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IPGKBL MRC VAD 058 mrc.vad58@gmail.

com

Adult CPR (Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation)


As in AHA 2015

D R C A B D

Danger

Response

Compression
Check and Call

Airway

Breathing

Defibrillation

Care

Effectiveness for adult CPR:


 Casualty is placed on a flat and firm surface
 Chest compression must be to a depth of at least 2 inches (5cm) but not greater than
2.4 inches (6cm)
 Rate of chest compression is 100-120 times/min
 Allow full recoil after each compression (do not lean on the chest between
compressions)
 Minimise pauses in compressions
(Compressing the chest at an adequate rate and depth, allowing complete chest recoil after
each compression, minimizing interruptions in compressions, and avoiding excessive
ventilation)
IPGKBL MRC VAD 058 mrc.vad58@gmail.com

Reference: BLS Healthcare Provider Paediatric Cardiac Arrest Algorithm for the
Single Rescuer- 2015 Update
Verify scene safety
“Scene safe”

Check response of casualty


Kneel beside casualty
Tap shoulder and shout
-“Hello hello… are you okay?”
(shout for two times, left ear and right ear)

“No response”

Call for help


Point to someone
-“You, call 999, ambulance and bring me an AED. Report back to me. ”

Scan for sign of life (Look for no breathing or only gasping and check pulse simultaneously)
Head tilt chin lift (to open airway)
-Look at the chest for about 10s for breathing
-

Normal breathing, has pulse No normal breathing, has pulse


Monitor until emergency responders
arrive  Provide rescue breathing,
1 breath every 3-5 seconds, or
about 12-20 breaths/min.
 Activate emergency response
system (if not already done) after
2 minutes.
 Continue rescue breathing;
check pulse about every 2
minutes. If no pulse, begin CPR
(go to “CPR” box-next page).
IPGKBL MRC VAD 058 mrc.vad58@gmail.com

“No sign of life”/ “no breathing or


only gasping, no pulse”

Start CPR
Compression
30 compression 2 breaths Breathing
-Place heel of one hand on
the sternum 30 compression 2 breaths -Head tilt chin lift
-Overlap by any palm -Pinch nose and mouth to
30 compression 2 breaths
mouth sealing
-Lock two hands straight
30 compression 2 breaths
with shoulder above -Give rescue breathing and
sternum 30 compression 2 breaths see any chest rise in
casualty
-Carry out chest
compressions 30 times
-Count clearly 5 cycles in 2 minutes

Scan for sign of life (Check breathing)


Head tilt chin lift (to open airway)
-Look at the chest for about 10s for breathing

No sign of life Yes sign of life


Continue CPR until… Secondary assessment
 Other first aider takes over Recovery position
 Medical team arrives
 Too tires to continue/ exhausted
 Scene becomes unsafe
 Casualty gain consciousness

Use AED soon as it is available


AED analyses rhythm,
Shockable rhythm?

Yes, shockable No, non-shockable


Give one shock. Resume CPR Resume CPR immediately for about
immediately for about 2 minutes 2 minutes until prompted by AED to
until prompted by AED to allow allow rhythm check.
rhythm check.
IPGKBL MRC VAD 058 mrc.vad58@gmail.com

Difference between adult, children and infant CPR

Adult Children Infant


Technique to check Tapping the shoulders Tickle or “wiggle” the
response of feet of an infant
casualty
Technique of doing Two hands One hand Two fingers
chest compression Why?
The infant chest is
significantly smaller
and using a whole hand
or two hands for
compression will cause
significant internal
damage to the infant.
Depth of chest 2 inches to 2.4 inches 1.5 inches
compression
Technique of doing Pinch the casualty’s nose shut, and then use your Use your mouth to
rescue breathing mouth to make a seal over casualty’s mouth. make a seal over both
How much air exactly? the infant’s mouth and
Enough to see the chest rises nose.
Give only a small
amount of air or a
“puff” of air.
How much air exactly?
Enough to blow out a
single candle in front of
your mouth
Why?
The infants lungs are
significantly smaller
and too much air can
be detrimental to the
health of the infant