW[M\MVOI\WLI^yIKWV[\IVKQILM]VI^WT]V\IL
VMOI\Q^IWZMIKQILMTR][\QKQIJTMIKWVÅIZ[]ZMXZM[MV\IKQ~VILQKPWIJWOILWX]MLMPIJTIZ[M
LM]VLMNMK\W\M~ZQKIUMV\M[]J[IVIJTMMVTIUMLQLIMVY]MMTXZWNM[QWVITK]UXTILMV\ZWLMT
XTIbWY]MITMNMK\WPILMW\WZOnZ[MTMXWZMTR]MbXIZIY]M[]J[IVMaIXWZ\MMTXWLMZVMKM[IZQW

5I[ [Q \IT ZMY]MZQUQMV\W VW [M [I\Q[NIKM VW [M IK]LQZn []J[QLQIZQIUMV\M IT XZM[]V\W
ZMXZM[MV\ILW XIZI XZMO]V\IZTM [Q M[\n W VW LM IK]MZLW KWV Y]M [M PIaI LML]KQLW ]VI
XZM\MV[Q~VMV[]VWUJZM[QVWY]MLQZMK\IUMV\M[MKWV[QLMZIZnMTLMNMK\WKWUWQV[]J[IVILW
a LILW Y]M KWVKQMZVM I ]V XZM[]X]M[\W LMT XZWKM[W TTM^IZn I TI[ KWV[MK]MVKQI[ Y]M IV\M[
ÅRIUW[" KQMZZM LMT XZWKM[W [Q M[ MT IK\WZ W LMKTIZIKQ~V LM ZMJMTLyI [Q M[ MT LMUIVLILW
XWZ VW KWV\M[\IZ I TI LMUIVLI [IT^W Y]M TW PQKQMZM KWV W\ZW XZWK]ZILWZ :MK]uZLM[M MV
K]IV\WITLMUIVLILWY]M\IV\W[QMTMUXTIbIUQMV\WXIZIKWV\M[\IZ[MXZWL]KMLMUIVMZI
XMZ[WVITKWUWXWZMLQK\W[[]aIM[TIKIZOILMJ][KIZIJWOILWY]MTMZMXZM[MV\MaLMÅMVLI
XZM[MV\IVLWMTKWZZM[XWVLQMV\MM[KZQ\WLMKWV\M[\IKQ~VaR]V\WIuTMV\ZMW\ZW[LWK]UMV\W[
XZWKM[ITM[MTXWLMZVMKM[IZQWLMTXZWK]ZILWZ

.QVITUMV\MZMKWZLIZY]MMVKI[WLMÅVITQbIKQ~VIJZ]X\ILMTIZMTIKQ~VZMXZM[MV\I\Q^IXWZ
ITO]VILMTI[LQ^MZ[I[KI][I[Y]MIV\M[PMUW[IVITQbILWZM^WKIKQ~VLMTXWLMZKIL]KQLIL
KM[M ^WT]V\IZQW NITTMKQUQMV\W LMT XZWK]ZILWZ W LMT XWLMZLIV\M LMJMZnV [MO]QZ[M TI[
M[XMKQÅKIKQWVM[XZM^Q[\I[MVTITMaXIZI[]IZZMOTWMVTW[\uZUQVW[Y]MaIPMUW[M`IUQVILW
arriba.

99
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

Juan Carlos Cabañas Garcia

;=5):17"1+WVKMX\WOMVMZITLMXT]ZITQLILLMXIZ\M[114Q\Q[KWV[WZKQWVM
KM[IZQW"+WVKMX\W+TI[M["4Q\Q[KWV[WZKQWIK\Q^WVMKM[IZQW")ÎUJQ\W*
6MOI\Q^I LMT KW\Q\]TIZ UI\MZQIT I [][KZQJQZ TI LMUIVLI + ,Q[KZMXIVKQI QVQKQIT
MV\ZMTW[KWLMUIVLIV\M[4Q\Q[KWV[WZKQWXI[Q^WVMKM[IZQW"ZuOQUMV1114Q\Q[
KWV[WZKQW^WT]V\IZQW1><ZI\IUQMV\WXZWKM[ITLMTTQ\Q[KWV[WZKQW>1V\MZ^MVKQ~V
LM\MZKMZW"MTKWILa]^IV\M"+WVKMX\Wa[]X]M[\W["+WVKMX\W;]X]M[
\W[)TKIVKMLM[][IK\W[<ZI\IUQMV\WXZWKM[IT>14IQV\MZ^MVKQ~VXZW^W
KILI"+WVKMX\W)NI^WZLMTLMUIVLIV\M";]X]M[\W[<ZI\IUQMV\W
XZWKM[IT)NI^WZLMTLMUIVLILW";]X]M[\W[<ZI\IUQMV\WXZWKM[IT
>11:MXZM[MV\IKQ~VXZWKM[ITMVKI[WLMXT]ZITQLILLMXIZ\M[

1.14.10 Concepto general de pluralidad de partes:

;MPIJTILMXT]ZITQLILLMXIZ\M[K]IVLWMV]VUQ[UWXZWKM[WKWV^MZOMVLW[WUn[XMZ[WVI[
MVTIXW[QKQ~VIK\Q^ILMUIVLIV\MaWXI[Q^ILMUIVLILWLMTIZMTIKQ~VXZWKM[IT[MILM[LMMT
XZWXQWKWUQMVbWLMTIKWV\QMVLIWLMUIVMZI[WJZM^MVQLI4I[ZIbWVM[Y]MX]MLMVKWVL]KQZI
M[IXT]ZITQLILZM[]T\IVLQ^MZ[I[KWUWLQ^MZ[WX]MLM[MZMTOZILWLM^QVK]TIKQ~VLMITO]VW[LM
M[W[[]RM\W[KWVMTWJRM\WLMTXZWKM[W<WLWMTTW[MMVKIZOITITMaLMZMO]TIZTWLM\MZUQVIVLW
I[yY]M\WLW[Y]QMVM[ILY]QMZIVMTKIZnK\MZLMXIZ\MI]VY]MWZQOQVITUMV\MN]MZMV\MZKMZW[
XZWKM[ITUMV\MPIJTIVLWOWKMV[IT^WM`KMXKQWVM[LMTW[UQ[UW[XWLMZM[aWJTQOIKQWVM[

1.14.11 Litisconsorcio necesario:

1.14.11.1 Concepto:

-`Q[\MTQ\Q[KWV[WZKQWVMKM[IZQWK]IVLWMV]VXZWKM[W^IZQI[XMZ[WVI[LMJMVIXIZMKMZKWUW
IK\WZM[ W KWUW LMUIVLILW[ XIZI Y]M [M X]MLI KWV[QLMZIZ KWZZMK\IUMV\M \ZIJILI MV TW
[]JRM\Q^WTIZMTIKQ~VR]ZyLQKIXZWKM[IT;M\ZI\ILM]VI[Q\]IKQ~VLMKWVK]ZZMVKQIVMKM[IZQILM
XIZ\M[ XZW^WKILI [MOƒV []MTMV ZMKWVWKMZ TW[ WZLMVIUQMV\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ a TI R]ZQ[XZ]LMVKQI
LMTW[XIy[M[XWZY]MTIXZM\MV[Q~VLML]KQLIMVR]QKQW[MZMÅMZMI]VIZMTIKQ~VUI\MZQITY]M
LM^QVQMVLWQVLQ^Q[QJTMWQVM[KQVLQJTMXWZ[]VI\]ZITMbIQV^WT]KZII^IZQI[XMZ[WVI[WXWZY]M
MV\WLWKI[WTI[MV\MVKQIY]MPIaILMLQK\IZ[MI^QZ\]LLMTIIKKQ~VMRMZKQ\ILIKWVLQKQWVIZn
TIXZWXQI^ITQLMbLMM[IZMTIKQ~VUI\MZQITXIZI\WLW[

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XMZW [M PIJZn K]UXTQLW KWV MT LMJMZ R]LQKQIT LM [MZ KWV^WKILW[ I TI litis a Y]MLIZnV
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W XWZ MT KWV\ZIZQW MV TI LMT LMUIVLILW [M PIJTIZn KWV[QO]QMV\MUMV\M LM TQ\Q[KWV[WZKQW

100
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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+/8]Z]O]IaW!PIWX\ILWXWZLIZZMKWVWKQUQMV\WaLW\IZLMZuOQUMVXZWXQWITW[LW[I
LQNMZMVKQII[]^MbLMTI4-+M[XI}WTIY]M[MTQUQ\IMV[]IZ\IKWV\MUXTIZ[~TWMT
LMKIZnK\MZXI[Q^W>MIUW[X]M[KILI]VW"

1.14.11.2 Clases:

a. Litisconsorcio activo necesario:

- Ámbito:

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INMK\ILW[XWZMTKWVÆQK\WaY]M\QMVMVY]MZMKTIUIZ]VMNMK\WR]ZyLQKWNI^WZIJTMM[\WM[KWUW
XIZ\MIK\WZILMUIVLMVKWVR]V\IUMV\MMVMTUQ[UWXTMQ\W

+WV]VITKIVKMUn[KWVKZM\WY]MMTY]M\QMVMMVTW[XZWKM[W[LMNIUQTQIY]MLITIUQ[UI
TQUQ\ILIKWVNWZUMMTIZ\+8+5IIY]MTTI[XZM\MV[QWVM[Y]M^MZ[MV[WJZM]VIZMTIKQ~V
UI\MZQITKITQÅKILIXWZTMaKWUWQVLQ^Q[QJTMXMZ\MVMKQMV\MI^IZQI[XMZ[WVI[MV]VIUQ[UI
XW[QKQ~V¹LMUWLWY]MTI[MV\MVKQIM`\MVLMZn[][MNMK\W[I\WLI[MTTI[º

Por tanto y a contrario sensu MV TI[ ZMTIKQWVM[ UI\MZQITM[ M[\ILW[ a [Q\]IKQWVM[ R]ZyLQKI[
LQ^Q[QJTM[VWM`Q[\QZnTIKWV[QO]QMV\MM`QOMVKQILMLMUIVLIZKWVR]V\IUMV\M[MIXWZY]M[M
\ZI\MVLMZMTIKQWVM[UIVKWU]VILI[MVTIY]MKILI\Q\]TIZX]MLMZMKTIUIZXWZ[]K]W\I#[MI
Y]M [M \ZI\MV LM WJTQOIKQWVM[ [WTQLIZQI[ XWZ LQ[XW[QKQ~V LM TMa W XWZ XIK\W MV\ZM TW[ []RM\W[
aKWVK]ZZI·MVTWY]MIY]yVW[QUXWZ\IXT]ZITQLILLMIKZMMLWZM[^MZIZ\[ a[[++

-TY]MXZMKQ[IUMV\M]VWLMMTTW[X]MLIQV[\IZMTXIOW\W\ITKWV\ZIMTLM]LWZWLM]LWZM[PIKM
Y]MLM[IXIZMbKITIVMKM[QLILLMLMUIVLIKWVR]V\I

Habrá entonces litisconsorcio activo necesario:

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W[MZLMUIVLILI[MVMTUQ[UWXZWKM[W;QM[\MM[XZWUW^QLWXWZITO]VI[WKWV\ZIITO]VI[[WTIUMV\MLMMTTI[MT
R]MbWZLMVIZnTIQV\MOZIKQ~VLMTKWV\ZILQK\WZQWMV]V\uZUQVWXMZMV\WZQWXWZuTM[\IJTMKQLWº
!+WVNWZUMI[]IZ\"¹+]IVLWXWZTIVI\]ZITMbILMTIZMTIKQ~VR]ZyLQKI[][\IVKQITY]M[MIWJRM\WLMTXZWKM[WVW
X]LQMZMXZWV]VKQIZ[M[MV\MVKQIƒ\QTUMV\M[QVTIXZM[MVKQITQ\Q[KWV[WZKQWIK\Q^WWMTMUXTIbIUQMV\WTQ\Q[KWV[WZKQW
XI[Q^WLM\WLW[TW[QV\MZM[ILW[IY]uTTW[LMJMZnV\WLW[KWUXIZMKMZau[\W[LMJMZnV\WLW[[MZMUXTIbILW[MV
NWZUITMOIT
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IK\W[Y]MQUXTQY]MVLQ[XW[QKQ~VLMTLMZMKPWMVTQ\QOQW[~TW\MVLZnVMÅKIKQI[QMUIVIVLM\WLW[TW[TQ\Q[KWV[WZ\M[
AIK]aW\MVWZ"¹+]IVLWXWZZIb~VLMTWY]M[MIWJRM\WLMTR]QKQWTI\]\MTIR]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT[WTQKQ\ILI[~TWX]MLI
PIKMZ[MMNMK\Q^INZMV\MI^IZQW[[]RM\W[KWVR]V\IUMV\MKWV[QLMZILW[\WLW[MTTW[PIJZnVLM[MZLMUIVLILW[KWUW
TQ\Q[KWV[WZ\M[[IT^WY]MTITMaLQ[XWVOIM`XZM[IUMV\MW\ZIKW[Iº
,WVLMM[\nXZM^Q[\WXWZMTIZ\48.XIZI\WLW[TW[KI[W[MVY]M"¹+]IVLWMVZIb~VLMTWJRM\WLMTIXZM\MV[Q~VTI
[MV\MVKQIINMK\MLQZMK\IUMV\MI^IZQI[XMZ[WVI[u[\I[LMJMVLMUIVLIZW[MZLMUIVLILI[MVMTUQ[UWXZWKM[Wº
 )XTQKIVLWM[\MLQ[XW[Q\Q^WXWZMRMUXTWI]VKI[WLM\]\WZyIKWVR]V\ILM]VUMVWZLMMLIL^MZTI;MV\MVKQILMTI
;ITILMTW+Q^QTLMTI+WZ\M;]XZMUILM2][\QKQILMLMLQKQMUJZMLMLQK\ILIITI[!PWZI[ZMN


101
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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M[\I[WJTQOIKQWVM[

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W^IZQW[LMTW[KWU]VMZW[Y]MQVK]UXTQMZMVKWV[][KIZOI[aWJTQOIKQWVM[Y]QMVM[I[]UQZnV
MTXIXMTLMLMUIVLILW[

- Negativa del cotitular material, a suscribir la demanda:

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MV PIKMZTW 8MZW TW KQMZ\W M[ Y]M XWLZyI WK]ZZQZ Y]M ITO]VW LMTW[ \Q\]TIZM[ LMT LMZMKPW MV
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ZMKTIUIKQ~VR]LQKQITXWZTIUW\Q^IKQ~VY]MN]MZMXWZY]MVWLM[MIXI[IZXWZTI[^QKQ[Q\]LM[LM
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KI][IZ]VXMZR]QKQWXMZ[WVITITLMUIVLILWM\K§9]uWK]ZZMMV\WVKM['"

)V\M\WLWVWX]MLMWJTQOIZ[MIY]QMVVWY]QMZMI\MVMZY]M[][KZQJQZ]VILMUIVLIXWZ
U]KPW Y]M M`Q[\IV W\ZI[ XMZ[WVI[ INMK\ILI[ ;MUMRIV\M KWMZKQ~V ZM[]T\IZyI I \WLI[ T]KM[
QVKWV[\Q\]KQWVITaLM[LMT]MOWMT+8+5VWXZM^uVQVO]VIKWUX]T[Q~VXIZITWOZIZTW

)[y Y]M [Q MT M[KZQ\W LM LMUIVLI IXIZMKM KWV MT VWUJZM LM \WLW[ M[ XWZY]M \WLW[ PIV
UIVQNM[\ILW[]^WT]V\ILLMPIKMZTWaI[yXWZ\IV\WPIJZnV\MVQLW\IUJQuV\WLW[Y]MW\WZOIZ
XWLMZWXWLMZM[X]M[X]MLMVPIKMZ[M^IZQW[XWZ[MXIZILWITXZWK]ZILWZWXZWK]ZILWZM[Y]M
PIV LMZMXZM[MV\IZTW[;QITO]VWLMTW[ IK\WZM[ VWPIW\WZOILWXWLMZa I]V I[y[]VWUJZM
ÅO]ZI MV\ZM TW[ KWLMUIVLIV\M[ MT R]Mb VW X]MLM ZMX]\IZ KWZZMK\IUMV\M KWV[\Q\]QLI TI
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XZM\MV[Q~VXI\MV\MUMV\MLM[^QZ\]ILIXWZTW[PMKPW[

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QVK]ZZM MV ]VI M[XMKQM LM IJ][W LM LMZMKPW XZWKM[IT KMZZIVLW TI[ XW[QJQTQLILM[ LM \]\MTI
R]ZQ[LQKKQWVITLMTW[KW\Q\]TIZM[UI\MZQITM[TWY]MZM[]T\IQO]ITUMV\MIV\QR]ZyLQKW

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MT [MV\QLW KWUW UyVQUW LM Y]M [MIV NWZUITUMV\M TTIUILW[ IT UQ[UW a LM Y]M XWZ \IV\W
X]MLIV IK\]IZ MV uT a ^MZ[M ZMXMZK]\QLW[ XWZ TI[ KWV[MK]MVKQI[ Y]M LMXIZM TI KWUXW[QKQ~V
R]LQKQIT LMT KWVÆQK\W TI VMOI\Q^I MV LMÅVQ\Q^I LM ]VW LM TW[ KW\Q\]TIZM[ UI\MZQITM[ XIZI
LMUIVLIZ X]MLM [WT^MV\IZ[M LM[QOVnVLWTM NWZUITUMV\M KWUW XIZ\M KWLMUIVLILI ) \IT
MNMK\W[MVIZZIZnMVMTM[KZQ\WLMLMUIVLITIIK\Q\]LWJ[\Z]KKQWVQ[\IUW[\ZILIXZM^QIUMV\M
XWZ MT KW\Q\]TIZ LQ[QLMV\M MV\WZXMKQMVLW [QV UW\Q^W R][\QÅKILW MT MRMZKQKQW KWVR]V\W LM TI

102
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

IKKQ~VaTI[OM[\QWVM[·IKZMLQ\IJTM[LMTW[LMUn[XIZIY]MKIUJQIZILMWXQVQ~V[QVu`Q\W
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ITK]UXTQUQMV\WLMTIXZM[\IKQ~VWKWVL]K\IY]M[MZMKTIUIXMZW[yKWUWWJTQOILWIM[\IZ
a XI[IZ XWZ TW[ XZWV]VKQIUQMV\W[ Y]M MNMK\ƒM TI [MV\MVKQI LMÅVQ\Q^I I NI^WZ LM Y]QMVM[
QV\MZXWVMVTILMUIVLI

- Discrepancia inicial entre los codemandantes:

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Y]u\ZI\IUQMV\WLMJMLIZ[MIY]QMVM[VWY]QMZIVNWZU]TIZLMUIVLI[MXZM[MV\I]V[MO]VLW
XZWJTMUI a M[ LM\MZUQVIZ [Q TW[ QV\MZM[ILW[ MV LMUIVLIZ PIV LM PIKMZTW I \ZI^u[ LM ]VI
UQ[UIM[\ZI\MOQIR]ZyLQKI4IT~OQKIQVLQKIY]M[yXMZWVWX]MLMXZM[KQVLQZ[MLMTPMKPWLM
Y]MY]QbnI]VY]MTW[KW\Q\]TIZM[KWQVKQLIVMVMTWJRM\Q^WX]MLMY]MVWTWPIOIVMVMTUWLW
LMKWV[MO]QZTWVQMVMTKWV\MVQLWLMTWY]M[MKZMMLMJMM`QOQZ[M

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103
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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XnZZINW

b. Litisconsorcio pasivo necesario: régimen:

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104
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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- Presupuesto objetivo:

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105
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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- Posición pasiva o activa frente a la pretensión:

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106
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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- La solidaridad rompe el litisconsorcio, salvo en el supuesto de los arts. 76 y 78


CPCM:

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107
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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108
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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MVMT\MUILMTWJRM\WLMTXZWKM[WaTIIK]U]TIKQ~VLMXZWKM[W[IZ\+8+5

1.14.13 Tratamiento procesal del litisconsorcio:

+WUWXWLZn[]XWVMZ[MTIK]M[\Q~V^IZyI[MOƒVY]MVW[MVKWV\ZMUW[IV\M]VTQ\Q[KWV[WZKQW
VMKM[IZQWW[QUXTMUMV\M^WT]V\IZQW-VMTXZQUMZKI[WM[\nMVR]MOWTIKWZZMK\IKWV[\Q\]KQ~V
LM TI ZMTIKQ~V R]ZyLQKI XZWKM[IT MV [] I[XMK\W []JRM\Q^W a XWZ MVLM TI XZWXQI ^ITQLMb LMT
XZWKM[W

-VMT[MO]VLWLM[LMT]MOWTIKWZZMK\IIXTQKIKQ~V[QMUXZMLMTI[VWZUI[XZWKM[ITM[XMZWVW
TI[I\Q[NIKKQ~VLM]VQUXMZI\Q^W[]XMZQWZ[QVWMTMRMZKQKQWLM]VIWXKQ~VLMTIK\WZ8WZ\IV\W
aLQ[\QVO]QMVLW\MVMUW["

1.14.13.1 Cuando sea litisconsorcio necesario, tanto activo como pasivo:

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LMUIVMZIY]M[QIL^QMZ\MTIM`Q[\MVKQILMM[\IÅO]ZIaY]MMVTILMUIVLIVW^QMVMV
\WLW[TW[[]RM\W[Y]MPIVLMM[\IZMVMTXZWKM[WKWUWIK\WZM[WKWUWLMUIVLILW[
LMJMZn W\WZOIZ XTIbW XMZMV\WZQW IT IK\WZ XIZI Y]M KWZZQRI MT M[KZQ\W [W XMVI LM
LMKZM\IZ TI QUXZWXWVQJQTQLIL LM TI LMUIVLI M` IZ\  +8+5 XWZ NIT\IZ ]V
XZM[]X]M[\WM[MVKQIT[]JRM\Q^WLMTXZWKM[W

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LM TI[ KuL]TI[ MUQ\QLI[ XWZ MT *IVKW 0QXW\MKIZQW XZMKMX\W QV\MZXZM\ILW XWZ MT ,MKZM\W  LM TI )[IUJTMI
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!,MRIUW[IXIZ\MTI[M[XMKQITQLILM[ILUQVQ[\ZI\Q^I[MVUI\MZQI\ZQJ]\IZQI"^MZIZ\*LMT+<ZQ

109
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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K]MV\ITI[ZMOTI[LMTKQ\ILWIZ\

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VILIWJ[\IIY]MMTXZWXQWIK\WZ[MLQZQRIIT~ZOIVWR]LQKQITIL^QZ\QMVLWY]MM`Q[\M]V
XZWJTMUILMLMNMK\]W[WTQ\Q[KWV[WZKQWVMKM[IZQWIÅVLMY]M[MTMXMZUQ\IKWZZMOQZTI
demanda.

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110
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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1.14.13.2 Cuando sea litisconsorcio voluntario:

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X]MLMMRMZKQ\IZMTLMUIVLILWMVNWZUILMM`KMXKQ~VXZWKM[ITKWVTI[^IZQIV\M[IT
ZM[XMK\WY]MPMUW[\ZIbILWIV\M[XIZIMTTQ\Q[KWV[WZKQWVMKM[IZQW

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M[\W[KI[W[ Y]M VWM[ \IV\W aI]V XZWJTMUILM NIT\I LMTQ\Q[KWV[WZKQW[QVWR][\WIT
KWV\ZIZQW"Y]MMTTQ\Q[KWV[WZKQW^WT]V\IZQWY]M[MITMOIMVTILMUIVLIMVZMITQLIL
VWKWVK]ZZMITNIT\IZITO]VWLMTW[ZMY]Q[Q\W[LMTIZ\ +8+5aIMVTW[]JRM\Q^W
VWKWQVKQLMVTI[XIZ\M[LMLW[WUn[LMTI[XZM\MV[QWVM[LML]KQLI[aILMTWJRM\Q^W
VWM`Q[\MQLMV\QLILLMT\y\]TWWKI][ILMXMLQZ

K 6W[MLQ[XWVMVILIMVMTIZ\ MVK]IV\WITZuOQUMVLMTTQ\Q[KWV[WZ\M^WT]V\IZQW


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KWUWLMUIVLILIa[MJ][KIY]MTI[MV\MVKQI[]Z\IMNMK\W[XIZIMTTI

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Y]MZM[\MVXIZILMNMVLMZ[M

1.14.14 Intervención de tercero: el coadyuvante:

1.14.14.1 Concepto y supuestos:

1.14.14.1.1.- Concepto:

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LWK\ZQVI KWUW ¹QV\MZ^QVQMV\M ILPM[Q^Wº W Un[ UWLMZVIUMV\M KWUW ¹QV\MZ^QVQMV\Mº IZ\
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MTTW KWQVKQLMV\M W ITQVMILW KWV TI XZM\MV[Q~V Y]M [W[\QMVM TI XIZ\M IK\WZI W MV [] KI[W MT

111
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

LMUIVLILW W LQKPW LM W\ZW UWLW TI ƒVQKI UIVMZI LM Ia]LIZ KI][ITUMV\M I TWOZIZ ]V
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[][XZWXQW[QV\MZM[M[

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demandado.

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1.14.14.1.2.- Supuestos:

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KWUW XIZ\M KWILa]^IV\M VW ^QMVM XZMKMLQLI LM VQVO]VI IK\]IKQ~V LMT ~ZOIVW
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VQMNMK\W[QV\ZIXZWKM[ITM[LM\ITKWU]VQKIKQ~V

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XMZW\IVOQJTMXWZTI[ZM[]T\I[LMTTQ\QOQW"

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IZIybLMTILMUIVLIº.

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IZIybLMTILMUIVLIº

112
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

 .]MZI LMT +~LQOW 8ZWKM[IT XWLMUW[ MVKWV\ZIZ []X]M[\W[ MV Y]M [M WZLMVI IT ~ZOIVW
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IKKQ~V LMT LMUIVLILW" I[y \IV\W MV TI[ IKKQWVM[ LMT TQKMVKQI\IZQW MV UI\MZQI LM XI\MV\M[
M` IZ\[ !) !) a  481 LMJQuVLW[M LIZ \ZI[TILW LM TI LMUIVLI I Y]QMVM[ \]^QMZIV
LMZMKPW[QV[KZQ\W[WZM[]T\IZMVQVNZQVOQLW[

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TWLQ[X]M[\WMVMTIZ\!LMT+~LQOWMVK]IV\WITIVW\QÅKIKQ~VLMTIZM[WT]KQ~VLMÅVQ\Q^I
LMTXTMQ\W¹MVMTUn[JZM^MXTIbWITI[XIZ\M[y a los interesados”.

K 8WZM`KMXKQ~VaKWUWaILMRIUW[IX]V\ILWITPIJTIZLMTITMOQ\QUIKQ~VQVLQZMK\I
LM UIVMZI M`KMXKQWVIT TI KWILa]^IVKQI X]MLM [MZ^QZ XIZI XMZUQ\QZ TI MV\ZILI IT
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MTTMOQ\QUILWQVLQZMK\W[QVVMKM[QLILLMKWV\IZKWVTIXZM[MVKQIMNMK\Q^ILMLQKPW
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TIY]MIÅVLMK]MV\I[[M\ZI\I[WJZMLMZMKPW[XZWXQW[LMKQLMXMLQZ[]MV\ZILIVW
X]MLM[MZTWaIKWUWLMUIVLIV\M·ITW[]UWXWLZyIQV\MZXWVMZLMUIVLIaXMLQZ
TI IK]U]TIKQ~V LM XZWKM[W[ [QVW KWUW KWILa]^IV\M LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V LML]KQLI
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VQLMJMQUXMLQZTIXZM[MVKQILMT\Q\]TIZUI\MZQIT,MITTyY]MMT\y\]TWXZWKM[ITLM[]
TMOQ\QUIKQ~VMVM[MXMK]TQIZXMZWNIK\QJTMKI[W[MZyIMTLMKWILa]^IV\M

-V TI UQ[UI [Q\]IKQ~V [M PITTI MT \Q\]TIZ LMT LMZMKPW LM XI\MV\M MV K]IV\W I TI IKKQ~V
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WXMZR]QKQWY]MM[\n[]NZQMVLWLMUIVMZILQZMK\IMVMTOWKMaMRMZKQKQWLM[]TQKMVKQIVWXWZ
MTUMZWQV\MZu[TMOy\QUWLMLMNMVLMZMTLMZMKPWIRMVWLMIY]uT

1.14.14.2 Alcance de sus actos:

=VI^MbQLMV\QÅKILITI[QV\WVyILMT\MZKMZWKWVTIXW[\]ZILMTIK\WZWTILMTLMUIVLILWa
IKMX\ILIXWZMTR]MbTI\Q\]TIZQLILLM]VQV\MZu[TMOy\QUWXZWXQWMVK]IV\W[]INMK\IKQ~VZMÆMRI
ITI[ZM[]T\I[LMTXTMQ\WMTW\WZOIUQMV\WLMTIKWVLQKQ~VLMKWILa]^IV\MTMKWV^QMZ\MIXIZ\QZ
LMM[MX]V\WaIVWMV\MZKMZW[QVWMVXIZ\M

,MXMVLQMV\MMVWZQOMVLMW\ZIXMZWKWVQUXWZ\IV\MKIXIKQLILLMI]\WVWUyIXIZIUIVMRIZ[M
LMV\ZWLMTXZWKMLQUQMV\W[QMUXZMaK]IVLWVWMV\ZMMVKWVÆQK\WKWVTILMT\Q\]TIZWZQOQVIZQW

-TKWILa]^IV\MXWZ\IV\WLM^QMVM[QMUXZM]V\MZKMZWY]MVWW[\MV\ITIXW[QKQ~VLM[]RM\W
IK\Q^W W XI[Q^W LM TI IKKQ~V MRMZKQ\ILI MV TI LMUIVLI# a Y]QMV XWZ \IV\W VW XWLyI PIJMZ

113
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

NWZUITQbILW u[\I VQ [MZ NWZUITQbILI MV [] KWV\ZI XWZY]M [WV IK\W[ Y]M KWZZM[XWVLMV
ƒVQKIUMV\MITI[XIZ\M[WZQOQVIZQI[aY]M[QZ^MVILMUn[XIZI\ZIbIZTW[KWVÅVM[WJRM\Q^W[LMT
XTMQ\WWJRM\W[WJZMK]aILMTQUQ\IKQ~VMTKWILa]^IV\MVILIX]MLMQV\MZNMZQZ

-TIZ\ LMT+~LQOWLM\MZUQVIY]MMTKWILa]^IV\MX]MLMZMITQbIZ\WLW[TW[IK\W[LMTXZWKM[W
M`KMX\WIY]MTTW[LMTW[Y]MZM[]T\MY]MIK\ƒI¹MVKWV\ZILMTIXIZ\MITIY]MIa]LIVQCXWLZnE
ZMITQbIZIK\W[LMLQ[XW[QKQ~VLMTLMZMKPWLMu[\Iº

-VK]IV\WMTR]MbILUQ\M\MVMZTWKWUWKWILa]^IV\MXWLZnNWZU]TIZTI[ITMOIKQWVM[LMNWVLW
INI^WZLMTIK\WZWLMTLMUIVLILW[QVWTWPIPMKPWaIMVMTXZWXQWM[KZQ\WLWVLM[WTQKQ\IJI
[MTM\]^QMZIXWZKWILa]^IV\M)LMUn[[MMV\QMVLMY]MXWLZnNWZU]TIZXM\QKQWVM[LMXZ]MJI[
XMLQZTIIXMZ\]ZILMQVKQLMV\M[[QN]MZIXZWKMLMV\MaM^IK]IZ\WLW\ZnUQ\MLMI]LQMVKQIY]M
[MIIJQMZ\WITI[XIZ\MMVOMVMZIT

,MUIVMZIM`XZM[II[QUQ[UWIKTIZITITMaY]M]VI^MbZMKIyLI[MV\MVKQIMVTIQV[\IVKQIW
OZILWXZWKM[ITKWZZM[XWVLQMV\MIZ\ ƒT\QUWXnZZINWMTKWILa]^IV\MXWLZnZMK]ZZQZTI[QV
VMKM[QLILLMZMKIJIZTIKWVNWZUQLILLMITO]VWLMTW[TMOQ\QUILW[WZQOQVITM[Y]QMVM[XWLZyIV
LMPMKPWUIV\MVMZ[MQVIK\Q^W[aVWZMK]ZZQZ

1.14.14.3 Tratamiento procesal:

 .QVITUMV\M a XWZY]M M[\IUW[ PIJTIVLW LM ]VI XIZ\M UMZIUMV\M KWV\QVOMV\M VW
VMKM[IZQI LMT XZWKM[W TI ^ITQLMb LM u[\M VW XMVLM LMT KWZZMK\W TTIUIUQMV\W LMT \MZKMZW I
la litis VW M[ I[]V\W LM KWZZMK\I KWV[\Q\]KQ~V LM TI ZMTIKQ~V R]ZyLQKI XZWKM[IT [QVW Y]M TI
QVQKQI\Q^ILMXMZ[WVIKQ~VKWZZM[XWVLMITXZWXQW\MZKMZWY]QMVPIJZn\MVQLWKWVWKQUQMV\WLMT
XZWKM[WXWZW\ZI[^yI[5I[[QMVLWMTTWI[yVW[QOVQÅKIY]MMT\MZKMZWVW\MVOILMZMKPW[VQ
Y]MX]MLII\ZWXMTTIZ[M[]XW[QKQ~V

-T\MZKMZW\QMVMLMZMKPWI[MZ\MVQLWKWUWKWILa]^IV\MKWVJI[MMVMTIZ\ +8+5[QMUXZM
Y]MK]UXTIKWV[]KIZOILMITMOIZ]VQV\MZu[TMOy\QUWXZWXQWZMKWVWKQJTMKWUWZMXMZK][Q~V
WMNMK\WZMÆMRWITWY]MX]MLIZM[WT^MZTI[MV\MVKQIN]\]ZI]VQV\MZu[QVLQ^QL]ITQbIJTMaVW
IJ[\ZIK\W 6W LM^QMVM LQ[KZMKQWVIT XIZI MT R]Mb W\WZOIZTM W VW LQKPI KWVLQKQ~V LM XIZ\M
KWILa]^IV\MM[]V\MUILMM[\ZQK\ITMOITQLILI]VY]M[QVL]LI[QLQ[XWVLZnMTR]MbLMKQMZ\I
ÆM`QJQTQLILXIZIUMLQZMT[][WLQKPWQV\MZu[TMOy\QUWZMÆMRW

;MZnVWZUITUMV\M\ZI[TIKWV\M[\IKQ~VLMTILMUIVLIWKWUWUyVQUWVWIV\M[LMTI
ILUQ[Q~VI\ZnUQ\MLMTILMUIVLIK]IVLWMTKWILa]^IV\M]VWW^IZQW[[WTQKQ\IZnITR]Mb
Y]M [M TM \MVOI KWUW \IT KWV QLMV\QÅKIKQ~V MV [] M[KZQ\W LMT QV\MZu[ TMOy\QUW Y]M LMÅMVLM
M`XTQKIVLWX]M[K~UWaMVY]uUMLQLIIXZMKQIY]MTIN]\]ZI[MV\MVKQIX]MLMINMK\IZTM

-TIZ\ PIJTILMY]MMTR]MbMNMK\ƒM]VXZQUMZKWV\ZWTprima facieLM[][ITMOIKQWVM[Y]M


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P]JQMZILMVMOILWLMXTIVWºIJZQZn\ZnUQ\MLMITMOIKQWVM[ITI[XIZ\M[aIXMZ[WVILI[XIZI
Y]Mu[\I[X]MLIVWXQVIZ[WJZMTI[WTQKQ\]LLMKWILa]^IVKQILMT\MZKMZWaKWVIZZMOTWIMTTW
XZW^MMZnMVLMÅVQ\Q^I[WJZM[][WTQKQ\]L

114
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

=VI^MbILUQ\QLI[]XZM[MVKQIKWUWKWILa]^IV\MLMJMZnM^IK]IZTI[ITMOIKQWVM[LM
NWVLWINI^WZLMTIXW[\]ZILMTIK\WZWLMTLMUIVLILW[QM[Y]MVWM[\IJIVKWV\MVQLI[MVMT
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XIZ\M[ aI XMZ[WVILI[ IK\WZ a LMUIVLILW[ WZQOQVITM[ a M^MV\]ITUMV\M W\ZW[ KWILa]^IV\M[
Un[ IV\QO]W[ XWZ XTIbW LM \ZM[ LyI[ KWVNWZUM IT IZ\  XnZZINW [MO]VLW XIZI Y]M \WLI[
MTTI[ X]MLIV XZWV]VKQIZ[M [WJZM M[I[ ITMOIKQWVM[ XIZI MV\MVLMZVW[" ]V [MO]VLW \ZnUQ\M
LM I]LQMVKQI X]M[ aI \]^QMZWV ]VW XIZI XZWV]VKQIZ[M [WJZM [Q [M TM XMZUQ\yI TI MV\ZILI IT
coadyuvante en la litis-VLMÅVQ\Q^IXIZIY]MX]MLIVI\IKIZWITIQV^MZ[IZMNWZbIZaITIJIZ
TITyVMILMLMNMV[IY]MPI^MVQLWI[W[\MVMZMTKWILa]^IV\M

1.14.15 La intervención provocada:

1.14.15.1 Concepto:

 4I QV\MZ^MVKQ~V XZW^WKILI []XWVM TI MV\ZILI LM ]V \MZKMZW MV ]V XZWKM[W I
ZMY]MZQUQMV\WLM]VILMTI[XIZ\M[KWVMTLWJTMXZWX~[Q\WLMKWV\ZQJ]QZITILMNMV[ILM[]
XZM\MV[Q~V a I Y]M TI [MV\MVKQI LMÅVQ\Q^I ^QVK]TM IT \MZKMZW [Q JQMV KWV MNMK\W[ TQUQ\ILW[
+WUXIZ\MTIQV\MZ^MVKQ~VXZW^WKILIKWVTIÅO]ZILMTIKWILa]^IVKQI]VXZM[]X]M[\WKWUƒV"
MT JMVMÅKQW Y]M X]MLM XIZI MT LMUIVLIV\M W LMT LMUIVLILW MT Y]M IK\ƒM ]V \MZKMZW MV
ZMN]MZbWLM[]XW[QKQ~V,QÅMZM[QVMUJIZOWLMIY]uTTIMVK]I\ZW\ZM[M[MVKQITM["

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[] QV\MZ^MVKQ~V [QMVLW []aW MT QV\MZu[ XWZ Y]M KWUXIZMbKI LM \IT UIVMZI Y]M M[ TI XIZ\M
Y]QMV [M LQZQOM IT R]Mb [WTQKQ\IVLW MT TTIUIUQMV\W LMT \MZKMZW Y]QMV I [] ^Mb XW[QJTMUMV\M
VILI[MXIPI[\IM[MUWUMV\WLMTXZWKM[WQVKWILW)TIQV^MZ[IX]M[LMKWUWWK]ZZMMVTI
KWILa]^IVKQILWVLMM[MT\MZKMZWY]QMV[WTQKQ\I[MTM\MVOIKWUWXIZ\M

-V[MO]VLWT]OIZUQMV\ZI[Y]MMVTIKWILa]^IVKQITIIK\]IKQ~VLMT\MZKMZW^QMVMQUX]T[ILI
XWZTIM`XMK\I\Q^IXIZIu[\MLMITKIVbIZMNMK\W[XW[Q\Q^W[ZMÆMRW[[QTIXIZ\MITIY]MIa]LI
^MVKM MV MT TQ\QOQW# XWZ MT KWV\ZIZQW MV TI QV\MZ^MVKQ~V XZW^WKILI TI IK\]IKQ~V LMT \MZKMZW
^ILQZQOQLIVW\IV\WITWOZIZ]VI^MV\IRI[QVWIM^Q\IZ]VXMZR]QKQWY]M[MZyIMTLMZQ^ILWLM
TI LM[M[\QUIKQ~V LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V LM IY]MT I Y]QMV ZMN]MZbI MV K]IV\W X]MLM XZW^WKIZ TI
M`QOMVKQILMWJTQOIKQWVM[Y]M\MVyIILY]QZQLI[KWVTIXIZ\MI^QZ\]LLM]VIZMTIKQ~VXZWXQI
entre ambos.

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TQ\QOQW[IaIY]MTTIW\ZIY]M]VMIT\MZKMZWKWVTIXIZ\MM`Q[\M]VVM`WKI][IT·TWY]MVW[M
LIMVTIKWILa]^IVKQITWY]MZM[]MT^ITI[MV\MVKQIZM[XMK\WLMIY]MTTIXZQUMZITIZMTIKQ~V
TQ\QOQW[IKI][IZn]VMNMK\WXW[Q\Q^WLMKW[IR]bOILIXZMR]LQKQITQLIL[WJZMM[\I[MO]VLILM
UIVMZIY]MTW[PMKPW[aLMZMKPW[aIM[\I\]QLW[IY]yVWXWLZnVZM^Q[IZ[MVQ^WT^MZ[MILMJI\QZ
MV\ZMIUJW[MVTIPQX~\M[Q[LM]V]T\MZQWZXZWKM[WLM]VWKWV\ZIMTW\ZW)M[\MZM[XMK\WIZ\
XnZZINW[MO]VLWLMT+8+5LMTY]MaIPQKQUW[KQ\IITPIJTIZLMTIKWILa]^IVKQI

8WZW\ZWTILWM`Q[\M]VI[XMK\W[][\IVKQITY]M[MXIZITW[KI[W[LMQV\MZ^MVKQ~VXZW^WKILI
Y]MIPWZI^MZMUW[aIY]MTTW[W\ZW[LWVLMTITMaWZLMVIVW\QÅKIZIT\MZKMZWTIILUQ[Q~VLMTI

115
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

LMUIVLIXWZ[QZM[]T\ILM[]QV\MZu[XMZ[WVIZ[MMVMTXZWKM[W^MZIZ\XnZZINW[MO]VLW
+8+5#IZ\[!)!)a481"MVIY]uTTW[QV\MZ^MVKQ~VXZW^WKILIMT\MZKMZWY]MLI
^QVK]TILWXWZTW[MNMK\W[LMTI[MV\MVKQIKWUXIZMbKIWVWKWUXIZMbKIX]M[[]TTIUIUQMV\W
XMZ[QO]MXZMKQ[IUMV\MKWV[\Q\]QZM[M^yVK]TWR]LQKQIT\IUJQuVXIZIuT

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·TILMKWUXIZMKMZaLM[IK\Q^ITIXW[QJQTQLILLMQVLMNMV[Q~VIT\MZKMZWQV\MZM[ILWY]QMVT]MOW
VWXWLZnXMLQZTIV]TQLILLMTR]QKQWXWZVWIL^MZ\yZ[MTMLM[]XMVLMVKQIXMZWVILIUn[

)UMVW[Y]MMT\MZKMZWLu^WT]V\IZQIUMV\MMTXI[WaXQLIY]M[MTM\MVOIKWUWKWILa]^IV\M
·W M^MV\]ITUMV\M KWUW TQ\Q[KWV[WZ\M [Q LMJQ~ [MZ TTIUILW KWUW XIZ\M VQVOƒV MNMK\W
^QVK]TIV\M[MMVOMVLZIZnXIZIuTKWVWKI[Q~VLMTI[MV\MVKQILMÅVQ\Q^ILQK\ILI

)KTIZILW TW Y]M IV\MKMLM ^MIUW[ MV\WVKM[ KWUW M[\n ZMO]TILI M[\I QV[\Q\]KQ~V LM TI
QV\MZ^MVKQ~VXZW^WKILI"

1.14.15.2 A favor del demandante:

1.14.15.2.1.- Supuestos:

4I QV\MZ^MVKQ~V XZW^WKILI PI LM M[\IZ XZM^Q[\I M`XZM[IUMV\M MV TI TMa LILW[ TW[ [M^MZW[
MNMK\W[Y]MXZWL]KM[WJZMITO]QMVNWZUITUMV\MIRMVWITIZMTIKQ~VKWV\ZW^MZ\QLI"IV\M\WLW
QUXWVQMVLWIT\MZKMZW]VII]\uV\QKIKIZOIXZWKM[ITKWUWM[TILMKWUXIZMKMZITITQ\Q[XIZI
KWV\ZQJ]QZITILMNMV[ILMTW\ZWMQVLQZMK\IUMV\MITI[]aIXZWXQI^QVK]TnVLWTMILMUn[KWV
TI LMKQ[Q~V Y]M [M LQK\M IXIZ\M LM \MVMZ Y]M [WXWZ\IZ TI[ KW[\I[ XZWKM[ITM[ XIOILI[ XWZ []
XZWXQILMNMV[I

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KWV[MV\QZMTTTIUIUQMV\WQVKWV\ZWTILWLM\MZKMZW[ITXZWKM[W[QVUMLQIZ^WT]V\ILXZM^QILM
TW[UQ[UW[[QVWMVTW[KI[W[XZM^Q[\W[MVTITMa)[y[MMVKIZOIVLMMVNI\QbIZTWTW[IZ\[ a
LMT+~LQOWLWVLMZM[XMK\Q^IUMV\M[M\ZI\ILMTIQV\MZ^MVKQ~VXZW^WKILI¹WLMV]VKQILM
la litisLMTLMUIVLIV\MºaTILMTLMUIVLILW

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LQZQOQMVLW[]I\MVKQ~VUn[JQMVITW[KI[W[LMQV\MZ^MVKQ~VXZW^WKILILMTLMUIVLILWKWUW
T]MOW ^MZMUW[ ;QV MUJIZOW M`Q[\MV LW[ nUJQ\W[ MV TW[ Y]M X]MLM \MVMZ ^QZ\]ITQLIL M[\I
XZQUMZI[]JM[XMKQM"

I -V MT MRMZKQKQW LM IKKQWVM[ UMZWLMKTIZI\Q^I[ K]IVLW MT \Q\]TIZ LMT LMZMKPW
[WJZM MT Y]M [IJM M`Q[\M ]V KWVÆQK\W M`\ZIR]LQKQIT \WUI TI QVQKQI\Q^I a IV\M[ LM
[MZ LMUIVLILW LML]KM uT TI LMUIVLI KWV MT ÅV LM WJ\MVMZ ]VI [MV\MVKQI Y]M
I[MO]ZM TI ^QZ\]ITQLIL LM [] LMZMKPW \ZIV[UQ\QLW XZM^QIUMV\M XWZ MT \MZKMZW IT
Y]MTTIUIMVZMN]MZbWLM[]XW[QKQ~VaXIZIY]MTM^QVK]TMMTNITTWY]M[MLQK\M8IZI

116
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

MV\MVLMZVW[[M\ZI\ILMTI[UQ[UI[PQX~\M[Q[Y]MX]MLMVLIZT]OIZITIQV\MZ^MVKQ~V
LMT LMUIVLILW XMZW LWVLM u[\M PI \WUILW IV\M[ TI QVQKQI\Q^I [QMVLW MV\WVKM[
LMUIVLIV\MLMUWLWY]MTIQV\MZ^MVKQ~VLMT\MZKMZW[MXZW^WKIXWZMTIK\WZ

J +WUW]VIKWVKZMKQ~VLMTWY]MIKIJILMLMKQZ[MXWLZyI[MZMTKI[WLM]VIIKKQ~V
LMRIK\IVKQI^MZIZ\[a£+8+5MVTIY]M[MQV[\IIT[]X]M[\WIKZMMLWZ
Y]MITIZLMILMMTTWIY]MKWVKZM\M[]ZMKTIUIKQ~VR]LQKQITKWV\ZIMTIK\WZWIY]M
KM[MMVTIW[\MV\IKQ~VLMTXZM[]V\WKZuLQ\WIK]aWÅV[MXQLMMTMUXTIbIUQMV\WLMT
tercero causante del crédito discutido.

1.14.15.2.2.- Tratamiento procesal:

I 8IZI M[\I XZQUMZI UWLITQLIL MT +~LQOW MV [] IZ\   [M}ITI Y]M [WTQKQ\ILW MT
MUXTIbIUQMV\WLMT\MZKMZWXWZMTIK\WZJQMV[MIMV[]LMUIVLIWMVW\ZWUWUMV\W
]T\MZQWZK]IVLWTITMaI[yTWLQ[XWVOI¹M`XZM[IUMV\MºLMJMZnMTR]Mb^MZQÅKIZY]M
M[\MƒT\QUWXIZMKM\MVMZ¹^yVK]TWWJTQOIKQ~VWZM[XWV[IJQTQLILZM[XMK\WLMTWJRM\W
LMT XZWKM[Wº MV MT [MV\QLW IV\M[ M`XTQKILW LM ^yVK]TW W KWVM`Q~V KI][IT KWV ]VI
[MO]VLIaLQ[\QV\IZMTIKQ~VUI\MZQITTIY]MTM]VMKWVMTIK\WZ;WJZMM[\IJI[MMT
R]MbXZW^MMZn

J 6WLQKMMTXZMKMX\WY]MLMJIM[K]KPIZ[MITI[LMUn[XIZ\M[IV\M[LMZM[WT^MZ[M·KWUW
[yTWPIKMMVTIQV\MZ^MVKQ~VIQV[\IVKQILMTLMUIVLILWTWK]ITXIZMKM\MVMZ]VI
T~OQKIM[\ZQK\IUMV\MXZWKMLQUMV\ITaM[Y]M[Q\ITKWUW[M[]XWVMTI[WTQKQ\]LLM
QV\MZ^MVKQ~VLMJMLM[XIKPIZ[MR]V\WKWVTIXZWXQIILUQ[Q~VI\ZnUQ\MLMTILMUIVLI
VW[ PITTIUW[ MV ]V UWUMV\W QVQKQIT LMT XZWKM[W MV MT Y]M [~TW M`Q[\M ]VI XIZ\M
XMZ[WVILIMTLMUIVLIV\MK]aIWXQVQ~VaI[MKWVWKMXWZTWY]MVW\QMVM[MV\QLW
consultar a nadie más.

 -[\IXZMUQ[IVWWJ[\IV\M[MKIMZn[Q[MXQLMK]IVLWTITMaXMZUQ\IMTMUXTIbIUQMV\W
MV W\ZW UWUMV\W XW[\MZQWZ I IY]MT MV MT Y]M aI [M PI XMZ[WVILWMT LMUIVLILW a
T~OQKIUMV\M[]KZQ\MZQW\IUJQuVK]MV\IVWLMUWLW^QVK]TIV\MXMZW[yXZMKMX\Q^W

K +WUWTIZMTIKQ~VUI\MZQITLMT\MZKMZWVWM[XZWXQIUMV\MTILQ[K]\QLIMVMTXTMQ\WMT
IZ\ IKTIZIY]MMT\MZKMZWQV\MZ^MVLZn¹[QVTIKITQLILLMLMUIVLILWº[QVWKWUW
\MZKMZW-[W[y]VI^MbILUQ\QLWLQ[XWVLZn¹LMTI[UQ[UI[NIK]T\ILM[LMIK\]IKQ~V
Y]MTITMaKWVKMLMITI[XIZ\M[º

 +WV]VIƒVQKIM`KMXKQ~VKTIZW"TILMVWXWLMZMRMZKMZLQ[XW[QKQ~VITO]VI[WJZMMT
WJRM\W LMT XZWKM[W LM[Q[\QUQMV\W W ZMV]VKQI MV M[\M KI[W aIY]M PIJTIUW[ LM ]V
ITQVMIUQMV\WKWVTIXIZ\MIK\WZIX]M[\ITWJRM\WVWTMXMZ\MVMKM

 4I I]\WKWUXW[QKQ~V LM^QMVM IK\W XMZ[WVITy[QUW Y]M XZW[KZQJM XIZI MT \MZKMZW MT
IZ\ QVÅVMXIZIMTKWILa]^IV\MLQ[XW[Q\Q^WY]MPILMIXTQKIZ[MIY]yXWZIVITWOyI
\IUJQuVIY]y

117
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.14.15.3 A favor del demandado:

1.14.15.3.1 Supuestos:

<IUJQuVXIZIM[\IQV\MZ^MVKQ~VXZW^WKILILMTLMUIVLILW[MZMY]QMZMY]MMT\MZKMZW\MVOI
KWV IY]uT ]V ¹^yVK]TW WJTQOIKQ~V W ZM[XWV[IJQTQLIL ZM[XMK\W LMT WJRM\W LMT XZWKM[Wº IZ\
 +8+5 KWUW IV\M[ ^MyIUW[ MV OZILW \IT LM ^MZ[M ZMXMZK]\QLW MV [] XZWXQI ZMTIKQ~V
R]ZyLQKIKWVTIY]MO]IZLIVM`WLMKI][ITQLIL-TKI[WUn[\yXQKWMVM[\IUI\MZQIM[LMTI
ZM[XWV[IJQTQLILXWZOIZIV\yI\IV\WLMTIZMITQLILLMT\y\]TWKWUWLMTMRMZKQKQWLMTLMZMKPW
Y]MMT\MZKMZW\ZIV[UQ\MITIXIZ\MLML]KQuVLW[MNZMV\MIM[\MƒT\QUW]VIIKKQ~VMVKWV\ZI
XZMKQ[IUMV\MXWZK]M[\QWVIZ[M[]^ITQLMb<ITKW[IWK]ZZM"

I -VMT[IVMIUQMV\WXWZM^QKKQ~VLMTIKW[IZMKQJQLILM]VKWPMZMLMZWIZ\!++
WTIM^QKKQ~V[]NZQLIXWZu[\MIZ\++

J -VMT[IVMIUQMV\WXWZM^QKKQ~VLMTIKW[I^MVLQLI"IZ\[a!a[[++

K -VMT[IVMIUQMV\WLMJQLWXWZMTIZZMVLILWZITIZZMVLI\IZQWMVK]IV\WITIXW[M[Q~V
LMTJQMVM^QKKQ~V"IZ\[a ++

L -VMT[IVMIUQMV\WXWZ^QKQW[WK]T\W[\IV\WLMTIKW[I^MVLQLIIKKQ~VZMLPQJQ\WZQI
LMTW[IZ\[!a[[++#KWUWLMTIKW[IIZZMVLILIIZ\++M[\MƒT\QUWKWV
IXTQKIKQ~VITnUJQ\WLMTIQV\MZ^MVKQ~VXZW^WKILI[WJZM\WLWMVTIPQX~\M[Q[LM]V
[]JIZZMVLIUQMV\WIZ\++

1.14.15.3.2 Tratamiento procesal:

I 4I[WTQKQ\]LLMY]M[M\MVOIIT\MZKMZWKWUWXIZ\MLMZQ^ILINWZbW[IPILMPIKMZTIMT
LMUIVLILWMVMTXTIbWLMTY]MLQ[XWVOIXIZIKWV\M[\IZITILMUIVLIM[LMKQZIV\M[
LM ZMITQbIZ M[\I ƒT\QUI \ZIaMVLW KWUW KWV[MK]MVKQI QVUMLQI\I TI [][XMV[Q~V LMT
KQ\ILWXTIbWXIZIKWV\M[\IZIZ\ XnZZINWXZQUMZW+8+5PI[\I\IV\W[MZM[]MT^M
sobre la entrada del tercero.

J )Y]yLM^QMVMXZMKMX\Q^WMV\WVKM[KWV[]T\IZITI[LMUn[XIZ\M[XMZ[WVILI[XWZ\ZM[
LyI[\ZI[TWK]ITMTR]MbXZW^MMZnTWY]MKWZZM[XWVLIKWVIZZMOTW[MMV\QMVLMITI
TMOITQLILaVWLQ[KZMKQWVITUMV\M,MIKKMLMZ[MITW[WTQKQ\ILW[MMUXTIbIZnIT\MZKMZW
¹MVQLuV\QKW[\uZUQVW[ITW[M[\IJTMKQLW[XIZIMTMUXTIbIUQMV\WLMTLMUIVLILWºIZ\
XnZZINW\MZKMZW+8+5aIXIZ\QZLMM[MUWUMV\WX]MLMV[]KMLMZ\ZM[KW[I["

J9]MMT\MZKMZWVWKWUXIZMbKIMVK]aWKI[WMTR]QKQW[MZMIV]LIZnaKWVMTTWMTXTIbW
LMTLMUIVLILWXIZIKWV\M[\IZITILMUIVLIY]MLIVLW^QVK]TILWMT\MZKMZWXWZTI[ZM[]T\I[
LMTXZWKM[W

J9]MMT\MZKMZWKWUXIZMbKIaXZM[MV\M[][ITMOIKQWVM[MVLMNMV[ILMTIXW[QKQ~VLMTIXIZ\M
Y]MTMPITTIUILWaMVLMNMV[ILM[]XZWXQIXW[QKQ~VIV\MTW[XZWV]VKQIUQMV\W[LMNWVLW

118
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

Y]MXWLZyIPIKMZTI[MV\MVKQI"XWZMRMUXTWXWLZnVMOIZ\MVMZVQVOƒVXIK\WLMOIZIV\yIKWV
MTLMUIVLILWXWZVWPIJMZTM\ZI[UQ\QLWMTLMZMKPWMVTQ\QOQW)XIZ\QZLMM[MUWUMV\WMT
\MZKMZWI[QUQ[UWIK\]IZnKWUW]VIXIZ\MUn[LMTXZWKM[WI]VY]MLMXMVLQMV\MLMTILMNMV[I
LMY]QMVTMPIKWV^WKILW

J9]MMT\MZKMZW[MQLMV\QÅY]MKWUWMT^MZLILMZW\Q\]TIZLMTIZMTIKQ~VUI\MZQIT-VM[\M
XMK]TQIZ KI[W a LM IK]MZLW I TW I]\WZQbILW XWZ MT IZ\  XnZZINW K]IZ\W LMT +~LQOW MT
LMUIVLILWXWLZnXMLQZY]M[M\MVOIIT\MZKMZWKWUWTI^MZLILMZIXIZ\MLMUIVLILI[ITQMVLW
uTLMTIKWV\QMVLI;QITI^Q[\ILMTWIZO]UMV\ILWMTR]MbTWIKMX\I¹[MXZWKMLMZnKWVNWZUM
ITWLQ[X]M[\WXIZITI[]KM[Q~VXZWKM[ITº^MZMXyOZINM[QO]QMV\M

K<IV\W[QMTR]MbZMKPIbITI[WTQKQ\]LLMQV\MZ^MVKQ~VKWUW[QMT\MZKMZWIK]LMaXZM[MV\I
[][ITMOIKQWVM[[MZMQVQKQIZnMTK~UX]\WXIZIMTLMUIVLILWLMTXTIbWY]MTMY]MLIJIXIZI
KWV\M[\IZTILMUIVLIK]IVLWPQbWTI[WTQKQ\]LLMTTIUIUQMV\WLMT\MZKMZW¹°MVMTXTIbWY]M
TMP]JQMZIZM[\ILW°ºM`IZ\ XnZZINWƒT\QUW+8+5

1.14.15.4 Representación procesal en caso de pluralidad de partes:

.QVITUMV\MaI]VY]MaIPMUW[\ZIyLWIV\M[IKWTIKQ~VM[\MXZMKMX\WQVLQKIZY]MMTIZ\ 
LMT+~LQOWQV\ZWL]KMTIZMOTIOMVMZITLMY]MTW[[]RM\W[Y]MIK\ƒIVJIRW]VIUQ[UIXW[QKQ~V
XZWKM[ITLMJMZnVPIKMZTWKWV]VIƒVQKIZMXZM[MV\IKQ~VaLMNMV[IIJWOILW[IT^WMVTW[KI[W[
LMTQ\Q[KWV[WZKQWNIK]T\I\Q^W·LWVLM[MXZM[]XWVMTII]\WVWUyILMM[\ZI\MOQIR]ZyLQKILMKILI
]VW I]VY]M LM[LM T]MOW [Q KWUXIZMKMV JIRW ]VI UQ[UI LMNMV[I VILI WXWVLZn MT ~ZOIVW
R]LQKQITaMVTW[LMUn[KI[W[LWVLMX]MLIMTTQ\QOIV\MIL]KQZQVLMNMV[Q~VXWZWJTQOnZ[MTMI
KWUXIZ\QZ]VI\M[Q[LMLMNMV[IKWVTIY]MLQ[KZMXI

119
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

SUCESIÓN PROCESAL

Juan Carlos Cabañas García

;=5):17"1;]KM[Q~VXZWKM[IT"KWVKMX\W11;]KM[Q~VXWZKI][ILMU]MZ\M
111;]KM[Q~VXWZ\ZIV[UQ[Q~VLMTWJRM\WTQ\QOQW[W1>;]KM[Q~VXWZLQ[WT]KQ~VLM
XMZ[WVI[R]ZyLQKI[

1.14.16 Sucesión procesal: concepto:

4I []KM[Q~V XZWKM[IT KWUXWZ\I ]V KIUJQW LM XIZ\M KWV MT ÅV LM ILIX\IZ TW[ KIUJQW[
[WJZM^MVQLW[MVTI\Q\]TIZQLILLMTIZMTIKQ~VUI\MZQITKWV\ZW^MZ\QLITMOQ\QUIKQ~VL]ZIV\MTI
\ZIUQ\IKQ~VLMTXZWKM[WMVITO]VILM[][QV[\IVKQI[TWOZIVLWI[y[]IKWUWLIKQ~VITIZMITQLIL
LMTW[PMKPW[

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\ZI\MaLMM`QUQZKWV\QV]IZKWVM[\MKIZnK\MZIY]QMVXWZMTKWV\ZIZQWPIXMZLQLWM[MVM`W
WJRM\Q^WXWZITO]VILMTI[KQZK]V[\IVKQI[Y]MKWV\MUXTIITMNMK\WTITMaaY]MIPWZI^MZMUW[

1.14.16.1 Sucesión por causa de muerte:

+]IVLWNITTMKMITO]VILMTI[XIZ\M[M[M^QLMV\MY]MMTXZWKM[WM`QOMLM\MZUQVIZ[QM`Q[\M
ITO]QMVITY]MI\ZQJ]QZTIKWVLQKQ~VLMKI][IPIJQMV\MLMY]QMV^MVyIIK\]IVLWKWUWIK\WZW
LMUIVLILWKWV^WKnVLWTMXIZIY]M[MXMZ[WVMWXZW^MaMVLWKWV]VMNMK\WKQMZ\WLMVMOIZ[M
IMTTWWVWIXIZMKMZVILQMMV[]T]OIZ

;QO]QMVLW TW ZMO]TILW MV MT IZ\  +8+5 [M XZM[]XWVM MV XZQVKQXQW Y]M XZWL]KQLW MT
NITTMKQUQMV\W LM TI XIZ\M [MZn [] []KM[WZ W []KM[WZM[ I \y\]TW ]VQ^MZ[IT W XIZ\QK]TIZ [MOƒV
MT KI[W Y]QMV I \ZI^u[ XZM^Q[QJTMUMV\M LMT XZWK]ZILWZ Y]M ^MVyI IK\]IVLW MV VWUJZM LMT
KI][IV\MQVNWZUIZnIT\ZQJ]VITLMTW[]KMLQLWa[WTQKQ\IZnIY]M[MTM\MVOIKWUWTIV]M^I
XIZ\M [MI Y]M N]MZMV VWUJZILW[ QV\MZQVIUMV\M KWUW K]ZILWZM[ LM TI PMZMVKQI MV TW[
\uZUQVW[LMTIZ\++·ITY]M[MZMUQ\MMTLQ[XW[Q\Q^WXZWKM[ITWY]MQVKT][WaIN]MZI[]
ILR]LQKI\IZQWLMÅVQ\Q^WLMXMVLMLMK]nV\W[M\IZL~MVKWU]VQKIZMTNITTMKQUQMV\WILQKPW
R]Mba[QMTXI\ZQUWVQWaIN]MZMXIZ\QLW

)[yTI[KW[I[[MWQZnXWZXTIbWLMKQVKWLyI[ITI[XIZ\M[XMZ[WVILI[\ZI[TWK]ITMT\ZQJ]VIT
IKKMLMZnITKIUJQWLMXIZ\M[QMUXZMaK]IVLWLQ[XWVOILMTW[LWK]UMV\W[VMKM[IZQW[XIZI
I]\WZQbIZTI[]KM[Q~VXZWKM[ITIZ\ £

,MTWKWV\ZIZQW[Q[MIKZMLQ\IMTPMKPWLMTNITTMKQUQMV\WXMZWVWMT\y\]TWLM[]KM[Q~VWu[\M
LM\WLW[UWLW[VWKWVKQMZVMITJQMVWLMZMKPWMVTQ\QOQWZMKPIbIZnMTKIUJQWLMXIZ\MXMZW
Y]MLIZn IJQMZ\W I [] ^Mb MT XZWJTMUI LM TI []KM[Q~V Y]M \MVLZn Y]M ZM[WT^MZ MT R]Mb KWUW
IPWZILQZMUW[

120
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

8]MLMWK]ZZQZ\IUJQuVY]M[MITIXIZ\MKWV\ZIZQITIY]M[MILMTIV\MITXZWK]ZILWZLMTI
XIZ\MWZQOQVIZQIMQVNWZUMIT\ZQJ]VITLMTPMKPWLM[]NITTMKQUQMV\WXZMKQ[IUMV\MKWVMTÅV
LMQV[\IZI[][]KM[Q~VXZWKM[ITIZ\ £-VM[\MKI[W[Q[MKWVWKMTI[]X]M[\IQLMV\QLIL
LMTW[PMZMLMZW[WTMOI\IZQW[[MKWU]VQKIZnITR]MbXIZIY]M[MTM[MUXTIKMIKWUXIZMKMZXWZ
XTIbWLMLQMbLyI[ITILQZMKKQ~VLWUQKQTQWWZM[QLMVKQIY]M[M[]UQVQ[\ZM

,MVWKWVWKMZ[ML~VLMPITTIZTW[X]MLMIK]LQZITR]MbITI[^yI[LMI^MZQO]IKQ~VY]MTMWNZMKM
MTIZ\ +8+5#Y]MLIVLW[][XMVLQLWUQMV\ZI[\IV\WMTK]Z[WLMTXZWKM[WXZQVKQXIT=VI
^MbMNMK\]ILITIKWU]VQKIKQ~Va[QTW[[]KM[WZM[ZM[XWVLMVITTTIUILWaXZM[MV\IVITMOIKQWVM[
IKMX\IVLW [] KWVLQKQ~V LM KI][IPIJQMV\M[ MT R]Mb TW[ \MVLZn XWZ \ITM[ [IT^W Y]M M`Q[\QMZMV
LI\W[Y]MQUXQLIV\MVMZXWZKQMZ\I[]KWVLQKQ~V

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TIPMZMVKQIaIKMV\MWKWU]VQKIZTWIT\ZQJ]VITY]M\MVOIR]ZQ[LQKKQ~VXIZIMTTW[][XMVLQMVLW
UQMV\ZI[ \IV\W MT XZWKMLQUQMV\W =VI ^Mb MNMK\]ILI TI LM[QOVIKQ~V LM K]ZILWZ u[\M
ZMXZM[MV\IZnITIPMZMVKQIaIKMV\MKWVTIXMZ[WVITQLILY]M\QMVMQV^M[\QLIM`IZ\[a £
+8+5ZMIV]LnVLW[MMT\ZnUQ\MLMTXZWKM[W

.QVITUMV\M[QTW[[]KM[WZM[[WVQLMV\QÅKILW[aMUXTIbILW[XMZWVWKWUXIZMKMVXWZY]MVW
Y]QMZMVVQITMOIVUW\Q^WLMN]MZbIUIaWZQUXMLQ\Q^WPIJZnY]MLQ[\QVO]QZ[Qu[\W[^MVyIVI
WK]XIZTIXW[QKQ~VLMTIK\WZWLMTLMUIVLILW

-VMT[MO]VLWKI[WTITMaM[QVM`WZIJTM"¹[MTM[LMKTIZIZnMVZMJMTLyIaMTXZWKM[W[MO]QZn[]
K]Z[WºIZ\ XnZZINWXZQUMZW[QuVLWTM[IXTQKIJTM[\WLI[TI[ZMOTI[XZWXQI[LMTIZMJMTLyI
IV\M[aLM[X]u[LMY]MZMKIQOITIKWZZM[XWVLQMV\M[MV\MVKQI

;QTWN]MZMVLMTIXIZ\MIK\WZIa[QMUXZMPIJTIVLWKTIZWM[\nLMI][MVKQI^WT]V\IZQINIT\I
LM QV\MZu[ MV TQ\QOIZ MT R]Mb LMJMZn \WUIZTW XWZ QUXMZI\Q^W TMOIT IZ\  XnZZINW [MO]VLW
+8+5KWUW]VIZMV]VKQI\nKQ\IY]MVWUMZWLM[Q[\QUQMV\WITIXZM\MV[Q~VMRMZKQ\ILIXWZ
MTKI][IV\MKWVTW[MNMK\W[QVPMZMV\M[ITIUQ[UI[WJZMTIZMV]VKQIITIIKKQ~VVW[ZMUQ\QUW[
IT\MUI[QO]QMV\MLMLQKILWIT7JRM\WLMTXZWKM[W

1.14.16.2 Sucesión por transmisión del objeto litigioso:

)M[\I[MO]VLIKI][ILM[]KM[Q~VXZWKM[IT[MZMÅMZMMTIZ\ LMT+~LQOWK]IVLWTWY]M[MI
WJRM\WLMTXZWKM[W[MP]JQMZM\ZIV[UQ\QLWWKMLQLWaMTV]M^W\Q\]TIZLMTLMZMKPWM`XZM[M[]
QV\MZu[IT~ZOIVWR]LQKQITXWZWK]XIZMVMTR]QKQWTIXW[QKQ~VLMT\ZIV[UQ\MV\M[ITQMVLWM[\M
ƒT\QUWLMTLMJI\MXZWKM[IT-VM[\W[KI[W[aLIVLWXWZ[]X]M[\WY]MTIXMZ[WVIY]MXZM[MV\I
MTM[KZQ\WLM[WTQKQ\]LWJQMVTIXZWXQIXIZ\MY]M^MVyIIK\]IVLWIXWZ\IVTILWK]UMV\IKQ~V
IKZMLQ\I\Q^ILMTPMKPWLMTI\ZIV[UQ[Q~VWKM[Q~VMTR]MbTWIKWZLIZn[QVW[MXTIV\MIWJRMKQ~V
XWZ TI XIZ\M KWV\ZIZQI IZ\  XnZZINW XZQUMZW A [Q u[\I [M XTIV\MI ¹MT R]Mb ZM[WT^MZn
KWVNWZUMILMZMKPWºKIJQMVLWMV\WVKM[LW[XW[QJQTQLILM["

121
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

I 9]M MT R]Mb IKKMLI IT KIUJQW LM XIZ\M" MV M[I \M[Q\]ZI MT []KM[WZ XZWKM[IT I[]UM
\WLWTWPMKPWPI[\IM[MUWUMV\WXWZTIXIZ\MWZQOQVIZQIQVKT]aMVLW[][ITMOIKQWVM[
LMLMNMV[I[QVY]MY]MXIXMLQZZM\ZWIKKQ~VITO]VILMI]\W[I]VY]MIXIZ\QZLMM[M
UWUMV\WT~OQKIUMV\MLQ[XWVLZnLM\WLI[TI[NIK]T\ILM[LMIK\]IKQ~VMVR]QKQWX]M[
VWM[]V\MZKMZWVQ]VKWILa]^IV\MM[TIXZWXQIXIZ\MXZQVKQXITLMTXTMQ\W,QKMTITMa
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122
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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1.14.16.3 Sucesión por disolución de personas jurídicas:

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partes en el proceso civil,4I4Ma5ILZQL

123
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.15 LA PRETENSIÓN PROCESAL

Juan Carlos Cabañas García

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124
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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1.15.2 Sus elementos:

1.15.2.1 Sujetos:

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y otro objetivo stricto sensuY]M[MLM[KWUXWVMI[]^MbMVW\ZW[LW["TIKI][ILMXMLQZaTI
solicitud de tutela o petitum.

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1.15.2.2 Causa de pedir:

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125
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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8WZXWVMZMRMUXTW[TIXZM[]VKQ~VLMU]MZ\MXWZLM[IXIZQKQ~VKWVJI[MMVTI[KQZK]V[\IVKQI[LM[KZQ\I[MVMTIZ\
++#TIXW[QJQTQLILLMKIbIZaXM[KIZMV\MZZMVW[aIO]I[ZM[XMK\Q^IUMV\MI]\WZQbILW[XWZTW[IZ\[!a[[
++#TILMKTIZIKQ~VLMQVKIXIbIZ\[!!WQVLQOVWXIZI[]KMLMZIZ\[!!I!++WQVPnJQTXIZI\M[\IZ
IZ\++WZMKQJQZITQUMV\W[XWZ^yI\M[\IUMV\IZQIIZ\++#TIM`QOMVKQII]VƒVQKWLM]LWZLM]VI
LM]LIVW[WTQLIZQIVQQVLQ^Q[QJTMMVTW[KI[W[LMTIZ\!++#TIKWV[\Q\]KQ~VLMTLM]LWZMVUWZIIZ\
++#KIZnK\MZ^QVK]TIV\MLM]VIXZWUM[ILMKWV\ZI\WIZ\++V]TQLILLMTXIOWPMKPWITIKZMMLWZIZ\
 #TIKWUXMV[IKQ~VLMKZuLQ\W[IZ\++#QVM`QOMVKQILMTIWJTQOIKQ~VLM[IVMIUQMV\WIZ\ ++#
TI[WJTQOIKQWVM[LMTUIVLIV\MIZ\! ++#KI][I[LMLQ[WT]KQ~VLMTI[[WKQMLILM[IZ\[!a ++WU#TI
M`\QVKQ~V LM]VI Y]QMJZI IZ\ ++WU# WXW[QKQ~V I ]VI IKKQ~V MRMK]\Q^I LM \y\]TW^ITWZ IZ\! ++WU#
KIL]KQLILLMTIIKKQ~VKIUJQIZQIIZ\++WU#ZM[XWV[IJQTQLILLMTJIVKWMVKI[WLMNIT[QÅKIKQ~VLMKPMY]M
IZ\  ++WU#KI][I[Y]MQUXQLMVTI[ZM[KQ[Q~VLMTKWV\ZI\WLM[MO]ZWXWZTIMV\QLILI[MO]ZILWZIIZ\
++WUM\K

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1.15.2.3 Petitum:

TIXM\QKQ~VLM\]\MTIM[\nLM\MZUQVILIXWZTIVI\]ZITMbILMTIIKKQ~VY]M[MMRMZKQ\IKWVNWZUM
TI KTI[QÅKIKQ~V IV\M[ MNMK\]ILI [Q TI [WTQKQ\]L LM LMKTIZIKQ~V LM ]V LMZMKPW ·[QV Un[ [Q
TIKWVLMVIITXIOWLM]VI[]UILMLQVMZWWITIMV\ZMOILM]VJQMVU]MJTM[QTIXM\QKQ~V
LM Y]M [M ILWX\M ]VI UMLQLI KI]\MTIZ LM MUJIZOW M\K LMJQMVLW XIZ\QK]TIZQbIZ[M MV MT
M[KZQ\W KWZZM[XWVLQMV\M LM ITMOIKQWVM[ MT JQMV R]ZyLQKW W LMZMKPW [WJZM MT Y]M [M Y]QMZM MT
XZWV]VKQIUQMV\WR]LQKQIT

-V MT MV\MVLQLW LM Y]M MT petitum ZM[]T\I LM TI M[\QUIKQ~V LM TI KI][I LM XMLQZ a LM TI
IXTQKIKQ~VLMTI[LQ[XW[QKQWVM[[][\IV\Q^I[Y]MZMO]TIVTIZMTIKQ~VUI\MZQITWMTM[\ILWR]ZyLQKW

1.15.2.4 Efectos:

4ILML]KKQ~VLM]VIXZM\MV[Q~VXZWKM[ITI\ZI^u[LMT^MPyK]TWNWZUITUMV\MM[\IJTMKQLWMVMT
+~LQOWY]MM[TILMUIVLIWTIZMKWV^MVKQ~V\ZIM]VI[MZQMLMMNMK\W[Y]M[MZMƒVMVMV\WZVW
I\ZM[KWVKMX\W[N]VLIUMV\ITM["ITITQ\Q[XMVLMVKQIY]M[MIK\Q^IKWVTIILUQ[Q~VI\ZnUQ\M
LMTILMUIVLI#JTIQVU]\IJQTQLILLMTKWVÆQK\WR]ZyLQKW]WJRM\WXZWKM[ITXTIV\MILWPI[\IMT
ÅVITLMM[IKWV\QMVLI[IT^WY]MTITMaM`XZM[IUMV\MKWV[QMV\IMTKIUJQWLMXZM\MV[Q~V en
K]aWKI[Wu[\MLMJMPIKMZ[MZM[XM\IVLWTW[TyUQ\M[LMT+8+5LMV\ZWLMTXTIbWLMIUXTQIKQ~V
LMTILMUIVLI"^MZ\MUIKWZZM[XWVLQMV\M#aK]VXZQVKQXQWLMXZMKT][Q~V[WJZMTW[MTMUMV\W[
LMTIXZM\MV[Q~VLML]KQLI

)TW[LW[XZQUMZW[NIK\WZM[IT]LMVTW[IZ\[!I!+8+5aTI[^MZMUW[KWVLM\ITTMUn[
ILMTIV\MMVMT\MUILMTI[ITMOIKQWVM[

-VK]IV\WIT\MZKMZWMTLMTIXZMKT][Q~VMV]VKQILWXWZMTIZ\!XnZZINW[MO]VLW[]XWVMTI
QUXW[QKQ~VI]VIKIZOIITIXIZ\MIK\WZIXIZIY]MXZWXWVOILMM`Q[\QZ^IZQI[\WLI[TI[KI][I[
LMXMLQZPMKPW[R]ZyLQKIUMV\MZMTM^IV\M[MV\WZVWITIXZM\MV[Q~VY]MLML]KM[QVY]MX]MLI
[QTMVKQIZITO]VILMMTTI[KWVMTÅVLM\MVMZ]VIWXKQ~VLMZMKIUJQWMV]V[MO]VLWXZWKM[W
[Q XQMZLM MT Y]M aI PI QVQKQILW 6W X]MLM" \WLW TW Y]M \MVOI Y]MITMOIZ XIZI N]VLIUMV\IZ
TIIKKQ~VMRMZKQ\ILILMJMZnPIKMZTWMVMTUWUMV\WXZWKM[ITLQ[X]M[\WXWZTITMaM[\WM[TI
LMUIVLIWZMKWV^MVKQ~V[IT^WY]M[MZMÅMZIVI¹PMKPW[\y\]TW[WKI][I[V]M^I[WLMV]M^W
KWVWKQUQMV\W Y]M X]MLMV INMK\IZ TI LMTQUQ\IKQ~V LM TI XZM\MV[Q~Vº XIZI TW K]IT LQ[XWVLZn
PI[\ITIÅVITQbIKQ~VLMTII]LQMVKQIXZMXIZI\WZQILMTXZWKM[WKWUƒVIZ\!ƒT\QUWXnZZINW
a[MMV\QMVLMY]MPI[\IMTQVQKQWLMTII]LQMVKQILMXZ]MJILMTXZWKM[WIJZM^QILW

,MT ZM[\W a N]MZI LM M[I[ M`KMXKQWVM[ \IV\W TW ITMOILW KWUW TW Y]M XWLyI ITMOIZ[M MV []
LMNMV[IMV[][\MV\WLM[]XZM\MV[Q~VY]MLIZnK]JQMZ\WXWZTIKW[IR]bOILIUI\MZQITaVWXWLZn
[MZUW\Q^WLM]VV]M^WXZWKM[W

;MOƒVMTIZ\!!++WUM[XW[QJTM[][\Q\]QZ]VIIKKQ~VLMZM[WT]KQ~VLMKWV\ZI\WXWZTILMK]UXTQUQMV\WQVQKQITUMV\M
LML]KQLII]VY]MVWITZM^u["¹-[^nTQLWMRMZKQ\IZTIIKKQ~VLMZM[WT]KQ~VKWUWKIUJQWLMIKKQ~VMVMTUQ[UW
R]QKQW MV Y]M [M PIaI LMUIVLILW MT K]UXTQUQMV\W# XMZW TI Y]M M`QRI IY]uTTI ]VI ^Mb LML]KQLI VW [M XWLZn
IJIVLWVIZXIZI[][\Q\]QZTMTILMK]UXTQUQMV\W#TILMUIVLILMZM[WT]KQ~VQUXMLQZnY]MTIXIZ\MMVUWZIX]MLI
K]UXTQZ[]WJTQOIKQ~VN]MZILM\QMUXWº

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ACUMULACIÓN DE OBJETOS PROCESALES.


ACUMULACIÓN DE PRETENSIONES

Juan Carlos Cabañas García

;=5):17" 1 4I IK]U]TIKQ~V LM WJRM\W[ XZWKM[ITM[" ÅVITQLIL a ITKIVKM" 
)K]U]TIKQ~VMVXZQUMZIQV[\IVKQI)K]U]TIKQ~VLMZMK]Z[W[)K]U]TIKQ~V
LMMRMK]KQWVM[-NMK\W[OMVMZITM[11)K]U]TIKQ~VLMXZM\MV[QWVM["+TI[M["
 )K]U]TIKQ~V UMZIUMV\M WJRM\Q^I" ) )K]U]TIKQ~V LM KI][I[ LM XMLQZ *
)K]U]TIKQ~VLMXM\QKQWVM["*)K]U]TIKQ~V[QUXTM*)K]U]TIKQ~VM^MV\]IT
W[]J[QLQIZQI+)K]U]TIKQ~VXWZUIVLI\WLMTMa)K]U]TIKQ~V[]JRM\Q^W
WJRM\Q^I8ZM\MV[QWVM[VWIK]U]TIJTM["8ZM\MV[QWVM[QVKWUXI\QJTM[
8ZM\MV[QWVM[IT\MZVI\Q^I[<ZI\IUQMV\WXZWKM[IT

/DDFXPXODFLyQGHREMHWRVSURFHVDOHVÀQDOLGDG\DOFDQFH

1.15.3.1 Acumulación en primera instancia:

4IIK]U]TIKQ~VLMWJRM\W[\QMVMXWZÅVITQLILZM]VQZ]VIXT]ZITQLILLMXZM\MV[QWVM[XZWKM[ITM[
Y]MXWLZyIVLQ[K]\QZ[MMVXZWKM[W[LQ[\QV\W[IÅVLMY]M[MIVZM[]MT\W[MV]VW[~TWLILITI
KWVM`Q~VY]MM`Q[\MMV\ZMMTTW[M^Q\IVLWI[yMTZQM[OWLMNITTW[KWV\ZILQK\WZQW[aITKIVbIVLW
LMXI[WMTIPWZZWLMTW[ZMK]Z[W[P]UIVW[aMKWV~UQKW[LQ[XWVQJTM[

4IIK]U]TIKQ~VVWM[]VXZM[]X]M[\WVQ]VQUXMZI\Q^WLMMÅKIKQIR]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT[QVW]VI
\uKVQKIWM`XMLQMV\MXWZMTY]MTITMaI]\WZQbIMT\ZI\IUQMV\WKWVR]V\WLM^IZQW[KWVÆQK\W[
R]ZyLQKW[LMV\ZWLM]VUQ[UWXZWKMLQUQMV\WXWVLMZIVLWTI[^MV\IRI[Y]MMTTWLMXIZIMVMT
[MV\QLWM`X]M[\WIZ\!

+]IVLWTW[LQ^MZ[W[WJRM\W[[MIK]U]TIVLM[LMMTXZQVKQXQWMV]VILMUIVLILIVLWT]OIZ
ITIIXMZ\]ZILM]VIƒVQKIKI][IR]LQKQIT[MPIJTIZnLMIK]U]TIKQ~VLMXZM\MV[QWVM[MVTW[
\uZUQVW[LMTW[IZ\[! a[[+8+5

;Q XWZ MT KWV\ZIZQW M[W[ LQ^MZ[W[ WJRM\W[ PIV XMZUQ\QLW aI TI IXMZ\]ZI LM LW[ W Un[
XZWKMLQUQMV\W[[MXIZILW[XWZY]MZMZTWQVQKQITUMV\MLMM[\MUWLWTIXIZ\MIK\WZIIXIZMKQMVLW
KWVXW[\MZQWZQLILMTQV\MZu[XWZZM]VQZTW[\WLW[QV\MZu[LMWÅKQWWIQV[\IVKQILMXIZ\MaITW
^MZMUW[[MM[\IZnLQ[\QV\IUMV\MIV\MTIIK]U]TIKQ~VLMXZWKM[W[ZMO]TILIMVTW[IZ\[a
[[LMT+~LQOW;MI]VI]W\ZIKWUW^MUW[TIXW[QJQTQLILLMIK]U]TIZWJRM\W[MV]VXZWKM[W
WXMZI IV\M \WLW MV TW[ XZWKM[W[ LMKTIZI\Q^W[ MV XZQUMZI QV[\IVKQI [QO]QMVLW TI[ ZMOTI[ LMT
ZuOQUMVOMVMZITY]MIPWZI[MIVITQbIZn\IV\WXIZIIK]U]TIKQ~VLMXZM\MV[QWVM[KWUWLM
XZWKM[W[

1.15.3.1.1 Acumulación de recursos:

+IJM\IUJQuVTIIK]U]TIKQ~VUn[ITTnLMTIXZQUMZIQV[\IVKQIM[\WM[MV^yILMZMK]Z[WMV
LW[[]X]M[\W[XZQVKQXITM["

128
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

I ,MV\ZW LM ]V UQ[UW XZWKM[W MV K]IV\W I TW[ LQ^MZ[W[ ZMK]Z[W[ Y]M PIaIV
NWZUITQbILWLW[WUn[LMTI[XIZ\M[XMZ[WVILI[[MMV\QMVLMIK\]IVLWKWVLQ[\QV\I
LMNMV[I a ZMXZM[MV\IKQ~V XZWKM[IT XWZY]M KILI ]VI ^MI OZI^W[I TI ZM[WT]KQ~V Y]M
QUX]OVI-VM[\MKI[WQVKT][WLMWÅKQW[MXZWKMLMZnITIIK]U]TIKQ~VMVK]IV\W
KWV[\MY]M\WLW[[MZMÅMZMVITIUQ[UIXZM\MV[Q~VaXZWKM[WIZ\!XnZZINW[MO]VLW
+8+5

J +]IVLW[MPIaIVQV\MZX]M[\WLW[WUn[ZMK]Z[W[ZM[XMK\WLMW\ZI[\IV\I[ZM[WT]KQWVM[
R]LQKQITM[ZMKIyLI[MVTQ\QOQW[Y]MWZQOQVITUMV\MXWLyIVPIJMZ[MIK]U]TILW·XWZY]M
KWVK]ZZyIVTW[ZMY]Q[Q\W[XIZIMTTWI]VY]MMV\WVKM[VW[MXQLQMZI-VM[\IPQX~\M[Q[
LM IK]U]TIKQ~V \IZLyI IXMTIKQ~V W KI[IKQ~V KWVNWZUM I TW LQ[X]M[\W MV MT IZ\
! LMT +~LQOW TW[ ZMK]Z[W[ INMK\ILW[ X]MLMV M[\IZ[M \ZIUQ\IVLW IV\M MT UQ[UW W
LQ[\QV\W[~ZOIVW[KWVKWUXM\MVKQIN]VKQWVIT

 )KZMLQ\nVLW[M Y]M M`Q[\M KWVM`Q~V MV\ZM MTTW[ MV MT [MV\QLW LMT IZ\  +8+5
Y]MT]MOW^MZMUW[KWVM`Q~VNnK\QKIWR]ZyLQKIQVKT]aMVLWMV\WLWKI[W[]XW[QJTM
XZMR]LQKQITQLIL LMJMZn LMKZM\IZ[M TI IK]U]TIKQ~V I NI^WZ LMT ZMK]Z[W QV\MZX]M[\W
MV MT XZWKM[W I [] ^Mb Un[ IV\QO]W MV TI XZQUMZI QV[\IVKQI VW MT ZMK]Z[W Y]M [M
QV\MZX][WXZQUMZW[MOƒV[MLML]KMLMTIZ\!QVÅVMMVZMTIKQ~VKWVMTIZ\!

1.15.3.1.2 Acumulación de ejecuciones:

8WZ ƒT\QUW \IUJQuV [M XMZUQ\M TI IK]U]TIKQ~V LM MRMK]KQWVM[ XMVLQMV\M[ XWZ \IV\W VW
[I\Q[NMKPI[I]V¹KWV\ZI]VUQ[UWLM]LWZMRMK]\ILWI]VY]MXMVLIVIV\MLQ[\QV\W[R]bOILW[º
IZ\!+8+5

8]MLM \ZI\IZ[M LMT UQ[UW W LQ[\QV\W[ ~ZOIVW[ R]LQKQITM[ LM \WLW[ UWLW[ TI IK]U]TIKQ~V
[M PIZn [QMUXZM IT XZWKMLQUQMV\W LM MRMK]KQ~V Un[ IV\QO]W [MOƒV TI NMKPI a PWZI LM TI
XZM[MV\IKQ~VLMTILMUIVLILMMRMK]KQ~VXWZIXTQKIKQ~VIVIT~OQKILMTIZ\LMT+~LQOW

8IZIIKWZLIZTIIK]U]TIKQ~VPIJZnY]MKITQJZIZ[QKWVMTTI[MWJ\QMVM]VMNMK\WLMMKWVWUyI
XZWKM[IT\IVOQJTM#[QM`Q[\MKWVM`Q~VNnK\QKIaMV[]KI[W\IUJQuVR]ZyLQKIMV\ZM\WLI[MTTI[a
I\MVLQMVLW \IUJQuV [QMUXZM I ¹TI UMRWZ [I\Q[NIKKQ~V LM TW[ LQ^MZ[W[ IKZMMLWZM[ MRMK]\IV\M[
IZ\!XnZZINW[MO]VLW<ITM[\ZM[NIK\WZM[KWVK]ZZMV\M[Y]MVW\QMVMVY]MLIZ[MKWVQO]IT
QV\MV[QLIL XMZW [y M[\IZ XZM[MV\M[ PIV LM IZZWRIZ MV ]VI XWVLMZIKQ~V OTWJIT Y]M TI UMRWZ
[WT]KQ~VM[IK]U]TIZaVWUIV\MVMZTI[MRMK]KQWVM[XWZ[MXIZILW-[WM[TWY]MLMJMM[OZQUQZ
MT[WTQKQ\IV\MaM[WM[TWY]MLMJM^ITWZIZMTR]MbITZM[WT^MZ[WJZMMTTW

8WZTWLMUn[UIV\MVQMVLWTIZMOTILMTIIV\QO†MLILIPyLWVLMPIaIKWU]VQLILLMMUJIZOW
MV^IZQI[LMM[I[MRMK]KQWVM[XZMKQ[ITITMaLW[KW[I["IY]M[QP]JQMZMVJQMVM[PQXW\MKILW[
WXQOVWZILW[TIIK]U]TIKQ~V[MPIZnITXZWKM[WKWVOIZIV\yIPQXW\MKIZQIWXZMVLIZQIaLM
[MZ^IZQI[[MO]IZLIZnTILMJQLIXZMNMZMVKQITMOITIZ\!XnZZINW\MZKMZWaJLMTZM[\W[M
IXTQKIZnTIUQ[UIZMOTILMTIIV\QO†MLILY]MIY]y^MVLZnLILIXWZTINMKPILMZMITQbIKQ~V
LMTXZQUMZMUJIZOWI[IT^WMT[]X]M[\WIV\MZQWZIZ\!XnZZINWK]IZ\W

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1.15.3.1.3 Efectos generales:

+WUW MNMK\W[ OMVMZITM[ LMZQ^ILW[ LM TI IK]U]TIKQ~V LM WJRM\W[ a MVTIbIVLW KWV TW Y]M
^MVQUW[ aI M`XWVQMVLW KIJMV ZM[IT\IZ LW[" I TI ZM]VQ~V MV ]V UQ[UW XZWKMLQUQMV\W a I
KIZOWLM]VƒVQKW~ZOIVWR]LQKQITLM\WLI[MTTI[TWY]MX]MLMM`QOQZMTMUXIZMRIUQMV\WLM
KI][I[Y]M[MPITTMVMVM[\ILQW[LQ[\QV\W[M[\WM[KWVMNMK\W[][XMV[Q^WLMTIY]M^IaIUn[
I^IVbILIPI[\I[]VQ^MTIKQ~V#JY]MIXIZ\QZLMM[\MƒT\QUWUWUMV\W[M^IaILQK\IVLWXIZI
KILIIK\W]VI[WTIZM[WT]KQ~VR]LQKQIT\IV\WXIZIWZLMVIZMT\ZnUQ\MKWUWXIZIZM[WT^MZTI[
K]M[\QWVM[QV\MZTWK]\WZQI[WMV[]KI[WLMÅVQ\Q^I[LMTKWVR]V\WLM\WLW[WJRM\W[IK]U]TILW[
M^Q\IVLWI[yTIXT]ZITQLILaLQ[XMZ[Q~VLMXZWKMLQUQMV\W[M`XMLQMV\M[aZM[WT]KQWVM[R]LQKQITM[

1.15.3.2 Acumulación de pretensiones:

1.15.3.2.1 Clases:

AIPMUW[LMÅVQLWIV\M[TWY]MQUXTQKIJITIIK]U]TIKQ~VLMXZM\MV[QWVM[KWVM[M[QOVQÅKILW
\uKVQKWY]MLITITMaXIZILQ[\QVO]QZTII[]^MbLMTIIK]U]TIKQ~VLMXZWKM[W[1UXWZ\I\MVMZ
XZM[MV\MIPWZIK]nTM[[WVMV\WVKM[TI[LQ[\QV\I[UWLITQLILM[LMXZM\MV[QWVM[Y]MX]MLMV[MZ
IK]U]TILI[[WJZMY]uI[XMK\W[MXZWaMK\IVaITKWV\ZIZQWK]nTM[Y]MLIVXZW[KZQ\I["

a. Acumulación meramente objetiva:

4W[ IZ\[ !  a [[ LMT +~LQOW M[\IJTMKMV MV XZQUMZ T]OIZ TI[ KWVLQKQWVM[ XWZ TI[ Y]M ]V
[]RM\W X]MLM IK]U]TIZ \WLI[ TI[ ¹XZM\MV[QWVM[º Y]M \MVOI KWV\ZI W\ZW LML]KQuVLWTI[ MV TI
UQ[UILMUIVLI-VXZQVKQXQWaXWZKWVKWZLIVKQIKWVW\ZI[VWZUI[Y]MM`QOMVTIKWVM`Q~V
MV\ZMWJRM\W[\IV\WK]IVLWKWVK]ZZMXT]ZITQLIL[]JRM\Q^IIZ\KWUWK]IVLW[M\ZI\ILM
IK]U]TIKQ~V LM XZWKM[W[ IZ\  PI LM MV\MVLMZ[M \IUJQuV IY]y Y]M [Q TI IK]U]TIKQ~V
[MXZMLQKILMXZM\MV[QWVM[LMTUQ[UWIK\WZKWV\ZIMTUQ[UWLMUIVLILWLQKPIIK]U]TIKQ~V
XWLZn^MZ[IZZM[XMK\WLM^IZQI[KI][I[LMXMLQZWLM^IZQW[XM\Q\IXMZW^QVK]TILW[I]VIUQ[UI
ZMTIKQ~VR]ZyLQKIKWUƒVWN]VLILIXWZ\IV\WMV]VW[PMKPW[KWU]VM[

+WV \WLW MV \MWZyI PIJZyI Y]M IKMX\IZ Y]M [Q TI[ LQ[\QV\I[ XZM\MV[QWVM[ I]V [QMVLW
PM\MZWOuVMI[ a ZMNMZQLI[ I ZMTIKQWVM[ UI\MZQITM[ LQ[\QV\I[ K]UXTMV [QV MUJIZOW KWV TW[
ZMY]Q[Q\W[ a TQUQ\IKQWVM[ M[\IJTMKQLI[ MV M[\M IZ\QK]TILW a I TI[ Y]M IPWZI VW[ ZMNMZQZMUW[
LMJMZnVILUQ\QZ[MI\ZnUQ\M\IUJQuVaKWVWKMZTI[MVMTUQ[UWXZWKMLQUQMV\WX]M[TITMaVW
ÅRIM`XZM[IUMV\MMVM[\MKI[WTIM`QOMVKQILMTIKWVM`Q~VMV\ZMWJRM\W[

;MIKWUWN]MZMTIIK]U]TIKQ~VWZJQ\IZnITZMLMLWZLMTW[MTMUMV\W[WJRM\Q^W[stricto sensu de
TIXZM\MV[Q~V#M[\WM["

a-1) Acumulación de causas de pedir:

)]V \ZI\nVLW[M LM TI UQ[UI XZM\MV[Q~V LML]KQLI M[ XW[QJTM Y]M ]V UQ[UW PMKPW KWV
ZMTM^IVKQIR]ZyLQKIX]MLIWNZMKMZ]VIKWJMZ\]ZIMVLW[WUn[VWZUI[[][\IV\Q^I[XWZMRMUXTW
MV TW[ KI[W[ LM a]`\IXW[QKQ~V LM ZM[XWV[IJQTQLIL KWV\ZIK\]IT W M`\ZIKWV\ZIK\]IT# W K]IVLW

130
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

]VILM\MZUQVILIUI\MZQIPI[QLWZMO]TILI\IV\WXWZMTTTIUILWLMZMKPWKWUƒV++++WU
a I TI ^Mb XWZ TMaM[ M[XMKQITM[ LM \IT UIVMZI Y]M IT VW PIJMZ [QLW LMZWOILI[ TI[ VWZUI[
LMIY]uT\WLI[MTTI[ZM[]T\IVƒ\QTM[aM[\IJTMKMVKWV[MK]MVKQI[R]ZyLQKI[LMQO]ITWLQ^MZ[W
[QOVWNZMV\MIM[MIK\WTyKQ\WWQTyKQ\W8WZ\IV\W]VW[UQ[UW[PMKPW[X]MLMVLM\MZUQVIZMT
MRMZKQKQWLMTIIKKQ~VN]VLILIMVLW[WUn[\y\]TW[R]ZyLQKWTMOITM[;QMVLWI[yaUMZKMLITI
ZMOTIXZMKT][Q^IIZ\!+8+5Y]MaI[IJMUW[PILM[WXWZ\IZTIXIZ\MIK\WZIaMV[]KI[W
MTLMUIVLILWZMKWV^QVQMV\M\WLI[M[I[KI][I[LMXMLQZLMJMZn^MZ\MZTI[MVTILMUIVLI[QV
Y]MY]MXIZM[MZ^IZITO]VIXIZI]VXZWKM[W]T\MZQWZ

;Q[MLML]KMV^IZQW[KWVÆQK\W[R]ZyLQKW[TIXT]ZITQLILLMKI][I[LMXMLQZLM^QMVMQVM^Q\IJTM
I]VY]M [~TW [MI XWZY]M KILI ]VW LM MTTW[ KILI XZM\MV[Q~V QZn LW\ILW VMKM[IZQIUMV\M
LM [] XZWXQI causa petendi LM TW KWV\ZIZQW [MZyI ]V WJRM\W QVKWUXTM\W a ILWTMKMZyI LM
QUXZWXWVQJQTQLILIZ\"^MZ\MUIXW[\MZQWZLMTILMUIVLI

a-2) Acumulación de peticiones:

=V UQ[UW KWVÆQK\W OTWJITUMV\M MV\MVLQLW KWUW XZM\MV[Q~V X]MLM LMXIZIZ I [] \Q\]TIZ
]VILQ^MZ[QLILLM\]\MTI[R]ZyLQKI[IUXIZILI[MVTITMaUI\MZQITXIZIMTZMKWVWKQUQMV\WLMT
LMZMKPW W [Q\]IKQ~V LM^MVQLI MV TQ\QOQW I[y KWUW XIZI TWOZIZ [] QVLMUVQLIL W MV [] KI[W
TI ZMXIZIKQ~V TW Un[ yV\MOZI XW[QJTM IV\M TI IUMVIbI W KWV[]UIKQ~V ZM[XMK\Q^IUMV\M LM
IK\]IKQWVM[TM[Q^I[8IZIMTTWLMJMI\MVLMZ[MITIVI\]ZITMbILMTIIKKQ~VMRMZKQ\ILIY]MLIZn
TIXI]\ILMTW[XZWV]VKQIUQMV\W[Y]MZM[]T\IVKWUXI\QJTM[LMW\WZOIZMVWZLMVI[]XZW\MKKQ~V
jurisdiccional más adecuada.

8]MLMY]M]VUQ[UW\y\]TWWKI][ILMXMLQZXMZUQ\ITILML]KKQ~VLMLW[WUn[XM\Q\WZQI[W
Y]MTW[PMKPW[[MMVUIZY]MVMV]VIXT]ZITQLILLMKI][I[LMXMLQZaKILI]VILMMTTI[I[]
^MbOMVMZMQLuV\QKIWLQ^MZ[I[XM\QKQWVM[LM\]\MTI-[QVKT][WXW[QJTMY]MTITMaKWVLQKQWVMTI
XZWKMLMVKQILM]VILM\MZUQVILIZMKTIUIKQ~VR]LQKQITITPMKPWLMY]MIV\M[WR]V\WIMTTI
IK]U]TIKQ~V[MQUXM\ZM\IUJQuVW\ZI\]\MTILMNWVLWMVK]IV\WKI][ITUMV\MZMTIKQWVILI[
entre sí.

-[ QUXWZ\IV\M \MVMZ MV K]MV\I Y]M TI XZMKT][Q~V LMT IZ\ ! KWUW ^MyIUW[ WXMZI MV \WZVW
ITI[LQ^MZ[I[KI][I[LMXMLQZLM]VUQ[UWKWVÆQK\WR]ZyLQKW6W[MZMÅMZM[QVMUJIZOW\IT
XZMKT][Q~V I TI XT]ZITQLIL LM XM\QKQWVM[ LM \]\MTI TI[ K]ITM[ LM [MZ QVLQ^QL]ITQbIJTM[ MV\ZM
[y XMZNMK\IUMV\M XWLZyIV XTIV\MIZ[M MV XZWKM[W[ LQ[\QV\W[ I]VY]M LMZQ^MV LM TI UQ[UI
causa petendi 8WZ MRMUXTW" [Q IV\M MT I\IY]M IT PWVWZ LM ]VI XMZ[WVI XWZ TI X]JTQKIKQ~V MV
]VIKWT]UVIXMZQWLy[\QKILM]VIVW\QKQIY]M[MKWV[QLMZIWNMV[Q^IXIZIMTIK\WZ[M[WTQKQ\I
TI KWVLMVI I MUQ\QZ MV MT UMLQW LM KWU]VQKIKQ~V ]VI ZMK\QÅKIKQ~V LM TI VW\QKQI WNMV[Q^I
X]JTQKILIVILIQUXQLMLMRIZXIZIW\ZWXZWKM[WXW[\MZQWZZM[XMK\WLMM[IUQ[UIVW\QKQI]VI
XM\QKQ~VLMKWVLMVIXMK]VQIZQIXWZTW[LI}W[aXMZR]QKQW[XILMKQLW[

 ,MM[\M\MVWZXWZMRMUXTWMTIZ\XnZZINWXZQUMZW++WU"¹6WXWLZnMRMZKQ\IZ[MVQVO]VIIKKQ~VKWV\ZILQK\WZQI
LMPMKPW[WZMTIKQWVM[R]ZyLQKI[Y]MKWV[\MVMVMT:MOQ[\ZW[QVY]MXZM^QIW[QU]T\nVMIUMV\M[MMV\IJTMLMUIVLI
LMV]TQLILaKIVKMTIKQ~VLMTIQV[KZQXKQ~VZM[XMK\Q^Iº

131
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

7\ZWMRMUXTW"[Q[][XMVLQLWMT[MZ^QKQW\MTMN~VQKWXWZMTKWJZWLM]VINIK\]ZIQVLMJQLIXWZ
[MZ^QKQW[ VW XZM[\ILW[ W UIT \IZQNILW[ M\K [M QV[\I TI KWVLMVI LMT WXMZILWZ I ZM[\Q\]QZ MT
[MZ^QKQW X]MLM LMRIZ[M XIZI W\ZW XZWKM[W XW[\MZQWZ TI XM\QKQ~V LM ]V ZM[IZKQUQMV\W XWZ TW[
XMZR]QKQW[XZWL]KQLW[XWZTI[][XMV[Q~V;Q[MQV\MZXWVM]VIIKKQ~VZMQ^QVLQKI\WZQIXIZITI
LMKTIZIKQ~VLMXZWXQMLILLM]V\MZZMVWX]MLMLMRIZ[MXIZIW\ZWXZWKM[WTIXM\QKQ~VLMY]M
[MZM\QZMVLMTUQ[UWTI[UIY]QVIZQI[LMRILW[MV[]QV\MZQWZW[MLM[UWV\MVTI[KWV[\Z]KKQWVM[
ZMITQbILI[IKW[\ILMTZM[XWV[IJTMM\K

-VLMÅVQ\Q^ILM^QMVMXZMZZWOI\Q^ILMTIK\WZLML]KQZWVW\WLI[TI[[WTQKQ\]LM[LM\]\MTIY]M
\MVOIMVMTUQ[UWXZWKM[WWMV^IZQW[X]M[[WJZMMTTWVWPIaXZMKT][Q~Vj[\I[~TWZQOMXIZI
TI[LW[WUn[KI][I[LMXMLQZQV^WKIJTM[NZMV\MI]VIUQ[UIXZM\MV[Q~VLM\]\MTI

1) Acumulación simple:

0IJZnIK]U]TIKQ~V[QUXTMK]IVLWLW[WUn[XM\QKQWVM[LM\]\MTIX]MLIVXMLQZ[MLMUIVMZI
KWVR]V\Ia[QU]T\nVMIMVMTMV\MVLQLWLMY]MTITMaUI\MZQITW\WZOI\WLI[MTTI[ITI^MbaVW
[MXZMKQ[IMTMOQZ]VIMVLM\ZQUMV\WLMW\ZI"I[yWK]ZZMMVXZQUMZT]OIZKWVTI[WJTQOIKQWVM[
Y]M ZM[]T\IV KQ^QTUMV\M IKKM[WZQI[ LM W\ZI[ I[y TI KWVLMVI IT XIOW LM ]V KIXQ\IT a I TW[
QV\MZM[M[LMLMUWZILMZQ^ILW[LMTIUQ[UIIKZMMVKQI#TI[LQ^MZ[I[KWV[MK]MVKQI[QUX]\ILI[
ITQVK]UXTQUQMV\WLM]VIXZM[\IKQ~VLMPIKMZ

8MZW\IUJQuVIY]MTTI[XM\QKQWVM[Y]MZM^MTIVLQ[\QV\I[KWV[MK]MVKQI[LMZQ^ILI[LM]VUQ[UW
IK\W KILI ]VI LM TI[ K]ITM[ VMKM[Q\I LM ]VI ZMXIZIKQ~V W ZM[\Q\]KQ~V XZWXQI" I[y XWZ MR
TI KWVLMVI I KM[IZ MV TI NIJZQKIKQ~V LM ]V XZWL]K\W [QV TI KWZZM[XWVLQMV\M I]\WZQbIKQ~V
LM [] XZWXQM\IZQW a MT XIOW LM TW[ LI}W[ a XMZR]QKQW[ XWZ MT T]KZW KM[IV\M QUX]\IJTM I TI
KWUMZKQITQbIKQ~V LM TI[ QUQ\IKQWVM[# MT ZMKWVWKQUQMV\W LM ]V LMZMKPW LM [MZ^QL]UJZM
XZMLQIT a TI KWVLMVI IT LMUIVLILW XIZI Y]M MTQUQVM TW[ WJ[\nK]TW[ Y]M PI X]M[\W XIZI
QUXMLQZMTXI[WLMTIK\WZ#TILMKTIZIKQ~VLMLMZMKPW[[]KM[WZQW[aTI[WTQKQ\]LLMMV\ZMOILM
TW[JQMVM[Y]MTMKWZZM[XWVLMVaY]MM[\uMVXWLMZLMITO]VWLMTW[LMUIVLILW[M\K;MZn
X]M[TIVWZUI[][\IV\Q^ITIY]MITLM[KZQJQZTIZMTIKQ~VR]ZyLQKIKWV\ZW^MZ\QLILMZQ^M\WLI[
TI[KWV[MK]MVKQI[TMOITM[Y]M[MX]MLMVM`QOQZMVR]QKQW

2) Acumulación eventual o subsidiaria de peticiones:

-VM[\MKI[WTIXIZ\M\QMVML]LI[LMK]nTM[MTXZWV]VKQIUQMV\WITY]M\QMVMLMZMKPWXWZTMa
LMMV\ZM^IZQW[LMTW[PQXW\u\QKIUMV\MXW[QJTM[TIL]LIM[[~TW[]aIX]M[MVZMITQLILTITMa
[IT^WZMUW\ITIO]VI[QMUXZMPIJZnM[\IJTMKQLWMTMNMK\WR]ZyLQKWKWZZM[XWVLQMV\MXWZTWY]M
WX\IXWZ]VI[MTMKKQ~VRMZIZY]QbILILMTI[LQ[\QV\I[XM\QKQWVM[LM\]\MTIM[\IJTMKQMVLWI[y]V
WZLMV XIZI Y]M [MIV R]bOILI[ ,M \IT UIVMZI Y]M MT W\WZOIUQMV\W LM TI XZQUMZI XM\QKQ~V

 )TMNMK\WIZ\++"¹;QTIWJTQOIKQ~VM[LMPIKMZaMTLM]LWZ[MKWV[\Q\]aMMVUWZIXWLZnXMLQZMTIKZMMLWZ
R]V\WKWVTIQVLMUVQbIKQ~VLMTIUWZIK]ITY]QMZILMM[\I[LW[KW[I[IMTMKKQ~V[]aI"¢9]M[MIXZMUQMITLM]LWZ
XIZITIMRMK]KQ~VLMTPMKPWKWV^MVQLW
 ¢9]M[MTMI]\WZQKMIuTUQ[UWXIZIPIKMZTWMRMK]\IZXWZ]V\MZKMZWIM`XMV[I[LMTLM]LWZ
 <IUJQuVXWLZnXMLQZY]M[MZM[KQVLITIWJTQOIKQ~VaY]MMTLM]LWZTMQVLMUVQKMLMTW[XMZR]QKQW[ZM[]T\IV\M[LM
TIQVNZIKKQ~VLMTKWV\ZI\Wº

132
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

ZMTM^ILMMV\ZIZIKWVWKMZLMTI[LMUn[#Y]MLMVWKWVKMLMZ[MTIXZQUMZI[MXI[IZnMV\WVKM[
·a[~TWMV\WVKM[IM[\]LQIZaZM[WT^MZTI[MO]VLI#Y]M[~TWLMVMOIZ[Mu[\I[MXZW[MO]QZnKWV
TI[QO]QMV\MaI[y[]KM[Q^IUMV\M4I[XM\QKQWVM[[]J[QLQIZQIUMV\MWZLMVILI[X]MLMVZM[]T\IZ
QVKWUXI\QJTM[MV\ZM[yLM[LMMTX]V\WLM^Q[\ITMOIT4WY]M[yMV\WLWKI[WLM^QMVMWJTQOILW
M[Y]MLM[MZQVKWUXI\QJTM[I\MVLQMVLWITIVI\]ZITMbILMKILI]VIMTIK\WZPILMLML]KQZTI[
LMUIVMZIM^MV\]IT[]J[QLQIZQIaV]VKIUMLQIV\M]VIIK]U]TIKQ~V[QUXTMXWZY]MMV\WVKM[
[M QV^ITQLIZyIV ZMKyXZWKIUMV\M a [MZyI KWUW [Q VW [M P]JQMZI LML]KQLW VQVO]VI IZ\ !!
>WT^MZMUW[[WJZMM[\WUn[ILMTIV\M

a-3) Acumulación por mandato de ley:

.]MZILMTWY]MX]MLIXZM^MZK]ITY]QMZW\ZILQ[XW[QKQ~VVWZUI\Q^IIRMVIIT+8+5XZMKMX\ƒI
MTIZ\LMM[\MƒT\QUWY]M[M¹IK]U]TIZnVLMWÅKQWTI[XZM\MV[QWVM[Y]M^MZ[MV[WJZMTI
LMKTIZIKQ~VLM]VIK\WWVMOWKQWR]ZyLQKWºKI[W]VWa¹TI[Y]M[MZMÅMZIVITIIV]TIJQTQLIL
LMTW[IK]MZLW[ILWX\ILW[MV]VIUQ[UIZM]VQ~VLMTW[~ZOIVW[LM]VIXMZ[WVIR]ZyLQKIºKI[W
LW[4IM`XZM[Q~V¹IK]U]TIZLMWÅKQWºPILM\WUIZ[MIY]yKWUW[QV~VQUWLMIK]U]TIKQ~V
VMKM[IZQI VW W\ZI KW[I XWZY]M [Q IT ÅV a IT KIJW M[\IUW[ PIJTIVLW LM IK]U]TIKQ~V LM
XZM\MV[QWVM[LMV\ZWLM]VUQ[UWXZWKM[WM[XWZY]M\WLI[MTTI[aI[MPIVLML]KQLWVWX]MLM
PIKMZTWMT~ZOIVWR]LQKQIT[][\Q\]aMVLWITIK\WZR][\QKQIZWOILIXWZ\IV\WMTXIXMTIY]yLMT
R]MbVWM[W\ZW[QVWMTLMVWQUXMLQZ\ITIK]U]TIKQ~VK]IVLW[M\ZI\MLMITO]VWLMTW[LW[
nUJQ\W[Y]MMV\QMVLMKWV^MVQMV\MMTIZ\[QMUXZMOIZIV\QbIZ[]\ZI\IUQMV\WKWVR]V\W

b) Acumulación subjetivo-objetiva:

4IIK]U]TIKQ~VLMXZM\MV[QWVM[[MIJZM\IUJQuVXWZMTIZ\LMT+~LQOWI]VI[Q\]IKQ~V
LM  XT]ZITQLIL LM TW[ []RM\W[ TMOQ\QUILW[ I TI Y]M QVM`\ZQKIJTMUMV\M ^I ]VQLI \IUJQuV TI
XT]ZITQLIL LM WJRM\W[ IT ZMNMZQZ[M I TI[ LQ^MZ[I[ XZM\MV[QWVM[ ¹Y]M ]VW CIK\WZE \MVOI KWV\ZI
^IZQW[[]RM\W[CLMUIVLILW[EW^IZQW[CIK\WZM[EKWV\ZI]VWCLMUIVLILWEW\IUJQuV·I]VY]M
VW TW UMVKQWVM M`XZM[IUMV\M M[\M LQ[XW[Q\Q^W ^IZQW[ IK\WZM[ KWV\ZI ^IZQW[ LMUIVLILW[#
[QMUXZM Y]M M`Q[\I ]V VM`W W KWVM`Q~V XWZ ZIb~V LMT \y\]TW W LM TI KI][I LM XMLQZº ;M
\ZI\I LM ]V KWZZMTI\W LM TI UQ[UI XT]ZITQLIL aI ZMKWVWKQLI MV MT IZ\  LMT +~LQOW XIZI
MT TQ\Q[KWV[WZKQW NIK]T\I\Q^W [MOƒV \]^QUW[ aI WKI[Q~V LM ^MZ MV MT \MUI ZMNMZQLW I TI[
8IZ\M[XZMKMX\WLWVLM[MLMRIPMKPITIZM[MZ^IITZM[XM\WMVM[\W[KI[W[ITI[¹ZMOTI[[WJZM
IK]U]TIKQ~VLMXZM\MV[QWVM[º

+WV[QLMZIVLWMV\WVKM[MVTWY]MIY]yQUXWZ\IY]MKILIZMTIKQ~VXZWKM[ITJQTI\MZITMTIK\WZ
ƒVQKWKWV\ZIMTLMUIVLILW)MTIK\WZƒVQKWKWV\ZIMTLMUIVLILW*aI[y[]KM[Q^IUMV\M#WI
TIQV^MZ[I"MTIK\WZ)aMTLMUIVLILWƒVQKWMTIK\WZ*aMTLMUIVLILWƒVQKWM\K[MXZWaMK\I
[WJZM]VIXZM\MV[Q~VQVLQ^QL]ITQbIJTMa[MXIZIJTMLMTI[LMUn[TI^QZ\]ITQLILLMM[\MIZ\
ZILQKIMVLMRIZKTIZWY]MTIXT]ZITQLILLMXIZ\M[\IUJQuVXZW^WKITIXT]ZITQLILLMWJRM\W[
KWUW\IT[][KMX\QJTMLM[MZKWVWKQLIMVMTUQ[UWXZWKMLQUQMV\W

8IZI Y]M M[I LWJTM IK]U]TIKQ~V []JRM\Q^WWJRM\Q^I [M XZWL]bKI [QV MUJIZOW ZM[]T\I
VMKM[IZQWY]MM`Q[\IKWUWIPy[M[M}ITI]VIKWVM`Q~VLMT\y\]TWWKI][ILMXMLQZM[\WM[Y]M
¹LMZQ^MVLM\y\]TW[QLuV\QKW[W[MUMRIV\M[ºW¹K]IVLWTIKI][ILMXMLQZM[\uKWV[\Q\]QLI\W\IT

133
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

WXIZKQITUMV\MXWZMTUQ[UWKWVR]V\WLMPMKPW[R]ZyLQKW[ZMTM^IV\M[º8WZMRMUXTWLMZQ^ILW
LM]VUQ[UWKWV\ZI\W[][KZQ\WXWZ^IZQI[XMZ[WVI[W[MZMÅMZIVIJQMVM[QVU]MJTM[[Q\]ILW[
MVMTUQ[UWMLQÅKQWLWVLMPIJQ\IVTW[^IZQW[IK\WZM[WTW[^IZQW[LMUIVLILW[a[MXTIV\MM
]VKWVÆQK\W[MUMRIV\MLMNMK\W[KWV[\Z]K\Q^W[QUXIOWLMK]W\I[KWU]VQ\IZQI[M\K

1.15.3.3 Pretensiones no acumulables:

-V [] TILW VMOI\Q^W TI TMa \IUJQuV M[\IJTMKM TQUQ\IKQWVM[ LQZQOQLI[ I M^Q\IZ TI LML]KKQ~V
LM XZM\MV[QWVM[ Y]M M^QLMVKQIV ]VI Y]QMJZI T~OQKI LM [] MV]VKQILW W Y]M TTM^I I ]VI
QV\MZ^MVKQ~V WÅKQIT LMT R]Mb Y]M XWLZyI KWUXZWUM\MZ [] QUXIZKQITQLIL [][\Q\]aMVLW IT
LMUIVLIV\MMVTIQLMV\QÅKIKQ~VLMTIXZM\MV[Q~VZMITUMV\MLML]KQLI,W[[WVM[W[[]X]M[\W["

1.15.3.3.1 Pretensiones incompatibles:

+WVNWZUM IT IZ\ !  +8+5 aI UMVKQWVILW VW KIJM IK]U]TIZ XZM\MV[QWVM[ Y]M ZM[]T\MV
QVKWUXI\QJTM[MV\ZM[y[IT^WY]M[MNWZU]TMVLMUIVMZI[]J[QLQIZQIRMZIZY]QbILIXMZWLMVW
PIKMZ[MI[yaLILWY]M[WVXZM\MV[QWVM[Y]MWJQMV[MM`KT]aMVU]\]ITUMV\M^OZTIXM\QKQ~V
LMK]UXTQUQMV\WLMKWV\ZI\WaITI^MbLM[]ZM[WT]KQ~VWJQMVTIM[\QUIKQ~VLM]VILMMTTI[
PIKMQVƒ\QTMTW\WZOIUQMV\WLMTIW\ZITI[WTQKQ\]LLMMV\ZMOILM]VIUMZKIVKyIaTILM]VI
[]UIKWVTIY]MILY]QZQZMVMTUMZKILWMTUQ[UWTW\MIK]aILM^WT]KQ~V[MKWVLMVILM^QMVM
M^QLMV\MY]M[~TW]VIX]MLM[W[\MVMZ[M-TLMNMK\WX]MLM[]J[IVIZ[MXWZMTQV\MZM[ILWKWUW
IPWZI^MZMUW[XMZWLM[LMaITWY]MQUXWZ\I\MVMZXZM[MV\MM[Y]MVW[MXMZUQ\MIZ\QK]TIZ]VI
XZM\MV[Q~VKWVKI][I[LMXMLQZQVKWUXI\QJTM[WNWZU]TIVLWXM\QKQWVM[LM\]\MTIY]MTW[MIV

1.15.3.3.2 Peticiones alternativas:

I -V [MO]VLW T]OIZ a LM IK]MZLW IT IZ\ !! QV ÅVM +8+5 ¹VW [M ILUQ\QZn TI
IK]U]TIKQ~V LM XZM\MV[QWVM[ I \y\]TW IT\MZVI\Q^Wº 0I LM MV\MVLMZ[M Y]M KWV M[\I
M`XZM[Q~V [M PIKM ZMNMZMVKQI I ]V LMNMK\W KWV[Q[\MV\M MV UIVQNM[\IZ IT R]Mb Y]M
KIJQMVLW TI XW[QJQTQLIL LM [MZ [I\Q[NMKPW KWV ^IZQI[ XZM[\IKQWVM[ K]aW KWV\MVQLW
LM\ITTIaLMRIVLWKTIZITILMUIVLIY]MITIK\WZTMZM[]T\IQVLQNMZMV\MKWVK]nTLM
MTTI[TW[MILMRIMVLMÅVQ\Q^IIIY]uTITR]MbTIMTMKKQ~VÅVITLMK]nTKWVKMLMZaK]nT
VW+WVQVLMXMVLMVKQILMY]MMTLMUIVLIV\M\]^QMZIZIb~VMVMTNWVLWMVK]IV\W
IY]MX]MLMI[XQZIZIK]ITY]QMZILMM[I[^IZQI[XZM[\IKQWVM[ITI^MbWVWXWLZyI
MV ZMITQLIL VW [MZ I[y M[\IZ MY]Q^WKILW a ƒVQKIUMV\M KIJMZ XWZ TMa UI\MZQIT ]VI
ƒVQKIKWV[MK]MVKQIR]ZyLQKITWKQMZ\WM[Y]MM`QOQZLMTR]Mb[MUMRIV\MXZW\IOWVQ[UW
KWVL]KQZyI I u[\M I XIZ\QKQXIZ MV TI LMTQUQ\IKQ~V KWVKZM\I LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V
KWV\ZIZQIVLWI[yTI^QOMVKQILMTXZQVKQXQWLQ[XW[Q\Q^W

J -[\WUQ[UWWK]ZZMK]IVLW[M\ZI\MLMTI[TTIUILI[WJTQOIKQWVM[IT\MZVI\Q^I[LMTIZ\
 a [[ ++ M[XMKyÅKIUMV\M K]IVLW [M PIaI XIK\ILW Y]M [MI MT IKZMMLWZ Y]QMV
MTQRI TI KWVKZM\I XZM[\IKQ~V Y]M TQJMZIZn IT LM]LWZ ,QKPI KIXIKQLIL MTMK\Q^I Y]M
[MIV\WRIXMZNMK\IUMV\M^nTQLIMVMTnUJQ\WM`\ZIR]LQKQITVWX]MLM\ZI[TILIZ[M[QV
MUJIZOWMVKI[WLMKWVÆQK\WI]VILMUIVLIMVTIY]M[MMV\ZMO]MITR]MbMTXWLMZ
LM[MTMKKQWVIZMTJQMVR]ZyLQKWY]MTMXIZMbKIUn[R][\WWKWV^MVQMV\MZMKWVWKMZI

134
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

NI^WZLMTLMUIVLIV\M-[\MƒT\QUWLMJMPIKMZ][WLMTINIK]T\ILUI\MZQITY]M[MTM
I\ZQJ]aMKWVKZM\IVLWMV[]LMUIVLIK]nTM[TIXZM[\IKQ~VK]aWW\WZOIUQMV\WLM[MI
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1.15.3.4 Tratamiento procesal:

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135
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

ACUMULACIÓN DE PROCESOS

Juan Carlos Cabañas García

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1.15.4 Disposiciones comunes:

1.15.4.1 Requisitos de procedencia:

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y resoluciones.

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de justicia.

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136
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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137
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.15.4.2 Acumulaciones prohibidas:

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KI][ILMXMLQZapetitumXWZY]MKWVQVLMXMVLMVKQILMY]MKIUJQMVTI[XW[QKQWVM[
LMTW[[]RM\W[MV]VWaW\ZWM[M^QLMV\MY]MTILMUIVLIUn[IV\QO]IMVOMVLZ~KWV
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LM]V[MO]VLWW]T\MZQWZXZWKM[WXIZIKWVWKMZLMTWUQ[UWIZ\!+8+5

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LM TI [MO]VLI W XW[\MZQWZ IKKQ~V Y]M XWZ LM[XQ[\M PI XMZUQ\QLW Y]M [M IJZQMZI
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1.15.4.3 Control y efectos de la presentación de la solicitud:

1.15.4.3.1 Control:

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138
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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1.15.4.3.2 Efectos:

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TI IK]U]TIKQ~V [][XMVLQuVLW[M IT MNMK\W MT XTIbW XIZI LQK\IZTIº 4uI[M [MV\MVKQI W MV []
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1.15.4.4 Reglas particulares en la tramitación de la acumulación de


procesos ante el mismo tribunal:

+]IVLWMT\ZQJ]VITY]MTTM^I\WLW[TW[I[]V\W[[][KMX\QJTM[LMIK]U]TIKQ~V[MIMTUQ[UW
ITVWPIJMZM`Q[\QLWVQVOƒVUW\Q^WTMOITXIZIY]MKWVWKQMZILMITO]VWLMMTTW[]V\ZQJ]VIT
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¹[QVW[MPQbWIV\M[ºIZ\+8+5

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M[\W[KI[W[TIIXMZ\]ZILM]V\ZnUQ\MLMITMOIKQWVM[XWZ\ZM[LyI[\IV\WITI[LMUn[XMZ[WVI[
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XWZQTMOITWaI[MIMVXIZ\M[QKIJMXMZWVWITY]M[MLQKMKWUWUn[IV\QO]W[QVWIW\ZWLM
MTTW[ITIIK]U]TIKQ~V

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TWY]M\MVOIVXWZKWV^MVQMV\M[WJZMTIUQ[UIIZ\+8+5

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XW[QJQTQLILM[ITZM[XMK\WIZ\+8+5"

139
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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1.15.4.5 Reglas particulares en la tramitación de la acumulación de


procesos ante distintos tribunales:

-VM[\IPQX~\M[Q[aLILITILQ^MZ[QLILLM~ZOIVW[R]LQKQITM[KWVKMZVQLW[MTQ\MZXZWKM[ITLMT
QVKQLMV\MT~OQKIUMV\M[M\WZVIUn[KWUXTMRW"

1.15.4.5.1.- Tramitación de la solicitud (Fase 1):

,MMV\ZILIPIaY]MLQ[\QVO]QZMV\ZMTIKWUXM\MVKQIXIZIZMKQJQZMTM[KZQ\WLM[WTQKQ\]LLM
TIIK]U]TIKQ~VaTIKWUXM\MVKQIXIZI\ZIUQ\IZaZM[WT^MZMTQVKQLMV\MLMIK]U]TIKQ~V

140
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

,MIK]MZLWKWVMTIZ\LMT+~LQOWTI[WTQKQ\]LXWLZnXZM[MV\IZ[MIV\MK]ITY]QMZILMTW[
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XIZIKWVWKMZLM\WLW[TW[WJRM\W[XZWKM[ITM[]VI^MbIK]U]TILW[

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M[XMKQÅKILW[TW[XZWKMLQUQMV\W[Y]M[MXZM\MVLMY]M[MIK]U]TMV

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KWZZM[XWVLQMV\M[ LMUIVLI[ a I[y LM\MZUQVIZ K]nT M[ MT XTMQ\W Un[ IV\QO]W XIZI [IJMZ MV
LMÅVQ\Q^I[QI[]UQZnuTWVWTI[][\IVKQIKQ~VLMTIXZQUMZINI[MLMTQVKQLMV\MLMIK]U]TIKQ~V
W[QTWLMJMZMMV^QIZIW\ZW~ZOIVWR]LQKQIT

1.15.4.5.2.- Determinación de si procede la acumulación (Fase 2):

:MKQJQLITI[WTQKQ\]LXWZMT\ZQJ]VITKWUXM\MV\Mprima facieXIZI\ZIUQ\IZMTQVKQLMV\M^MZTW
Y]MaI[MPIM`XTQKILWITZM[XMK\Wu[\MIJZQZnMVMT[MVWLMTXZWKM[WUn[IV\QO]W·ITY]M[M
IK]U]TIZyIVTW[LMUn[]V\ZnUQ\MLMI]LQMVKQIXWZ\ZM[LyI[ITI[XIZ\M[XMZ[WVILI[MVuT
\ZI[MTK]ITZM[WT^MZnXWZI]\W[QM[\QUIY]MTIIK]U]TIKQ~VXZWKMLM[QXZWKMLMIV\MuTaI
Y]uXZWKM[W[MIK]U]TIZyIVTW[W\ZW[

;QZMKPIbITIIK]U]TIKQ~VTWKWU]VQKIZnIT\ZQJ]VITY]MTMP]JQMZMZMUQ\QLWTI[WTQKQ\]L[Q
N]MZMMTKI[WXIZIY]M[MXIY]Mu[\I[MPIZMKPIbILWIZ\+8+5

,ILWY]MMTIZ\LMKTIZIIXTQKIJTM[TI[VWZUI[IV\MZQWZM[MV\ZMMTTI[MTIZ\PIJZn
Y]MMV\MVLMZY]M[Q\WLI[TI[XIZ\M[LMTXZWKM[WUn[IV\QO]WM[\nVLMIK]MZLWM`XZM[IUMV\M
KWVTIIK]U]TIKQ~VMTR]MbVW\MVLZnUIZOMVIY]yXIZILMKQLQZW\ZIKW[ILMTWKWV\ZIZQW[y
TI\MVLZnKWUXZWJIVLWTW[ZMY]Q[Q\W[TMOITM[[QVXMZR]QKQWLMLMTWY]MT]MOWWK]ZZIIV\M
los otros jueces.

,MT MV]VKQILW LMT IZ\  LMT +~LQOW [M LM[XZMVLM TI XZWPQJQKQ~V OMVMZIT LM [MO]VLI[ W
]T\MZQWZM[XM\QKQWVM[LMIK]U]TIKQ~VXWZMTUQ[UW[]RM\WINI^WZLMW\ZW[\ZQJ]VITM[aXZWKM[W[
;Q \ITM[ [M NWZUITQbIV [MZnV LMVMOILI[ XWZ MT \ZQJ]VIT LWVLM [M XTIV\MM W u[\M LMRIZn LM
KWVWKMZLMTIUQ[UIMVK]IV\W\MVOIKWVWKQUQMV\WLMY]MP]JWW\ZIIV\MZQWZ

141
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.15.4.5.3 Requerimiento (Fase 3):

,MLQK\IZ[MI]\WM[\QUI\WZQWPILM\MVMZT]OIZ]VIKWU]VQKIKQ~VKWVTW[LMUn[\ZQJ]VITM[
Y]MM[\]^QMZIVKWVWKQMVLWLMTI[W\ZI[KI][I[QVNWZUnVLWTM[MTZMY]QZMV\M[]IKMX\IKQ~VLM
TIIK]U]TIKQ~VaZMY]QZQuVLWTM[XIZIY]MTMZMUQ\IVTI[IK\]IKQWVM[PI[\IMTXZM[MV\MTWY]M
\IV\W[QOVQÅKIKWUWY]MIKMX\MVM[IIK]U]TIKQ~VKWV¹KMZ\QÅKIKQ~VLMTWXMZ\QVMV\MXIZI
LIZIKWVWKMZTIKI][IXWZTIY]M[MXZM\MVLMTIIK]U]TIKQ~VaTI[ITMOIKQWVM[Y]MMV[]KI[W
PIaIVNWZU]TILWTI[XIZ\M[LQ[\QV\I[LMT[WTQKQ\IV\MLMTIIK]U]TIKQ~VºIZ\ 

)\MVLQMVLWITIVI\]ZITMbIM[XMKyÅKILMTWY]MIY]y[MXTIV\MITIKMZ\QÅKIKQ~VW\M[\QUWVQW
LMJM QVKT]QZ TW[ MTMUMV\W[ VMKM[IZQW[ XIZI XWLMZ R]bOIZ XWZ KILI \ZQJ]VIT K]nTM[ [WV TI[
XZM\MV[QWVM[LML]KQLI[MVTW[XZWKM[W[INMK\ILW[ÅRIZ[]XW[QJTMKWVM`Q~VMV\ZMMTTI[aTW[
LI\W[[WJZMKWUXM\MVKQIaXZWKMLQUQMV\WLMKILIKI][IQVKT]aMVLWMVK]IV\WIM[\MƒT\QUW
[QTWPI[QLWXWZZIb~VLMTIUI\MZQIWLMTIK]IV\yI

1.15.4.5.4.- Decisión por el órgano u órganos requeridos (Fase 4):

:MKQJQLWMTZMY]MZQUQMV\WKILI~ZOIVWR]LQKQITZMY]MZQLWLMJMZnMV\WVKM[IK\]IZKWVNWZUM
I]VIXZQUMZIKQZK]V[\IVKQILMKQ[Q^IY]MKWVLQKQWVIZn\WLWTWLMUn["

a) Si constata que se le han formulado dos o más requerimientos de


acumulación, provenientes por tanto de dos o más tribunales:

)]\WUn\QKIUMV\M\ZI[TILIZnMTI[]V\WITI+WZ\M;]XZMUILM2][\QKQIKM[IVLWLMPIKMZVILI
Un[M[\WM[[][XMVLQMVLWMTXZWKMLQUQMV\WY]MTTM^II[]KIZOWKWVVW\QÅKIKQ~VLMMTTW\IV\W
ITW[\ZQJ]VITM[ZMY]QZMV\M[KWUWITI[XIZ\M[LM[]XZWKM[WIZ\+8+5"IIY]uTTW[XIZI
Y]M\IUJQuVMTM^MV\M[\QUWVQWLMTI[IK\]IKQWVM[ITI+WZ\MaIu[\W[XIZIY]MX]MLIVIK]LQZ
IV\MTI+WZ\MILMNMVLMZ[M

-T\ZnUQ\MIV\MTI+WZ\M;]XZMUIM[MTXZM^Q[\WMVMTIZ\ITY]MT]MOWPIZMUW[ZMNMZMVKQI

,MVW[MZI[yaZMKQJQZ]VƒVQKWZMY]MZQUQMV\WIK\]IZnMTZMY]MZQLWKWVNWZUMITW[XI[W[Y]M
IPWZI^MZMUW[MVMTMV\MVLQLWLMY]M[QXW[\MZQWZUMV\MZMKQJM]V[MO]VLWZMY]MZQUQMV\WLM
W\ZW\ZQJ]VITIXTQKIZnIXIZ\QZLMM[MQV[\IV\MTIZMOTILMTIZ\Y]M[MIKIJILMM`XWVMZ

b) Si sólo existe un tribunal requirente:

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]V \ZnUQ\M LM I]LQMVKQI XWZ \ZM[ LyI[ I TI[ XIZ\M[ XMZ[WVILI[ MV TW[ KWZZM[XWVLQMV\M[
XZWKMLQUQMV\W[[IT^WIY]MTTW[Y]MTWM[\]^QMZIV\IUJQuVMVIY]MTXZWKM[WUn[IV\QO]WX]M[
u[\I[ aI M[\nV MV\MZILI[ a PIV NWZU]TILW ITMOIKQWVM[ IV\M MT ZMY]QZMV\M XMZUQ\QuVLWTM[
IKKMLMZ I TW[ \M[\QUWVQW[ Y]M [M PIV ZMKQJQLW LMT ~ZOIVW ZMY]QZMV\M I ÅV LM XWLMZ PIKMZ
TI[ ITMOIKQWVM[ Y]M M[\QUMV WXWZ\]VI[ IZ\ ! ) TI ^Q[\I LM MTTW KILI ]VW LM TW[ R]MKM[
ZMY]MZQLW[ZM[WT^MZnZM[XMK\WLMTXZWKMLQUQMV\W[Y]M\]^QMZII[]KIZOWITO]VILMTI[K]I\ZW
[WT]KQWVM[XW[QJTM[M`KT]aMV\M[MV\ZM[yIZ\+8+5"

142
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

I )KKMLMZnITIIK]U]TIKQ~VINI^WZLMTZMK]ZZMV\MaTMZMUQ\QZnTWIK\]ILWPI[\IM[M
UWUMV\W[QVQVO]VILMTI[XIZ\M[XMZ[WVILI[MVLQKPWXZWKM[WI[]KIZOW[MWXWVMV
IMTTW6WM[XZMKQ[WY]MMUQ\IV[]KWVNWZUQLILM`XZM[IUMV\M[~TWY]MVWTWPIOIV
MVKWV\ZIQVKT][WXWZY]MVWITMO]MVVILIIZ\"¹[QVQVO]VILMTI[XIZ\M[[M
WX][QMZMITIIK]U]TIKQ~Vº

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TI[XIZ\M[LMTXZWKM[WI[]KIZOWTWY]M[MITMOIZMXIZIN]VLIZTILQ[KWVNWZUQLIL
N]MZMTWUQ[UWLMTWaIITMOILWa\MVQLWMVK]MV\IXWZMTR]MbZMY]QZMV\MKWVNWZUM
I}ILMMTUQ[UWIZ\+8+5XIZIM[W[MZnLMKQ[Q^WMTM`IUMVLMTW[\M[\QUWVQW[
Y]M[MPIaIVZMUQ\QLWXWZM[\MƒT\QUW

K )KKMLMZnITIIK]U]TIKQ~V\IUJQuV[QXM[MIM`Q[\QZLQ[KZMXIVKQI[MT\ZQJ]VITIXZMKQI
Y]MITUMVW[ZM[XMK\WLMM[MXZWKM[WI[]KIZOW[yKWVK]ZZMVTW[ZMY]Q[Q\W[TMOITM[
XIZITIIK]U]TIKQ~V

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TW Y]M MT R]Mb KWUXZ]MJM MV M[\ZQK\W [MO]QUQMV\W LM TI TMOITQLIL ZM[]T\M KWUW VW
IKZMLQ\ILITIKI][ILMIK]U]TIKQ~V^nTQLI7JQMVMV\QMVLMY]MPILM[MZIV\MMT
[]aWY]M[MIK]U]TMV\WLW[TW[LMUn[

1.15.4.5.5.- Contestación al requirente (Fase 5):

;Q [M IKMX\I TI IK]U]TIKQ~V XWZ MT ZMY]MZQLW W XWZ TW[ Y]M TW [MIV [M KWU]VQKIZn I[y IT
~ZOIVWZMY]QZMV\MaITI[XIZ\M[LMTXZWKM[WI[]KIZOWXIZIY]MX]MLIVXMZ[WVIZ[MMVMT
XTIbWLM\ZM[LyI[IV\MMT\ZQJ]VITZMY]QZMV\MaKWV\QV]IZITTyTILMNMV[ILM[][XZM\MV[QWVM[
IZ\+8+5\WLWMTTWKWVZMUQ[Q~VLMTW[I]\W[=VI^MbZMKQJQLW[u[\W[[MXZWKMLMZnI
TIMY]QXIZIKQ~VMVTI\ZIUQ\IKQ~VLMTW[XZWKM[W[aIXIZ\QZLMIPyI[][][\IVKQIKQ~VƒVQKI
LMTUWLWKWUWaIUMVKQWVIUW[MVTIIK]U]TIKQ~VLMXZWKM[W[IV\MMTUQ[UW\ZQJ]VIT

1.15.4.5.6.- Posible planteamiento de cuestión de competencia ante la Corte


Suprema (posible Fase 6):

;Q ITO]VW LM TW[ ~ZOIVW[ R]LQKQITM[ ZMY]MZQLW[ VW IKMX\IZM TI IK]U]TIKQ~V Y]M [M TM QV[\I
TWQVNWZUIZnI[yITZMY]QZMV\MXTIV\MIVLWTIK]M[\Q~VIV\MTI+WZ\M;]XZMUILM2][\QKQI-T
\ZQJ]VITZMY]QZMV\MLMJMZnQVNWZUIZ\IUJQuVITI+WZ\MY]M[MPILILWXWZVW\QÅKILWLMTI
LMKQ[Q~VLMTZMY]MZQLWIÅVLMZMKWVWKMZY]MM[TI+WZ\MTIY]MPILMZM[WT^MZMTXZWJTMUI
)TUQ[UW\QMUXW\IV\W\ZQJ]VITZMY]QZMV\MKWUWZMY]MZQLW[LMJMZnVW\QÅKIZLMMTTWITI[
XIZ\M[XMZ[WVILI[IV\MuTXIZIY]MX]MLIVXZM[MV\IZITMOIKQWVM[IV\MTI+WZ\M;]XZMUIXWZ
M[KZQ\WMVMTXTIbWLM\ZM[LyI[IKMZKILMTIIK]U]TIKQ~VIZ\+8+5

;M}ITIMTIZ\LMT+~LQOWY]MTI+WZ\M;]XZMUILM2][\QKQI¹MVXTMVWºLMKQLQZnXWZUMLQW
LMI]\WaMVMTXTIbWLMTW[KQVKWLyI[[QO]QMV\M[TWY]MKWZZM[XWVLILMIK]MZLWKWV\WLITI
LWK]UMV\IKQ~VZMUQ\QLIITMOIKQWVM[\M[\QUWVQW[LMTW[M[KZQ\W[LMTI[XIZ\M[M\K

143
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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144
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

FINALIZACIÓN ANTICIPADA DEL PROCESO:

Juan Carlos Cabañas García

;=5):17"1.QVITQbIKQ~VIV\QKQXILI"KWVKMX\W.QVITQbIKQ~VXWZQUXZWXWVQ
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LMUIVLILW<ZIV[IKKQ~VMV\ZMTI[XIZ\M[

1.6 FINALIZACIÓN ANTICIPADA: CONCEPTO. FINALIZACIÓN POR IMPROPO-


NIBILIDAD SOBREVENIDA DEL PROCESO:

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inviable su continuación.

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invocación de este motivo son dos:

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145
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

Y]MVMOI\Q^IUMV\MWMTXZWKM[WaIM[\IZyIIZKPQ^ILWXWZMTR]MbKWV^ITWZLMKW[I
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MTK]Z[WLMTI[IK\]IKQWVM[Y]MKWV\QV]IZnVWZUITUMV\MPI[\I\IV\W[MZM[]MT^IMTQVKQLMV\M
Y]M[MIJZMMVXIZITMTW

;M}ITITITMaY]M]VI^MbNWZU]TILITIITMOIKQ~VXWZM[KZQ\WWMVMT\]ZVWLMITMOIKQ~VWZIT
LMITO]VII]LQMVKQIMT~ZOIVWR]LQKQITIJZQZnXTIbWLM\ZM[LyI[ITI[LMUn[XIZ\M[XIZIY]M
[MXZWV]VKQMV"LMIXIZMKMZITOƒVM[KZQ\WLMWXW[QKQ~V\MVLZnMV\WVKM[Y]MKWV^WKIZ[M]VI
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X]V\WLMIOMVLIº

A contrario sensu[QVW[MXZM[MV\IVQVO]VIWXW[QKQ~VLMTI[XIZ\M[Y]MWJTQO]MITTM^IZI


KIJWTI^Q[\IWZITTIIXTQKIKQ~VLMTIZ\+8+5TTM^IIXMV[IZY]MMTR]MbM[\uWVWLM
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ÅVITQbIKQ~V

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146
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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IZ\XnZZINWK]IZ\W

1.16.1 Finalización por cambio de circunstancias:

1.16.1.1 Relación con la litispendencia:

4IXZM^Q[Q~VLMTIZ\ +8+5IK]aI^QZ\]LMTKIUJQWLMM[\ILWLMTI[KW[I[WXMZ[WVI[
Y]MPIVLILWXQMITIQV\MZXW[QKQ~VLMTILMUIVLIWTIZMKWV^MVKQ~VILUQ\QLII\ZnUQ\M
VW INMK\IZn I TI ^ITQLMb a LM[IZZWTTW LMT XZWKM[W LM Y]M [M \ZI\M M[ ]V MNMK\W QVKIZLQVILW
MVTITQ\Q[XMVLMVKQIY]MM[\]LQIZMUW[KWV^MVQMV\MUMV\MMVMT\MUILMTILMUIVLIITY]M
reenviamos al lector.

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WJRM\WLMTXZWKM[WWITILM[IXIZQKQ~VLMITO]VILMTI[XIZ\M[[QVY]MIXIZMbKIVILQMY]M
X]MLI[]KMLMZTMXZWKM[ITUMV\MTIKWV\QMVLIVWX]MLMY]MLIZIJQMZ\I8]M[\WMVKWVWKQUQMV\W
LMT \ZQJ]VIT MT XZWJTMUI LMJM IJZQZ MT QVKQLMV\M LMT IZ\  Y]M IKIJIUW[ LM ZMXI[IZ
X]LQMVLW K]TUQVIZ MV MT IZKPQ^W LMT XZWKM[W KWV TW[ KWV[QO]QMV\M[ XZWV]VKQIUQMV\W[
QVPMZMV\M[IMTTW

1.16.1.2 La posible satisfacción extraprocesal de la pretensión:

=VI LM TI[ PQX~\M[Q[ Y]M X]MLMV M`KQ\IZ \IUJQuV M[\I ÅVITQbIKQ~V XWZ XZQ^IKQ~V LMÅVQ\Q^I
LMTQV\MZu[TMOy\QUWMVTQ\QOIZIZ\ TW[MZyIXWZTIXW[QJTM[I\Q[NIKKQ~VM`\ZIXZWKM[ITLMTI
XZM\MV[Q~VLML]KQLIMVR]QKQW

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TI[XIZ\M[[][KZQJMV]VV]M^WKWV\ZI\WY]MLMRI[QVMNMK\WMTY]MPILM^MVQLWMVLQ[K][Q~V
W KWUW Y]QMZI Y]M N]M[M MT LMUIVLILW TTM^I I KIJW ]VI IK\]IKQ~V MV MT \ZnÅKW R]ZyLQKW
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147
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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1.16.2 Finalización por la formalización de mecanismos de autocompo-


sición procesal:

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Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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de esos mecanismos:

1.16.2.1 Renuncia del actor (art. 129):

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1.16.2.2 Desistimiento de la instancia (art. 130):

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KWV\QV]IZM[XMKyÅKIUMV\MKWVM[MXZWKM[WQVQKQILW[QVKWVLQKQWVIZMV\uZUQVW[IJ[WT]\W[[]

149
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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LM,IUWKTM[LM]VN]\]ZWV]M^WXZWKM[WMV[]KWV\ZI

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150
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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K]MV\IMTLM[Q[\QUQMV\WIV\M[LMY]MZMKIQOI[MV\MVKQI

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LMNWVLWaVILIQUXQLMKWUWLMKyIUW[[]NWZUITQbIKQ~VLMV]M^WMV\ZMTI[UQ[UI[XIZ\M[
QV\MZXWVQMVLWV]M^ILMUIVLIIZ\XnZZINW\MZKMZW+8+5

1.16.2.3 Allanamiento del demandado (art. 131):

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TW[ MTMUMV\W[ KWVR]V\W[ LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V LML]KQLI MV [] KWV\ZI M[\W M[" TI KI][I LM XMLQZ
aTWY]M[MTMXQLM-VMTITTIVIUQMV\WXWZ\IV\W[MILUQ\MVTW[PMKPW[MT,MZMKPWaTI[
KWV[MK]MVKQI[ R]ZyLQKI[ M`\ZIyLI[ LM uT XWZ TI XIZ\M IK\WZI XMZW ZMXZM[MV\I IV\M \WLW ]VI
KWVNWZUQLILWKIXQ\]TIKQ~V·XIZILMKQZTWMV\uZUQVW[OZnÅKW[KWVMTpetitum de la demanda
WLMTIZMKWV^MVKQ~VXWZTWY]MPIKMITIK\WZZMKWV^MVQLW

-T Y]M [M LQOI Y]M MT ITTIVIUQMV\W X]MLM [MZ \W\IT W XIZKQIT XWZ \IV\W VW [M ZMÅMZM I
]VI NZIOUMV\IKQ~V MV\ZM TW[ PMKPW[ W MT ,MZMKPW Y]M QV\MOZI I M[\M ZM[XMK\W ]VI ]VQLIL
QVLQ[WT]JTM[QVWIY]MMTLMUIVLILWX]MLMM[\IZLMIK]MZLWKWVY]MKWVIZZMOTWITIPQ[\WZQI
XIZ\QK]TIZIKWV\MKQLIaITWY]MKWV\MUXTITITMa[][\IV\Q^WMTLMZMKPWZMKTIUILWXWZMTIK\WZ
M[ZMIT[~TWPI[\IKQMZ\WX]V\WWY]MTIWJTQOIKQ~VY]M[MTMQUX]\IM[ƒVQKIUMV\MKQMZ\Ia
M`QOQJTMMVLM\MZUQVILWQUXWZ\MM\K

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XWZMTLMUIVLIV\MZM[]T\MLM[KWUXWVQJTMK]IV\Q\I\Q^IUMV\MPIJTIVLWJQMVXWZY]M[MXQLIV
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OMVMZITWY]M[MZMITQbIMVXMZR]QKQWLM\MZKMZWWY]MMVK]JZM]VNZI]LMLMTMaº

151
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XZM\MV[QWVM[ VW ITTIVILI[ ZM[]T\M Y]M TI LMKTIZIKQ~V QV\MZTWK]\WZQI LM TI[ Y]M
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XMZW[WJZMMTUQ[UWVWPIJZnXZWV]VKQIUQMV\WPI[\ITI[MV\MVKQIITM`Q[\QZZQM[OW
LMXZMR]bOIZTWVWITTIVILW-[LMKQZMT\ZQJ]VITTWPIKMKWV[\IZXMZWLMRIVLWY]MMT
XZWKMLQUQMV\W[MKWUXTM\Ma[MIIT[WKIQZMLMLQK\IZ[MTI[MV\MVKQILMÅVQ\Q^ILWVLM
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MV TW[ PMKPW[ a MT ,MZMKPW W [~TW MV MT ,MZMKPW W ITMOIVLW M`KMXKQWVM[ XZWKM[ITM[ W
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UI\MZQITaVWX]MLM^WT^MZI[MZWJRM\WLM]VIKWV\ZW^MZ[QIXW[\MZQWZ

1.16.2.4 Transacción entre las partes (art. 132):

 .QVITUMV\M a LMV\ZW LM TI[ UWLITQLILM[ LM UMKIVQ[UW[ I]\WKWUXW[Q\Q^W[ MT +~LQOW
PIKMUMVKQ~VLMTIXW[QJTM\ZIV[IKKQ~VLMTWJRM\WXZWKM[ITLMV\ZWLMTXZWKM[WMVMTT~OQKW
MV\MVLQUQMV\W LM Y]M M[ \ZIV[IKKQ~V a VW KIXQ\]TIKQ~V ]VQTI\MZIT LM ITO]VI LM TI[ XIZ\M[
XWZY]MIUJI[PIVKMLQLW]VIK]W\ILM[][M`QOMVKQI[QVQKQITM[INI^WZLMTW\ZWa^QKM^MZ[I

 6WKWVN]VLQZKWVIY]MTW\ZWXTIbWMTLMTMUXTIbIUQMV\WWKQ\IKQ~VITLMUIVLILWXIZIKWV\M[\IZY]MM[MTIXTQKIJTM
I[]^MbXIZI[IJMZ[QPILMKWV\IZ[M\IUJQuVKWV[]KZQ\MZQW

152
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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LQZQOMVITR]MbJQMV[MI]VWKWVR]V\WWJQMVXWZ[MXIZILWXMZWLMQLuV\QKW\MVWZKWVMTÅV
LMY]Mu[\M\MVOIXWZKWUX]M[\WMTKWVÆQK\WR]ZyLQKWMVTW[\uZUQVW[Y]MPIVLM\MZUQVILW
TQJZMUMV\MTI[XIZ\M[

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R]LQKQIT a JIRW TI \]\MTI LMT R]Mb Y]QMV MV LMÅVQ\Q^I \MVLZn Y]M I]\WZQbIZTI W VW KWV MT
KWV\ZI\WLM\ZIV[IKKQ~VLMTIZ\!a[[++MTK]IT[M[][KZQJMXWZTW[[]RM\W[ITUIZOMVLM
la contienda judicial.

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a juicio.

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Y]M[MLMKZM\MTIÅVITQbIKQ~VLMTXZWKM[WXWZXuZLQLI[WJZM^MVQLILMTQV\MZu[MVTQ\QOIZM`IZ\
 +8+5I^QZ\]LLMPIJMZ[M^MZQÅKILW]VI[I\Q[NIKKQ~VM`\ZIXZWKM[ITLMTIXZM\MV[Q~V
9]MM[KWUWLMJMZn[MZ\ZI\ILWXWZTII]\WZQLILR]LQKQIT

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1.17 CADUCIDAD DE LA INSTANCIA

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1.17.2 Ámbitos incluidos en la caducidad y plazos:

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y ss CPCM .

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caducidad.

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Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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\QXW MV [] [][\IVKQIKQ~V \MZKMZyI[ M\K X]MLM TTM^IZ de facto I XIZITQbIKQWVM[ Un[ W UMVW[
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XMZR]LQKIVLWIT\Q\]TIZLMTLMZMKPW[QVWY]MLMXI[W[]XWVM]VKQMZ\WLM[XZMKQWPIKQI\WLITI
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LM[IK\Q^ILWWJTQOIVLWITMRMK]\IV\MI\MVMZY]MQV[\IZ]VIV]M^IMRMK]KQ~VXZWJIJTMUMV\M
[QVY]M]VPWZQbWV\MKTIZWITI^Q[\I[QTW[PMKPW[Y]MPIVTTM^ILWIIY]MTTIXIZITQbIKQ~VVW
PIVKIUJQILW8WZ\WLWMTTW[MXZW\MOMTIMRMK]KQ~VNWZbW[INZMV\MITIKIL]KQLIL

1.17.4 Efectos:

8ZM^uTITMaLQ^MZ[W[MNMK\W[Y]M[MMVOMVLZIVLMV\ZWLMTXZWXQWXZWKM[WMVMTY]M[MLMKTIZI
TIKIL]KQLIL#aY]MINMK\IV\IUJQuVITIN]\]ZIQV\MZXW[QKQ~VLM]VV]M^WTQ\QOQW>MIUW["

1.17.4.1 Efectos generales:

,M]VTILWTIKIL]KQLIL[MLMKTIZIZnUMLQIV\MI]\WXIZIMTY]MVW[MZnXZMKQ[WIJZQZ
\ZnUQ\MLMI]LQMVKQIXZM^QW"VWTWXZM^uTITMaXWZY]MTIKIL]KQLILLM^QMVM]VIKI][IWJRM\Q^I
VW[]RM\ILM[QUXTMKWV[\I\IKQ~VNnK\QKII]VY]MVWM`MV\ILMMZZWZM[4WY]M[yI]\WZQbIMT
+~LQOW M[ TI QUX]OVIKQ~V LMT I]\W ]VI ^Mb LQK\ILW KWV JI[M MV LW[ XW[QJTM[ UW\Q^W[ Y]M
T]MOWM`IUQVIZMUW[

2]V\WITIXZWXQILMKTIZIKQ~VLMKIL]KQLIL[MKWV\MVLZnILMUn[MTXZWV]VKQIUQMV\WLM
KW[\I[¹KWV\ZITIXIZ\MY]MP]JQMZILILWT]OIZIIY]uTTIºIZ\XnZZINW\MZKMZW9]QMZM
LMKQZMVK]IV\WI[]WZQOMVX]M[aIPMUW[LQKPWY]MITIXW[\ZMTIQVIK\Q^QLILZM[]T\I[QMUXZM
QUX]\IJTM MV [] LM^MVQZ I IUJI[ XIZ\M[ ;Q VW X]MLM ÅRIZ[M ]VI ZM[XWV[IJQTQLIL ƒVQKI
Y]MLIZyIIJQMZ\ITIXW[QJQTQLILLMVWNWZU]TIZ\ITKWVLMVIMVKW[\I[

+WVTIKIL]KQLIL[MXZWL]KQZnMTKM[MLM\WLI[TI[ZM[WT]KQWVM[Y]MWZLMVIVK]ITY]QMZ
UMLQLIWIK\]IKQ~VLMV\ZWLMM[MXZWKM[WI[yKWUWMTIZKPQ^WLMTI[IK\]IKQWVM[IZ\
+8+5

1.17.4.2 Efectos particulares en la primera instancia:

 AI KWUW MNMK\W[ KWVKZM\W[ LM TI LMKTIZIKQ~V LMXMVLQMVLW LM TI QV[\IVKQI MV Y]M [M
PITTIZM TI KWV\ZW^MZ[QI [M LQ[XWVM [Q [M \ZI\I LM XZWKM[W MV XZQUMZI QV[\IVKQI Y]M ¹[M
MV\MVLMZnXZWL]KQLWMTLM[Q[\QUQMV\WMVLQKPIQV[\IVKQIaXWLZnQVKWIZ[MV]M^ILMUIVLIº
IZ\XnZZINW[MO]VLWLMT+~LQOW

-V TI ZMLIKKQ~V LM   M[\M XZMKMX\W QVKT]yI IT ÅVIT TI KWTM\QTTI ¹[IT^W Y]M P]JQMZI
XZM[KZQ\W W KIL]KILW MT LMZMKPW Y]M [M PIKM ^ITMZº )]VY]M [M PI JWZZILW KWV TI ZMNWZUI
LMXIZMKMM^QLMV\MY]M[QO]M^ITQMVLWTWY]MIPy[MLMKyIX]M[[QTIIK\Q\]LVMOTQOMV\M

158
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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aI M[\IJIV [M KWUXTM\IZI KWZ\nVLW[M [] \ZIUQ\IKQ~V UIT X]MLM KWVKMJQZ[M [QV MUJIZOW
Y]M TW[ XTIbW[ LM ]VI XZM[KZQXKQ~V M`\QV\Q^I LMT LMZMKPW UI\MZQIT TQ\QOQW[W W ]V M^MV\]IT
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MV JMVMÅKQW LM LQKPI XMZ[WVI 8IZI M[W [MVKQTTIUMV\M VW [M LMKTIZIZyI TI KIL]KQLIL a [M
UIV\MVLZyI^Q^WMTXZWKM[WaIQVQKQILW)[y\IUJQuVTWPIMV\MVLQLWTI+WZ\M;]XZMUIMV[]
R]ZQ[XZ]LMVKQI .

,MKIZIIM[IN]\]ZILMUIVLITI[ XZ]MJI[ Y]M[MP]JQMZIV XZM[MV\ILWMV MTXZWKM[W


NMVMKQLW XWZ KIL]KQLIL VW ^ITLZnV XIZI VQVOƒV W\ZW M`KMX\W IY]MTTI[ LM KIZnK\MZ
XZMKWV[\Q\]QLWaY]M[MIXWZ\IVKWVTW[M[KZQ\W[QVQKQITM[LMITMOIKQWVM["LWK]UMV\W[QVNWZUM[
XMZQKQITM[aTIXZIK\QKILIIV\M[LMTILMUIVLIKWUWXZ]MJIIV\QKQXILI#XMZW[QMUXZMaK]IVLW
[MZM[XM\MVTW[XTIbW[aNWZUI[XIZI[]IXWZ\IKQ~VLMIK]MZLWITZuOQUMVOMVMZITIZ\
ƒT\QUWXnZZINW

1.17.3 Efectos particulares en la apelación:

-V KIUJQW [Q [M LMKZM\I TI KIL]KQLIL aI MV TI [MO]VLI QV[\IVKQI ¹[M \MVLZn XWZ ÅZUM TI
LMKQ[Q~VQUX]OVILIa[MLM^WT^MZnVTW[I]\W[ITR]bOILWLMWZQOMVR]V\WKWVTIKMZ\QÅKIKQ~V
KWZZM[XWVLQMV\MºIZ\ 4~OQKIUMV\M[QVXW[QJQTQLILaILMZMQ\MZIZ]VV]M^WZMK]Z[W
LILITIÅZUMbIITKIVbILIXWZTIZM[WT]KQ~VQUX]OVILI

1.17.5 Impugnación de la declaración de caducidad:

+WUWKWUMV\nJIUW[IV\M[MT+~LQOWZMKWOMKQZK]V[\IVKQI[Y]MX]MLMVLMRIZ[QVT]OIZMT
XZWV]VKQIUQMV\WLMKIL]KQLIL]VI^MbLQK\ILWXMZWY]M[WVKQZK]V[\IVKQI[QUXMLQ\Q^I[VW
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TILMKQ[Q~VaMVMTXTIbWLMTW[KQVKWLyI[[QO]QMV\M[TIXIZ\MINMK\ILIITMO]MaXZ]MJMY]M[]

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XWZ KWV[QO]QMV\M MT QV\MZM[ILW XWLZn QV\MV\IZTI MV \WLW \QMUXW [QV XMZR]LQKIZ TI[ XZM[KZQXKQWVM[ Y]M X]MLIV
PIJMZ KWZZQLW MV [] KWV\ZI -V MT M`XMLQMV\M LM [MO]VLI QV[\IVKQI IXIZMKM TI KMZ\QÅKIKQ~V R]LQKQIT LMT R]QKQW
MRMK]\Q^WQVKWILWXWZTI+IRI°KWV\ZITI[M}WZI°MVTIY]MKWV[\IY]MXWZZM[WT]KQ~VLMT2]bOILWLMTW
+Q^QTLM=[]T]\nVXZWV]VKQILIITI[WKPWPWZI[aY]QVKMUQV]\W[LMTWVKMLMMVMZWLMLW[UQTLW[[MLMKTIZ~TI
KIL]KQLILLMTIQV[\IVKQILMTZMNMZQLWR]QKQWMRMK]\Q^WUIVLnVLW[MIZKPQ^IZTW[I]\W[aMTKM[MQVUMLQI\WLM\WLI[
TI[LQTQOMVKQI[R]LQKQITM[LQK\ILI[MVMTUQ[UWZM[WT]KQ~VY]M[MLMKTIZ~MRMK]\WZQILIXWZZM[WT]KQ~VLMTUQ[UW
\ZQJ]VITLMTI[LQMbPWZI[LMTWVKMLMUIZbWLMLW[UQTLW[,MKWVNWZUQLILKWVMT)Z\,8Z+LQKPI[
ZM[WT]KQWVM[VWINMK\IVTIXZM[KZQXKQ~VY]MM[\nITMOIVLWTIXIZ\MIK\WZIMVM[\MXZWKM[WaK]IVLWTI+nUIZI
LQKMY]MMTR]QKQWMRMK]\Q^WY]ML~KWUWVWQVQKQILWW[MIY]MTI[KW[I[^WT^QMZWVITM[\ILWMVY]M[MMVKWV\ZIJIV
IV\M[LMQVQKQIZTIIKKQ~VXWZPIJMZ[MLMKTIZILWTIKIL]KQLILLMTIQV[\IVKQIaY]MMTTW[QOVQÅKIY]MTIWJTQOIKQ~V
^WT^Q~I[]M[\ILWWZQOQVITY]MLIVLWXWZ\IV\WKWUWXTIbWLMLQKPIWJTQOIKQ~VMTM[\QX]TILWMVMTKWV\ZI\Wa
Y]MTIIKKQ~VMRMK]\Q^IVWPIVIKQLWTI+nUIZIPIZIbWVILWIXIZ\nVLW[MLMT)Z\,8Z+aIY]MTIIKKQ~V
VIKQ~K]IVLWP]JWUWZIIV\M[LMTMRMK]\Q^WaTIKIL]KQLILVWLI}~TIXZM[KZQXKQ~VLMTI[IKKQWVM[M[LMKQZ
Y]MMT\QMUXWIV\M[LMTIKIL]KQLILPIKWV\ILWXIZITIXZM[KZQXKQ~V-V\ITKI[WM`Q[\MTI^QWTIKQ~VIT)Z\
,8Z+ITMOILIXWZTIXIZ\MZMK]ZZMV\MaM[XZWKMLMV\MKI[IZTI[MV\MVKQIZMK]ZZQLIaXZWV]VKQIZTIY]MN]MZM
TMOIT°º";MV\MVKQILMTI;ITILMTW+Q^QTLMTI+WZ\M;]XZMUILM2][\QKQILMLMR]TQWLMLQK\ILIITI[
PPZMN+
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Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

QVIK\Q^QLIL[MLMJQ~IITO]VIKI][ILMN]MZbIUIaWZ¹WIW\ZIKI][IKWV\ZIZQIITI^WT]V\IL
LMTI[XIZ\M[WIZM\ZI[WVWQUX]\IJTMIMTTI[º

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MV]V[MV\QLWWMVW\ZW[MOƒVTWY]MKILI]VILMÅMVLMaITY]M[MO]QZn]VI]\WZM[WT^QMVLW
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MTY]MKIJZnZMK]Z[WLMIXMTIKQ~VM`IZ\ QVÅVM CPCM.

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LMKTIZIKQ~VZM[XMK\Q^WIZ\!

BIBLIOGRAFÍA:
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del proceso y cosa juzgada en el proceso civil, <PWU[WV+Q^Q\I[5ILZQL#/=);82IQUM"La
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160
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

1.18 ACTIVIDAD PROCESAL

Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco

;=5):17"+76;1,-:)+176-;/-6-:)4-;14=/):,-4))+<1
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4-;"8ZQVKQXQWOMVMZITLMWZITQLIL#1LQWUILMIK\]IKQWVM[XZWKM[ITM[

1.18.1 CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES

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IKWUWLIZ[MTW[IK\W[XIZIXZWL]KQZTW[MNMK\W[XZM^Q[\W[TWOZIVLWI[y[]MÅKIKQI  Un criterio
[WJZM[ITQMV\MLMLQ[\QVKQ~VMVTW[ZMY]Q[Q\W[LM^ITQLMbLMTW[IK\W[XZWKM[ITM[M[IY]MTZM[XMK\W
I TW[ MTMUMV\W[ NWZUITM[ LMT IK\W XZWKM[IT MT K]IT [M}ITI \ZM[ XZQVKQXITM[ MTMUMV\W[ MV\ZM
M[\W[TW[[QO]QMV\M["MT[]RM\WMTWJRM\WaTIIK\Q^QLIL4IIK\Q^QLILI[]^Mb[MLQ^QLMMV\ZM[
KWUXWVMV\M["MTT]OIZMT\QMUXWaTINWZUILMTW[IK\W[ 

-[XZMKQ[IUMV\MTIƒT\QUIM[\Z]K\]ZIUMVKQWVILIMV\WZVWITIIK\Q^QLILXZWKM[ITTIILWX\ILI
XWZTIV]M^ITMOQ[TIKQ~VXZWKM[ITKQ^QTaUMZKIV\QT[IT^ILWZM}IMVMT4QJZW1<y\]TW+]IZ\W
+IXy\]TW8ZQUMZWMV^QZ\]LLM[]]\QTQLILXZnK\QKIaNnKQTMV\MVLQUQMV\WITQV\uZXZM\MLMTI
VWZUIXZWKM[ITILMUn[LMTWOZIZTIMÅKIKQILMTIIK\Q^QLILXZWKM[IT

1.18.2 Lugar de la actividad procesal

-T T]OIZ LM TI IK\Q^QLIL XZWKM[IT M[ LM\MZUQVIV\M XIZI [] ^ITQLMb -V UI\MZQI XZWKM[IT TI
]JQKIKQ~VOMWOZnÅKIM[KWVKT]aMV\M[WJZMNIK\WZM[QVÆ]aMV\M[XIZITILM[QOVIKQ~VLMT<ZQJ]VIT
KWUXM\MV\MMV\ZMM[\W["TIR]ZQ[LQKKQ~VaTIKWUXM\MVKQI\MZZQ\WZQIT

*):76)>14):;-T6]M^W8ZWKM[W+Q^QT4Ma))>>X 
5)=:167)6]TQLILM[8ZWKM[ITM[X

161
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

-TXZQUMZNIK\WZQLMV\QÅKIXW[Q\Q^IUMV\MY]MMT-[\ILW[IT^ILWZM}WMRMZKMZnLQKPIN]VKQ~V
[WJZMLM\MZUQVILWTQ\QOQW#MT[MO]VLWNIK\WZXZWK]ZIMV\ZMW\ZW[INIKQTQ\IZTMITLMUIVLILW
]VMRMZKQKQWZMITLMLMNMV[I4IM`XW[QKQ~VMVM[\MIXIZ\ILW[MZn\ZI\ILIJIRWMT[]X]M[\W
K]IVLWaIN]MM`IUQVILIaZI\QÅKILITIR]ZQ[LQKKQ~VQV\MZVIXWZMTN]VKQWVIZQWR]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT

;WJZMMTT]OIZLMTIIK\Q^QLILXZWKM[ITTIV]M^ITMOQ[TIKQ~VMVMTIZ\+8+5LQ[\QVO]M
KTIZIUMV\MLW[[]X]M[\W[MVK]IV\WITT]OIZLMLM[IZZWTTWLMTIIK\Q^QLILIV\MMT2]bOILWZ
Y]M XMVLI MT XZWKM[W 4I LQ[\QVKQ~V [M}ITILI [M ZMÅMZM I TI IK\Q^QLIL XZWKM[IT ZMITQbILI
MVTW[[]X]M[\W[[QO]QMV\M["I,MV\ZWLMTI[MLMR]LQKQITaJ.]MZILMTI[MLMR]LQKQIT-V
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N]VKQWVIZQWR]LQKQITY]QuV\ZIUQ\MMTXZWKM[WXZQVKQXIT

1.18..2.1 Actividad en Sede judicial

+WVNWZUM I TI TMOQ[TIKQ~V IZZQJI KQ\ILI LMJM MV\MVLMZ[M XWZ [MLM R]LQKQIT MT M[XIKQW
OMWOZnÅKW LWVLM M[\u ZILQKILW MT <ZQJ]VIT Y]M KWVWbKI LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V ,QKPW LM W\ZI
UIVMZITIIK\Q^QLIL[MZMITQbIZnLMV\ZWLMT\MZZQ\WZQWI[QOVILWXWZTI[TMaM[WZOnVQKI[IKILI
2]bOILWW<ZQJ]VIT4IM`XZM[Q~VTMOQ[TI\Q^ILM¹;MLMR]LQKQITºVWLMJMTQUQ\IZ[MƒVQKIUMV\M
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M[ U]KPW Un[ IUXTQI ZMÅZQuVLW[M ILMUn[ I \WLI TI KWUXZMV[Q~V \MZZQ\WZQIT Un[ ITTn LMT
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KWU]VQKIKQ~VPIKQITW[QV\MZ^QVQMV\M[MVMTXZWKM[WKQ^QTaUMZKIV\QT

1.18.2.2 Actividad fuera de Sede judicial

-VXZQVKQXQWTIIK\Q^QLILXZWKM[ITLMJMMRMK]\IZ[MLMV\ZWLMTI[MLMR]LQKQIT[~TWLMUIVMZI
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Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.18.3.2.3 Principio general de suspensión de los plazos

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1.18.4 Forma de las actuaciones procesales

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sólo a determinadas localidades.

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1.18.4 Principio general de oralidad

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170
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

1.19 COOPERACIÓN JUDICIAL INTERNACIONAL

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1.19.1 Cooperación judicial por autoridades extrajeras

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1.19.1.1 Cooperación de acuerdo a Tratados internacionales

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1.20 ESCRITOS Y EXPEDIENTES

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1..2.2.1 Formación de expedientes

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b. Emplazamiento de una persona jurídica

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1.21.2.4.6. Emplazamiento de persona no domiciliada en El Salvador

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1.21.3 Comunicación para cooperación judicial interna

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Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

1.22 SUSTANCIACION DEL PROCESO Y AUDIENCIAS

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191
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1.23 RÉGIMEN DE LAS AUDIENCIAS

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1.23.5. Documentación de las audiencias

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202
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

1.24 RESOLUCIONES JUDICIALES

Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco

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CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES

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1.24.1 Clases de resoluciones judiciales

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203
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durante las audiencias y en el intermedio de estas.

1.24.2 Decretos

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ITIZ\+8+5

1.24.3 Autos

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204
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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contenido de las sentencias y de los autos.

1.24.4 Sentencias

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1.24.5 Responsabilidad de dictar resoluciones

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205
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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1.24.6 Imposibilidad de dictar resoluciones

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EFICACIA DE LAS RESOLUCIONES JUDICIALES

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XZWKM[IT

223
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

LMJMZML]KQZ[MITIQLMV\QÅKIKQ~VaLMKTIZIKQ~VLMTI[IK\]IKQWVM[XZWKM[ITM[IV]TIJTM[[MI
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I]`QTQIZM[XZW^WKIVLWTIQVLMNMV[Q~VXZWKM[IT

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;]XZMUILM2][\QKQIMVMTKWV\ZWTLMTI[XW[QJTM[^]TVMZIKQWVM[KWV[\Q\]KQWVITM[MVTIIK\Q^QLIL
R]ZQ[LQKKQWVITXIZI[]X]M[\W[IJ[\ZIK\W[aVWLM[KZQ\W[XWZTITMOQ[TIKQ~VXZWKM[IT+WV\ZIZQWI
TIVWZUIOMVMZIT[MV\ILIXWZMTXZQVKQXQWLMM[XMKQÅKQLILM[MT[]X]M[\W[M}ITILWXWZY]M[M
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LMI]LQMVKQIWLMLMNMV[ILMTI[XIZ\M[

1.26.1.2. Principio de trascendencia

,MIK]MZLWITXZQVKQXQWLM\ZI[KMVLMVKQIVWJI[\ITIILMK]IKQ~VLMTIKWVL]K\IR]LQKQITITI
LM[KZQXKQ~VLMTIIK\]IKQ~VIV]TIJTM#ILMUn[TIUQ[UILMJMXZWL]KQZ]VIQVLMNMV[Q~VZMITI
TI[XIZ\M[LMIK]MZLWITIZ\+8+5+]IVLWVWIXIZMKMLMUIVQÅM[\W\ITQVLMNMV[Q~V
XZWKM[ITM[QUXZWKMLMV\MY]M[MLMKTIZMTIV]TQLILLMIK\]IKQWVM[

;MIXZMKQIWJRM\Q^IUMV\MTIQVLMNMV[Q~VXZWKM[ITITVWK]UXTQZ[MMTÅVITY]MM[\IJILM[\QVILI
TI IK\]IKQ~V# MV MT [MV\QLW IX]V\ILW TI R]ZQ[XZ]LMVKQI [IT^ILWZM}I [M PI XZWV]VKQILW MV
reiteradas ocasiones.

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LMZMKPWLMI]LQMVKQILMIUJI[XIZ\M[#XWZ\ITUW\Q^WK]ITY]QMZILMTI[XIZ\M[X]MLMZM[]T\IZ
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TILMKTIZI\WZQIR]LQKQITLMV]TQLILLMIK\]IKQWVM[M[QVUQVMV\M[MIZMKWVWKQLIXWZMTUQ[UW
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MZZWZM[XZWKMLQUMV\ITM[M[]VIKWUJQVIKQ~VLMLQNyKQT[WT]KQ~VX]M[[MLMRIZyIITIZJQ\ZQWLMT2]bOILWZK]IVLW
MNMK\Q^IUMV\M[MOMVMZ~]VIQVLMNMV[Q~VXZWKM[ITITI[XIZ\M[XWZ]VIKWVL]K\IXZWXQI-[\WLMZMKWVWKMZMZZWZM[
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M^MV\]ITM[MNMK\W[LMZM[IZKQUQMV\WMKWV~UQKW[

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224
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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WVWLMTIQVLMNMV[Q~VXZWL]KQLIITIXIZ\MINMK\ILI

1.26.3. Principio de conservación

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LM IK\]IKQWVM[# LMJQMVLW \MVMZ[M K]QLILW MV KWV[MZ^IZ TI MÅKIKQI LM \WLW[ IY]MTTW[ IK\W[
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ZMO]TILWMVMTIZ\+8+5

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[MXIZILILQNyKQTUMV\MINMK\IZyIITI[IK\]IKQWVM[LMTXZWKM[WXZQVKQXIT

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KWV[MZ^IV[]^ITQLMbWVW

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conducta anulable.

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KQ^QTaUMZKIV\QT"¹-VMT[Q[\MUIXZWKM[IT[IT^ILWZM}WVWM`Q[\MTIV]TQLILXWZTIV]TQLILUQ[UIM[LMKQZY]MTI
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X]M[LMJMLM\WUIZ[M[QMUXZMMVK]MV\I[QMT^QKQWXZWL]RWWX]MLMXZWL]KQZXMZR]QKQWITLMZMKPWLMLMNMV[ILM
TIXIZ\MY]MTWITMOIWMVK]aWNI^WZ[MPIM[\IJTMKQLWM[LMKQZLMJMKMZKQWZI[MMTR]bOILWZ[QMT^QKQW\ZI[KMVLQ~
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225
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

TMOQ[TIKQ~VM[TIMVKIZOILILMKITQÅKIZ[QMTUW\Q^WLMV]TQLILM[[]J[IVIJTMWQV[]J[IVIJTM
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KIZMKMVLMLQKPIKITQÅKIKQ~V

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ILMK]ILWXIZIM^Q\IZKWVN]VLQZTIKWVTIV]TQLILQV[]J[IVIJTM

1.26.2.1. Nulidad subsanable

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LMTINMK\ILWXWZTIV]TQLIL[QVWILMUn[LMJMZn^MVKMZMTXTIbWIV\M[UMVKQWVILW[MOƒVMT
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1.26.2.2. Nulidad insubsanable

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MV K]ITY]QMZ M[\ILW LMT XZWKM[W -[\I KTI[M LM V]TQLILM[ IXIZMKM M[KI[IUMV\M MV TI V]M^I
TMOQ[TIKQ~VXZWKM[ITMV\ZMTW[UW\Q^W[LMVWUQVILW[LMUIVMZIM`XZM[I[M\QMVMVTI[[QO]QMV\M["
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226
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

1.26.2.3. Nulidad de pleno derecho

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MVTW[TyUQ\M[LMMUJIZOWLMQVOZM[W[MKWV~UQKW[KWVNWZUMITIZ\+8+5

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XZWL]KQZ[MTIIK\]IKQ~VXZWKM[ITIV]TIJTM

1.26.3 Oportunidad y promoción

4IWXWZ\]VQLILWUWUMV\WXIZIOMVMZIZMTQVKQLMV\MLMV]TQLILLMIK\]IKQWVM[XZWKM[ITM[
LMXMVLMZnLMT\QXWLMV]TQLILLMV]VKQILWWIXZMKQILWI[y[M\QMVMTW[QO]QMV\M";QTIV]TQLIL
M[ []J[IVIJTM MT XTIbW XIZI TI LMV]VKQI XWZ TI XIZ\M QVLMNMV[I [MZn LM KQVKW LyI[ PnJQTM[
T]MOWY]M\]^WKWVWKQUQMV\WLMTIK\W^QKQILWM[\W[MMV\QMVLMLMTITMK\]ZILMTIZ\QVKQ[W
ˆ+8+5

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XTIbWITO]VWMV^QZ\]LLMTIOZI^MLILLMIY]MTTI,QKPWLMW\ZIUIVMZITIIV]TIKQ~VLM
IK\]IKQWVM[[MX]MLM[MZZMKWVWKQLIaLMKTIZILIKWUWM`XZM[ITIVWZUIR]ZyLQKIMVK]ITY]QMZ
M[\ILWLMTXZWKM[WLMIK]MZLWITIZ\QVKQ[Wˆ+8+5

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4IV]TQLILLMXTMVWLMZMKPWQV\ZWL]KQLIXWZMTTMOQ[TILWZ[IT^ILWZM}WKI\MO~ZQKIUMV\MVWMVKIRIMVMT[Q[\MUILM
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1.26.4 Incidente de nulidad de actuaciones procesales

1.26.4.1. Generalidades

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1.26.4.3.1. Anulación de actuaciones

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1.26.4.3.2. Reposición de actuaciones

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1.26.4.3.3. Condena de costas procesales

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231
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

LIBRO SEGUNDO
LOS PROCESOS
DECLARATIVOS
Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco

SUMARIO: CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES. I. COMPETENCIA


JUDICIAL EN PROCESO DECLARATIVO: 1. Consideraciones generales;
2. Ámbito del proceso común; 3. Contenido de pretensiones sobre materias
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Impugnación de la clase de proceso y cuantía.

CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES

El Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil salvadoreño de reciente aprobación y cuya vigencia


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233
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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234
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de la audiencia preliminar austriaca de Klein.

235
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

2.1 Competencia judicial en proceso declarativo

2.2 Consideraciones generales

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237
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cantidad de dinero.

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con la intención de favorecer el planeamiento de demandas colectivas; estas mismas serían promovidas por las
asociaciones de consumidores y usuarios legalmente constituidas legitimadas para la defensa de los derechos
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238
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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y Protección de la Propiedad Intelectual.

2.2.3 Otros ámbitos del proceso común

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IZ\!+8+5

2.2.4 Indisponibilidad de normas sobre procedimiento adecuado

La indisponibilidad de las normas sobre el procedimiento adecuado a las partes y el


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1 y 3 C.P.C.M.

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Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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nulidad de actuaciones por error de procedimiento adecuado no advertido oportunamente
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formalismos cómodamente subsanables.

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el someterse a un Juzgador con mayor conocimiento; contar con plazos procesales amplios;
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2.2.5 Cuestionamiento de proceso adecuado

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 +)6)4-;+1;+77). Nulidad de Actuaciones Judiciales en el Proceso Civil SalvadoreñoXX !

240
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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la contestación de la demanda sobre el inadecuado proceso elegido por el demandante.
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procedimiento conforme a las pretensiones deducidas.166

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2.2.6 Impugnación de la clase de proceso y cuantía

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en el valor de la pretensión y la materia sea el incorrecto.

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adecuado proceso por razón de la cuantía únicamente: Cuando se haya planteado la
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razón de la materia.

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procesales conclusivos.

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para contestar la demanda.

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vencido el plazo de veinte días para contestar la demanda e incluir la inconformidad del
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242
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

2.3 EL ACTO DE CONCILIACIÓN

Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco

SUMARIO: I. CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES. 1. Competencia; 2.


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de la audiencia. II. IMPUGNACIÓN Y EJECUCIÓN DEL ACUERDO DE
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acuerdo de conciliación.

CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES

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rigen sus destinos conforme al procedimiento abreviado. Como suele sostenerse en materia
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procesal.!

La legislación especial salvadoreña entiende por conciliación de la manera siguiente: “Un


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168  );+-6+175-44),725Derecho Procesal Civil8IZ\M8ZQUMZI¢MLQKQ~V4MaX


!  576<-:7):7+)2El Nuevo Proceso Civil, (Ley 1/2000).))>>XX

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Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

2.3.1 Competencia objetiva

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del Juzgado de paz competente.

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2.3.2. Materias excluidas de la conciliación

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un componente de la hacienda pública estatal y los patrimonios socialmente protegidos. Así
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pueda intervenir eventualmente en un proceso contencioso.

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imposibilidad de intentar conciliar a los representantes a nombre de los menores
de edad y los mayores de edad incapaces en pudieran resultar involucrados como
partes.

244
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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2.3.3. Solicitud de conciliación

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información contentiva es mínima en comparación a la demanda planteada en los procesos
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El acento de la solicitud en comento lo lleva en la narración de los hechos de manera


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frente a lo pretendido.

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esta facilidad desapareció al adoptarse el imperativo de la norma citada.

2.3.3.1. Trámite de la admisión de la solicitud

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la inadmisibilidad de la solicitud.

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Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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2.3.4. Asistencia a la audiencia

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comparecer obligatoriamente.

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incomparecencia de las partes se tienen los efectos siguientes:

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conciliación intentada.

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instancia y las comunes por mitad.

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audiencia especial.

246
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

2.3.5. Celebración de la audiencia

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efectos legales consiguientes.

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avenimiento de las partes para lograr acuerdos. El protagonismo en la intervención de la
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por las partes. 

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248
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249
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

2.4 DILIGENCIAS PRELIMINARES

Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco

SUMARIO: I. CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES. II. OBJETO DE


LAS DILIGENCIAS PRELIMINARES. III. SUSTANCIACIÓN DE LAS
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250
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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251
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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2.4.3 Sustanciación de las diligencias

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2.4.3.1. Competencia judicial

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estos los siguientes:

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las actuaciones.

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por el solicitante de las diligencias preliminares.

252
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2.4.3.2. Solicitud y caución

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preparatorias solicitadas. Tal información esencial y especial se resalta de la manera
siguiente:

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civil y mercantil.

253
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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hacia destinatarios determinados.

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ofrecer y son aceptadas por la nueva legislación procesal salvadoreña.

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el cual aparentemente sólo es reclamado para los procesos civiles y mercantiles.

2.4.3.3. Decisión sobre la solicitud

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254
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2.4.3.4. Incidente de oposición

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255
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los fundamentos.

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2.4.4 Aplicación de la caución y costas

Como resultado de la invocación de las diligencias preliminares se producen consecuencias


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En cuanto al destino de la caución prestada por el solicitante para responder de los gastos
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hacerlo efectivo.

256
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

2.5 CUESTIONES INCIDENTALES

Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco

SU M A R IO: I. PR I NCI PIO GE N E R A L DE L A S CU E ST ION E S


INCIDENTALES. II. REGLA GENERAL DE NO SUSPENSIÓN DEL
PROCESO PRINCIPAL. III. SUPUESTOS DE SUSPENSIÓN DEL CURSO
DEL PROCESO PRINCIPAL. IV. TRAMITACIÓN CONJUNTA. V.
PROMOCIÓN ESCRITA DE LA CUESTIÓN INCIDENTAL: 1. Generalidades:
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del escrito. VI. SUTANCIACIÓN DE LAS CUESTIONES INCIDENTALES:
1. Generalidades; 1.1. Admisión de la cuestión incidental; 1.2. Celebración de
la audiencia incidental. VII. DECISIÓN DE LA CUESTIÓN INCIDENTAL: 1.
Oportunidad del pronunciamiento; 2. Impugnación de la decisión.

2.5.1. Principio general de las cuestiones incidentales

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estas las siguientes:

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257
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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2.5.2. Regla general de no suspensión del proceso principal

La nueva legislación procesal civil y mercantil adiciona otra regla especial para la
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sentarse el principio general acuñado legalmente de la manera siguiente: “La tramitación
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Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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2.5.3 Supuestos de suspensión del curso en el proceso principal

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siguientes:

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terminadas la audiencia preparatoria del proceso común.

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utilización del procedimiento inadecuado.

2.5.4 Tramitación conjunta

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JQMVMVTI[I]LQMVKQI[[QMUXZMY]MX]LQMZMVXIZITQbIZMTXZWKM[W[MOƒVMTIZ\+8+5

Ante el incumplimiento del imperativo legal dirigido a la parte interesada en no alegar


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259
Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

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2.5.5 Promoción escrita de la cuestión incidental

2.5.5.1. Generalidades

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escrita fuera de audiencia de la cuestión incidental.

2.5.5.1.1. Requisitos del escrito de la promoción incidental

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2.5.5.1.2. Régimen de admisión del escrito

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alegada previamente.

260
Código Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

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Para esta clase de cuestiones incidentales se instaura la prohibición de plantear cuestiones


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Realmente se pretende aprovechar la disponibilidad de los medios de prueba sin interferir


la actividad probatoria completa.

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2.5.6 Sutanciación de las cuestiones incidentales

2.5.6.1. Generalidades

Mediante el tema de la sustanciación del incidente se ofrece un panorama completo del


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innominados promovidos fuera de audiencia y por escrito.

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2.5.6.1.1. Admisión de la cuestión incidental.

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al de la citación.

2.5.6.1.2. Celebración de la audiencia incidental

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la intervención de un solo perito designado por el Juez; La prueba testimonial propuesta se